—种柔性可控的关节驱动器技术领域 本发明涉及一种驱动器，特别是关于一种用于双足、外骨骼和智能假肢等机器人的柔性可控的关节驱动器。 - kind of flexible joint controllable drive Technical Field  The present invention relates to a drive, and more particularly relates to a bipedal, intelligent prosthetic limb exoskeleton and flexible for robot joints controllable drive. 背景技术目前，机器人领域大多采用大力矩、高刚度的伺服电机作为驱动器，通过精确的伺服控制使外骨骼在步行过程中准确跟踪预定义的关节角度轨迹，实现稳定步行。  Currently, most robots using a large torque, high stiffness as servo motor drives, servo control by precisely accurate tracking of the outer skeleton predefined joint angle trajectories during walking, to achieve stable walking. 该方法的有效性虽然得到多个机器人项目的验证，但是伺服电机及其减速系统的高刚度和高惯性使机器人在行走中难于克服与地面的碰撞现象，即机器人在快速行走时，因其摆动脚在落脚瞬间与地面发生碰撞，使得零力矩点产生较大跳变，造成了机器人的稳定度降低，严重时导致机器人跌倒。 Although the effectiveness of the method has been verified plurality of robot programs, but the servo motor and reduction systems and high stiffness of the robot is difficult to overcome high inertia collisions with the ground during walking, fast walking robot i.e., because the wobble settled in the foot with the ground an instant impact, making the zero moment point greater jump, resulting in a decrease in the stability of the robot, the robot lead to serious falls. 另外，采用刚性元件和传统驱动器的精密组合来实现机器人的地面行走，只是现代先进机械操作臂的地面行走类衍生产品而已，其刚性机构和仅以电机伺服驱动控制跟踪离线规划运动轨迹的控制方法，与传统的操作臂无本质的差别，能量效率低下且能耗很大。 Further, the rigid elements and the traditional drives precise combination thereof ground walking robot, but modern advanced mechanical manipulator walking on the ground-based derivatives only rigidly mechanism and only servo motor drive control method for controlling trajectory tracking offline programming with conventional operating arm no essential difference, the energy efficiency and low energy consumption greatly. 所以，要想真正使机器人尽可能的类似于人的行为，必须提高其行走能量效率及其环境适应性。 So, if we really want to make robots as similar to human behavior, we must improve the energy efficiency of their travel and environmental adaptability.  在人类步行的研究中发现以下现象：在摆动腿落地前腿部肌肉会放松以吸收冲击，而在摆动腿落地后的双脚支撑中，腿部肌肉收缩以维持平衡。  found that the following phenomenon in the study of human walking: In front of the swinging leg landing leg muscles will relax to absorb the impact, and the support feet after landing swing leg, the leg muscle contraction to maintain balance. 通过这种机制，人类在快速行走和跑步过程中可以有效降低冲击保持稳定，从而克服机器人的冲击现象，人体腿部肌肉的松弛和张紧动作类似于柔性驱动器的刚度控制过程，采用可变刚度的柔性驱动器作为机器人的驱动源可以有效吸收冲击，实现快速步行。 Through this mechanism, in humans during fast walking and running stability can effectively reduce the impact, thereby overcoming the impact phenomenon robot, human leg muscle relaxation and tension of the flexible drive action is similar to the stiffness of the control process, with variable stiffness flexible actuator as a drive source can effectively absorb the impact of the robot, fast walking. 因此研究柔性可控的关节驱动器，成为机器人领域的一个热门，可以推动双足、外骨骼、假肢等机器人领域的发展。 Therefore, controlled studies of flexible joint drive to become a hot field of robotics, can promote the development of the field of bipedal exoskeleton, artificial limbs and other robots.  由于柔性可控的关节驱动器既要像人的关节一样具有柔性，又要能为人提供足够大的动力，同时还要在体积和重量上和人的关节相仿，因此对关节的动力驱动器提出了很高的要求。  Since the flexible joint controllable drive both the same as those that have a flexible joint, but also be able to provide enough power human, and human joint but also similar in size and weight, and therefore drive power of the joints put forward a very high demand. 目前，传统的动力驱动器主要有电机、液压和气压三种驱动器。 Currently, conventional power main drive motors, hydraulic and pneumatic three kinds of drives. 这三种驱动器虽然各有优点，但是都不能满足对动力、柔性和精度要求都很高的机器人关节的要求。 Although these three drives have advantages, but can not meet the requirements for the power, flexibility and precision of the robot joints are very high. 电机虽然有很高的控制精度，但是电机的柔性及抗冲击能力差。 Motor may have a high control precision, but poor flexibility and impact resistance of the motor. 液压和气压驱动器虽然具有一定的柔性，但是控制精度低，噪音大，体积大。 Although hydraulic and pneumatic drives have some flexibility, but control accuracy is low, noise, large volume. 因此需要设计新型的柔性动力结构，使机器人的关节的功能和尺寸和人的关节最大程度的相似。 Hence the need to design a new type of flexible power structure, so that the greatest degree of joint function and joints of a robot and human dimensions are similar. 发明内容 针对上述问题，本发明的目的是提供一种柔性可控的关节驱动器。 SUMMARY  The invention addresses the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a flexible joint controllable drive.  为实现上述目的，本发明采取以下技术方案：一种柔性可控的关节驱动器，其特征在于：它包括外壳、刚度调节机构、动力输入机构和控制器；所述刚度调节机构包括一固定连接在所述外壳顶盖上的电机，所述电机的输出轴连接一主动齿轮，所述主动齿轮的两侧各啮合一从动齿轮，两所述从动齿轮的中心轴均为一转动连接在所述外壳内的丝杠；两所述丝杠上分别螺旋连接一螺母滑块，两所述螺母滑块的外侧凸缘分别插入所述外壳两侧盖内壁设置的导向滑槽内，两所述螺母滑块的内侧夹设有一L形簧片；其中一所述螺母滑块的侧面固定连接有一滑动片，所述滑动片的另一端插设在一固定在所述外壳内的位移传感器中；所述动力输入机构包括一用于连接外部驱动电机的输入轴，所述输入轴通过一轴承连接在所述外壳后盖上，所述输入轴的末端沿轴  To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solution: A flexible joint controllable drive, characterized in that: it comprises a housing, stiffness adjustment mechanism, and a controller power input means; said adjusting mechanism comprises a stiffness a motor fixedly connected at both sides of the housing cover, said motor output shaft connected to a drive gear, said drive gear engages a driven gear each of the two central axis of rotation of a driven gear are connecting screw within the housing, respectively; a nut screwed onto the two threaded slider, the two outer flanges of the slider nut are inserted into the housing cover on both sides inner wall of the guide chute, inside the two slide nut is provided an L-shaped spring clip; wherein a side surface of the slide nut is fixedly connected with a slide, the other end of the sliding sheet is inserted in the housing in a fixed displacement sensor; said mechanism comprises a power input shaft connected to an input of an external drive motor, the input shaft via a bearing housing connected to said rear cover in the axial input end of the shaft 设置有一凹槽，所述L形簧片短边固定在所述凹槽内，所述L形簧片的长边与外壳底盖固定连接成一体；所述控制器分别与所述电机和位移传感器电连接。 Is provided with a recess, the short side of the L-shaped spring is fixed within the recess, said L-shaped spring housing with the long side of the bottom cover fixedly connected integrally; said controller and said motor displacement respectively sensor is electrically connected.  所述控制器采用“闭环控制策略”，对所述螺母滑块的位置进行采集和移动调节。 The  controller using "closed-loop control strategy," the position of the slider nut collection and moving the adjustment.  所述控制器根据所述位移传感器测量得到的当前所述螺母滑块的位置，通过计算得到所述螺母滑块应该调节的高度值，并将控制指令并发送给所述电机，所述电机启动通过所述主动齿轮带动两所述从动齿轮转动，每一所述从动齿轮再带动与之连接的所述丝杠转动，所述丝杆24的转动带动所述螺母滑块沿所述簧片上、下运动。  The current controller according to the displacement sensor to obtain a position of the slide nut, the nut is obtained by calculating the slider height value should be adjusted, and the control command sent to the motor, the said motor starts driving gear driven by said driven gear to rotate the two, each of said driven gear connected thereto which drive the rotation of the lead screw, the drive screw is rotated the nut 24 slide along the the spring, the movement.  所述控制器采用一单片机来实现。  The controller employs a single chip to achieve.  所述外壳包括一如盖，左、右两侧盖和一底盖，所述如盖、两侧盖和底盖是一体成型的壳体；所述壳体顶部固定连接一顶盖，所述壳体背部固定连接一后盖；所述前盖中部设置有一通孔，所述通孔外的前盖上设置有一端盖；所述两侧盖内壁分别设置有由两凸棱形成的一导向滑槽。  As the housing comprises a cover, the left and right sides of the cover and a bottom cover, as a cover, the cover and the bottom cover are both integrally formed housing; the housing is fixedly connected to a top cap the housing is fixedly connected to a rear cover; and a cover provided with a central through hole of the front, through the front aperture of the outer cover is provided with a cap; cover both sides of the inner wall is formed respectively by the two ribs a guide chute.  本发明由于采取以上技术方案，其具有以下优点：1、本发明由于在动力输入和输出之间串联了作为弹性元件的簧片，输入轴通过簧片把动力传输给外壳，由外壳再把动力输送给需要动力的部件，因此本发明具有很好抗冲击能力和柔性动力特性，为机器人应用于复杂路况的运动建立了良好的基础。  As a result of the present invention, the above technical solution, which has the following advantages: 1, according to the present invention, since the power between the input and output in series as an elastic spring element, the input shaft through the power transmission to the spring housing, by the housing and then the power supplied to the power member needs, thus the present invention has good impact resistance and flexibility dynamic characteristics, the robot motion is applied to complex road established a good foundation. 2、本发明由于设置了一控制器，控制器通过控制电机使得螺母滑块在丝杠上运动到不同位置，进而改变簧片的有效工作长度，实现本发明柔性可控的目的。 2, since the present invention is provided with a controller, the controller controls the motor so that the nut by moving the slide to different positions on the lead screw, thereby changing the effective working length of the spring, the present invention is to achieve a flexible controlled object. 3、本发明的控制器根据位移传感器测量得到的当前螺母滑块的位置，以此来控制电机驱动丝杠转动，使螺母滑块到达所要求的位置，从而实现本发明采用闭环控制螺母滑块位置的目的，使本发明的柔性控制更准确可靠。 3, the controller of the present invention obtained according to the displacement sensor of the current position of the thumb nut, in order to control the motor driven lead screw is rotated, the nut slider reaches the desired position, thereby achieving the present invention uses a closed loop control slider nut object position, the flexible control of the present invention is more accurate and reliable. 本发明可以广泛用于双足、外骨骼和智能假肢等机器人领域的研究和应用中。 The present invention can be widely used in research applications and feet, and intelligent prosthetic limb exoskeleton robot. 附图说明 图1是本发明整体结构示意图 图2是本发明另一角度整体结构等轴测图 图3是本发明外壳结构示意图 图4是本发明外壳内结构示意图具体实施方式 下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进行详细的描述。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION  FIG. 1 is a schematic overall configuration of the present invention  FIG. 2 is another perspective of the overall structure of the present invention is an isometric view  FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a housing structure of the present invention  FIG. 4 of the present invention is the present invention is described in detail with the drawings and embodiments within the housing structure schematic dETAILED dESCRIPTION  the following binding.  如图1所不,本发明包括一外壳1、一刚度调节机构2、一动力输入机构3和一控制器4。  FIG. 1 is not, the present invention comprises a housing 1, a stiffness adjustment mechanism 2, a power input means 3 and a controller 4.  如图1、图2、图3所示，本发明的外壳I包括一前盖11，左、右两侧盖12和一底盖13，前盖11、两侧盖12和底盖13是一体成型的壳体。  As shown in FIG 1, FIG 2, FIG. 3, the housing I of the invention comprises a front cover 11, left and right sides of the cover 12 and a bottom cover 13, the front cover 11, on both sides of the cover and the bottom cover 12 housing 13 is integrally formed. 壳体顶部固定连接一顶盖14，壳体背部固定连接一后盖15。 A top cap fixedly connected to the housing 14, rear housing 15 is fixedly connected to a rear cover. 前盖11中部设置有一通孔16，通孔16外的前盖11上设置有一端盖17 ;两侧盖12内壁分别设置有由两凸棱形成的一导向滑槽18。 The front cover 11 is provided with a central through hole 16, the through hole 16 before the outer end cap 17 is provided with a cover 11; a cover 12 both sides of the inner wall is provided with a guide chute are formed by two ribs 18. 导向滑槽18也可以采用其它方式设置。 The guide chute 18 may be provided in other ways.  如图1、图3、图4所示，本发明的刚度调节机构2包括一固定连接在外壳I顶盖14 上的电机21，电机21的输出轴向下连接一主动齿轮22，主动齿轮22的两侧各啮合一从动齿轮23，两从动齿轮23的中心轴均为一丝杠24，两丝杠24的顶端分别通过一轴承25连接在顶盖14上，两丝杠24的底端分别通过另一轴承26连接在底盖13上。  As shown in FIG 1, FIG 3, FIG. 4, the rigidity of the adjusting mechanism 2 according to the present invention comprises a housing fixedly connected to the motor cover 21 on the I 14, a drive gear 22 connected to the output shaft of the motor 21, on both sides of each drive gear 22 engages a driven gear 23, the center axis of two of the driven gear 23 are a spindle 24, the spindle 24 to the top two are connected via a bearing 25 on the top cover 14, two spindle 24 the other bearing 26 is connected to the bottom end, respectively on the bottom cover 13 through. 两丝杠24中部分别螺旋连接一螺母滑块27，其中一螺母滑块27的侧面固定连接有一滑动片28，滑动片28 的另一端折弯后插设在一位移传感器29内，位移传感器29与导向滑槽18并排固定在靠近前盖11 一端的侧壁12上。 Central screw 24 are two slide nut 27 a screw connection, wherein a side surface of the slide nut 27 is fixedly connected with a sliding sheet 28, the other end of the sliding sheet 28 is bent after inserted in a displacement sensor 29, the displacement sensor 29 in parallel with the guide chute 18 is fixed at one end near the front cover 11 on the side wall 12. 两螺母滑块27的外侧凸缘分别插入相应一侧的导向滑槽18中。 Two outer flange 27 of the slider nut are inserted into the guide chute 18 of the respective side.  本发明的动力输入机构3包括一连接外部驱动电机的输入轴31，输入轴31通过一轴承32支撑在后盖11的通孔16内。  The power input mechanism according to the present invention 3 comprises an input shaft connected to an external drive motor 31, the input shaft 31 is supported by a bearing 32 in the through hole 16 of the rear cover 11. 输入轴31的末端沿轴向通过一凹槽固定连接一倒置的L形簧片33，簧片33的底端与底盖13固定连接成一体，簧片33的两侧分别被两螺母滑块27的内侧夹住。 Axially on both sides of the input end 31 of the shaft 33, the bottom end of spring 33 is fixedly connected with the bottom cover 13 are integrally connected by means of a fixing groove of an inverted L-shaped spring, the spring 33 are two slide nut 27 is sandwiched inside.  本发明的控制器4分别与电机21和位移传感器27电连接电连接。  The controller 4 is electrically connected to the present invention are electrically connected to the motor 27 and a displacement sensor 21. 控制器4采用一单片机来实现，其主要是采用“闭环控制策略”，对螺母滑块27的位置进行采集和移动调节，以实现对簧片33的长度即柔性进行调节，而具体的控制程序可以由技术人员根据柔性输出的要求采用常规设计完成，在此不再赘述。 The controller 4 uses a microcontroller to realize, which is primarily a "closed-loop control strategy," the position of the slide nut 27 is moved and collected adjusted to achieve the length of the spring 33 is adjusted, i.e. the flexible, and specific control program can be done by the skilled person according to the requirements of conventional design flexibility output, are not repeated here.  本发明工作时，将输入轴31的输入端与一外部关节驱动电机的输出端固定连接， 并将需要驱动的部件（比如关节）连接在外壳I上；这样，当驱动电机启动时，便可以驱动输入轴31通过簧片33带动外壳I转动；由于簧片33的弹性作用，驱动电机输入的动力将以柔性的方式传递给连接在外壳上的部件，从而有效地改善了电机驱动的柔性及抗冲击能力。  In operation of the present invention, the input end of the input shaft 31 and an external output terminal of the joint drive motor is fixedly connected, and the need to drive a member (such as a joint) connected to the housing I; Thus, when the driving motor starts , we can drive the input shaft 31 driven by a spring housing 33 rotatably I; due to the elastic action of the spring 33, the driving motor will enter a power transmitting manner to a flexible member attached to the housing so as to effectively improve the driving motor flexibility and impact resistance.  本发明可以调节输出柔性的大小，工作时，控制器4根据位移传感器29测量得到的当前螺母滑块27的位置，通过计算得到螺母滑块27应该调节的高度值，并将控制指令并发送给电机21，电机21启动通过主动齿轮22带动两从动齿轮23转动，每一从动齿轮23再带动与之连接的丝杠24转动，丝杆24的转动可以带动螺母滑块27沿簧片28上或下运动， 以改变簧片33的有效工作长度(两螺母滑块27位于丝杠24最下方时柔性最大)，从而使得柔性控制更准确可靠。  The present invention can adjust the output size of the flexible, in operation, the controller 4 based on the current position of the slide nut 27 displacement sensor 29 is measured to obtain the value of the height of the slide nut 27 should be adjusted by calculating and control commands sent to the motor 21, the motor 21 starts driving gear driven by the rotation of the two driven gears 22 23, each of which drive the driven gear 23 rotates the lead screw 24 connected thereto, rotation of the nut screw 24 may be driven along the slider 27 28 or the movement of the reed, to change the effective working length of the spring 33 (two sliders 27 when nut screw 24 is the lowermost maximum flexibility) so that the flexible control is more accurate and reliable.  本发明仅以上述实施例进行说明，各部件的结构、设置位置、及其连接都是可以有所变化的，在本发明技术方案的基础上，凡根据本发明原理对个别部件进行的改进和等同变换，均不应排除在本发明的保护范围之外。  The present invention will be described only the embodiments described above, the configuration of each member, the installation position, and are connected may vary, based on the aspect of the present invention, where the individual components performed according to the principles of the present invention modifications and equivalents transformation, should not be excluded from the scope of the present invention.