CN102012217B - Method for measuring three-dimensional geometrical outline of large-size appearance object based on binocular vision - Google Patents

Method for measuring three-dimensional geometrical outline of large-size appearance object based on binocular vision Download PDF

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CN102012217B
CN102012217B CN2010105115022A CN201010511502A CN102012217B CN 102012217 B CN102012217 B CN 102012217B CN 2010105115022 A CN2010105115022 A CN 2010105115022A CN 201010511502 A CN201010511502 A CN 201010511502A CN 102012217 B CN102012217 B CN 102012217B
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plane
laser
delineation
rail
polar curve
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CN2010105115022A
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CN102012217A (en
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王顺
张旭苹
汪家其
张益昕
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南京大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for measuring the three-dimensional geometrical outline of a large-size appearance object based on binocular vision. The method comprises the following steps of: realizing a non-contact measurement of the three-dimensional appearance of an on-rail object by using a structure light measurement-based computer vision method; irradiating the on-rail object by using a line laser controlled by a computer; simultaneously performing differential shooting on laser images projected on the on-rail object by using a left binocular camera and a right binocular camera; performing three-dimensional matching calculation on laser light bar images imaged by the binocular cameras by using a computer to obtain three-dimensional space coordinates of all points on the on-rail object on the laser light bar imaged by the binocular cameras; rotating the angle of the laser to ensure that the laser light bar can cover all measured surfaces after an interval while scanning or measuring a moving object, and repeating the operations to obtain three-dimensional space models and parameters of the whole measured surfaces. By comparing the three-dimensional appearance of the on-rail object with vertical surface coordinates in a rail, the computer can automatically perform size judgment and overrun judgment, and can realize the measurement of the three-dimensional appearance of the exterior surface of the object.

Description

A kind of big pattern object dimensional geometric shape measuring method based on binocular vision

Technical field

The present invention is a kind of based on the three-dimensional structure optical measurement techniques, and is contactless especially fast in the rail object detection method that transfinites, and belongs to the computer vision measurement technical field.

Background technology

In recent years, domestic railway repeatedly raises speed, the particularly operation of EMU, and the travel speed of train is more and more faster, and this also has higher requirement to the safety of railway.When train when particularly goods train surpasses the space constraint of cruising, promptly being called transfinites, and might cause serious security incident this moment.The measurement of therefore, railway freight train etc. being transfinited at the rail object is extremely important.

Structural light measurement is a kind of contactless measuring three-dimensional morphology technology, can be applied in transfiniting of rail object detected.What three-dimensional structure photo measure method was in the past used is that monocular-camera adds the method that the laser striation extracts; But this method is not suitable under the outdoor situation that has strong natural light to disturb, using; Simultaneously monocular is measured because the turntable mechanical precision is required than higher, also is easy to generate than mistake when measuring big pattern object.In order under outdoor rugged surroundings, accurately to measure the appearance size of big pattern objects such as train, require lower binocular vision to measure the distinctive advantage of just having given play to mechanical precision.

Inventive problem

The objective of the invention is: the big pattern object dimensional geometric shape measuring method based on binocular vision is provided, especially a kind of in the non-contacting measuring method that transfinites of rail object, be used for measuring automatically appearance size at the rail object.

Technical scheme of the present invention is: based on the big pattern object dimensional geometric shape measuring method of binocular vision; Promptly in the binocular of the rail object measuring method that transfinites; Use realizes that based on the computer vision methods of structural light measurement detailed process is following to the non-contact measurement at rail object dimensional pattern:

Utilize computer-controlled laser illumination on the rail object, the laser image (can be optical strip image or dot pattern picture that vertical laser line generator produces) that is projected on the rail object is carried out the difference shooting simultaneously with left and right sides binocular camera; Through computing machine the laser optical strip image of binocular camera imaging is carried out three-dimensional coupling and calculate, obtain the three dimensional space coordinate of all points on the rail object on this laser striation that binocular camera forms images;

Rotate the laser instrument angle and the laser striation can be scanned or cover all tested surfaces when measuring moving object through an interval time, and repeat aforesaid operations, thereby obtain the three-dimensional space model and the parameter of whole tested surface; At rail object dimensional pattern and track middle vertical plane coordinate, computing machine can be made size automatically and judge and the judgement of transfiniting through contrast;

The computer control laser line generator produces laser radiation on the object tested surface, gathers an image that has the tested surface of laser striation respectively with two cameras; Computer controlled laser is closed irradiation, gathers an image that does not have the tested surface of laser striation respectively with two cameras again, and the picture that each video camera obtains is done difference respectively, obtains the laser optical strip image.

The pixel coordinate of coupling gained is a sub-pixel, I1 and I2 be about two video cameras look like the plane, C1 and C2 be respectively about the photocentre of two video cameras; P be in the space more arbitrarily, its picture point on left camera review plane is m1, the picture point on right camera plane is m2; According to outer polar curve geometrical constraint; Outer polar curve is the line of line intersection point of intersection point and the C1 and the C2 on P point and said I1 and I2 plane on I1 and the I2 plane; M2 should be positioned at m1 on the outer polar curve lm2 of the right plane of delineation; Same m1 should be positioned at m2 on the outer polar curve lm1 of the left plane of delineation, and they are corresponding point each other each other; By C1; C2, the planar I I that P confirms is outer pole-face, the intersection that the outer polar curve lm2 of m1 is the outer pole-face II and the right plane of delineation; The intersection that the outer polar curve lm1 of m2 is the outer pole-face II and the left plane of delineation; Outer limit e1, e2 are the line of C1 and C2 and the intersection point of the left and right sides plane of delineation, limit e2 outside the outer polar curve of any point in the right plane of delineation all will pass through in the left plane of delineation, and the point on the left plane of delineation still meets this relation; Promptly take up an official post and get 1 m1 at the laser striation of the left plane of delineation; 1 P that laser rays covered on its corresponding object; According to outer polar curve constraint can know the projection of a P in right figure necessarily appear at outside on the polar curve Lm2; And can try to achieve the equation of line Lm2, so just can the searching of two-dimentional match point be narrowed down in the one dimension scope; Simultaneously owing to some P also one fixes on the laser light bar in the projection on the right plane of delineation; So get in the right plane of delineation on the laser striation apart from straight line Lm2 nearest two pixel Dl, Dr; Obtain the straight-line equation L at these two pixel places; The intersection point m2 of straight line L and Lm2 is exactly the projection of a P on figure I2 so, and the coordinate of m2 has sub-pixel precision.

Through two influences that have the camera elimination environment parasitic light of optical filter, be adapted at environment and measure than under the condition of severe.

Use the binocular measuring method, can be under the situation less demanding to machining and installation accuracy to train, steamer etc. greatly the pattern object accurately measure.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention has adopted the structural light three-dimensional detection technique; And use the coordinate of difference method and sub-pixel to mate; Can be under outdoor rugged surroundings to carry out at the rail object fast, noncontact, the high-precision detection of transfiniting; Overcome the existing defective that transfinites and measure, greatly improved efficiency of measurement and measuring accuracy.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a monocular structural light measurement model.Among the figure, 1. being crossbeam, 2. is computing machine, 3. is video camera, 6. is the linear structural laser device, 5. is turntable, and angle α, β are respectively the angles between camera optical axis and laser rays and the crossbeam center line.The jig at crossbeam two ends can be with turntable center, camera focus and crossbeam center fixation point-blank.

Fig. 2 is a binocular structural light measurement model.Among the figure, 1. being crossbeam, 2. is computing machine, 3. is video camera 1,4. is video camera 2,5. is turntable, 6. is the linear structural laser device.The jig at crossbeam two ends and center is with the turntable center, and the focus of two cameras and crossbeam center fixation are point-blank.

Fig. 3 is outer polar curve coupling synoptic diagram.As shown in the figure, 1 P must be present in as the subpoint m1 on the plane, m2 on the plane that is made up of two video camera photocentres and some P at two video cameras in the space.

Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 are binocular coupling synoptic diagram, and Fig. 4 is left figure, and Fig. 5 is right figure, and m1 is a bit on the left figure laser striation, and lm2 is the outer polar curve of m1 point correspondence on right figure, and the intersection point m2 of outer polar curve and laser rays is the match point of m1 on right figure.

Fig. 6 is the coordinate coupling synoptic diagram (right figure) of sub-pixel, Dl and Dr be respectively on the laser striation apart from two nearest pixels of outer polar curve, L is the line at Dl and Dr center, putting m2 is the intersection point between L and the outer polar curve lm2, just the match point that will seek.

Embodiment

Monocular structural light measurement device in the past is as shown in Figure 1, and distance L ab and angle [alpha], β need accurately be known in the position of using triangulation c to order.But because machinery is installed and the restriction of control accuracy, motor rotation angle β also is not easy control, thereby has influenced measuring accuracy.In this case, binocular is measured the distinctive advantage that just embodies.The position and the attitude relative fixed of video camera in binocular is measured, so distance L ab can be considered steady state value, and angle [alpha], β can accurately obtain through image processing algorithm, thereby can accurately measure the appearance size of big pattern object.This measurement mechanism is made up of pedestal, high power line structure laser instrument, two camera, driving circuit and computing machines that optical filter is housed, and is as shown in Figure 2.The camera collection view data calculates object appearance size by computing machine according to the three dimensions matching relationship.

Binocular coupling in the three dimensions left and right sides is as shown in Figure 3, and I1 and I2 are the planes that looks like of two video cameras, C1 and C2 be respectively about the photocentre of two video cameras.P be in the space more arbitrarily, its picture point on left camera review plane is m1, the picture point on right camera plane is m2.According to outer polar curve (line of the line intersection point of the intersection point on P point and said I1 and I2 plane and C1 and C2 on I1 and the I2 plane) geometrical constraint; M2 should be positioned at m1 on the outer polar curve lm2 of the right plane of delineation; Same m1 should be positioned at m2 on the outer polar curve lm1 of the left plane of delineation, and they are corresponding point each other each other.By C1; C2; The planar I I that P confirms is outer pole-face; The intersection that the outer polar curve lm2 of m1 is the outer pole-face II and the right plane of delineation, the intersection that the outer polar curve lm1 of m2 is the outer pole-face II and the left plane of delineation, outer limit e1, e2 are the line of C1 and C2 and the intersection point of the left and right sides plane of delineation (also being the intersection point with outer polar curve lm1, lm2).Perspective relation based on binocular imaging can be known, limit e2 outside the outer polar curve of any point in the right plane of delineation all will pass through in the left plane of delineation, and the point on the left image still meets this relation.The concrete grammar of images match is following:

The homogeneous coordinates of definition space point P are [x, y, z, 1] T, and the homogeneous pixel coordinate of its corresponding point m on the picture plane is [u, v, 1], has

s · u v 1 = M · x y z 1 - - - ( 1 )

Here, s is a scale factor, and M is the perspective matrix, M=K [R T], and wherein K is video camera confidential reference items matrixes, R, T are respectively rotation matrix and translation vector.

Be without loss of generality, the camera coordinate system of video camera 1,2 is a world coordinate system, and R, T are respectively spatial alternation rotation matrix and the translation vector between video camera 1 and the video camera 2, s 1, s 2Be scale factor, m 1, m 2Be perspective matrix, k 1, k 2For video camera confidential reference items matrix, then have

s 2 · m 1 = K 2 · [ 10 ] X 1 - - - ( 2 )

s 2 · m 2 = K 2 · [ RT ] X 1 - - - ( 3 )

Can get by following formula cancellation s1, s2

m 2 T K 2 T [ T ] X RK 1 - 1 m 1 = 0 - - - ( 4 )

In the formula, [T] XBe antisymmetric matrix, by translation vector T (T xT yT zBe translational component) decision

[ T ] X = 0 - T y T z T y 0 - T x - T z T x 0 - - - ( 5 )

Order

F = K 2 - T [ T ] X RK 2 - 1 - - - ( 6 )

E=[T] XR (7)

Then have

m 2 - T K 2 - T EK 2 - 2 m 2 = 0 - - - ( 8 )

m 2 - T Fm 2 = 0 - - - ( 9 )

Formula (9) is the description of binocular vision China and foreign countries polar curve geometric relationship, wherein I M2=Fm 1Be corresponding m 1Polar curve, I M1=FT M2Be corresponding m 2Polar curve, matrix F is fundamental matrix (Fundamental matrix), it is relevant with the corresponding pose between camera intrinsic parameter, the video camera.Based on demarcating gained fundamental matrix F, the coordinate of corresponding points in two planes of delineation can be mated.

After obtaining the pixel of coupling, calculate, can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of the corresponding contour of object of this striation according to camera interior and exterior parameter.Through scanned laser, can realize measurement at rail external surface of objects three-dimensional appearance.Do contrast with the volume coordinate of track middle vertical plane again, computing machine just can be made the judgement of transfiniting automatically.

In experiment, we use laser line generator and the optical filter of center live width as 635nm, 1 meter of base length, and the measured point is 10 meters apart from the polar curve distance, can know that through calculating angle α, β are 87.14 degree, the value of F matrix does

F=-0.000000485008366 -0.000038768789204 0.007350632235932

-0.000045784962796 -0.000001147668094 -0.717662770440072

0.017100613104312 0.778959169714406 -32.324287848102870

Measuring process is following:

1) linear structural laser is shone the testee surface, obtain an image that comprises the laser striation respectively with two cameras;

2) close laser instrument, obtaining one respectively with two cameras does not again have the laser optical strip image;

3) two images that each camera obtained are done difference processing, can improve the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) of image.Because the interference of parasitic light in the external environment can be further eliminated in the effect of optical filter, improve the quality of image simultaneously.

4) utilize computing machine that two laser optical strip images are carried out matching operation, can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of the corresponding contour of object of this laser striation

5) rotate laser instrument angle, repeating step 1) to step 4), can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of the corresponding contour of object of another line laser striation.The continuous sweep laser instrument makes the laser striation can cover the tested surface of full object as far as possible.Line with these tested surfaces splices then, just can obtain the three-dimensional appearance size of object.The coordinate and the track middle vertical plane of tested surface are done contrast, can make judgement whether transfiniting at the rail object.

In the 3-D view matching operation of step 4), the method that is based on outer polar curve and line-structured light intersection point that this method is used obtains other intersecting point coordinate of sub-pixel, and concrete grammar is following:

For 1 m1 on the laser striation among Fig. 4, can obtain outer polar curve equation lm2 corresponding in Fig. 5 according to outer polar curve constraint condition, like Fig. 4, shown in 5, so just can the match point of two dimension be selected to narrow down in the one dimension scope.Simultaneously since some m1 on the laser striation, so also should be on the laser striation at the match point on the right figure, so just can be in the hope of arriving the coordinate of match point based on outer polar curve constraint and structured light constraint.In Fig. 6, search out nearest laser striation pixel Dl, the Dr of polar curve outside the distance, connect the straight line of Dl, Dr and the intersection point m2 of outer polar curve and be unique point m1 pairing unique point in right figure, and the coordinate of some m2 has sub-pixel precision.

Claims (1)

1. based on the big pattern object dimensional geometric shape measuring method of binocular vision; Promptly in the binocular of the rail object measuring method that transfinites; It is characterized in that using computer vision methods to realize that detailed process is following to the non-contact measurement at rail object dimensional pattern based on structural light measurement:
Utilize computer-controlled laser line generator to be radiated on the rail object, the laser image that is projected on the rail object is carried out the difference shooting simultaneously with left and right sides binocular camera; Through computing machine the laser optical strip image of binocular camera imaging is carried out three-dimensional coupling and calculate, obtain the three dimensional space coordinate of all points on the rail object on this laser striation that binocular camera forms images;
Rotational line laser instrument angle can scan the laser striation or covers all tested surfaces when measuring moving object through an interval time, and repeats aforesaid operations, thereby obtains the three-dimensional space model and the parameter of whole tested surface; At rail object dimensional pattern and track middle vertical plane coordinate, computing machine can be made size automatically and judge and the judgement of transfiniting through contrast;
The computer control laser line generator produces laser radiation on the object tested surface, gathers an image that has the tested surface of laser striation respectively with two cameras; The computer control laser line generator is closed irradiation, gathers an image that does not have the tested surface of laser striation respectively with two cameras again, and the picture that each video camera obtains is done difference respectively, obtains the laser optical strip image
The pixel coordinate of coupling gained is a sub-pixel, I1 and I2 be about the plane of delineation of two binocular cameras, C1 and C2 be respectively about the photocentre of two binocular cameras; P be in the space more arbitrarily, its picture point on left camera review plane is m1, the picture point on right camera plane is m2; According to outer polar curve geometrical constraint; Outer polar curve lm1, lm2 are respectively the lines on the I1 and the I2 plane of delineation; Be the P point with about two binocular camera photocentre C1 and C2 line respectively with the line of the intersection point of line on I1 and I2 plane of the intersection point on said I1 and I2 plane and two photocentre C1 and C2; M2 should be positioned at m1 on the outer polar curve lm2 of the right plane of delineation, and same m1 should be positioned at m2 on the outer polar curve lm1 of the left plane of delineation, and m1, m2 be corresponding point each other each other; By C1; C2, the Planar Mechanism that P confirms is outer pole-face, the intersection that the outer polar curve lm2 of m1 is the outer pole-face II and the right plane of delineation; The intersection that the outer polar curve lm1 of m2 is the outer pole-face II and the left plane of delineation, outer limit e1, e2 are the line of C1 and C2 and the intersection point of the left and right sides plane of delineation; Limit e2 outside the outer polar curve of any point in the right plane of delineation all will pass through in the plane of delineation of a left side; Point on the right plane of delineation still meets this relation; Promptly take up an official post and get 1 m1 at the laser striation of the left plane of delineation, 1 P that laser rays covered on its corresponding object, according to outer polar curve constraint can know the projection of a P in right image necessarily appear at outside on the polar curve lm2; And can try to achieve the equation of outer polar curve lm2, so just can the searching of two-dimentional match point be narrowed down in the one dimension scope; Simultaneously owing to some P also one fixes on the laser light bar in the projection on the right plane of delineation; So get in the right plane of delineation on the laser striation apart from straight line lm2 nearest two pixel Dl, Dr; Obtain the straight-line equation L at these two pixel places; The intersection point m2 of straight line L and lm2 is exactly the projection of a P on the I2 plane of delineation so, and the coordinate of m2 has sub-pixel precision.
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