CN102183250A - Automatic navigation and positioning device and method for field road of agricultural machinery - Google Patents

Automatic navigation and positioning device and method for field road of agricultural machinery Download PDF

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CN102183250A
CN102183250A CN 201110007784 CN201110007784A CN102183250A CN 102183250 A CN102183250 A CN 102183250A CN 201110007784 CN201110007784 CN 201110007784 CN 201110007784 A CN201110007784 A CN 201110007784A CN 102183250 A CN102183250 A CN 102183250A
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image
positioning
vision sensor
colored
distance
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CN102183250B (en )
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戴思慧
李明
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湖南农业大学
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The invention discloses an automatic navigation and positioning device and an automatic navigation and positioning method for a field road of agricultural machinery. Two colored marks are set on the same side of a road on which an operating vehicle runs; an omnibearing visual sensor for photographing an omnibearing image is arranged on the operating vehicle to be positioned; a microprocessor is also arranged on the operating vehicle and comprises 1) an image processing unit and 2) a positioning coordinate calculation unit; the image processing unit is used for acquiring distances r1 and r2 from a projection center in the omnibearing image to the two colored marks and an azimuth angle theta 1 formed by the two colored marks and the omnibearing visual sensor according to the omnibearing image; and the positioning coordinate calculation unit is used for finally solving a positioning coordinate according to an automatic navigation and positioning method for the field road of the agricultural machinery. Through the automatic navigation and positioning device and the automatic navigation and positioning method for the field road of the agricultural machinery, a global positioning system (GPS) can be substituted or compensated for positioning; and the device and the method have the advantages of high running speed, wide application range, high practicability and low cost.

Description

一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置及方法 One kind of farm roads automatic navigation device and method of agricultural machinery

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于计算机视觉图象处理应用领域,涉及一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置及方法。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of computer vision image processing application, relates to an agricultural machine farm roads automatic navigation device and method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 目前,人们对机械的自动化程度要求越来越高;机械自动化作业及其机器人的发展是未来机械化发展方向;定位对自动作业车辆、机器人来说,非常重要。 [0002] At present, people of automation machinery have become increasingly demanding; the development of machine automation and robotics is the future direction of development of mechanization; automatic working vehicle, robot, it is important to locate. 车辆、机器人在自动作业时,必须知道自己的位置,才可以决定机器人能否按要求完成下一步的执行任务。 Vehicle, robot during automatic operation, they must know their place before they can decide whether the robot required to complete the next mission. 图像处理技术定位从图像中抽出特征从控制的范围分为局部定位和全球定位;局部定位运用于一定范围内的作业,计算机图象处理一般抽取有特色的特征物作为定位的基准,特征物分为自然物体和人工设置;全球定位,比如现在流行使用的GPS技术。 Image processing locating feature extracted from the image divided into local and global positioning from the positioning of the control range; job, the image processing computer localizing a range generally used to extract distinctive characteristics thereof as a positioning reference, sub-features thereof natural objects and artificial settings; global positioning, such as the now popular use of GPS technology. 从定位的性质分为几何定位和拓扑定位。 Into geometric positioning and topological properties from the positioning target. 几何定位能知道机器人的具体位置,拓扑定位是确定机器人在一定的可允许的范围路径内,并不知道详细的几何位置;对于各种机器人的定位研究不少,现在用于室外的机器人及车辆的定位基本上运用GPS技术,该定位技术误差比较大;在树林、房屋遮掩区域,因微波信号不能传输而不能使用;另外近年来一种在GPS技术上发展的RTK-GPS 技术,精度较高,但是价格昂贵。 Geometric positioning to know the specific location of the robot, the robot determines the topology is positioned within a permissible range of the path, we do not know the exact geometric position; targeting research for many various robots, robots are now used for outdoor vehicle and positioning substantially use GPS technology, the positioning error is large technique; in woods, buildings mask region, because microwave signals can not be transmitted and can not use; a GPS technology in recent years, further development of RTK-GPS technology, high precision , but expensive. 普通的车辆和作业机械尤其是农业机械及农业运输车,作业环境场所面积比较恶劣,尤其温室作业,GPS技术根本不可能实现自动导航定位。 Ordinary vehicles and work machines, particularly agricultural machinery and agricultural vehicles, operating environment places the area is relatively poor, especially in greenhouse operations, GPS technology is impossible to achieve automatic navigation and positioning.

[0003] 全方位视觉传感器是一种新型的视觉传感器,它能提供360度范围的丰富的信息,图像不会随传感器的旋转改变图像,有利于减少车轮滑移和震动的部分负面影响,而且价格便宜,被广泛应用在机器人领域;在机器人定位方向也得到了应用,但其使用原理和方法一般是在作业环境中人工设置特征物体或利用自然的特征物体,通过图像处理技术抽取特征值,然后通过图像匹配找到特征点或特征点区域来分析拓扑定位;该定位一般计算过程复杂、运行时间长,实用性不太好。 [0003] omnidirectional vision sensor is a new vision sensor that provides 360 degrees of a wealth of information, the image does not change with the rotation of the image sensor, it helps to reduce the negative impact of part of the wheel slip and vibration, and inexpensive, is widely used in the field of robotics; in robotic positioning direction has also been applied, but using the principles and methods are generally set manually characteristics of the object or the use of natural features of the object in the operating environment, the image extracting feature processing value, then find the feature points or feature points by image matching analysis region positioned topology; generally the positioning calculation process is complex, long-running, is not a good practicability. 发明专利:一种自动导航定位装置及方法(申请号: 200910044412. 4),针对作业的车辆、机器人,尤其是作业环境比较固定,田间、温室、厂房等,以及GPS技术不能使用的区域,利用全方位视觉传感器和计算机视觉图像处理技术开发的一种自动导航定位装置及方法,该发明可代替GPS在一些特殊场合进行定位,运行速度较快、使用范围广、实用性强、价格便宜。 Patent: an automatic navigation device and method (application number: 200910044412.4), for operation of the vehicle, a robot, in particular operating environment is fixed, field, greenhouse, plant, etc., and can not use GPS technology area, using An automatic navigation device and method omnidirectional vision sensor and image processing technology developed vision computer, the invention may be performed instead of GPS positioning in some special occasions, run faster, using a wide range, practical, cheap. 该发明使用了4个标识配合全方位视觉传感器来完成定位;由于田间道路较窄,布置4个标识费时,妨碍农业机械的行驶、GPS价格贵且存在使用限制等缺点。 The invention uses four omnidirectional vision sensor identification is done with the positioning; field since narrow roads, time-consuming identification arrangement 4, interfere with agricultural machinery, GPS expensive and there are restrictions on the use of disadvantages.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是提出一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置及方法,该农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置及方法可代替GPS进行定位,运行速度较快、使用范围广、实用性强、价格便宜。 [0004] The present invention solves the technical problem is to propose an agricultural machine farm roads automatic navigation device and method, the field of agricultural machinery automatic road navigation device and method can replace the GPS positioning, run faster, use a wide range of practical, cheap.

[0005] 本发明的技术解决方案如下: [0005] The technical solutions of the present invention are as follows:

[0006] 一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法,包括以下步骤:[0007] 步骤1 :准备工作:在道路的同一侧设定2个有色标识L1和L2,在待定位的作业车上设有全方位视觉传感器,全方位视觉传感器拍摄当前的包含有2个有色标识成像的全方位图像; [0006] An agricultural machine farm roads automatic navigation method, comprising the steps of: [0007] Step 1: Preparation: the same side of the road is set to two colored identification L1 and L2, to be located in the car operation with omnidirectional vision sensor, the omnidirectional vision sensor current photographing the omnidirectional image with two colored identification imaging;

[0008] 步骤2 :测量在全方位图像中的投影中心分别到2个有色标识成像的成像实际距离,进而根据以下公式算出现实环境中作业车分别到2个有色标识的距离rl和r2 ;并根据全方位图像获得2个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ工; [0008] Step 2: Measurement of the omnidirectional image projection center respectively from the actual imaging two colored logo image, and then the following equation is calculated in the real environment are working vehicle distance to the two colored identification rl and R2; and obtained with two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor formed in accordance with the azimuth angle θ omnidirectional image work;

[0009] 由成像实际距离计算空间距离的公式如下: [0009] The formula for calculating the spatial distance from the actual distance imaging follows:

Figure CN102183250AD00051

[0011] 其中a,b,c为全方位视觉传感器的双曲面表面的结构参数,f为焦距;H为当前的全方位视觉系统的高度;a,b,c,f和H均为定值; [0011] wherein a, b, c is a hyperboloid surface of the structural parameters omnidirectional vision sensor, f is the focal length; H is the height of the full range of the current vision system; a, b, c, f and H are constant ;

[0012] Xi为成像实际距离,即某一有色标识所在的空间点P在全方位图像中的成像点到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的距离; [0012] Xi is the actual distance image, i.e., a spatial point P where the colored identification omnidirectional image imaging point in the distance to the projection center omnidirectional vision sensor;

[0013] X0为空间距离,即全方位视觉传感器到该有色标识的空间距离; [0013] X0 is a spatial distance, i.e., omnidirectional vision sensor space from the colored identification;

[0014] 步骤3 :求出3个候选位置的坐标:(xn,yn)、(xI2, yI2)和(xI3,yI3); [0014] Step 3: 3 to obtain the coordinates of candidate positions: (xn, yn), (xI2, yI2) and (xI3, yI3);

[0015] 步骤4 :根据3个候选位置的坐标求出定位坐标,定位完成:根据下式求出定位坐标(Xl,Y1),即完成作业机械在田间道路的几何定位, [0015] Step 4: 3 is obtained from the coordinates of the positioning coordinates candidate positions, the positioning is completed: location coordinates calculated according to the formula (Xl, Y1), to complete the work machine is positioned in the field geometry of the road,

Figure CN102183250AD00052

[0017] 步骤3中,3个候选位置的坐标的求取方法如下: [0017] Step 3, the method of obtaining the coordinates of three candidate positions as follows:

[0018] 首先,以某一个有色标识为原点,以两个标识的连线作为平面坐标的一个坐标轴, 建立实际环境的平面坐标系;(Xa,ya)为标识L1在所述平面坐标系中的位置坐标,(¾,yb) 为标识L2在所述平面坐标系中的位置坐标; [0018] First, a colored identification is a home, to connect two identified as a coordinate axis of the plane, to establish the actual plane coordinate system environment; (Xa, ya) to identify L1 in the plane coordinate system location coordinates, (¾, yb) to identify the position coordinates in the plane coordinate system L2 in;

[0019] I)第一候选位置Il的坐标的求法: [0019] I) the coordinates of a first method for finding the candidate position Il:

Figure CN102183250AD00053

[0020] 根据公式11 a 3 2得到两个位置坐标的解,再根据道路幅 [0020] The position coordinates obtained two solutions according to Equation 11 a 3 2, then according to a road width

Figure CN102183250AD00054

宽限制这一约束条件和有色标识设置在道路的同一侧原则,确定其中的一个解为第一候选位置Il的坐标(xn,yn) ;rl和r2也表示作业车分别到2个有色标识的连线; This bandwidth limitation constraint and a color identification is provided on the same side of the principles of roads, where a solution is determined as a coordinate of a first candidate position Il (xn, yn); rl and r2, respectively, to said work vehicle colored logo 2 wiring;

[0021] II)第二个候选位置12的坐标(X12,yI2)为: [0021] II) the coordinates (X12, yI2) a second candidate position 12 is:

,其中,L12为有色标识1^和L2的几何直线距离,同时L12也表 Wherein, L12 and colored identification ^ 1 Geometry line distance L2, while also Table L12

Yi2 = Γιδίηθ Yi2 = Γιδίηθ

示两个有色标识的连线,θ为1^与L12形成的夹角; It shows two colored identification connection, θ 1 is an angle formed by the L12 ^;

Figure CN102183250AD00055

[0024] 其中X为三角形中θ角的对边;[0025] III)第三个候选位置13的坐标0cI3,yI3)为: [0024] wherein X is a triangle on the edge of the angle θ; [0025] III) The third candidate position coordinates of 0cI3 13, yI3) is:

Figure CN102183250AD00061

[0026] [0026]

Figure CN102183250AD00062

[0027] [0027]

Figure CN102183250AD00063

α为巧与L12形成的中间夹角;X'为三角形中α角的对边。 α is the angle formed by the intermediate Qiao L12; X 'is the angle α of the triangle sides.

[0028] 道路幅宽限制指主要是指程序设计中,比如路宽2m,那么求出的值必须小于2m, 而且必须为正数。 [0028] road width restrictions refer mainly refers to programming, such as road width of 2m, then the calculated value must be less than 2m, and must be positive.

[0029] 说明,求X利用的条件是方位角度91和距离1^1,乂并非1> [0029] Note, that find use X azimuth angle 91 and the distance 1 ^ 1, 1 is not qe>

[0030] 成像实际距离的求取方法为: [0030] The method for determining the actual distance of imaged:

[0031] 首先计算有色标识成像到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的成像像素距离,再将该成像像素距离乘以标定像素距离计算成像实际距离。 [0031] First, calculate the pixel colored identification imaged onto the imaging omnidirectional vision sensor from the center of the projection, and then multiplied by the calibration of the imaging pixel from the pixel to calculate the actual distance from the imaging.

[0032]标定像素距离为 0. 01389inch/pixel。 [0032] Calibration of the pixel from 0. 01389inch / pixel.

[0033] 一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置,在在作业车所行使的道路的同一侧设定2个有色标识,在待定位的作业车上设有用于拍摄全方位图像的全方位视觉传感器, 在作业车上还设有微处理器,微处理器中包含有1)用于从全方位图像中获取投影中心到2 个有色标识的距离rl和r2、以及根据全方位图像获得2个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ工的图像处理单元和2、用于采用农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法最终求出定位坐标的定位坐标计算单元。 [0033] A field road navigation agricultural machines, automatic means for setting two colored identification on the same side of the road work vehicle exercised features a full omni-directional image is captured for the vehicle to be positioned in the job visual sensor, the vehicle also has a job microprocessor which contains 1) from the center for obtaining a projection image to the full distance of two colored identification rl and r2, and the obtained omnidirectional image 2 the image processing unit azimuth angle θ of a work with colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor formed and 2, farm roads autonomous navigation positioning method employed for agricultural machines, final positioning coordinate calculation unit obtains a position fix.

[0034] 所述的全方位视觉传感器采用双曲面透镜。 [0034] The use of omnidirectional vision sensor hyperboloid lens.

[0035] 本发明的工作原理是:所述田间道路自动导航定位装置包括通过三脚架安装在作业机械上的全方位视觉传感器、分别设置于道路一边的2个有色标识、计算机及与计算机连接的电源;所述全方位视觉传感器包括上盖,下盖、曲面镜面、中心针、透明外罩、USB摄像机和用于与计算机通讯的USB线组成;所述曲面镜面与所述上盖粘合在一起,所述上盖螺纹式旋紧所述透明外罩上;所述下盖是中间空心并伸出约4mm螺口连接所述USB摄像机镜头;所述曲面镜面包括球面、抛物线曲面和双曲线曲面,其特点是单一视点,采集大范围的数据;所述透明外罩套住在曲面镜面的外部,起支撑曲面镜面和防止灰尘的作用;所述中心针螺在上盖上,穿过并紧密粘合曲球面中心,能有效的防止镜面反射;通过螺纹连接在透明外罩上的USB摄像机镜头连接有调焦螺纹,该USB摄 [0035] The working principle of the present invention is that: the autopilot field roads positioning means comprises omnidirectional vision sensor mounted on a tripod by the working machine, the power supply side of the road are provided two colored identification, and a computer connected to the computer ; said omnidirectional vision sensor comprises an upper cover, a lower cover, a curved surface mirror, center pin, transparent cover, USB cameras and a computer with a USB cable communication composition; the curved mirror and the cover are bonded together, the upper cap is screwed onto the threaded transparent cover; the lower cap is hollow and extends from about the middle of 4mm screw is connected to the USB camera lens; the curved mirror includes a spherical, parabolic and hyperbolic curved surface, which characterized by a single viewpoint, a wide range of data collection; transparent cover to trap the outside surface of the mirror, the mirror from the support surface and preventing dust; the center pin screwed in the upper cover, and through close adhesion curve spherical center, can effectively prevent specular reflection; transparent cover connected to the USB threadably connected to the camera lens focusing screw, the USB camera 机的信号输出端通过USB线连接至计算机。 Signal output terminal is connected to the computer unit via a USB cable. 所述标识,设计外形圆形或圆锥形的人工有色标识;所述有色,由蓝色和红色组成;并在标识内安装灯光来增加颜色亮度,并且采用遮光板分为二等分,避免2个标识以上的混淆。 The identification, design or circular conical shape artificial colored identification; the colored, composed of blue and red; and identifying the installed lights to increase the color intensity, and using the light shielding plate is divided into bisected, avoiding 2 more than one identity confusion. 该计算机作为整个装置的控制中心包括硬件和软件,软件包括实现图像采集、处理、计算和分析功能软件及向作业机械发布导向实施参数控制程序。 The computer apparatus as a whole, the control center includes hardware and software, software, including image acquisition, processing, computation and analysis software and release control program guide embodiment to work machine parameters. 该计算机借助作业机械发电不停供应电源。 The computer work machine power is kept supplied by the power supply.

[0036] 相应的,该田间道路自动导航定位装置采取的田间道路自动导航定位方法包括标识设置、图像数据输入、图像处理及计算和结果输出四个步骤:所述标识设置包括:在田间道路的一边设置2个有色标识,每两个标识间设置距离为20m ;所述图像数据输入,通过全方位视觉传感器实时拍摄图像,将图像通过实时接口输入计算机;所述全方位视觉传感器提供的图像是360度信息,信息量大,图形成圆形。 Farm roads autonomous navigation positioning method of [0036] Accordingly, the field road navigation apparatus automatically measures include identification settings, image data input, image processing and calculation, and result output in four steps: setting the identifier comprising: a road in the field while two colored identification is provided, for each set distance between the two identification 20m; the input image data, an image captured by the omnidirectional vision sensor in real time, real-time image via computer interface input; full image of the vision sensor is provided 360 information, the amount of information, a circular FIG. 离全方位视觉传感器中心越远,图像的分辨率变低;并且在长度上发生变形,因此,图像分析比较复杂,但该全方位视觉传感器的一大优点为其方位角不发生变化。 Farther away from the center of omnidirectional vision sensor, the resolution of the image becomes low; in length and deformed, therefore, more complex image analysis, but a major advantage for the azimuthal omnidirectional vision sensor does not change. 所述图像处理及计算,是本发明的创新部分之一;首先, 针对输入计算机的全方位图像计算图像中有色标识颜色的强度;根据实验设定的颜色阈值;逐行对上述采集到的图像进行扫描,抽取高于阈值的颜色特征像素;根据欧几里得距离判断分成特征像素点区域;计算红色和蓝色像素点区域的像素点的重心;然后根据红色像素点重心和蓝色像素点重心的距离判断是否为标识。 The image processing and calculation, is part of one of the innovations of the present invention; First, the color intensity of colored identification omnidirectional image for the input image is calculated in the computer; color threshold according to the test set; row above collected image scanning, color feature extracting pixels above a threshold; according to Euclidean distance determination into a feature region pixels; pixel centroid calculating red and blue pixel region; then, the center of gravity of the red pixels and the blue pixels determining whether the distance of the center of gravity identification. 最后根据所有红色和蓝色像素特征点的重心作为一个有色标识在该图像的位置;依次完成整幅图像的扫描,搜索出2个有色标识在图像中的位置;如果有色标识特征点提取只有一个或者没有,则返回上一步操作, 进行下个位置特征点图像的分析;如果提取了有色标识特征点为2个,则根据提取到的2个有色标识在图像中的位置:一则通过图像处理得出每相邻两个有色标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度;其二,根据全方位视觉传感器在图像中的位置,计算出两个有色标识分别在图像中离全方位视觉传感器的图像距离,从而根据全方位视觉传感器成像参数公式变换得出两个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离;再根据已知的两个有色标识的空间位置,利用圆周定理求出全方位视觉传感器的2个空间候选位置,根据道路幅宽的限制, 选取其中可 Finally, according to the center of gravity of all the red and blue pixels as the feature point identifies a position of the colored image; sequentially scanning the entire image is completed, the two colored identification search positions in the image; if colored identification feature point extracting only a or not, return to the previous operation, analyzed the next position of the feature point of an image; if extracting the colored identification feature points is two, then the position in the image according to the extracted two colored identification: an image processing obtained azimuth angle and each adjacent two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor formed; secondly, the position of omnidirectional vision sensor in an image, the image is calculated from the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor, respectively in the image distance to arrive at the spatial distance between the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor of omnidirectional vision sensor imaging parameter conversion formulas; then according to the known spatial position of the two colored identification, using the peripheral vision sensor Theorem to obtain full two spatial candidate positions, according to the limitation of the width of the road, which may be selected 的一个候选位置;其三,结合标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度和根据成像参数公式变换得出两个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离的三角关系,得出全方位视觉传感器的另外2个空间候选位置;最后,根据其二和其三求出的三个候选位置坐标的平均值即为全方位视觉传感器在空间上的坐标,即是作业机械在田间道路的几何定位;根据作业机械自身坐标和空间坐标的关系,计算出导向角和导向距离;结果输出,依据上述步骤得到的导向角和导向距离控制作业机械的行走路线。 A candidate location; Third, the azimuth angle and the combined identification omnidirectional vision sensor formed in accordance with the imaging parameters and the transformation formula obtained triangle space between the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor distance, obtained omnidirectional vision sensor the other two spatial candidate positions; Finally, the average value thereof and the other three candidate determined three position coordinates is the coordinate of omnidirectional vision sensor in space, i.e., a geometric positioning road work machine in the field; the relationship between the work machine and its own coordinate space coordinates, to calculate the distance of the guide and the guide angle; result output, the control routes the working machine based on the step angle of the guide and the guide of the obtained distance.

[0037] 当有色标识的内部安装上照明设备,采用玻璃、透明塑料等材料,采用本发明在光线弱或夜间也可以操作。 [0037] When the inside of the colored identification on the lighting installation, glass, plastic and other transparent materials, the present invention may also operate in low light or at night.

[0038] 有益效果: [0038] beneficial effects:

[0039] 本发明的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置及方法,根据全方位视觉传感器在线实时不断提供全方位视觉图像,一个位置一副图像,利用图像处理提取标识在图像中的位置,计算图像距离和空间距离;结合借助全方位视觉传感器成像方位角不改变的原理, 得出方位角,共同算出全方位视觉传感器在田间道路相对于标识的空间绝对坐标;更进一步,根据车辆、机器人自身坐标和空间坐标的关系,算出导向角和导向距离,为作业车的导航提供必要的定位信息。 [0039] farm roads agricultural machine according to the invention an automatic navigation device and method, according to omnidirectional vision sensor constantly full-line real-time visual images, a position of an image, the image processing using the location identified in the extracted image is calculated image distance and spatial distance; binding principle omnidirectional vision sensor imaging means does not change the azimuth angle, the azimuth obtained, calculates the common space omnidirectional vision sensor in the field of road with respect to the absolute coordinates identified; Still further, according to the vehicle, the robot itself and coordinate the relationship between the spatial coordinates, and calculates the conduction angle from the guide, provides the necessary positioning information for the navigation of the work vehicle. 该方法相比其它定位方法简单,运行速度快,实用性强,所述自动导航定位装置结构简单,成本不高,便于推广运用。 This method is simple compared to other targeting methods, fast, practical, simple and automatic navigation system of the structure, inexpensive, easy to promote the use.

[0040] 根据全方位视觉传感器的成像原理,通过图像处理,相比于通过图像处理得到的两点的距离,得出的方位角度Q1是非常准确的,因此为了减少误差,提高定位精度,本发明利用方位角度θ工,最后求出3个候选点的平均值作为定位坐标,这是本发明的最关键的技术创新点。 [0040] The imaging principle of omnidirectional vision sensor, by image processing, as compared to the distance between two points obtained by the image processing, the azimuth angle obtained Q1 is very accurate, and therefore in order to reduce errors and improve positioning accuracy, the present It works by using the orientation angle θ invention, the final average value of three candidate points as positioning, which is the most critical technical innovation of the present invention.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0041] 图1是本发明所述田间道路自动导航定位装置的结构示意图; [0041] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the automatic farm roads navigation device according to the present invention;

[0042] 图2是本发明所述全方位视觉传感器结构示意图; [0042] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the present invention, full visual sensor structure;

[0043] 图3是本发明所述田间道路自动导航定位方法的实施步骤图;[0044] 图4是本发明实例标识方向角图; [0043] FIG. 3 is a step of FIG autonomous navigation positioning method of the present invention, farm roads; [0044] FIG. 4 is an example of the present invention, FIG identifying the orientation angle;

[0045] 图5本发明全方位视觉传感器点成像原理; [0045] FIG invention omnidirectional vision sensor spot imaging principle 5;

[0046] 图6是本发明实例装置系统高度和全方位视觉传感器与标识空间距离、成像距离的关系式推导示意图; [0046] FIG. 6 is an example and the full-height device system vision sensor and a space identification from the present invention, the relationship between imaging distance deriving a schematic view;

[0047] 图7是本发明实例定位计算候选点Il计算原理图; [0047] FIG. 7 is an example of the present invention, the positioning calculation candidate points calculated schematic Il;

[0048] 图8是本发明实例定位计算候选点12计算原理图; [0048] FIG. 8 is an example of the present invention, the positioning calculation candidate points calculated Schematic 12;

[0049] 图9是本发明实例定位计算候选点13计算原理图; [0049] FIG. 9 is an example of the present invention, the positioning calculation 13 calculates schematic candidate points;

[0050] 图10是本发明实例定位计算原理图。 [0050] FIG. 10 is an example of the positioning calculation principle of the present invention FIG.

[0051] 在上述图中, [0051] In the drawing,

[0052] 1-标识Ll 2-田间道路3-作业机械4_标识L2 5_三脚架6-电源7_计算机8-全方位视觉传感器9-曲型镜面10-中心针s Il-USB摄像机12-USB线13-调焦螺纹14-镜头15-下盖16-透明外罩17-上盖18-标识设置19-图像数据输入20-图像处理及计算21-结果输出30-成像平面,40-双曲面。 [0052] The identification Ll 2- 1- 3- field road work machine identification L2 5_ 4_ tripod 6- full power 7_ computer vision sensor 8- 9- 10- Curved mirror center pin s Il-USB camera 12- 13- 14- USB cable threaded focusing lens 15 under the transparent cover lid 16- 17- 19- cover 18 is provided identifying the input image data 20 and the image processing result output 21 calculates the imaging plane of 30-, 40- hyperboloid .

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0053] 以下将结合附图和具体实施例对本发明做进一步详细说明: [0053] Hereinafter, specific embodiments in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and described in further detail of the present invention:

[0054] 一种田间道路自动导航定位装置,包括安装于作业机械上的全方位视觉传感器、 分别设置于道路一边的2个有色标识、与全方位视觉传感器的信号输出端连接的计算机及用于给计算机供电的电源。 [0054] A farm roads automatic navigation system comprising omnidirectional vision sensor mounted to the working machine, are provided in the side of the road two colored identification, a computer connected to the signal output of omnidirectional vision sensor and means for to the computer power supply.

[0055] 所述全方位视觉传感器包括上盖、下盖、透明外罩、中心针、曲面镜面、USB摄像机和用于与计算机通讯的USB线,其中上盖、下盖分别安装于透明外罩两端;上盖底部安装有中心针,该中心针穿过并紧贴曲面镜面中心位置;透明外罩支撑粘合在上盖上的曲面镜面; 通过调焦螺纹连接于USB摄像机上的USB摄像机镜头与下盖连接。 [0055] The omnidirectional vision sensor comprises an upper cover, a lower cover, transparent cover, the center of the needle, the curved surface mirror, a camera for USB communication with a USB cable to a computer, wherein the upper cover, the lower cover are attached to both ends of the transparent cover ; bottom cover is attached to the center pin, the center pin passing through the center position and close to the mirror surface; supporting transparent cover adhered to the mirror surface of the upper cover; screwed through the focusing lens of the camera and the USB on USB camera cover connection.

[0056] 所述标识,设计外形圆形或圆锥形的人工有色标识,所述有色,包括蓝色和红色; 并在标识内安装灯光来增加颜色亮度,并且采用遮光板分为二等分,避免2个标识以上的混淆。 [0056] The identification, design or circular conical shape artificial colored logo, the colored, including blue and red; and identifying the installed lights to increase the color intensity, and using the light shielding plate is divided into bisected, avoid two more identity confusion.

[0057] 本发明还提供了一种与上述自动导航定位装置相应的自动导航定位方法,包括标识设置、图像数据输入、图像处理及计算和结果输出,所述标识设置包括:在田间道路的一边设置2个有色标识,一般根据全方位视觉传感器成像原理,每两个标识间距离至少可设置为20m ; [0057] The present invention also provides a corresponding navigation positioning and the automatic means for automatically positioning navigation method, comprising identifying setting, the image data input, image processing and calculation, and the result output, the identifier is provided comprising: a road side in the field two colored identification is provided, in accordance with the general principles of imaging omnidirectional vision sensor, the distance between each of the at least two identification can be set to 20m;

[0058] 所述图像数据输入包括:通过全方位视觉传感器实时拍摄包括有色标识在内的图像并输入计算机; [0058] The input image data comprising: capturing an image comprising a colored identification, including by the omnidirectional vision sensor and input into the computer in real time;

[0059] 所述图像处理及计算包括:首先,针对输入计算机的全方位图像计算图像中有色标识颜色的强度;根据计算设定的颜色阈值;逐行对上述采集到的图像进行扫描,抽取高于阈值的颜色特征像素;根据欧几里得距离判断分成特征像素点区域;计算红色和蓝色像素点区域的像素点的重心;然后根据红色像素点重心和蓝色像素点重心的距离判断是否为标识。 [0059] The image processing and calculation, comprising: First, the color intensity of the colored identification image input to the computer calculates the omnidirectional image; color threshold calculated according to a set; above progressive scan images collected, extracted high wherein the pixel color to a threshold value; Euclidean distance determination into a feature region pixels; calculating a centroid pixel of the red and blue pixel areas; and determining whether the red pixel according to the distance the center of gravity the center of gravity of the pixel, and blue dots identify. 最后根据所有红色和蓝色像素特征点的重心作为一个有色标识在该图像的位置;依次完成整幅图像的扫描,搜索出2个有色标识在图像中的位置: Finally, according to the center of gravity of all the red and blue pixels of the feature point as the position of the one colored logo image; sequentially scanning the entire image is completed, the two colored identification search position in the image:

[0060] A)如果有色标识特征点提取只有一个或者没有,则返回上一步操作,进行下个位置特征点图像的分析; [0060] A) if a colored identification feature point extracting only one or not, return to the previous operation, the next position of the analyzed image feature points;

[0061] B)如果提取了有色标识特征点为2个,则根据提取到的2个有色标识在图像中的 [0061] B) If a colored identification feature points are extracted is 2, then according to the extracted two colored logo image

位置: position:

[0062] 1)通过图像处理得出两个有色标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度; [0062] 1) obtained by the image processing and azimuth angles of the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor formed;

[0063] 2)根据全方位视觉传感器在图像中的位置,计算出两个有色标识分别在图像中离全方位视觉传感器的图像距离,从而根据成像参数公式变换得出两个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离;再根据已知的两个有色标识的空间位置,利用圆周定理求出全方位视觉传感器的2个空间候选位置,根据道路幅宽的限制,选取其中可行的一个候选位置; [0063] 2) The position of omnidirectional vision sensor in an image is calculated from the image are two colored identification from omnidirectional vision sensor, to convert the obtained two colored identification and full imaging parameters according to the formula in the image spatial distance between the visual sensor; then according to the known spatial position of the two colored identification, using the peripheral vision sensor Theorem obtains two full spatial candidate positions, according to the limitation of the width of the road, possible to select a candidate location where ;

[0064] 3)结合标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度和根据成像参数公式变换得出两个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离的三角关系,得出全方位视觉传感器的另外2个空间候选位置; Azimuth angle [0064] 3) binding and identified omnidirectional vision sensor formed and transformed space obtained triangular relationship between the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor based on the imaging parameters from the formula derived omnidirectional vision sensor further 2 spatial candidate positions;

[0065] 4)2)和幻求出的三个候选位置坐标的平均值即为全方位视觉传感器在空间上的坐标,即是作业机械在田间道路的几何定位;根据作业机械自身坐标和空间坐标的关系,计算出导向角和导向距离; [0065] 4) 2 average) and phantom three candidate position coordinates of the obtained coordinate is the omnidirectional vision sensor in space, i.e., a geometric positioning road work machine in the field; work machine according to their own coordinate space, and relationship coordinates, and the guide is calculated from the conduction angle;

[0066] 结果输出,依据上述步骤得到的导向角和导向距离控制作业机械的行走路线。 [0066] The result output, the control routes the working machine based on the step angle of the guide and the guide of the obtained distance.

[0067] 实施例1 : [0067] Example 1:

[0068] 如图1,本实施例包括2个红色标识,如图中标识L1、标识L2,其分别设置在田间道路同一侧的路边上,标识L1和标识L2间距离设置为20m ;全方位视觉传感器通过三脚架连接在作业机械上,所述作业机械可为自动、半自动机械或机器人;作业机械要不断地供给计算机电源以实施应用软件对图像的处理。 [0068] As shown in FIG 1, the present embodiment includes two red identifier, identified in FIG L1, L2 identification, which are provided on the same side of the street field roads, identification L1 and the distance L2 between the identifier to 20m; whole orientation of the visual sensor connected by a tripod on the work machine, the work machine may be automated, or semi-automatic mechanical robot; work machine to constantly supply power to the computer to implement the image processing application software.

[0069] 如图2,所述全方位视觉传感器包括曲面镜面、中心针、USB摄像机、USB线、调焦螺纹、镜头、下盖、透明外罩和上盖;曲面镜面与所述上盖粘合在一起;所述上盖螺纹式旋紧所述透明外罩上;所述下盖是中间空心并伸出4mm螺口连接所述USB摄像机镜头;所述透明外罩套接于曲面镜面外部,以支撑曲面镜面,并起防止灰尘的作用;所述中心针通过螺纹连接在上盖上,穿过并紧密粘合曲面镜面中心,能有效防止镜面反射;USB摄像机镜头螺纹连接在下盖上,调焦螺纹安装于USB摄像机镜头上,所述USB摄像机镜头的信号输出端通过USB线与计算机连接。 [0069] As shown in FIG 2, the omnidirectional vision sensor comprises a curved surface mirror, center pin, USB camera, USB cable, thread focusing, the lens, the lower cover, and upper transparent cover; mirror surface bonding with the upper cover together; the upper cover screwed on said threaded transparent cover; the lower cap is hollow and extends intermediate 4mm screw is connected to the USB camera lens; sleeved on said transparent curved surface mirror outer cover, to support the curved mirror, and serves to prevent dust; the central pin is connected to the cover by a screw, passing through the center of the mirror surface and closely adhered, can effectively prevent specular reflection; the USB camera lens coupled to the lower cap thread, a threaded focusing USB is mounted on the camera lens, the signal output of the camera lens USB cable is connected to the computer via USB.

[0070] 如图3,本实施例所述田间道路自动导航定位方法,包括实施步骤标识设置、图像数据输入、图像处理及计算和结果输出。 [0070] FIG. 3, field road autonomous navigation positioning method according to the present embodiment, is provided comprising the step of identifying embodiment, image data input, image processing and calculation, and result output. 具体描述如下: Described as follows:

[0071] 标识设置:作业机械作业前,在田间道路同一侧的路边上,放置2个有色标识L1和标识L2,并设置距离为20m。 [0071] identifier is provided: front work machine operation, on the same side of the street field roads, placing two colored identification identifier L1 and L2, and the distance set to 20m.

[0072] 图像数据输入:通过全方位视觉传感器实时拍摄360度图像,一个地点仅一幅图像,并通过实时接口输入计算机内的储存器中。 [0072] The input image data: real-time imaging via omnidirectional vision sensor 360 of the image, a location only one image, and stored within the computer in real time through the interface input.

[0073] 图像处理及计算:将输入的图像从储存器调入程序中运行;逐行对图像进行扫描,利用公式(1)分别计算图像中红色和蓝色像素强度(标识采用红色或蓝色或红色/蓝色组合色标识),根据实验值设定红色和蓝色组合标识提取颜色量的阈值,当计算图像中的红色像素点强度大于设定红色量阈值时,即为红色特征像素点;当计算图像中的蓝色像素点强度大于设定蓝色量阈值时,即为蓝色特征像素点;抽取出红色和蓝色特征像素点。 [0073] Image processing and calculation: image input operation from a reservoir called in the program; progressive scanning of the image, using the formula (1) were calculated image intensity of the red and blue pixels (identified using the red or blue or red / blue color combination identifier), when the experimental value is set according to a combination of red and blue color identification extracted by the threshold, when the red image pixel intensity calculation greater than the set threshold red, red is the feature pixel ; when the blue image pixel intensity calculation greater than the set threshold blue, blue is the feature pixel; extracted feature red and blue pixels. 根据任意标识在图像中最大红色像素距离设置红色像素距离最大值,计算抽取出红色像素间欧几里得距离,当红色像素间欧几里得距离小于红色距离最大值时判断为一个红色特征像素点区域;根据任意标识在图像中最大蓝色像素距离设置蓝色像素距离最大值,计算抽取出蓝色像素间欧几里得距离,当蓝色像素间欧几里得距离小于红色距离最大值时判断为一个蓝色特征像素点区域;依次完成整个图像的特征像素点区域分区。 Identification according to any of the maximum red pixel provided from the maximum red pixel distance in the image, calculates the Euclidean distance between the extracted red pixel, the maximum value is determined as a characteristic red pixel when the Euclidean distance between the red pixel is smaller than the distance Red point area; identification according to any of the maximum blue pixel maximum distance from the blue pixel arranged in the image, calculates the Euclidean distance between the extracted blue pixel, when the Euclidean distance between the blue pixel is less than the maximum distance red when it is determined that feature a blue pixel region; in order to complete the entire image feature pixel area section.

[0074] [re, be] = [R- (B+G) /2— | BG |,B— (R+G) /2— | RG | ] (1) [0074] [re, be] = [R- (B + G) / 2- | BG |, B- (R + G) / 2- | RG |] (1)

[0075] R、G、B :红色、绿色和蓝色的亮度;re :提取红色像素亮度;be :提取蓝色像素亮度。 [0075] R, G, B: red, green and blue luminance; re: extracting red pixel brightness; be: extracting pixel luminance blue.

[0076] 在图像上以左上角为原点,定义直角坐标系u,v,每个像素的坐标(u,v)分别以该像素为单位;利用公式(¾计算红色和蓝色特征像素点区域的像素点的重心;然后计算红色特征像素点区域像素点重心和蓝色特征像素点区域像素点重心的距离;根据红色特征像素点区域像素点重心和蓝色特征像素点区域像素点重心的距离约束值(距离约束值借助经验值通过实验验证)判断是否为标识,当计算红色特征像素点区域像素点重心和蓝色特征像素点区域像素点重心的距离在距离约束值范围之内,即判断为一个标识;否则判断不是标识。 [0076] In the upper left corner of the image as the origin, defines a rectangular coordinate system u, v, coordinates of each pixel (u, v) respectively to the pixels; using equation (¾ calculate the red and blue pixel region feature the center of gravity of the pixels; wherein the red pixel is then calculated pixels with pixels from the center of gravity and the center of gravity of the blue pixel region characteristic; wherein the distance of the red pixel region and a blue pixel centroid feature region pixel of the center of gravity of the pixels constraint values ​​(distance constraint value by means of experiments empirical value) is determined to identify whether, when calculating the center of gravity of pixels and blue pixels with feature region pixels of red pixel centroid feature distance constraint values ​​within a distance range, i.e., determines for an identity; otherwise judged not identify.

Figure CN102183250AD00101

[0079]式中: [0079] wherein:

[0080] Xre,Yre :图像处理计算的红色标识图像坐标;Riu、Riv :提取第i个红色标识特征像素的图像坐标;Ii1 ::红色特征像素点区域的像素总量。 [0080] Xre, Yre: red identifying image coordinates of the image processing computations; Riu, Riv: extracting image coordinates of the i-th red pixel identification feature; the total amount of the red pixel Ii1 :: feature region pixels. )(be、%e:图像处理计算的蓝色标识图像坐标;BiiuBiv :提取第i个蓝色标识特征像素的的图像坐标;n2 ::蓝色特征像素点区域的像素总量。 ) (Be,% e: image processing computations blue logo image coordinates; BiiuBiv: extracting identification feature i-th pixel of the blue image coordinates; total number of pixels n2 :: blue feature region pixels.

[0081] 如果能成功提取有色标识特征点2个,程序将继续进行下面的工作,得出计算结果;如果有色标识特征点提取只有一个或者没有,则返回计算机上一步操作,进行下个位置特征点图像的分析。 [0081] If a colored identification can successfully extract a feature point 2, the program will continue with the work, the results obtained; if the next position wherein the colored identification feature point extracting only one or not, the computer returns the previous operation, for analysis of the image points. 提取2个有色标识在图像的位置后,如图4,通过图像处理得出两个有色标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ ”求出的角度误差小,是本发明主要应用之 Extracting two colored identification in the position of the image, as shown in FIG 4, is formed reached two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor and image processing by the azimuth angle θ "the angle determined error is small, the main applications of the present invention are

[0082] 如图5,全方位视觉传感器成像时,空间点Ρ(Χ,Υ,Ζ)与形成的图像点p(x,y)在任何方向同一直线上,相对于全方位视觉传感器的投影中心的方位角θ是相同的。 [0082] FIG 5, when the omnidirectional vision sensor imaging, spatial points Ρ (Χ, Υ, Ζ) and the image point p (x, y) formed on the same straight line in any direction, with respect to the projection of omnidirectional vision sensor azimuth angle θ of the center are the same. 基于成像原理,空间点和成像点在空间上处在同一平面上。 Based on the imaging principle, and the imaging point spatial point in space in the same plane.

[0083] 如图6,定义坐标系TL ;根据全方位视觉传感器成像原理,空间地面点P (Xtl,Z0), 入射线i通过焦点0M(0,H)经双曲面上点M0cm,zffl)反射后汇聚于0。 [0083] FIG 6, a coordinate system TL; omnidirectional vision sensor in accordance with the principles of imaging, spatial ground point P (Xtl, Z0), the i-ray through focus 0M (0, H) point by hyperbolic surface M0cm, zffl) 0 converge back reflector. ,在成像面上形成像点P (Xi, Zi) ;Oc为投影中心,f为焦距;根据一般双曲线方程 Forming point P (Xi, Zi) as the imaging surface; the projection center Oc, f is the focal length; according to the general hyperbola

Figure CN102183250AD00102

[0084] 推导符合本发明的方程(3):[0085] [0084] The derivation of equation (3) consistent with the present invention: [0085]

Figure CN102183250AD00111

[0086] a,b,c为双曲面表面的结构参数,一般厂家提供标准值;H为全方位视觉传感器系统离地面的高度;从全方位视觉传感器成像原理可以知道,空间点和成像点横截面都可以用如图6所示的坐标系表示。 [0086] a, b, c of the structural parameters of the hyperboloidal surface, manufacturers typically provide a standard value; H omnidirectional vision sensor system for the height from the ground; omnidirectional vision sensor from the imaging principle can know, and the imaging point transverse spatial point coordinate system can use a cross-sectional representation shown in FIG. 6. 定义全方位视觉传感器到PO^ztl)间的距离为全方位视觉传感器与标识空间距离& ;定义成像点P (Xi,Zi)到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的距离为成像距离Xi。 Distance is defined omnidirectional vision sensor PO ^ ztl) between the sensor and the identification of omnidirectional vision & spatial distance; distance is defined imaging point P (Xi, Zi) to the projection center of omnidirectional vision sensor as an imaging distance Xi.

[0087] 点0M(0,H),M(xm,zm) ίΠρ(χ。,Ζ。)在同一条直线上,可以写成⑷: [0087] point 0M (0, H), M (xm, zm) ίΠρ (.. Χ, Ζ) on the same line can be written ⑷:

[0088] [0088]

Figure CN102183250AD00112

[0089] 根据几何数学三角形的相似性,得出(5) [0089] The mathematical geometrical similarity of triangles, stars (5)

[0090] [0090]

Figure CN102183250AD00113

[0091] 根据(4)和(5)求出(6) [0091] According to (4) and (5) is obtained (6)

[0092] [0092]

Figure CN102183250AD00114

[0093] 将(6)式代入(5)中,可以求出Sn [0093] A (6) into (5), the Sn can be determined

[0094] [0094]

Figure CN102183250AD00115

[0095] 将(6)式和(7)代入中,求出下面全方位视觉传感器系统高度和全方位视觉传感器与标识距离、成像距离的关系式: [0095] A (6) and (7) into, the following relationship is obtained full-height and full visual sensor system identification and distance vision sensor, the imaging distance:

[0096] [0096]

Figure CN102183250AD00116

[0097] 因此,根据⑶式,a,b,c,f,和H为定值,假如得到成像点ρ (Xi,Zi)到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的距离为成像距离Xi,则能推导出全方位视觉传感器到Ρ(Χ(Ι,Z0)间的距离为全方位视觉传感器与标识空间距离^。 [0097] Thus, according ⑶ formula, a, b, c, f, and H is a constant value, if the obtained image point ρ (Xi, Zi) to the distance from the projection center of omnidirectional vision sensor as an imaging distance Xi, it can be derived the distance between the omnidirectional vision sensor Ρ (Χ (Ι, Z0) of omnidirectional vision sensor and to identify a spatial distance ^.

[0098] 根据全方位视觉传感器在图像中的位置,计算出两个有色标识分别在图像中离全方位视觉传感器的图像距离Xi, [0098] The position of omnidirectional vision sensor in an image, calculated in the two images are colored logo image distance Xi from the omnidirectional vision sensor,

[0099] 从而根据全方位视觉传感器成像参数公式变换得出两个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离& ;通过像素距离标定计算出标识到全方位视觉传感器实际距离。 [0099] to convert the space obtained between the two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor distance & omnidirectional vision sensor imaging parameters according to the formula; calibration pixel distance is calculated by identifying the actual distance omnidirectional vision sensor. 如图7,定义坐标系xy,再根据已知的两个有色标识的空间位置,利用圆周定理方程(9)求出全方位视觉传感器的2个空间候选位置Il和1-11,根据道路幅宽限制和标识设置路边的原则,选取其中可行的一个候选位置Il ; 7, a coordinate system xy, then according to the known spatial position of the two colored identification, using the peripheral theorem of Equation (9) to obtain two spatial candidate positions omnidirectional vision sensor Il and 1-11, according to a road width bandwidth limitation and identification principles set roadside, wherein selecting one candidate location Il feasible;

[0100] [0100]

Figure CN102183250AD00117

[0101] 其中,(xa, ya):标识L1的空间位置;(xb, yb):标识L2的空间位置;巧:标识L1与全方位视觉传感器实际距离:标识L2与全方位视觉传感器实际距离。 [0101] wherein, (xa, ya): identifies the spatial position of the L1; (xb, yb): identifies the spatial position L2; Qiao: omnidirectional vision sensor identification L1 and the actual distance: L2 and identifying actual distance omnidirectional vision sensor .

[0102] 如图8,结合标识和全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ工和有色标识L1与全方位视觉传感器间的空间距离T1的三角关系可以求出下列关系式(10)〜(12): [0102] FIG. 8, in conjunction with the space between the omnidirectional vision sensor identification and azimuth angle θ formed by colored identification station and L1 and omnidirectional vision sensor can be obtained the following relation (10) to (12) from the triangle T1 :

Figure CN102183250AD00121

[0106] 其中,L12 :有色标识L1和L2的几何直线距离;θ :ri与L12形成的中间夹角;X :三角形θ角对边。 [0106] wherein, L12: L1 and L2 are colored identification geometric straight line distance; θ: ri intermediate L12 and the angle formed; X: [theta] angle with the triangle side.

[0107] 式(1¾得出全方位视觉传感器的另外1个空间候选位置(1¾的坐标值: [0107] Formula (1¾ derived omnidirectional vision sensor, an additional spatial candidate positions (1¾ coordinate value:

[0108] [0108]

Figure CN102183250AD00122

[0109] 如图9,跟求(12)位置同理,根据式(14)〜(17)求出全方位视觉传感器空间候选位置(13)的坐标值; [0109] FIG. 9, with the request (12) positions Similarly, omnidirectional vision sensor obtains spatial candidate positions (13) according to a coordinate value of formula (14) to (17);

Figure CN102183250AD00123

[0113] 其中,L12 :有色标识L1和L2的几何直线距离;α :r2与L12形成的中间夹角-X : 三角形α角对边。 [0113] wherein, L12: L1 and L2 are colored identification geometric straight line distance; [alpha]: -X r2 intermediate angle formed with L12: angle [alpha] of the triangle sides.

[0114] 式(17)得出全方位视觉传感器的另外1个空间候选位置(13)的坐标值: [0114] Formula (17) obtained omnidirectional vision sensor, an additional spatial candidate positions (13) coordinate values:

[0115] [0115]

Figure CN102183250AD00124

[0116] 如图10,为提高定位精度,运用不同计算方法求出的三个候选位置(II〜1¾坐标并根据它们的平均坐标值来减少候选点可能的定位误差,根据(18)式求出重心,即是作业机械在田间道路的几何定位。 [0116] As shown in FIG 10, in order to improve the positioning accuracy, the use of three different candidate position calculated in the method of (II~1¾ coordinates of candidate points may be reduced and the positioning error of coordinate values ​​according to their mean, according to (18) obtained from Eq. the center of gravity, which is the geometric positioning of the working machine in the field of the road.

[0117] [0117]

Figure CN102183250AD00125

[0118] 全方位视觉传感器安装在作业机械3上,即实现了对作业机械3在该田间道路的几何定位;根据作业机械3的坐标系和道路2的空间坐标系转换关系,计算出导向角和导向距离。 [0118] omnidirectional vision sensor mounted on the working machine 3, i.e., to achieve the geometrical positioning of the working machine 3 in the field of road; spatial coordinate conversion relationship according to the working machine 3 and the road coordinate system 2 is calculated conduction angle and a guide distance.

[0119] 结果输出,导向角和导向距离输送到作为操舵控制器的计算机,执行作业机械的行走路线。 [0119] The results output from the delivery guide and a guide angle as a steering controller to the computer, the machine performs work routes.

Claims (6)

  1. 1. 一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤: 步骤1 :准备工作:在道路的同一侧设定2个有色标识L1和L2,在待定位的作业车上设有全方位视觉传感器,全方位视觉传感器拍摄当前的包含有2个有色标识成像的全方位图像;步骤2:测量在全方位图像中的投影中心分别到2个有色标识成像的成像实际距离,进而根据以下公式算出现实环境中作业车分别到2个有色标识的距离rl和r2 ;并根据全方位图像获得2个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ工; 由成像实际距离计算空间距离的公式如下: An agricultural machines, farm roads autonomous navigation positioning method, characterized by comprising the following steps: Step 1: Preparation: the same side of the road is set to two colored identification L1 and L2, to be located in the car operation with omnidirectional vision sensor, the omnidirectional vision sensor current photographing the omnidirectional image with the imaging of two colored identification; step 2: measuring the omnidirectional image is projected from the imaging centers are the actual imaging two colored identification, Further according to the following formula to work out the real environment to the work vehicle, respectively, from the two colored identification rl and R2; and obtaining the azimuth angle θ station 2 identifies the colored omnidirectional vision sensor formed in accordance with the omnidirectional image; actual distance is calculated by the imaging space distance formula is as follows:
    Figure CN102183250AC00021
    其中a,b,c为全方位视觉传感器的双曲面表面的结构参数,f为焦距;H为当前的全方位视觉系统的高度;a,b,c,f和H均为定值;Xi为成像实际距离,即某一有色标识所在的空间点P在全方位图像中的成像点到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的距离;X0为空间距离,即全方位视觉传感器到该有色标识的空间距离; 步骤3 :求出3个候选位置的坐标: Wherein a, b, c is a hyperboloid surface of the structural parameters omnidirectional vision sensor, f is the focal length; H is the height of the full range of the current vision system; a, b, c, f and H are constant; Xi is imaging the actual distance, i.e., a point in space where the colored identification imaging point P in the full-image distance of the projection center omnidirectional vision sensor; spatial distance X0, i.e., omnidirectional vision sensor space from the colored identification; step 3: 3 to obtain the coordinates of candidate positions:
    Figure CN102183250AC00022
    ; 步骤4 :根据3个候选位置的坐标求出定位坐标,定位完成:根据下式求出定位坐标(xi; Y1),即完成作业机械在田间道路的几何定位, ; Step 4: 3 is obtained from the coordinates of the positioning coordinates candidate positions, the positioning is completed: The following equation location coordinates (xi; Y1), i.e. complete geometric positioning road work machine in the field,
    Figure CN102183250AC00023
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法,其特征在于,步骤3 中,3个候选位置的坐标的求取方法如下:首先,以某一个有色标识为原点,以两个标识的连线作为平面坐标的一个坐标轴,建立实际环境的平面坐标系;(xa,ya)为标识L1在所述平面坐标系中的位置坐标,(xb,yb)为标识L2在所述平面坐标系中的位置坐标;I)第一候选位置Il的坐标的求法: 根据公式 The autonomous navigation positioning method of farm roads agricultural machine according to claim 1, wherein, in Step 3, method of obtaining the coordinates of three candidate positions as follows: First, one identified as colored origin, connection as an axis of the coordinate plane identified by two, establishing an actual plane coordinate system environment; (xa, ya) to identify the position coordinates L1 in the plane coordinate system, (xb, yb) to identify the L2 the position coordinate plane coordinate system; the I) a first candidate position coordinates Il seeking: according to the formula
    Figure CN102183250AC00024
    2得到两个位置坐标的解,再根据道路幅宽限制这一约束条件和有色标识设置在道路的同一侧原则,确定其中的一个解为第一候选位置Il的坐标(χη,Υπ) ;rl和r2也表示作业车分别到2个有色标识的连线;II)第二个候选位置12的坐标(xI2,yI2)为: 2 position coordinates obtained two solutions, and then the same principle limiting side constraints and the colored identification is provided according to the road width of the road, where a solution is determined as a coordinate of a first candidate position Il (χη, Υπ); rl and r2, respectively, to said work vehicle to connect two colored identification; II) coordinates (xI2, yI2) a second candidate position 12 is:
    Figure CN102183250AC00025
    ,其中,L12为有色标识L1和L2的几何直线距离,同时L12也表示两个有色标识的连线,θ为Γι与L12形成的夹角; Wherein, L12 identifying geometric linear distances L1 and L2 are colored, while the two colored L12 said connection identifier, and the angle θ Γι L12 is formed;
    Figure CN102183250AC00026
    其中X为三角形中θ角的对边;III)第三个候选位置13的坐标(¾,yI3)为: 式中,α 为!•2与L12形成的中间夹角;X'为三角形中α角的对边。 Wherein X is a triangle on the edge of the angle θ; coordinates (¾, yI3) III) a third candidate position 13 is: Where, α • 2 intermediate L12 and the angle formed; X 'is a triangle [alpha]! on the side of the corner.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1或2所述的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法,其特征在于,成像实际距离的求取方法为:首先计算有色标识成像到全方位视觉传感器投影中心的成像像素距离,再将该成像像素距离乘以标定像素距离计算成像实际距离。 The agricultural machine farm roads automatic navigation method according to claim 1, wherein the imaging method of obtaining the actual distance of: first calculating the pixel colored identification imaged onto the imaging omnidirectional vision sensor from the center of projection and then multiplied by the calibration image pixel distance from the pixel to calculate the actual distance imaging.
  4. 4.根据权利要求3所述的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法,其特征在于,标定像素距离为0. 01389inch/pixel。 The agricultural machine farm roads automatic navigation method according to claim 3, wherein the calibration pixel distance is 0. 01389inch / pixel.
  5. 5. 一种农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置,其特征在于,在在作业车所行使的道路的同一侧设定2个有色标识,在待定位的作业车上设有用于拍摄全方位图像的全方位视觉传感器,在作业车上还设有微处理器,微处理器中包含有1)用于从全方位图像中获取投影中心到2个有色标识的距离rl和r2、以及根据全方位图像获得2个有色标识与全方位视觉传感器形成的方位角度θ 1的图像处理单元和2~)用于根据权利要求2的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位方法最终求出定位坐标的定位坐标计算单元。 A farm roads agricultural machines, automatic navigation positioning apparatus, wherein, setting two colored identification on the same side in the work vehicle exercised road provided for photographing the omnidirectional image to be positioned in the vehicle operation the omnidirectional vision sensor, the working vehicle also has a microprocessor that contains 1) from the center for obtaining a projection image to the full distance of two colored identification rl and r2, and according to the full image obtaining two colored identification omnidirectional vision sensor and an angle formed by the orientation of the image processing unit and θ 1 ~ 2) for computing the field of agricultural machinery automatic road navigation method to obtain the final positioning of the coordinate positioning coordinates claim unit.
  6. 6.根据权利要求5所述的农业机械的田间道路自动导航定位装置,其特征在于,所述的全方位视觉传感器采用双曲面透镜。 Farm roads agricultural machinery automatic navigation apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said omnidirectional vision sensor uses a hyperboloid lens.
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