CN101850423B - High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN101850423B
CN101850423B CN2010101687747A CN201010168774A CN101850423B CN 101850423 B CN101850423 B CN 101850423B CN 2010101687747 A CN2010101687747 A CN 2010101687747A CN 201010168774 A CN201010168774 A CN 201010168774A CN 101850423 B CN101850423 B CN 101850423B
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powder
copper alloy
alloy layer
pressing
copper
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CN101850423A (en
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徐伟
田清源
解挺
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HEFEI BOLIN ADVANCE MATERIALS CO., LTD.
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HEFEI BOLIN ADVANCED MATERIALS CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material, a preparation method and application thereof. The composite material is characterized by comprising an iron alloy base body and a copper alloy base body as a surface layer, wherein the iron alloy base body contains Cu, C, Sn, Pb and Fe, and the copper alloy base body contains Ni, C, MoS2, Sn, Fe, Pb and Cu. The preparation method comprises the following steps of: respectively preparing copper alloy layer warm-pressing powder and iron alloy base body warm-pressing powder; filling the warm-pressing powder into a mould and then pressing once to form a green compact; sintering the green compact in the protection atmosphere; and shaping the sintered sintering compact in the mould so that the composite material is prepared. By the invention, the cost of parts can be greatly reduced on the basis of ensuring the use performance of the parts.

Description

High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to metal-based self-lubricating composite material, specifically is a kind of high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
The metallurgical part of high strength self-lubricating copper alloy powder has purposes widely in industries such as automobile, engineering machinery, household electrical appliance.Along with the develop rapidly of modern industry, service conditions such as high-speed, big load have proposed higher performance requirement to the metallurgical part of self-lubricating copper alloy powder.Because existing general powder metallurgy copper alloy structural member intensity, hardness are lower, have restricted its range of application.As China existing " sintering tin bronze structural material JB/T9139-1999 ",,, also contain harmful element lead simultaneously so its tensile strength, hardness are all lower because its material relative density is lower.In addition, because the enforcement of leadless environment-friendly rules in recent years makes to face update at the widely used leaded self-lubricating powder metallurgy copper alloy constitutional detail of industries such as auto parts and components; Copper is non-ferrous metal, and price is higher, as uses iron instead of copper, and then can greatly reduce cost.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides a kind of high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof, when guaranteeing the part serviceability, reduces cost of parts.
The technical scheme that technical solution problem of the present invention is adopted is:
The characteristics of high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of the present invention are formed by the ferroalloy matrix with as the copper alloy layer on top layer;
The material of described ferroalloy matrix 2 composition by weight percentage is:
Cu:5-20, C:0.5-1, Sn:1-3, Pb :≤0.1, other :≤1, the Fe surplus;
The material composition by weight percentage of described copper alloy layer (1) is:
Ni:5-15, C:0.5-3, MoS 2: 0.5-3, Sn:4-8, Fe:1-3, Pb :≤0.1, other :≤1, Cu surplus.
The characteristics of high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of the present invention also are: have the transition zone of the powder of described copper alloy layer 1 and ferroalloy matrix 2 through sinter bonded formation in described copper alloy layer 1 and ferroalloy matrix 2 junctions.
The thickness of copper alloy layer 1 of the present invention is the 0.2-2 millimeter.
The preparation method of high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of the present invention is characterized in that operating as follows:
(1), prepare copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder respectively:
A, press the material mixture ratio of copper alloy layer 1, with nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder respectively in vacuum or protective atmosphere in 160 ℃-200 ℃ insulations destressing tempering in 2-4 hour, add again binding agent PVP jointly through batch mixer batch mixing 5-10 minute compound A; In described compound A, add graphite powder, molybdenum disulphide powder and lubricant PEG, again the mixed-powder A that must mix through 5-10 minute batch mixing;
B, press the material mixture ratio of iron base layer 2, copper powder, iron powder, glass putty and binding agent PVP were got iron compound B in 5-10 minute through the batch mixer batch mixing jointly, in described compound B, add graphite powder and lubricant PEG, get uniform mixed powder B through 5-10 minute batch mixing again;
C, described mixed-powder A and described mixed powder B is dry under 50 ℃ of temperature respectively crosses 80 mesh sieves then, and screenings promptly is respectively copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder;
(2), warm-pressing formation on press: the described ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder of in mould, at first packing into temperature and pressure device, the copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder of packing into then, a press forming is a pressed compact, pressing pressure is 600-700MPa, the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 90 ℃~130 ℃, and mold temperature is 90 ℃~150 ℃;
(3), sintering: with described pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 960 ℃~1080 ℃ sintering 10-30 minute;
(4), shaping: preparation is finished in the sintering briquette shaping in mould behind step (3) sintering, and shaping pressure is 600-700Mpa;
With high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of the present invention is that material can be made lateral plate of hydraulic pump, oil distribution casing, and slide block or tooth bar are to substitute existing copper alloy constitutional detail.
About the copper alloy layer Alloying Design:
The present invention adds tin in copper alloy layer 1 material, nickel element plays the solution strengthening effect, improves copper alloy intensity and hardness, and the adding of nickel element improves the copper alloy sintering temperature; Add graphite and molybdenum bisuphide and substitute lead, make copper alloy layer 1 have good self-lubricating property as lubricant component.Because graphite is incompatible with the copper matrix, interface bond strength is low, add ferro element, both played invigoration effect, also be to play the diffusion pilot effect during with ferroalloy matrix 2 sintering for copper alloy layer 1, because in sintering process, iron and copper and graphite can improve interface bond strength by diffusion, solid solution, reaction, thereby improve the mechanical property of composite.
Design about the ferroalloy matrix:
Key of the present invention is to allow the different material of two kinds of fusing points at same sintering temperature, and performance indications produce a desired effect.Iron is different with the copper fusing point, so both sintering temperatures differ bigger.In order to make copper alloy layer 1 and ferroalloy matrix 2 good at same sintering temperature, two kinds of material interfaces are in conjunction with good, at the copper of ferroalloy matrix 2 adding more amount, as the bonding phase; The purpose that adds tin is to make sintering process liquid phase occur, thereby reduces sintering temperature; Add a small amount of graphite, generate iron-carbon compound, improve iron-based body intensity and hardness.
About binding agent PVP, lubricant PEG:
The present invention is in copper alloy layer powder and ferroalloy matrix powder, add binding agent PVP purpose and be and make the even segregation-free of various powder compositions, adding lubricant PEG purpose is to improve the suppression performance of powder, promptly when best forming temperature, powder particle surface has the low antifriction lubricating layer of shearing of one deck to exist, help flowing between powder, rearrangement and plastic deformation, make the higher and good uniformity of compacted part density.Binding agent PVP consumption is (0.15-0.25) %, and lubricant PEG consumption is (0.3-0.6) %, both in sintering process by burn off.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in:
1, the present invention is that copper alloy layer is formed by ferroalloy matrix and top layer, and copper alloy layer has guaranteed the serviceability of part, uses iron instead of copper in the ferroalloy matrix, and iron content can reach more than 50%, greatly reduces cost of parts.
2, among the preparation method of the present invention, adopt warm-pressing formation, high temperature sintering, the material monolithic relative density is improved, thereby has improved the intensity and the hardness of material.
3, the present invention adopts graphite and molybdenum bisuphide to substitute lead, makes copper alloy layer 1 have good self-lubricating property, and the leaded harm that brings to human environment has been avoided in this unleaded design, and environmental protection is had positive meaning.
Description of drawings
The gear oil pump side plate part cutaway view that Fig. 1 makes for the present invention.
The gear oil pump side plate part vertical view that Fig. 2 makes for the present invention.
Number in the figure: 1 copper alloy layer, 2 ferroalloy matrixes.
Below by the specific embodiment, the invention will be further described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1:
Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, Fig. 1 is a gear oil pump side plate part cutaway view, and Fig. 2 is a gear oil pump side plate part vertical view.
This gear oil pump side plate is formed by high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of the present invention and preparation method thereof manufacturing.
High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material is formed by ferroalloy matrix 2 with as the copper alloy layer 1 on top layer in the present embodiment; Wherein, the material of ferroalloy matrix 2 composition by weight percentage sees Table 1; The material of copper alloy layer 1 composition by weight percentage sees Table 2; The thickness of copper alloy layer 1 is set to 1.0 millimeters.
High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material is prepared as follows in the present embodiment:
1, prepare copper alloy layer 1 thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix 2 thermal-pressing powders respectively:
A, the material composition proportioning of pressing copper alloy layer 1, with nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder respectively in vacuum or protective atmosphere in 200 ℃ of insulations destressing tempering in 2 hours, add again binding agent PVP jointly through batch mixer batch mixing 5-10 minute compound A; In compound A, add graphite powder, molybdenum disulphide powder and lubricant PEG, again the mixed-powder A that must mix through 5-10 minute batch mixing;
B, the material composition proportioning of pressing iron base layer 2, copper powder, iron powder, glass putty and binding agent PVP were got iron compound B in 5-10 minute through the batch mixer batch mixing jointly, in compound B, add graphite powder and lubricant PEG, get uniform mixed powder B through 5-10 minute batch mixing again;
C, mixed-powder A and mixed powder B is dry under 50 ℃ of temperature respectively crosses 80 mesh sieves then, and screenings promptly is respectively copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder;
2, warm-pressing formation on press: the ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder of in mould, at first packing into temperature and pressure device, the copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder of packing into then, a press forming is a pressed compact, pressing pressure is 700MPa, the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 130 ℃, and mold temperature is 90 ℃;
3, sintering: with pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 1080 ℃ of sintering 10 minutes; Behind the sintering, have the transition zone of the powder of copper alloy layer 1 and ferroalloy matrix 2 in copper alloy layer 1 and ferroalloy matrix 2 junctions through sinter bonded formation.
4, shaping: preparation is finished in the sintering briquette shaping in mould behind step (3) sintering, and shaping pressure is 600Mpa.
Table 1 copper alloy layer 1 material composition (by weight percentage):
Element Ni C MoS 2 Sn Fe Other Cu
Wt(%) 10 0.8 1 6 1.5 ≤1 Surplus
Table 2 ferroalloy matrix 2 material compositions (by weight percentage)
Element Cu C Sn Other Fe
Wt(%) 10 0.5 2 ≤1 Surplus
Various powder are described as follows:
Iron powder is a reduced iron powder ,-100 orders, and iron content is greater than 99.85%; Copper powder, copper content greater than 99.9%, Pb≤0.1%; Nickel powder, glass putty, technical pure ,-200 orders.Graphite powder is the flakey natural graphite powder ,-200 orders, carbon content 99.9%; Molybdenum disulphide powder, technical pure ,-200 orders.
This gear oil pump side plate also needs following process: machinings such as car endoporus, groove milling, flat surface grinding are finished product through being up to the standards.
Performance test results by the gear oil pump side plate of making under the above-mentioned condition sees Table 3
Table 3 gear oil pump side plate performance test results
Embodiment 2:
Present embodiment is the hydraulic pump oil distribution casing with the part that high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof manufacturing forms.
High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of this hydraulic pump oil distribution casing part and preparation method thereof is with embodiment 1, as different from Example 1:
The Thickness Design of the copper alloy layer 1 in the present embodiment is 0.5 millimeter; Copper alloy layer 1 concrete chemical analysis sees Table 4; Ferroalloy matrix 2 concrete chemical analysis see Table 5;
Nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder are incubated destressing tempering in 2.5 hours in 180 ℃ respectively in a vacuum;
The pressing pressure of warm-pressing formation is 650MPa on the press with temperature and pressure device, and the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 100 ℃, and mold temperature is 120 ℃;
Pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 1040 ℃ of sintering 15 minutes;
The shaping in mould of sintering briquette behind step 3 sintering, shaping pressure are 660Mpa;
This hydraulic pump oil distribution casing also needs following process: machinings such as car endoporus, groove milling, flat surface grinding, grinding are finished product through being up to the standards.
The performance test results of the hydraulic pump oil distribution casing in the present embodiment sees Table 6.
Table 4 copper alloy layer 1 material composition (by mass percentage):
Element Ni C MoS 2 Sn Fe Other Cu
Wt(%) 5 0.5 3 8 3 ≤1 Surplus
Table 5 ferroalloy matrix 2 material compositions (by mass percentage)
Element Cu C Sn Other Fe
Wt(%) 10 0.5 2 ≤1 Surplus
Table 6 hydraulic pump oil distribution casing performance test results
Embodiment 3:
The part that present embodiment high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof manufacturing forms is a tooth bar.
Described high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of this rack part and preparation method thereof is with embodiment 1.As different from Example 1:
The thickness of copper alloy layer 1 is 2 millimeters in the present embodiment; Copper alloy layer 1 concrete chemical analysis sees Table 7, and ferroalloy matrix 2 concrete chemical analysis see Table 8;
Nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder are incubated destressing tempering in 3 hours in 190 ℃ respectively in vacuum or protective atmosphere;
The pressing pressure of warm-pressing formation is 680MPa on the press with temperature and pressure device, and the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 110 ℃, and mold temperature is 100 ℃;
Pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 1060 ℃ of sintering 20 minutes;
The shaping in mould of sintering briquette behind step 3 sintering, shaping pressure are 650Mpa;
This tooth bar does not need follow-up machining, is finished product through being up to the standards.
The performance test results of present embodiment tooth bar sees Table 9.
Table 7 copper alloy layer 1 material composition (by weight percentage):
Element Ni C MoS 2 Sn Fe Other Cu
Wt(%) 15 3 0.5 8 1 ≤1 Surplus
Table 8 tooth bar ferroalloy matrix 2 material compositions (by weight percentage)
Element Cu C Sn Other Fe
Wt(%) 5 0.5 3 ≤1 Surplus
Table 9 tooth bar performance test results
Embodiment 4:
The part that present embodiment high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof manufacturing forms is a slide block.
Described high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of this slide block part and preparation method thereof is with embodiment 1.As different from Example 1:
The thickness of the copper alloy layer 1 in the present embodiment is 0.2 millimeter; Copper alloy layer 1 concrete chemical analysis sees Table 10, and ferroalloy matrix 2 concrete chemical analysis see Table 11;
Nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder are incubated destressing tempering in 4 hours in 160 ℃ respectively in vacuum or protective atmosphere;
The pressing pressure of warm-pressing formation is 600MPa on the press with temperature and pressure device, and the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 90 ℃, and mold temperature is 150 ℃;
Pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 960 ℃ of sintering 30 minutes;
The shaping in mould of sintering briquette behind step 3 sintering, shaping pressure are 700Mpa;
This slide block does not need follow-up machining, is finished product through being up to the standards.
The performance test results of present embodiment slide block part sees Table 12.
Table 10 copper alloy layer 1 material composition (by weight percentage):
Element Ni C MoS 2 Sn Fe Other Cu
Wt(%) 9 1 1 4 3 ≤1 Surplus
Table 11 slide block ferroalloy matrix 2 material compositions (by weight percentage)
Element Cu C Sn Other Fe
Wt(%) 15 0.8 1.5 ≤1 Surplus
Table 12 slide block performance test results

Claims (5)

1. a high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material is characterized in that: form by ferroalloy matrix (2) with as the copper alloy layer (1) on top layer;
The material composition by weight percentage of described ferroalloy matrix (2) is:
Cu:5-20, C:0.5-1, Sn:1-3, Pb :≤0.1, other :≤1, the Fe surplus;
The material composition by weight percentage of described copper alloy layer (1) is:
Ni:5-15, C:0.5-3, MoS 2: 0.5-3, Sn:4-8, Fe:1-3, Pb :≤0.1, other :≤1, Cu surplus.
2. high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material according to claim 1 is characterized in that: have the transition zone of the powder of described copper alloy layer (1) and ferroalloy matrix (2) through sinter bonded formation in described copper alloy layer (1) and ferroalloy matrix (2) junction.
3. high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the thickness of described copper alloy layer (1) is the 0.2-2 millimeter.
4. the preparation method of the described high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of claim 1 is characterized in that operating as follows:
(1), prepare copper alloy layer (1) thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix (2) thermal-pressing powder respectively:
A, press the material mixture ratio of copper alloy layer (1), with nickel powder, glass putty, iron powder and copper powder respectively in vacuum or protective atmosphere in 160 ℃-200 ℃ insulations destressing tempering in 2-4 hour, add again binding agent PVP jointly through batch mixer batch mixing 5-10 minute compound A; In described compound A, add graphite powder, molybdenum disulphide powder and lubricant PEG, again the mixed-powder A that must mix through 5-10 minute batch mixing;
B, press the material mixture ratio of ferroalloy matrix (2), copper powder, iron powder, glass putty and binding agent PVP were got iron compound B in 5-10 minute through the batch mixer batch mixing jointly, in described compound B, add graphite powder and lubricant PEG, get uniform mixed powder B through 5-10 minute batch mixing again;
C, described mixed-powder A and described mixed powder B is dry under 50 ℃ of temperature respectively crosses 80 mesh sieves then, and screenings promptly is respectively copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder and ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder;
(2), warm-pressing formation on press: the described ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder of in mould, at first packing into temperature and pressure device, the copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder of packing into then, a press forming is a pressed compact, pressing pressure is 600-700MPa, the powder temperature of ferroalloy matrix thermal-pressing powder and copper alloy layer thermal-pressing powder is 90 ℃~130 ℃, and mold temperature is 90 ℃~150 ℃;
(3), sintering: with described pressed compact in ammonia decomposing protection atmosphere, 960 ℃~1080 ℃ sintering 10-30 minute, sintering briquette;
(4), shaping: preparation is finished in the shaping in mould of described sintering briquette, and shaping pressure is 600-700Mpa.
5. component of machine is characterized in that described component of machine is is lateral plate of hydraulic pump, oil distribution casing, slide block or the tooth bar that material is made with the described high strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material of claim 1.
CN2010101687747A 2010-05-11 2010-05-11 High strength self-lubricating iron-copper powder composite material and preparation method thereof Active CN101850423B (en)

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CN102991014A (en) * 2012-10-22 2013-03-27 陈敏 Self-lubricating copper alloy powder composite and preparation method
CN102896829A (en) * 2012-10-22 2013-01-30 顾建 Self-lubricating copper alloy powder compound material
CN102896828A (en) * 2012-10-22 2013-01-30 徐琼 Preparation method for self-lubricating copper alloy powder compound material
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