CN102158101B - 一种基于igbt的h桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器 - Google Patents

一种基于igbt的h桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器 Download PDF

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CN102158101B
CN102158101B CN2011100624209A CN201110062420A CN102158101B CN 102158101 B CN102158101 B CN 102158101B CN 2011100624209 A CN2011100624209 A CN 2011100624209A CN 201110062420 A CN201110062420 A CN 201110062420A CN 102158101 B CN102158101 B CN 102158101B
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generator
igbt
voltage
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bridge
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CN102158101A (zh
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王�锋
徐颖
王晗
何银萍
于淼
孙福祥
张盛开
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Rongxin Huike Electric Co.,Ltd.
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/483Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels
    • H02M7/49Combination of the output voltage waveforms of a plurality of converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/18Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks
    • H02J3/1807Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using series compensators
    • H02J3/1814Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using series compensators wherein al least one reactive element is actively controlled by a bridge converter, e.g. unified power flow controllers [UPFC]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2300/00Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation
    • H02J2300/20The dispersed energy generation being of renewable origin
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2300/00Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation
    • H02J2300/20The dispersed energy generation being of renewable origin
    • H02J2300/22The renewable source being solar energy
    • H02J2300/24The renewable source being solar energy of photovoltaic origin
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2300/00Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation
    • H02J2300/20The dispersed energy generation being of renewable origin
    • H02J2300/28The renewable source being wind energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2300/00Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation
    • H02J2300/40Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation wherein a plurality of decentralised, dispersed or local energy generation technologies are operated simultaneously
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/386Wind energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/10Flexible AC transmission systems [FACTS]

Abstract

本发明涉及一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,该装置为能量回馈型四象限变流器,可实现能量的双向流动;其输入端与电网相连接,输出端与被测系统相连接;所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器由多个低压H桥变频功率单元串联叠加构成一相,三相Y连接,与被测的风力发电系统或光伏发电系统连接。所述的H桥变频功率单元整流侧为IGBT可控器件三相可控全桥,经整流后给滤波电容充电;输出侧由逆变的四个IGBT可控器件组成。本装置不仅可输出满足《风电场接入电力系统技术规定》中规定的电网电压跌落波形,并且可以任意设定其它的跌落深度与时间,装置自身损耗小,可以进行潮流与无功的研究分析。

Description

—种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及电力电子行业中基于IGBT的H桥功率单元串联多电平电压跌落发生器(VSG)。
背景技术
[0002] 通常情况下,当电网出现故障导致电压较大波动时,风力发电系统便会自动脱网,而随着风电装机容量的增加,这种应对电压波动的方法对电网的影响已经不能忽略。目前,风力发电占主导地位的一些国家,如丹麦、德国等国相继制定了新的电网运行准则,要求风电系统具有低电压穿越能力LVRT (Low Voltage Ride-Through),只有当电网电压跌落到一定程度后才允许风力机脱网。我国于2009年颁布的《风电场接入电力系统技术规定》中规定对于风电装机容量占其电源总容量比例大于5%的省(区域)级电网,该电网区域内运行的风力发电机组应具有低电压穿越能力。
[0003] 为了测试风力发电机组的低电压穿越能力,风力发电机试验系统就需要能模拟电网电压跌落的装置,即电压跌落发生器(VSG)。国内外现有(VSG)主要有阻抗形式与变压器形式,但这两种形式电压跌落发生器(VSG)产生的电压跌落深度和频率波动不能灵活控制控制,并且能量损耗较大,不易进行潮流与无功的研究分析。因此理想的VSG应能设定故障类型与电压跌落深度、时间,不仅能检测被测系统的低电压穿越能力,并且可以进行潮流与无功的研究分析。
发明内容
[0004] 为解决现有技术的问题,本发明的目的是提供一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器(VSG),该装置不仅可输出满足《风电场接入电力系统技术规定》中规定的电网电压跌落波形,并且可以任意设定其它的跌落深度与时间,装置自身损耗小,可以进行潮流与无功的研究分析;并且为整体可移动式结构。
[0005] 为实现上述目的,本发明通过以下技术方案实现:
[0006] 一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,该装置为能量回馈型四象限变流器,可实现能量的双向流动;其输入端与电网交流母线相连接,输出端与被测系统相连接;该装置输入端由电网交流母线经过馈电开关QFl供电,馈电开关QFl与馈电开关QF2实现互锁,不能同时闭合;馈电开关QF2接于电网交流母线与装置输出端之间,在检测系统低电压穿越能力时,该装置将被测系统的发电能量回馈到交流母线。
[0007] 所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器由多个低压H桥变频功率单元串联叠加构成一相,三相Y连接构成。
[0008] 所述的H桥变频功率单元整流侧为IGBT可控器件三相可控全桥,经整流后给滤波电容充电;输出侧由逆变的四个IGBT可控器件组成。
[0009] 该装置还包括输入电抗器、输入断路器、输入移相变压器、输出变压器、输出断路器、输出电抗器,电网交流母线与能量回馈型四象限变流器之间依次接有输入电抗器、输入断路器、输入移相变压器;能量回馈型四象限变流器与被测系统之间依次接有输出变压器、输出断路器、输出电抗器。
[0010] 所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器、输出电抗器及输入电抗器、输入移相变压器、输出变压器及输出断路器分别装于四个集装箱中,为可移动式结构。
[0011] 该装置的输出电压由控制器输出的调制信号决定,采用三角载波和正弦调制信号波相交获得的PWM波形直接控制各个IGBT可以得到脉冲宽度和各脉冲间的占空比可变的呈正弦变化的输出脉冲电压,能获得理想的控制效果:输出电流近似正弦,各个功率单元输出的波形串联叠加产生所需的电压波形。根据所需的电压跌落波形设定调制波信号,即可得到符合检测要求的电压跌落曲线。
[0012] 与现有技术相比,本发明的新颖性和创造性体现在以下几个方面:
[0013] 1、可以模拟各种电网故障,如单相对地故障、两相对地故障、相间故障、三相故障;
[0014] 2、跌落深度、相位、时间可设定,这是传统的阻抗形式与变压器形式VSG无法完美实现的功能,阻抗形式与变压器形式VSG的电压跌落曲线不平滑,容易出现电压与电流的尖峰,本发明的VSG产生的电压跌落曲线平滑无拐点,电压恢复快,最低跌落深度可达15%,优于国家要求的20% ;
[0015] 3、频率变化可设定,可设定偏离百分比(-5%〜+5% ),模拟电网频率闪变。
[0016] 4、提供了足够的VSG容量,电压跌落到额定电压的20%时,风力发电系统产生的过电流约为额定电流的3倍以上,传统的阻抗形式VSG容易出现因容量选择不当而损坏VSG的情况,本发明的VSG的容量选为被测风力发电系统的4倍,提供了足够的短路容量。
[0017] 5、提高了系统的效率,传统的阻抗形式VSG的能量损耗较大,不利进行潮流与无功的研究分析,本发明的VSG的整体效率在96%以上,利于进行潮流与无功的研究分析。
[0018] 6、提高了系统的功率因数,电压跌落到额定电压的20%时,风力发电系统将失去无功调节能力,此时整个发电系统的功率因数很低,对电网产生较大的影响,本发明的VSG可以使电网侧的功率因数稳定在0.95左右,在进行低电压穿越检测时不会对电网产生冲击。
[0019] 7、VSG设备将风力发电机组发电能量回馈到电网母线,实现“背靠背”对拖试验的微能耗。
附图说明
[0020] 图1是本发明装置与被测系统连接的整体系统图;
[0021] 图2是本发明装置与被测系统的具体连接结构图;
[0022] 图3是波形串联叠加原理图;
[0023] 图4是多个变频功率单元串联叠加示意图;
[0024] 图5是能量回馈型四象限变流器的拓扑结构图;
[0025] 图6是H桥变频功率单元的结构图。
具体实施方式
[0026] 见图1,被试的风力发电系统是双馈风力发电系统与光伏发电系统,本装置基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器VSG也可以用于永磁直驱风力发电系统。VSG装置由交流母线经过馈电开关QFl供电,QFl与QF2实现互锁,不能同时闭合;在检测系统低电压穿越能力时,VSG将被测系统的发电能量回馈到交流母线,实现“背靠背”对拖试验的微能耗。
[0027] 见图2,该装置由输入电抗器L1、输入断路器K1、输入移相变压器Tl、能量回馈型四象限变流器1、输出变压器T2、输出断路器K2、输出电抗器L2构成,电网交流母线与能量回馈型四象限变流器I之间依次接有输入电抗器L1、输入断路器K1、输入移相变压器Tl ;能量回馈型四象限变流器I与被测系统之间依次接有输出变压器T2、输出断路器K2、输出电抗器L2。
[0028] 所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器1、输出电抗器L2及输入电抗器L1、输入移相变压器Tl、输出变压器T2及输出断路器K2分别装于四个集装箱中,为可移动式结构。便于运输、安装。
[0029] 见图4、图5,所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器由多个低压H桥变频功率单元串联叠加构成一相,三相Y连接构成。由电网送来的三相交流电经过移相变压器供给每相N个IGBT变频功率单元,每相上的N个功率单元输出的PWM波相叠后,采用Y形连接,将形成线电压为690*V^*#V的高质量的正弦波输出,供给被测的风力发电系统或光伏发电系统。
[0030] 见图6,所述的H桥变频功率单元整流侧为IGBT可控器件三相可控全桥,经整流后给滤波电容充电;输出侧由逆变的四个IGBT可控器件组成。
[0031] 见图3,同一相的不同单元的调制波信号相同,载波信号相差一个相位,三角载波和正弦调制信号波相交获得的PWM波形直接控制各个IGBT可以得到脉冲宽度和各脉冲间的占空比可变的呈正弦变化的输出脉冲电压,各个功率单元输出的波形串联叠加产生所需的电压波形。根据所需的电压跌落波形设定 调制波信号,即可得到符合检测要求的电压跌落曲线。
[0032] 见图5,H桥变频功率单元输入侧设有熔断器、整流侧IGBT模块、电容器和输出侧逆变侧IGBT模块,以及变频单元控制和驱动电路。每个单元主接线有5个端子:其中3个为输入,即R、S、T,与电抗器相连,接受变压器次级输出三相交流电。另2个端子为调制后的输出,即U、V。
[0033] 功率单元的整流侧为可控整流方式,这种方式可使从发电机侧的过能量回送到电网。变频功率单元为基本的交-直-交三相整流/单相逆变电路,整流侧为IGBT三相全桥,经整流后给滤波电容充电;输出侧由逆变的IGBT相互串接组成,与被测系统连接。
[0034] 移相变压器的副边绕组分为多组,二级线圈互相存在一个相位差,根据电压等级和变频功率单元级数,一般由几十个脉冲系列构成多级移相叠加的整流方式。
[0035] 控制器由高速DSP、工控PC、和PLC共同组成,控制器与变频功率单元之间采用光纤通讯技术,低压部分和高压部分完全可靠隔离。

Claims (5)

1.一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,其特征在于,所述的多电平电压跌落发生器包括能量回馈型四象限变流器,可实现能量的双向流动;该发生器输入端与电网交流母线相连接,输出端与被测系统相连接;所述的多电平电压跌落发生器的输入端由电网交流母线经过馈电开关QFl供电,馈电开关QFl与馈电开关QF2实现互锁,不能同时闭合;馈电开关QF2接于电网交流母线与输出端之间,在检测被测系统低电压穿越能力时,多电平电压跌落发生器将被测系统的发电能量回馈到电网交流母线。
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,其特征在于,所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器由多个低压H桥变频功率单元串联叠加构成一相,三相Y连接构成。
3.根据权利要求2所述的一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,其特征在于,所述的H桥变频功率单元整流侧为IGBT可控器件三相可控全桥,经整流后给滤波电容充电;输出侧由逆变的四个IGBT可控器件组成。
4.根据权利要求1或2所述的一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,其特征在于,所述的多电平电压跌落发生器还包括输入电抗器、输入断路器、输入移相变压器、输出变压器、输出断路器、输出电抗器,电网交流母线与能量回馈型四象限变流器之间依次接有输入电抗器、输入断路器、输入移相变压器;能量回馈型四象限变流器与被测系统之间依次接有输出变压器、输出断路器、输出电抗器。
5.根据权利要求4所述的一种基于IGBT的H桥串联多电平电压跌落发生器,其特征在于,所述的能量回馈型四象限变流器、输出电抗器及输入电抗器、输入移相变压器、输出变压器及输出断路器分别装于四个集装箱中,为可移动式结构。
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