CN101934525A - Variable-rigidity flexible joint design of humanoid robot - Google Patents

Variable-rigidity flexible joint design of humanoid robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101934525A
CN101934525A CN 201010283564 CN201010283564A CN101934525A CN 101934525 A CN101934525 A CN 101934525A CN 201010283564 CN201010283564 CN 201010283564 CN 201010283564 A CN201010283564 A CN 201010283564A CN 101934525 A CN101934525 A CN 101934525A
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joint
flexible
variable
flexible joint
electric machine
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CN 201010283564
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CN101934525B (en
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魏慧�
帅梅
王中宇
张占芳
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a variable-rigidity flexible joint of a humanoid robot, which mainly comprises a variable flexible joint driver and a 2D differential drive joint mechanism, wherein, the variable flexible joint driver mainly comprises a micro-drive unit, a motor support and an elastic unit; and the 2D differential drive joint mainly comprises flexible cable input wheels, an output wheel and a flexible cable. The variable-rigidity flexible joint is characterized in that the variable-rigidity flexible joint driver introduces a special elastic element which can realize variable rigidity to adapt to the need of the joint rigidity in different walking stages and store/release energy and absorb shock; the variable flexible joint driver is connected with the 2-DOF differential drive joint mechanism through the flexible cable and has no redundant drive; and the variable-rigidity flexible joint adopts the 2-DOF differential mechanism and flexible cable transmission, thus having simple structure, small friction, no hysteresis error and reduced joint size of the robot compared with a gear design, and realizing drive torque redistribution according to the angle of energy consumption distribution of human.

Description

The design of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint
One. technical field
The present invention relates to the anthropomorphic robot technical field, be specifically related to a kind of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint design.
Two. background technology
Development and human appearance feature class seemingly have highly intelligence, can exchange with the people as the flexible action of people, and the biped robot that can constantly conform are human dreams always.From last century the seventies Japan Waseda University add Mr. rattan raiser humanoid robot notion since, the research and development of nearly four more than ten years, the researcher has obtained the achievement that attracts people's attention in this field.
At present, the servomotor that existing anthropomorphic robot adopts big moment, high rigidity mostly makes robot accurately follow the tracks of predefined joint angles track as driver in gait processes by accurate SERVO CONTROL, realizes stablizing walking.Though the validity of this method obtains the checking of a plurality of robots project, the high rigidity of servomotor and deceleration system thereof and high inertia make anthropomorphic robot be difficult to overcome collision phenomenon with ground in the process of walking.That is, anthropomorphic robot because of its swing pin is landing moment, bumps with ground when walking fast, makes point of zero moment produce big saltus step, has caused the stability margin reduction of anthropomorphic robot, causes robot to be fallen when serious.In addition, the ground running that adopts the precision of stiffener and legacy drive to make up to realize the biped robot, it is the ground running class derived product of modern advanced machinery motion arm, its rigid mechanism and only follow the tracks of the control method of off-line planning movement locus and traditional motion arm does not have essential distinction with the motor SERVO CONTROL, energy efficiency is low and energy consumption is very big, as ASIMO, when carrying the battery walking, stream time is for only being 1 hour.So, want really to make this class biped robot to be applied to must improve its walking energy efficiency and environmental suitability thereof in human true environment or the human danger that can not arrive, the complex environment.
And in to the research of human walking, find following phenomenon: land front leg portions muscle and can loosen to absorb and impact leading leg, and in the both feet after landing of leading leg supported mutually, leg muscle shrank to keep balance.By this mechanism, the mankind can effectively reduce impact and keep stable in quick walking and running process.Thereby for overcoming the anthropomorphic robot impact phenomenon, lax and the tensioning action of human leg muscle is similar to the rigidity control procedure of flexible actuator, therefore adopt the stiffness variable flexible actuator can effectively absorb impact, realize quick walking as the drive source of robot.The impact resistance of stiffness variable flexible actuator and security in addition is the development of auxiliary walking arrangements such as ectoskeleton, and new solution is provided.Existing flexible joint adopts the Pneumatic flexible joint mostly, realizes more complicated, for example:
Chinese patent CN87107075A, a kind of flexible cylinder and bending, torsion knuckle, its swept volume is to be surrounded by elastic wall.Do not have friction and leakage at work, but flexure operation is done in the simulating human joint when work.This structure adopts pneumatic actuation, realizes more complicated, and its flexible being difficult for is regulated.
Three. summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is defective at above-mentioned prior art, a kind of more effectively anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint system is provided, in walking and running process, effectively reduce and impact, realize the storage and the release of energy, solve existing robot high energy consumption and environmental suitability problem.
To achieve these goals, the technical scheme that the present invention takes is: a kind of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint mainly comprises variable flexible joint driver, 2-DOF differential driving articulation mechanism; It is characterized in that: described variable flexible joint driver links to each other with 2D differential driving articulation mechanism by gentle rope.
Described variable flexible joint driver mainly comprises miniature drive units, electric machine support, Flexible element;
Described miniature drive units comprises micromachine, decelerator; It is characterized in that: described micromachine is cemented on biped robot's body by electric machine support A; Described micromachine output shaft links to each other with helical axis by shaft coupling, and described helical axis is that both sides have helical guideway, and the centre is the rotating shaft of polished rod, and its two ends are respectively by the bearings of assembling in electric machine support A, the B;
Described electric machine support A and guide rod are fixed, it is characterized in that, the described guide rod other end and electric machine support B are fixed, have only slide block on the guide rod, and slide block can move along guide rod;
Described slide block, spring A micromachine shell and electric machine support A is fixed; Guide rod one end is consolidated in electric machine support A, and the other end connects electric machine support B; Slide block can move along guide rod; Described slide block, upper surface meet flexible member A; It is characterized in that: described flexible member A, a part is through on the helical axis along helical guideway, and remainder is effective active length; The flexible member diameter should be slightly less than the helical axis diameter, prevents that flexible member under external force, moving axially;
Described slide block, lower surface meet flexible member B; It is characterized in that: described flexible member B, a part is through on the helical axis along helical guideway, and remainder is effective active length; The flexible member diameter should be slightly less than the helical axis diameter, prevents that flexible member under external force, moving axially;
Described slide block is characterized in that: under the common active force of flexible member A, B, slide block can slide along guide rod;
Described slide block both sides are respectively equipped with gentle rope stiff end; The end of described flexible stiff end fixed gentle rope A of difference and gentle rope B;
Described 2D differential driving joint mainly comprises gentle rope wheel for inputting A, gentle rope wheel for inputting B, output wheel C, gentle rope C, D, fixed pulley, and its annexation is: described flexible wheel for inputting A, B link to each other with output wheel C by gentle rope C, D;
Described gentle rope wheel for inputting A, B, fixed gentle rope A, B after described gentle rope B need walk around the fixed pulley of electric machine support A earlier, are consolidated on the gentle rope wheel for inputting of joint more respectively, turn to finish;
Described output wheel C is the joint outlet terminal, links to each other with sole.
For realizing position closed loop control, magnetic rotary encoder is installed as position sensor at described joint shaft one end;
Controlled for realizable force, deformeter is installed as the power sensor at described Flexible element place;
The present invention has the following advantages and outstanding property effect: designed stiffness variable flexible joint, adopt gentle rope differential attachment, and design of gears was simple in structure more in the past, and it is little to rub, no hysterisis error, and dwindle the joint of robot size.According to the angle that human energy consumption distributes, realize the driving moment reallocation, also be the key character that the present invention is different from other existing achievement in research; Designed stiffness variable flexible joint drive system, introduce the special elastic element, in gait processes, change the rigidity of stiffness variable flexible drive mechanism by continuous adjustment spring element rigidity, adapting to asynchronous row order section joint stiffness needs, and can store/release energy and absorb impact; The irredundant driving of the present invention; Adopt gentle Suo Chuandong, simple in structure, be easy to process and assemble, it is little to rub, no hysterisis error; The stiffness variable flexible joint compactness that the present invention proposes is easy to install, and makes the flexible biped robot of structure full power variable stiffness become possibility, realizes the variation of biped robot's walking function, as the self-balancing under stabilized walking, uneven ground walking and the disturbance.
Four. description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a stiffness variable flexible actuator structural representation among the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a 2-DOF difference ankle-joint structure forward direction schematic diagram among the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a 2-DOF difference ankle-joint structure schematic rear view among the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a stiffness variable flexible actuator stiffness variation principle schematic among the present invention;
Among the figure: 1 sole, 2 gentle rope input A, 3 output D, 4 gentle ropes, 5 input C, 6 gentle ropes, 7 stiffness variable flexible actuators, 8 stiffness variable flexible actuators, 9 bracing frames, 10 shanks support, 11 gentle ropes, 12 gentle ropes, 132-DOF differential driving ankle-joint, 14 gentle rope input B, 15 foot plate support, the 16 joints rope wheel for inputting that softens, 17 guide rods, 18 gentle rope B, 19 fixed pulleys, 20 encoders, 21 micromachines, 22 decelerators, 23 motor bracing frame A, 24 helical axis, 25 spring A, 26 slide blocks, 27 spring B, 28 motor bracing frame B, 29 gentle rope A, 30 gentle rope knot A, 31 gentle rope knot B
Five. the specific embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, but not as a limitation of the invention.
Referring to Fig. 1, the variable flexible joint structure of a kind of anthropomorphic robot mainly comprises 2-DOF differential driving ankle-joint 12, stiffness variable flexible actuator 7,8, gentle rope 4,6,11,12.Gentle rope 4,6,11,12 is passed by stiffness variable flexible actuator 7,8 respectively, and an end is walked around fixed pulley, is consolidated in the gentle rope knot 5,20 of difference 2-DOF differential driving ankle-joint 12.The specific implementation method is: by gentle rope 4,6,11,12, to soften rope wheel for inputting A 2, gentle rope wheel for inputting B 14 links to each other with output C 5, output D 3, with wheel for inputting A 2,14 two parallel rotatablely moving of wheel for inputting B are converted into two orthogonal direction motions, it is big that this kind of drive is abandoned the gear drive friction, easy to wear, there are characteristics such as hysterisis error, wheel for inputting A, B axial direction are the main movement shaft of ankle-joint, can realize bending instep/bend toe motion, in addition ankle-joint can around output C axially do small turn up and in turn over motion.
Referring to Fig. 2, stiffness variable flexible actuator 7 is cemented on biped robot's body by electric machine support A 13, and wherein, micromachine 21 shells and electric machine support A 23 are fixed; Guide rod 17 1 ends are consolidated in electric machine support A 23, and the other end connects electric machine support B 28; Slide block 26 can move along guide rod 17; Micromachine 21 output shafts link to each other with helical axis 24 by shaft coupling; Wherein, helical axis 24 is for both sides have helical guideway, and the centre is the rotating shaft of polished rod, and its two ends are respectively by the bearings of assembling in electric machine support A23, the electric machine support B 28; Flexible member A 25, flexible member B 27, a part is through on the helical axis 24 along helical guideway, and remainder is effective active length, connects slide block 26 upper and lower surfaces respectively; Flexible member 25,27 diameters should be slightly less than helical axis 24 diameters, prevent flexible member 25,27 under external force, move axially.
Slide block 26 can slide along guide rod 17 under the common active force of flexible member 25,26; Slide block 26 both sides are respectively equipped with gentle rope stiff end 30,31, an end of fixed gentle rope 18,29 respectively; The other end of gentle rope 18 directly is consolidated on the gentle rope wheel for inputting 2 of joint; After gentle rope B 29 need walk around the fixed pulley of electric machine support A 23 earlier, be consolidated in again on the gentle rope wheel for inputting 14 of joint, turn to finish.
When micromachine 21 rotates, drive helical axis 24 rotations; Simultaneously, flexible member A 25 and flexible member B 27 move axially along helical axis 24, and its effective active length also changes thereupon; Because of the rigidity of flexible member is the function of its effective length, when its effective active length changed, the rigidity of flexible member also changed thereupon, and then changed the rigidity of bionic joint.
Referring to Fig. 3,4, designed ankle-joint operation principle.Gentle for convenience of description Suo Raoxiang, the rope input A 2 that now softens, gentle rope input B 14 launches to illustrate, when wheel for inputting 2,14 turns an angle θ with identical direction, ankle-joint master rotation direction rotates, and promptly whole foot rotates around wheel for inputting A, B axis, realizes elevating movement; As wheel for inputting A 2, when gentle rope input B 14 turns an angle θ with opposite direction, secondary rotation direction rotates, and promptly sole changes around the axis of output C 5, output D 3, realizes rotatablely moving; Under other situations, realize the 2-DOF motion of foot.
Participate in Fig. 5, designed stiffness variable soft drive joint stiffness changes principle, and the effective length of establishing flexible member 25 is L A1, initial stiffness is K A=f A(L A1), flexible member 27 initial effective length L B1, initial stiffness is K B=f B(L B1), this moment, bionic joint rigidity can be expressed as K so Jonit=f Jonit(L A1, L B1), the effective active length that changes flexible member 25,27 just can change the rigidity of bionic joint; Designed bionic joint can absorb certain impact, thereby prevents to impact the damage to the robot mechanical device; Do the time spent when joint is subjected to external force F, slide block 26 compression springs move right, and the variable quantity of equilbrium position is Ax=F/K JointFlexible member 25,27 places are provided with deformeter, are used for measuring the deflection of flexible member, just can calculate the size of the power that is applied to joint by Hooke's law, thereby realize closed-loop control, and reduce bionic joint output impedance.

Claims (4)

1. an anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint mainly comprises variable flexible joint driver, 2D differential driving articulation mechanism.Described variable flexible joint driver mainly comprises miniature drive units, electric machine support, Flexible element.Described 2D differential driving joint mainly comprises gentle rope wheel for inputting A, gentle rope wheel for inputting B, output wheel C, gentle rope C, D, fixed pulley.It is characterized in that: described variable flexible joint driver links to each other irredundant driving by gentle rope with 2D differential driving articulation mechanism; Adopt gentle Suo Chuandong, simple in structure, be easy to process and assemble, it is little to rub, no hysterisis error; Described anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint compact conformation is easy to install, and flexible biped robot provides new solution for structure full power variable stiffness.
2. a kind of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described micromachine is cemented on biped robot's body by electric machine support A; Described micromachine output shaft links to each other with helical axis by shaft coupling, and described helical axis is that both sides have helical guideway, and the centre is the rotating shaft of polished rod, and its two ends are respectively by the bearings of assembling in electric machine support A, the B; Described electric machine support A and guide rod are fixed, it is characterized in that, the described guide rod other end and electric machine support B are fixed, have only slide block on the guide rod, and slide block can move along guide rod; Described slide block, spring A micromachine shell and electric machine support A is fixed; Guide rod one end is consolidated in electric machine support A, and the other end connects electric machine support B; Slide block can move along guide rod; Described slide block, upper surface meet flexible member A; It is characterized in that: described flexible member A, a part is through on the helical axis along helical guideway, and remainder is effective active length; The flexible member diameter should be slightly less than the helical axis diameter, prevents that flexible member under external force, moving axially;
3. a kind of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described stiffness variable flexible joint driver, introduce the special elastic element, in gait processes, change stiffness variable flexible joint rigidity by continuous adjustment spring element rigidity, adapting to asynchronous row order section joint stiffness needs, and can store/release energy and absorb impact;
4. a kind of anthropomorphic robot stiffness variable flexible joint as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: adopt 2-DOF differential driving mechanism, adopt gentle rope difference movable joint, than design of gears, simple in structure, it is little to rub, no hysterisis error, and dwindle the joint of robot size.According to the angle that human energy consumption distributes, realize the driving moment reallocation.
CN2010102835642A 2010-09-15 2010-09-15 Variable-rigidity flexible joint design of humanoid robot Expired - Fee Related CN101934525B (en)

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CN102179821A (en) * 2011-06-10 2011-09-14 北方工业大学 Rigidity-adjustable elastic linear telescopic type joint for passive robot
CN102514649A (en) * 2011-12-29 2012-06-27 北京航空航天大学 Humanoid robot foot plate mechanism with multiple degrees of freedom
CN102874339A (en) * 2012-09-27 2013-01-16 浙江大学 Hopping robot mechanism
CN103192406A (en) * 2013-04-08 2013-07-10 北京航空航天大学 Robot joint driver with variable rigidity
CN103433933A (en) * 2013-07-15 2013-12-11 北京理工大学 Elastic assembly capable of providing non-linear variable rigidity
CN103753598A (en) * 2013-11-05 2014-04-30 上海大学 Rigidity-flexibility automatic switching variable rigidity flexible driver device
CN103753604A (en) * 2013-12-27 2014-04-30 北京航空航天大学 Modular flexible connection device allowing dynamic adjustment of stiffness
CN103878790A (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-06-25 南京工程学院 Multi-mode elastic driver for lower limb power-assisted exoskeleton robot
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CN107486850A (en) * 2017-09-08 2017-12-19 四川大学 A kind of Wire driven robot robot variation rigidity elastic joint
CN108247666A (en) * 2017-12-28 2018-07-06 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 A kind of parallel lightweight robotic joint variation rigidity actuator
CN108291618A (en) * 2015-12-03 2018-07-17 川崎重工业株式会社 The driving mechanism of 2 degree of freedom
CN109968397A (en) * 2017-12-28 2019-07-05 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 A kind of adaptive passive stiffness-shift joint
US10367394B2 (en) 2016-07-12 2019-07-30 Industrial Technology Research Institute Electromagnetic spring and elastic actuator having the same
CN111481402A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-08-04 合肥工业大学 Knee joint exoskeleton based on rope variable-stiffness multifunctional driver and control method
CN111846008A (en) * 2020-07-30 2020-10-30 哈尔滨工业大学 Biped robot with variable-rigidity ankle joint
CN112372663A (en) * 2020-10-29 2021-02-19 北京航空航天大学 Continuum variable-rigidity adjusting device
CN113154001A (en) * 2021-02-26 2021-07-23 北京大学 Super-input flexible driver based on rope driving
CN113146604A (en) * 2021-05-06 2021-07-23 吉林大学 Compact artificial muscle module with variable rigidity and passive flexibility
CN113211428A (en) * 2021-04-07 2021-08-06 长春工业大学 Variable-rigidity series elastic driving device and control method thereof
CN113211428B (en) * 2021-04-07 2022-05-17 长春工业大学 Variable-rigidity series elastic driving device

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CN102179821B (en) * 2011-06-10 2013-03-27 北方工业大学 Rigidity-adjustable elastic linear telescopic type joint for passive robot
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CN104260106A (en) * 2014-08-18 2015-01-07 北京航空航天大学 Variable stiffness joint module
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