CN101832138B - Method for controlling rising type reverse-obliquity mining rock stratum of ultra-thick highly-oblique coal bed - Google Patents

Method for controlling rising type reverse-obliquity mining rock stratum of ultra-thick highly-oblique coal bed Download PDF

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CN101832138B
CN101832138B CN2010101341306A CN201010134130A CN101832138B CN 101832138 B CN101832138 B CN 101832138B CN 2010101341306 A CN2010101341306 A CN 2010101341306A CN 201010134130 A CN201010134130 A CN 201010134130A CN 101832138 B CN101832138 B CN 101832138B
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mining
plate
land
rock stratum
board
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CN2010101341306A
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CN101832138A (en
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戴华阳
王更雨
阎跃观
上官科峰
田靖安
易四海
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中国矿业大学(北京)
窑街煤电集团有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for controlling a rising type reverse-obliquity mining rock stratum of an ultra-thick highly-oblique coal bed. The method is applied to the ultra-thick highly-oblique coal bed, of which the thickness of the coal bed is over 50 meters and of which the inclination of the coal bed is over 45 degrees; a from-shallowness-to-deepness stratification mining mode is adopted, and the stratification working face is oblique toward one side of a bottom plate, and back mining is performed in a direction from the bottom plate to a top plate. Compared with the horizontal stratification mining, the reverse-obliquity stratification mining has the advantages that: wedge-shaped coal columns can be formed in unmined areas, a propagation direction of the movement of the rock stratum is changed, a mining propagation angle and a movement angle on the side of the top plate are increased; and by adopting a rising type mining sequence, rock strata on one side of the bottom plate are collapsed firstly, and rocks in upper mined-out areas are fully filled in mining space, so that a rupture of the top plate rock stratum in a normal direction is inhibited. Due to the combination of the reverse-obliquity stratification mining and the rising type mining sequence, the collapsing sequence and propagation characteristics of wall rocks in the mined-out areas are changed, and the mining subsidence is guided to be centered on highly-oblique outcrops and one side of the bottom plate, so that the moving deformation extent of the ground surface on the side of the top plate is lowered, and the moving range of ground surface on one side of the top plate is decreased.

Description

The anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of special thick half-edge coal seam backstroke
Technical field
The present invention relates to the anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of a kind of spy; Be specially adapted to coal seam thickness greater than the exploitation of 50m and seam inclination, with control rock stratum, goaf the subsidence with top board one side of falling that collapses greater than 45 ° special thick half-edge coal seam.
Background technology
Mining subsidence certainly will cause the infringement of surface buildings.The extent of damage of building depends on the tension and compression character of the scope that moves on the face of land and movement and deformation degree, distortion, and is also relevant with structure, quality, the foundation situation of building self.Underground coal mining mainly contains moving of moving of vertical direction and distortion (sinking, inclination, curvature) and horizontal direction and distortion (move horizontally, stretch and compress) etc. to the influence on the face of land.The face of land of different nature is moved and is out of shape, and is also inequality to the influence of building and structure, roughly can be in the following several ways.
1, the influence of surface subsidence
In general, when evenly sinking appears in the building face of land of living in, can not produce subsidiary stress in building and the structure, thereby can not produce destruction to building itself, but the gradient of main conduit line can change, damage also possibly caused in waterproof slope all around.Particularly, when causing long-term ponding of building or excessive moisture, will influence the intensity of building, so that influence the use of building because surface subsidence rises phreatic table relatively.
2, the influence of face of land inclination
After the face of land tilted, building was crooked thereupon, and centre-of gravity shift influences its stability, and load-carrying members inside will produce subsidiary stress, and basic pressure-bearing also can change.Particularly the little and highly big building of foundation ' s bottom area is relatively more responsive for the influence of being tilted to bring by the face of land like water tower, chimney, high voltage line iron tower etc., must carry out the accounting of intensity and stability.In addition, it also is that comparison is responsive that blast furnace, coke oven, cement kiln, boiler room, house in a row etc. tilt to the face of land, also must check the influence of face of land inclination and distortion to their technological processes and technical security, so that guarantee its normal use.
3, the influence of face of land curvature
Because the appearance of curvature makes the face of land produce raised or sunken curved surface, vacant state appears in the foundation bed of building; If the building strength and stiffness are less, or solid because of ground, and the building foundation can not be pressed into ground; Then the crack will appear in the house, so that destroyed.The house receives face of land positive camber to be influenced and the destruction of generation, mainly contains vertical crack wide at the top and narrow at the bottom (windowsill wall, lintel, wall body middle part and wall body liaison office) and herringbone crack (near the body of wall foundation, the door and window etc.).Sometimes roof truss or beam-ends also can occur and in body of wall or in the brick post, extract phenomenon out.The house is influenced by negative cruvature and the destruction that produces, mainly contains positive splayed crack (near the body of wall the door and window) and horizontal fracture (at about the door and window hole).In addition, the wall skin also possibly occur and come off, door and window distortion, the local phenomenons such as broken, roofing middle drum of squeezing of body of wall.Building is longer heals when high, receives the influence of face of land curvature more serious.
4, the influence of face of land horizontal distortion
Face of land horizontal distortion is bigger to the influence of building.The horizontal distortion on the face of land makes building receive additional stretching and compressive stress through the bottom surface and the side of building.Because the ability of buildings in general opposing stretcher strain is little, under less stretcher strain effect, the crack will appear near the weak part of building (door and window).Building compressive strength is big than tensile strength, face of land compressive strain hour, building is normally not present breakoff phenomenon.But,, the body of wall of building is squeezed and destroys if face of land compressive strain is bigger.
Special thick half-edge coal seam is meant the inclination angle greater than 45 °, and coal seam thickness is greater than the coal seam of 50m.The horizontal slice exploitation method that special thick half-edge coal seam adopts usually, through actual observation and simulated experiment, this have following characteristics to the thick half-edge coal seam employing of spy horizontal slice mining type:
(1) obviously serious to the ground destructiveness, the discontinuous deformation extent in the face of land is violent, and scope is big, easily the coal-smits place and near formation Collapse Pit or step crack, and the Collapse Pit that grow on the face of land moves towards parallel with the horizon mining work plane basically with the crack step.
(2) deflection top board one side in exploitation surface subsidence basin is asymmetric distribution, and top board one side depression scope is greater than base plate one side; Top board one side move horizontally maximum value greater than base plate one side; Tilt with to move horizontally distribution similar, but the inclination maximum value of base plate one side is bigger than top board one side; Move stretcher strain district, both sides, basin, middle is the compressive strain district, and top board direction drawing zone scope is bigger than base plate direction, and the maximum tension value is bigger than base plate direction; Top board rim angle, traveling angle are less than normal.
(3) compare with the exploitation of steeply inclined thin and medium-thickness seam, it is less relatively that sinker departs from the amplitude at center, goaf under the maximum of the special thick half-edge coal seam horizontal slice exploitation face of land, and maximum sinking value depends primarily on hang down height but not coal is thick of exploitation.Sinking basin top board one side outward flange subsidence curve convergence is fast, and it is slow to move horizontally curve convergence, and top board side outward flange is main with tensile failure; Top board rim angle and traveling angle are approaching.
(4) scope that moves horizontally of top board one side is greater than sinking scope (moving that the edge, basin sinks is 0 position, moves horizontally not to be 0), and the ratio rim angle that crushes in roof water translation moving boundary angle is little 2~3 °; It is littler 3~5 ° than the traveling angle of confirming by critical inclination and distortion that top board one side is pressed the definite traveling angle of critical level distortion.
In conjunction with actual field subsidence situation, adopt the equivalent material simulating laboratory facilities, through to the researching and analysing of experimental result, find that characteristics and the rule that move on the special thick half-edge coal seam horizontal slice mining rock stratum and the face of land are:
(1) special thick half-edge coal seam horizontal slice mining rock stratum and face of land mobile phase property are obvious, and superficial part mining phase in the experimentation and deep mining stage overlying strata destructive characteristics, surrounding rock structure are totally different, and face of land movement law is also obviously different.
(2) superficial part mining phase, the overlying strata damage envelope is little, and damage envelope mainly concentrates on vertical top, goaf, and expands to the deep with exploitation, and constantly upwards rise in goaf vertically top inbreak peak; Filling is characterized as along inclined direction that the bottom is filled up, top is unsettled in the goaf.In the deep mining stage, the overlying strata damage envelope significantly enlarges, and vertical top, goaf collapses to shave one's head and educates to the face of land; Overlying strata move a part upwards migration along the goaf, and a part is expanded to the top board normal direction; Roof strata collapses and falls to having periodically, adopts deeply when little, and the cycle that falls of collapsing is long; After adopting dark increase, the cycle shortening that falls collapses; Roof strata produces the slippage along bed plane simultaneously along aspect normal direction generation cantilever bending, and base plate is along the surface of shear sliding rupture.
(3) superficial part mining phase; In the overlying strata pressure arch structure, this structure horizontal two ends up and down that collapse in the goaf that tilt, arch springing lays respectively at the goaf up and down on the coal body up and down; Two arch springings are supporting above goaf load; Keeping the balance of top overlying strata, to the deep expansion, last arch springing will constantly shift to the higher coal body of top intensity with exploitation.The deep mining stage; The arch springing coal body will collapse and drop down onto the face of land on the pressure arch; The roof strata upper end loses support, makes old rimrock layer of deep mining stage to turn round fracture, the bashing that falls that collapses to the goaf with the form of semi girder, and after growing certain altitude; The mutual interlock of old rimrock piece of fracture forms new balanced structure---hinged rock beam structure on tilting.
(4) superficial part mining phase, little, the narrow range of face of land amount of movement, the face of land is moved and is mainly concentrated on vertical top, horizontal goaf.In the deep mining stage, the face of land is moved degree and is enlarged markedly, and top board direction moving range significantly enlarges, face of land coal-smits place and near formation Collapse Pit thereof, and be the dynamic collapse basin that constantly enlarges and move with adopting this Collapse Pit of dark increase.
(5) the many working face minings of special thick half-edge coal seam horizontal slice, superficial part mining phase amount of movement is extremely slight, moves a process of uprushing to the deep mining stage face of land, and with adopting dark increase, degree is moved on the face of land and scope increases gradually subsequently; Top, base plate rim angle are to necessarily adopting deeply later on being stabilized in a certain angle respectively; The subsidence basin center is constantly expanded to the top board direction with adopting dark increase, but many working face minings center relatively, maximum sinker down is near the face of land above its correspondence.
(6) special thick half-edge coal seam horizontal slice exploitation, surface subsidence basin skewness property is apparent in view, and top board aspect effect scope is big, and base plate aspect effect scope is little, and basin mid portion sinkage is big, the gradient is steep, and the two ends sinkage is little, the gradient slow; The face of land moves horizontally to be not in relation to and moves horizontally the zero point antisymmetry, and the top board direction amount of moving horizontally is big, scope is wide, little, the narrow range of the base plate direction amount of moving horizontally.
Because adopting through regular meeting, special thick half-edge coal seam cause surface subsidence, face of land inclination, the face of land to produce raised or sunken curved surface and face of land horizontal distortion; Easily the coal-smits place and near formation collapse hole or step crack, and jeopardize near the building the ground.Since in top board one side subsidence and horizontal distortion scope greater than base plate one side; Serious to the ground destructiveness; So for " three times " exploitation, the control of rock stratum and surface deformable when how to realize exploiting, the particularly control of top board one side; Can reduce influence, become a key of special thick half-edge coal seam " three times " exploitation and press for the problem of solution face of land building, bridge, railway, water body.
Summary of the invention
Usually adopt by shallow to the deep level separate zone production; The top board one side face of land receives the continuous abducent stretching large deformation effect of scope; How to control the deformation range of top board side; Change the rock stratum Move Mode that this distortion is constantly expanded along with moving down of mining level, the guiding sink deformation concentrates on basin central authorities and coal-smits take place, and this is a key point of the present invention.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides the anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of a kind of spy, and this exploitation method can more effectively be controlled moving of the top board side face of land and distortion than the horizontal slice exploitation, reduces the infringement of adopting of top board side.
The present invention realizes through following technical scheme:
The anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of a kind of spy; Be applicable to that coal seam thickness is greater than 50m and the seam inclination α special thick half-edge coal seam greater than 45 °; Seam mining is taked from shallow to dark separate zone production mode, and stratified operation face opposite with the coal seam tendency (tiltedly anti-) is to the base plate lopsidedness; Each stratified operation face is taked by the mode of base plate to top board direction exploitation (face upward and adopt); Control rock stratum, goaf begins to collapse from base plate one side and, and falls in proper order and propagation characteristic the movement and deformation degree and the depression scope on the control top board one side face of land thereby change collapsing of goaf country rock.
Stratified operation face inclination alpha LayerRefer to stratified operation face and horizontal plane angle, require α Layer≤90-α makes the ground coal post form nearly support normal.α LayerMore for a short time, approach horizon mining more, then be unfavorable for CONTROL OF STRATA MOVEMENT, α LayerExcessively can bring difficulty to process for stoping again, more satisfactory value is α Layer=10~30 °, help controlling that top board side rock stratum collapses, moving range and degree.
The anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the special thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of the present invention; Layering is tilted towards top board, forms instead tiltedly, can make the unworked country form the wedge type coal column through anti-diagonal slice exploitation; Change the direction of propagation that move the rock stratum, increase mining effect angle of propagation and top board one side shifting angle.Employing, is promptly faced upward and is adopted to the exploitation of top board direction by base plate.Make through the backstroke mining sequence that the rock stratum of base plate one side collapses in advance, the space is adopted in the abundant filling of rock of goaf, top, thereby the normal direction that suppresses roof strata is disrumpent feelings.Both combinations have changed collapsing of goaf country rock and have fallen in proper order and propagation characteristic; The guiding mining subsidence concentrates on high-dipping and appears and base plate one side; To reduce the movement and deformation degree on the top board one side face of land; Reduce the moving range on the top board one side face of land, help controlling that roof strata collapses, moving range and deformation extent, help protection near top board one side face of land building, bridge, railway, water body etc.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the anti-tiltedly exploitation method sketch map of special thick half-edge coal seam backstroke, wherein
α-seam inclination;
α LayerThe angle of anti-diagonal slice work plane of-backstroke and horizontal plane;
β Flat-horizontal slice exploitation top board side shifting angle;
β InsteadThe anti-diagonal slice exploitation of-backstroke top board side shifting angle;
γ-base plate side shifting angle.
Fig. 2 is that the surface movement and deformation curve comparison diagram after the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke is exploited with horizontal slice is adopted in three ore deposits, kiln street; Wherein Fig. 2 a is the surface subsidence comparison diagram; Fig. 2 b is a face of land inclination comparison diagram, and Fig. 2 c is that the face of land moves horizontally comparison diagram, and Fig. 2 d is a face of land horizontal distortion comparison diagram.
The specific embodiment
Through instance the present invention is described in further detail below.
Embodiment 1
Shown in Figure of description 1, the anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of a kind of spy of the present invention is applicable to that coal seam thickness is greater than 50m and the seam inclination α special thick half-edge coal seam greater than 45 °.Seam mining is taked from shallow to dark separate zone production mode, i.e. layer-by-layer mining from top to bottom, and stratified operation face tendency base plate, promptly in the opposite direction with seam inclination, long-pending with the outstanding appearance of control top board.At each stratified operation face direction of extraction shown in arrow; All for exploiting to the top board direction by base plate; Control rock stratum, goaf collapses from base plate one side in advance, and exploitation is when arriving top board one side, because gradually by the filling to the goaf such as the rock stratum that falls that collapses of base plate one side; The vertical height and the horizontal range that make roof strata collapse to fall all reduce, and reduce the influence basin and the variable quantity of top board side subsidence and horizontal distortion.
Stratified operation face and horizontal plane angle α LayerGenerally get 10~30 °.
By shown in Figure 1, compare the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke top board side shifting angle β with horizon mining InsteadGreater than horizontal slice exploitation top board side shifting angle β Flat, at place, the face of land, with horizontal slice mining effect borderline phase ratio, move to the slump center on the anti-diagonal slice mining effect of backstroke border accordingly, reduces the influence basin and the variable quantity of top board side subsidence and horizontal distortion.
Accompanying drawing 2 is that the surface movement and deformation curve comparison diagram after the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke is exploited with horizontal slice is adopted in three ore deposits, kiln street.Kiln street coal electricity company three barrow band inclined shaft fields with "nine squares" are positioned at the middle part in Yao Jie coalfield, the west side of the dark big substrate trunk fracture structure F19 tomography in mining area, Datonghe River east bank.The northwestward, field with "nine squares" is Datonghe River I, II, the III level terrace of Datonghe River east bank, and Datonghe River flows through from the west side, field with "nine squares" from north orientation south, outside enjoying a mouth of a gorge, injects the Huang Shui river.The ground height above sea level is 1800~1840m, and the southeast, field with "nine squares" is mountains low-to-middle in height and the loess coombe landforms that degrade, and height above sea level is 1840~2500m.The Yao Jie mining area is the mining area that the special thick half-edge coal seam of China distributes and relatively concentrates, and the mine half-edge coal seam thickness in three ore deposits, kiln street wherein reaches 20~120m, and seam inclination changes greatly, and mild at superficial part, the deep is steep, and seam inclination all surpasses 45 ° basically.
Through " the steeply-inclined seam mining settlement prediction analytical system " analog computation that utilizes the inventor to develop; Can find out by Fig. 2 a; The maximum value of the surface subsidence of the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke is littler than the maximum value of the surface subsidence of horizontal slice exploitation, and the sinking scope squints to the base plate direction.
Can find out that by Fig. 2 b the maximum value that the face of land of the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke tilts is littler than the maximum value of the face of land inclination of horizontal slice exploitation, and slant range squints to the base plate direction.
Can find out that by Fig. 2 c the maximum value that the face of land that the maximum value that the face of land of the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke moves horizontally is exploited than horizontal slice moves horizontally is little, and the scope that moves horizontally squints to the base plate direction.
Can find out that by Fig. 2 d the maximum value that the face of land that the maximum value of the face of land horizontal distortion of the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke is exploited than horizontal slice moves horizontally is little, and the excursion of horizontal distortion squints to the base plate direction.
In a word, than the horizontal slice exploitation, the anti-diagonal slice exploitation of backstroke surface movement and deformation value is less than normal relatively, and the depression scope squints to the base plate direction.This shows that in high scope was hung down in certain exploitation, the anti-diagonal slice production ratio of backstroke horizontal slice exploitation more can be controlled surface movement and deformation, reduces the damage of adopting of top board side, helps reducing the damage of adopting of surface structures.

Claims (2)

1. the anti-tiltedly mining rock stratum control method of the thick half-edge coal seam backstroke of spy; Be applicable to that coal seam thickness is greater than 50m and the seam inclination special thick half-edge coal seam greater than 45 °; It is characterized in that: seam mining is taked from shallow to dark separate zone production mode, and stratified operation is towards the base plate lopsidedness, and every layer of direction of extraction is all for being exploited to the top board direction by base plate; Fall in proper order and propagation characteristic the movement and deformation degree and the depression scope on the control top board one side face of land thereby change collapsing of goaf country rock.
2. mining rock stratum control method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: said stratified operation face inclination alpha LayerIt is 10 °~30 °.
CN2010101341306A 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 Method for controlling rising type reverse-obliquity mining rock stratum of ultra-thick highly-oblique coal bed CN101832138B (en)

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