CN102023003A - Unmanned helicopter three-dimensional positioning and mapping method based on laser detection and image recognition - Google Patents

Unmanned helicopter three-dimensional positioning and mapping method based on laser detection and image recognition Download PDF

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CN102023003A
CN102023003A CN 201010297558 CN201010297558A CN102023003A CN 102023003 A CN102023003 A CN 102023003A CN 201010297558 CN201010297558 CN 201010297558 CN 201010297558 A CN201010297558 A CN 201010297558A CN 102023003 A CN102023003 A CN 102023003A
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unmanned
helicopter
distance
measurement
sensor
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CN 201010297558
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朱纪洪
王冠林
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清华大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to an unmanned helicopter three-dimensional positioning and mapping method based on laser detection and image recognition, which belongs to the technical field of application of unmanned aerial vehicles. A distance measurement sensor based on laser detection and image recognition, an altimetric sensor and a flight control computer are comprised, wherein the distance measurement sensor consists of a vehicle-mounted camera and a laser emitter and used for detecting the distance from the unmanned helicopter to obstacles around. The distance measurement sensor is used for detecting and measuring distance for the around environment of the unmanned helicopter by means of changing the angle of pitch and the angle of yaw. The altimetric sensor is used for measuring the flight altitude from the unmanned helicopter to the ground. The distance measurement data obtained from the measurement under different angles of altitude, angles of yaw and flight altitudes can realize three-dimensional synchronous positioning and mapping of unknown environment by the unmanned helicopter. In the invention, the around environment can be rapidly, simply and reliably detected during the flying by carrying the distance measurement sensor based on laser detection and image recognition on the unmanned helicopter.

Description

基于激光探测和图像识别的无人直升机三维定位及测绘方法 Unmanned helicopter based on the three-dimensional positioning of the laser probe and method of image recognition and mapping

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明是用于无人直升机在复杂未知环境中进行定位和探测的方法,能够高精度地实现无人直升机在复杂未知环境中的三维同步定位及测绘。 [0001] The present invention is a method for detecting and locating unmanned helicopter in a complex unknown environment, it can be realized with high accuracy in a complex three-dimensional unmanned helicopter unknown environment simultaneous localization and mapping. 主要应用在航空航天、 无人机和机器人等技术领域。 The main application in the field of aerospace technology, unmanned aerial vehicles and robots.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在复杂未知环境中的三维同步定位及测绘是无人直升机重要的智能功能之一, 主要目的在未知环境中完成定位、探测和地图绘制,并辅助无人直升机进行高度自主化的飞行。 [0002] In the three-dimensional complex unknown environment simultaneous localization and mapping is one important unmanned helicopter intelligent functions, the main purpose of the completion of the positioning, detection and mapping in an unknown environment, and assist highly autonomous unmanned helicopter of flight . 传统的三维同步定位及测绘飞行多在地形探测雷达的辅助下完成。 The traditional three-dimensional simultaneous localization and mapping is the flight is completed with the aid of terrain detection radar. 由于地形探测雷达重量大,小型无人直升机难以装备。 Due to heavy terrain detection radar, small unmanned helicopter equipment difficult. 因此,无人直升机通常采用激光雷达。 Therefore, usually unmanned helicopter laser radar. 然而,激光雷达只能获得二维定位和测绘数据。 However, the laser radar can only get a two-dimensional positioning and mapping data. 如果需要进行三维定位和探测,则无人直升机必须改变飞行高度,以完成不同高度下的定位和探测。 If you need to perform three-dimensional positioning and detection, it must change altitude unmanned helicopter to complete the positioning and detection at different heights. 对于无人直升机在未知环境中的飞行,改变飞行高度可能会造成与障碍物的碰撞。 For unmanned helicopter in an unknown environment, changes in altitude could cause a collision with the obstacle. 此外,激光雷达价格昂贵、重量较大,并非无人直升机的最佳选择。 Further, the laser radar is expensive, heavy weight, the best choice is not unmanned helicopter.

[0003] 由于普通的无人直升机通常都具有机载摄像机、高度传感器和飞行控制计算机。 [0003] Since the conventional unmanned helicopter usually have onboard camera, height sensor and flight control computer. 本发明在上述设备的基础上,通过添加一个激光发射器,使激光发射器、机载摄像机组成一个基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器。 The present invention on the basis of the above apparatus, by adding a laser transmitter, a laser emitter, onboard camera, and detecting the formation of a laser distance measuring sensor based on the image recognition. 随后,在高度传感器和飞行控制计算机的配合下,通过使机载摄像机和激光发射器在俯仰方向和偏航方向进行同步偏转, 可以实时探测并得到无人直升机与周围障碍物之间的距离和距地高度。 Subsequently, in conformity with the height sensor and a flight control computer, by airborne laser emitter and the camera sync deflected in the pitch direction and yaw direction, it can be detected in real time and to give a distance between the obstacle and the surrounding unmanned helicopter height from the ground. 根据探测距离、 探测角度和飞行高度,可以得到无人直升机距周围环境的距离及探测角度的数据库,从而得到无人直升机周围未知环境的三维数字地图,进而实现三维同步定位及测绘。 According to the detection distance, detection angle and altitude, unmanned helicopter can get away from the surrounding environment and the detection angle of the database, resulting in three-dimensional digital map of the unknown environment around unmanned helicopter, so as to realize three-dimensional simultaneous localization and mapping. 与传统的地形探测雷达(IOOKg级)相比,本发明的重量要轻得多(50g级),可以被无人直升机,尤其是小型无人直升机所携带;与激光雷达相比,本发明无需改变无人直升机的飞行高度,只需改变激光发射器的俯仰角和偏航角即可实现三维同步定位和探测,这样可以大大增加无人直升机的飞行安全性。 Compared (IOOKg level) topography with conventional radars, the weight of the present invention is much lighter (50g level), may be carried by helicopter, especially small unmanned helicopter; compared with the laser radar, the present invention does not require change flight altitude unmanned helicopter, simply by changing the laser transmitter pitch and yaw angles can be realized three-dimensional simultaneous localization and detection, which can greatly increase the safety of the flight unmanned helicopter. 此外,本发明充分利用了无人直升机原有的机载设备,只需增加一个激光发射器即可。 Further, the present invention makes full use of the existing unmanned helicopter airborne equipment, only one laser transmitter can be increased. 因此,本发明具有结构简单、造价低廉、改装容易的优点,而且不添加复杂昂贵的硬件,以软件升级为主,对无人直升机增重极少,并可用于辅助无人直升机进行高度自主化的飞行。 Accordingly, the present invention has a simple structure, low cost, easy to retrofit an advantage, without adding complicated and expensive hardware, in a software upgrade based on the unmanned helicopter little weight gain, and may be used to assist unmanned helicopter height autonomy flight.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明的目的在于提供一种使无人直升机在复杂未知环境中实现高精度三维同步定位及测绘的方法。 [0004] The object of the present invention is to provide an unmanned helicopter method of simultaneous localization and mapping three-dimensional precision is achieved in complex unknown environments.

[0005] 本发明的特征在于,含有:基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器、高度传感器和飞行控制计算机,其中,基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器由机载摄像机和激光发射器组成,用于探测无人直升机与周围障碍物之间的距离D,高度传感器用于测量无人直升机的飞行高度H,其中: [0005] The features of the present invention is characterized by comprising: image recognition based on light detection and ranging sensor, a height sensor and a flight control computer, wherein the laser-based image recognition and detection by the ranging sensor onboard camera and the laser emitter composition , for detecting the distance D between the obstacle and the surrounding unmanned helicopter, unmanned helicopter height sensor for measuring the flying height H, wherein:

[0006] 通过改变激光发射器的俯仰角θ的航向角Ψ,激光发射器利用其发射的激光对无人直升机的周围环境进行扫描探测;当激光照射到周围的障碍物时,会在其上产生激光光点;机载摄像机拍摄到激光光点,并将视频发送给飞行控制计算机;飞行控制计算机根据该视频中光点的位置,即可计算出无人直升机距周围障碍物的距离D;飞行控制计算机通过高度传感器,可以获知无人直升机距地面的飞行高度H;根据激光发射器在各个俯仰角©、航向角Ψ和飞行高度H条件下测量得到的距障碍物距离D,可以得到无人直升机周围未知环境的三维数字地图,从而实现三维同步定位及测绘;而无人直升机机身对激光发射器所发射的激光造成的遮挡,可以通过无人直升机的偏航飞行来解决。 [0006] By changing the heading angle Ψ laser emitter pitch angle θ, the use of a laser emitter that emits a laser light to the surrounding environment unmanned helicopter scanning probe; When the laser is irradiated to an obstacle around the time, which will be on the generating a laser spot; onboard cameras to the laser spot, and transmits the video to the flight control computer; flight control computer according to the position of the light spot in the video, it can be calculated unmanned helicopter distance D from the surrounding obstacles; flight control computer by height sensor may be learned unmanned helicopter height H from the ground; the laser emitter at each © pitch, heading angle Ψ and flight conditions measured height H obstacle distance D, can be obtained without three-dimensional digital map of the unknown environment around them helicopters, in order to achieve a three-dimensional simultaneous localization and mapping; and block the unmanned helicopter fuselage laser laser emitted by the transmitter caused, can be solved by the yaw flight unmanned helicopter.

[0007] 本发明的优点在于:结构简单、造价低廉、改装容易的优点,而且不添加复杂昂贵的硬件,以软件升级为主,对无人直升机增重极少,并可用于辅助无人直升机进行高度自主化的飞行。 [0007] The advantage of the present invention is that: the structure is simple, low cost, the advantages of easy retrofit and without addition of complex and expensive hardware, in a software upgrade based on the unmanned helicopter little weight gain, and may be used to assist Helicopter a high degree of autonomy of the flight. 与传统的地形探测雷达(IOOKg级)相比,本发明的重量要轻得多(50g级),可以被无人直升机所携带;与激光雷达相比,本发明无需改变无人直升机的飞行高度,只需改变激光发射器的俯仰角和偏航角即可实现三维同步定位和探测,这样可以大大增加无人直升机的飞行安全性。 Compared (IOOKg level) topography with conventional radars, the present invention is much weight (50g level) light, can be carried unmanned helicopter; compared with the laser radar, according to the present invention without changing the unmanned helicopter flight altitude just change the laser transmitter pitch and yaw angles can be realized three-dimensional simultaneous localization and detection, which can greatly increase the safety of the flight unmanned helicopter. 此外,本发明充分利用了无人直升机原有的机载设备,只需增加一个激光发射器即可。 Further, the present invention makes full use of the existing unmanned helicopter airborne equipment, only one laser transmitter can be increased.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0008] 图1是基于激光探测和图像识别的无人直升机三维定位及测绘方法的原理图(侧视图)。 [0008] FIG. 1 is based on the principle diagram (side view) of a three-dimensional positioning and mapping method of an unmanned helicopter laser detection and image recognition.

[0009] 图2是基于激光探测和图像识别的无人直升机三维定位及测绘方法的原理图(俯视图)。 [0009] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of three-dimensional positioning based mapping methods and unmanned helicopter laser detection and image recognition (top view).

[0010] 在图1和图2中,1.无人直升机,2.飞行控制计算机,3.基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器,4.机载摄像机,5.激光发射器,6.激光,7.激光照射在目标上的激光光点,8.高度传感器。 [0010] In FIG 1 and FIG 2, 1 helicopter, 2 flight control computer 3 based on the detection laser distance measuring sensor and image recognition, 4. Onboard camera, 5 laser emitter, 6. laser, 7. laser irradiation laser spot on the target, 8. height sensor.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0011] 基于激光探测和图像识别的无人直升机三维定位及测绘方法需要有基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器(3)、高度传感器(8)和飞行控制计算机(2)三者协同完成。 [0011] Helicopter mapping three-dimensional positioning and laser detection method based on image recognition and requires a laser-based image recognition detecting and ranging sensor (3), the height sensor (8) and a flight control computer (2) three collaboratively . 其中,基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器(3)用于探测无人直升机(1)与周围障碍物之间的距离D,高度传感器(8)用于测量无人直升机(1)的飞行高度H,飞行控制计算机(2)用于计算传感器数据,并完成无人直升机(1)在复杂未知环境中的三维定位及测绘。 Wherein the flight, image recognition based on light detection and ranging sensor (3) for detecting unmanned helicopter (1) and the distance D between the surrounding obstacles, the height sensor (8) for measuring the unmanned helicopter (1) height H, the flight control computer (2) for computing sensor data, and complete unmanned helicopter (1) in a complex three-dimensional positioning and unknown environment mapping.

[0012] 基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器(3)由机载摄像机⑷和激光发射器(5) 组成。 [0012] The image recognition based on light detection and ranging sensor (3) and by an onboard camera ⑷ laser emitter (5) components. 机载摄像机(4)和激光发射器(5)整体同步偏转,并将所拍摄到的视频实时传送给飞行控制计算机(2)。 Airborne camera (4) and the laser emitter (5) overall deflection synchronization, and real-time video captured transmitted to the flight control computer (2). 根据激光光点(7)在视频中的位置,飞行控制计算机(2)可以计算得出无人直升机(1)与周围障碍物之间的距离D。 (7) a position in the video, the flight control computer (2) may calculate a distance between stars unmanned helicopter (1) and the obstacle around the laser spot according to D.

[0013] 通过改变激光发射器(5)的俯仰角θ的航向角Ψ,激光发射器(5)利用其发射的激光(6),对无人直升机(1)周围的环境进行扫描。 [0013] By changing the angle [Psi] of the laser emitter (5) heading pitch angle θ, the laser emitter (5) using a laser (6) which emitted unmanned helicopter (1) to scan the surrounding environment. 当激光(6)照射到周围障碍物时, 会在其表面产生激光光点(7)。 When (6) around an obstacle to laser irradiation, will produce a laser spot (7) on its surface. 机载摄像机(4)拍摄到激光光点(7),并将视频发送给飞行控制计算机(2)。 Airborne camera (4) to the imaging laser spot (7), and transmits the video to the flight control computer (2). 飞行控制计算机(2)根据该视频中激光光点(7)在摄像机平面中的位置,即可计算出无人直升机(1)距周围障碍物的距离D。 Flight control computer (2) based on the position of the laser spot video (7) in the camera plane can be calculated from the surrounding unmanned helicopter (1) from the obstacle D. 飞行控制计算机(2)通过高度传感器(8),可以获知无人直升机(1)距地面的飞行高度H。 Flight control computer (2) by a level sensor (8), may be learned unmanned helicopter (1) from the ground altitude H.

[0014] 不可避免地,无人直升机(1)的机身会对激光发射器(5)所发射的激光(6)造成一定遮挡,这可以通过无人直升机(1)的偏航飞行来解决。 [0014] Inevitably, unmanned helicopter (1) have a laser emitter body (5) emitted laser light (6) cause some blocking, which may be solved by unmanned helicopter (1) yaw flight .

[0015] 根据激光发射器(5)在各个俯仰角©、航向角Ψ和无人直升机(1)飞行高度H 条件下,测量得到的距障碍物距离D,可以得到无人直升机⑴距周围环境的距离及探测角度的数据库。 [0015] The laser emitter (5) at each pitch angle ©, and heading angle Ψ unmanned helicopter (1) conditions flying height H, measured obstacle distance D, can be obtained from the surroundings unmanned helicopter ⑴ the distance and angle of detection database. 从而可以得到无人直升机(1)周围未知环境的三维数字地图(球坐标), 进而实现无人直升机(1)在未知环境中的三维同步定位及测绘。 Can be obtained unmanned helicopter (1) three-dimensional digital map of the surrounding environment unknown (spherical coordinates), so as to realize unmanned helicopter (1) in an unknown three-dimensional positioning and synchronization environment mapping.

Claims (1)

  1. 1.基于激光探测和图像识别的无人直升机三维定位及测绘方法,其特征在于,含有:基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器、高度传感器和飞行控制计算机,其中, 基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器由机载摄像机和激光发射器组成,用于探测无人直升机与周围障碍物之间的距离D,高度传感器用于测量无人直升机的飞行高度H,其中:机载摄像机和激光发射器之间的相对位置固定,并可以整体同步转动;基于激光探测和图像识别的测距传感器通过绕俯仰轴和航向轴的转动,可以改变激光发射器的俯仰角©的航向角Ψ ;通过改变激光发射器的俯仰角©的航向角Ψ,激光发射器利用其发射的激光对无人直升机的周围环境进行扫描探测;当激光照射到周围的障碍物时,会在其表面产生激光光点;机载摄像机拍摄到激光光点,并将视频发送给飞行控制计算 1. Helicopter mapping and three-dimensional positioning and laser detection method based on image recognition, characterized by comprising: image recognition based on light detection and ranging sensor, a height sensor and a flight control computer, wherein the laser-based image recognition and detection the ranging sensor by an onboard camera and the laser emitter composition, a distance D between the probe and the surrounding obstacles unmanned helicopter, unmanned helicopter height sensor for measuring the flying height H, wherein: the onboard camera and laser the relative position between the transmitter is fixed, and rotatable integrally synchronization; by rotating about the course axis and the pitch axis, the pitch angle can be varied © laser emitter based on the heading angle Ψ light detection and ranging sensor image recognition; by change the pitch angle of the laser emitter © heading angle [Psi], using a laser emitter which emits laser light to the surrounding environment unmanned helicopter scanning probe; when a laser is irradiated to the surrounding obstacles, the laser spot is generated on the surface thereof ; onboard cameras to the laser spot, and transmits the video to the flight control calculation ; 飞行控制计算机根据该视频中光点的位置,即可计算出无人直升机距该障碍物的距离D;飞行控制计算机通过高度传感器,可以获知无人直升机距地面的飞行高度H;根据激光发射器在各个俯仰角©、航向角Ψ和无人直升机飞行高度H条件下测量得到的距障碍物距离D,可以得到无人直升机距周围环境的距离及探测角度的数据库,从而得到无人直升机周围未知环境的三维数字地图,进而实现无人直升机在未知环境中的三维同步定位及测绘;而无人直升机机身对激光发射器所发射的激光造成的遮挡,可以通过无人直升机的偏航飞行来解决。 ; Flight control computer according to the position of the light spot in the video, it can be calculated from the unmanned helicopter distance D of the obstacle; flight control computer by height sensor may be learned from the ground unmanned helicopter flying height H; emitting laser © in each pitch, and heading angle Ψ unmanned helicopter obstacle distance D measured under conditions of a height H can be obtained from the unmanned helicopter distance and the detection angle of the surrounding environment database to get around helicopter three-dimensional digital map of the unknown environment, so as to realize the three-dimensional unmanned helicopter unknown environment simultaneous localization and mapping; and block laser unmanned helicopter body of emitted laser emitters caused by flying the unmanned helicopter yaw to resolve.
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CN103968810A (en) * 2014-05-06 2014-08-06 天津全华时代航天科技发展有限公司 Precise surveying and mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles and data acquisition method of precise surveying and mapping system
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