CN101666720B - Scouring model experimental device of underground silt and method - Google Patents

Scouring model experimental device of underground silt and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101666720B
CN101666720B CN2009100922499A CN200910092249A CN101666720B CN 101666720 B CN101666720 B CN 101666720B CN 2009100922499 A CN2009100922499 A CN 2009100922499A CN 200910092249 A CN200910092249 A CN 200910092249A CN 101666720 B CN101666720 B CN 101666720B
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China
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plate
case
fixed station
scouring
away
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CN2009100922499A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101666720A (en
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王光谦
孙即超
傅旭东
魏加华
吴保生
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清华大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to scouring model experimental device of underground silt and method, which belong to the technical field of characteristic tests of hydraulics, river dynamics and soil and rock mechanics. The device comprises a scouring tank, a fixing table, a tilting device and a freezing tank. The method comprises the following steps: putting or stacking experimental soil samples or sand samples in the scouring tank; closing the scouring tank; starting a water flow for scouring the underground silt in a model experiment; shooting and recording a scouring process; closing the water flow and maintaining original water pressure when the scouring reaches a certain experimental state; then, freezing the scouring tank and the scouring samples by the freezing tank; labeling, positioning and cutting frozen scouring sample grids; and individually measuring, thawing, weighing and screening second-state frozen small samples to obtain the graduation of scouring models of the underground silt and the distribution of porosity in a scouring state. The scouring model experiment of the underground silt is carried out in a laboratory. The invention provides a reference and a theory for mutually stacking the silt, damming by sand stone and banking for preventing flood for river ways and is applied to the laboratory research of scouring the underground silt.

Description

A kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to Hydraulics and River Dynamics and rock-soil mechanics characteristic test technical field, particularly a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device and method.
Background technology
The silt research field is transferred to land from the river course, and promptly river load develops into watershed sediment, and this is the quantum leap of scientific research personnel in silt research.Silt in the river comes from the bottom and the both sides in river course on the one hand, on the other hand from top, i.e. and the content studied of watershed sediment.Silt also has an important source---the inside on bunding and land, promptly from underground silt, is called underground silt.Research about underground silt belongs to a new field, and the concrete engineering in this field shows as: underground silt defeated moves the reduction of the bunding stability that causes and caves under souring, the fluctuation in stage.Research at present is less, and relevant thermometrically method and apparatus is also seldom seen.
Silt in the bunding is washed away by diving in the bunding gradually from fine to coarse and carries out bunding, forms very big passage gradually, and passage caves in, and finally causes caving in of bunding.
Soil is made up of the fine particle of many different-grain diameters, and engaged between the particle, filling, gluing etc. also have a lot of tiny passage, holes in the soil body, and when water permeated, the particle diameter smaller particles will be walked with water under the effect of waterpower.And then the hole of the soil body, passage strengthen gradually, and the particle that particle diameter is bigger might be continued to take away, and also might reach a kind of steady state (SS).This depends primarily on the stressed of soil particle, and the soil particle in the soil body is subjected to the anchorage force of buoyancy of water, gravity, other particle etc., for example snap-in force, friction force etc.When the seepage flow soil body reached steady state (SS), particle promptly reached a kind of stable equilibrium state in the soil.Under this equilibrium state, soil body hole when these two parameters of grain composition of the existing soil body has very important significance to the defeated tool that moves of studying underground silt, by these two parameter tie water pressure, flushing time, just can make prediction and judge, for the stability of bunding is made evaluation the mechanics parameter of the soil body and stability thereof.
In underground silt underwashing field, the underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device and the method for void ratio, grain composition and distribution thereof under the also not relevant both at home and abroad at present certain scouring state of direct measurement.Underground silt underwashing area research and engineering design need a kind of direct method of using, keep measuring the void ratio of underground silt and the underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device in laboratory and the method for grain composition and distribution thereof under the situation of the original scouring state and the contiguous measurement point of not disturbance of taking a sample.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to solve the direct method of using, keep under the situation of the original scouring state and the contiguous measurement point of not disturbance of taking a sample, measure void ratio and the grain composition and the distribution thereof of underground silt, a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device and method are provided, it is characterized in that, device is formed by washing away case, fixed station 201, tilting gearing and household freezer, washing away case is fixed on the fixed station 201, tilting gearing support fixation platform 201, tilting gearing is fixed on the base plate of household freezer, washes away case, fixed station 201 and tilting gearing and is installed in the household freezer; Described household freezer is made of anti-warm heat insulating box plate 401, household freezer loam cake and base plate; The described case that washes away, the lower plate 1012 of casing is fixed on the fixed station 201 by lower plate set bolt 202, two side plates 102 and about two baffle plate 103 usefulness all around plate set bolt 1061 be fixed together, upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012 constitute with side plate 102 and baffle plate 103 washes away box body, be fixed on the fixed station 201 with upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, two screen boards 104 place the groove of upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012, will wash away case and be separated into left case chamber 108, raising middle flask chamber 109 and right case chamber 110; There is the fixed station back up pad 203 of 2 symmetrical distributions on the left side on the downward plane of fixed station 201, there is 1 inclination fixed station back up pad 304 at center, the right, on fixed station back up pad 203 and the inclination fixed station back up pad 304 circular shaft hole is arranged all, two pillar 302 upper ends of tilting gearing are connected with two fixed station back up pad 203 hinges of fixed station 201 respectively with long rotating shaft 3021, long rotating shaft 3021 and two pillars 302 are affixed, the lower end of pillar 302 and inclination fixed station 301 are affixed, last lifting double-screw bolt 3031, lifting swivel nut 3032 and following lifting double-screw bolt 3033 are by the composition lifting support that is threaded, the upper end of lifting support is connected with inclination fixed station back up pad 304 hinges on short rotating shaft 305 and fixed station 201 the right, short rotating shaft 305 is affixed with lifting double-screw bolt 3031, the lower end of lifting support is connected with inclination fixed station back up pad 304 hinges on short rotating shaft 305 and inclination fixed station 301 the right, short rotating shaft 305 is affixed with lifting double-screw bolt 3033, inclination fixed station 301 is fixing with the base plate welding of household freezer, rotate lifting swivel nut 3032 and regulate the height of lifting support, determine to wash away the case angle of inclination; The household freezer water hole that washes away case water hole 105 and the household freezer 402 usefulness water delivery hoses 107 that wash away on the baffle plate 103 of case are connected.
Described side plate 102 is a transparency glass plate.
Described household freezer is a transparent panel with side plate 102 height and the corresponding part of width on the anti-temperature heat insulating box plate 401 in two side plate 102 outsides.
Described upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012 with side plate 102 and baffle plate 103 contact positions, upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012 are all fluted, and rubber sheet gasket 111 is arranged in groove.
Described screen board 104, gauze grid pore diameter range is not more than 3 millimeters.Gauze grid pore size decides according to the grain size of washing away silt, satisfies and supports the preceding silting requirement of experiment, and gauze grid aperture is larger than the diameter of maximum sand grain, and silt can pass through when washing away.
The affixed of described long rotating shaft 3021 and pillar 302 is welding, and short rotating shaft 305 is to weld with the affixed of lifting double-screw bolt 3031, and short rotating shaft 305 is affixed for welding with lifting double-screw bolt 3033.
Described range of adjustment of washing away the case angle of inclination is 0 °~46 °.There are 3 kinds to wash away mode according to washing away the case angle of inclination with the water inlet direction, wash away for forward and wash away from high-end case water hole 105 water inlets of washing away of case of washing away of tilting, wash away and be backward erosion from case water hole 105 water inlets of washing away of washing away the case low side of tilting, wash away case and be horizontal to level and wash away.
The raising middle flask chamber 109 of washing away case holds soil sample or husky sample, in left case chamber 108 and right case chamber 110, place big particle diameter gravel or do not place big particle diameter gravel, household freezer carries out freezingly to be in soil sample under the scouring state or the husky sample that washes away in the case after water washes away, and obtains the freezing sample that washes away in left case chamber 108, raising middle flask chamber 109 and the right case chamber 110 of freezing setting.
Observe the method for underground silt underwashing with underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device, concrete steps are:
Step 1) is opened the loam cake of household freezer, adjust lifting support 303 height, make fixed station 201 for being horizontally disposed with, remove upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, open upper plate 1011, washing away each case chamber internal surface of case, i.e. the case chamber internal surface of lower plate 1012, side plate 102, baffle plate 103 and upper plate 1011 brush subzero oil;
Step 2) in washing away the raising middle flask chamber 109 of case, place soil sample or husky sample, in left case chamber 108 and right case chamber 110 in the big particle diameter gravel of placement or do not place big particle diameter gravel; Place rubber sheet gasket 111 at side plate 102 and baffle plate 103, build upper plate 1011, and screw upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, will wash away left case chamber 108, raising middle flask chamber 109 and 110 sealings of right case chamber of case;
Step 3) is washed away the requirement of case angle of inclination according to experiment, rotates lifting swivel nut 3032, adjusts the degree of tilt of fixed station 201; Connect household freezer water holes 402 and wash away case water hole 105 with water delivery hose 107, household freezer water hole 402 water inlet directions are set, the household freezer water hole 402 of water inlet is connected with outside water inlet pipe by the mode of washing away of requirement of experiment;
Step 4) is provided with hydraulic pressure by requirement of experiment, opens current, and the silt that washes away in the case is washed away, and observes the silt underwashing process, or at the transparent lateral plate place video camera or camera is set, and record washes away process;
When step 5) etc. are washed away the state that reaches requirement of experiment, close current, stop to wash away, and keep hydraulic pressure, start the freezing equipment of household freezer, carry out freezing washing away case;
Step 6) is freezing finish after, open household freezer, case water hole 105 is washed away in water delivery hose 107 disengagings, remove upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, and touch upper plate 1011, remove upper plate 1011, remove lower plate set bolt 202, touch and wash away case, lift lower plate 1012, with side plate 102, baffle plate 103, screen board 104 and the indoor freezing soil sample of each case or husky sample take out from household freezer together, plate set bolt 1061 around removing, touch and dismantle side plate 102 and baffle plate 103 take out screen board 104 by cutting, obtain the left case chamber 108 through freezing setting, the freezing sample that washes away in raising middle flask chamber 109 and the right case chamber 110;
Step 7) is carried out the grid mark location to the freezing sample that washes away in the raising middle flask chamber 109, obtains the freezing small sample of secondary at place, each point position again through cutting;
Step 8) to the freezing small sample of secondary carry out independent measurement, thaw, weighing, screening, obtain grating, the factor of porosity of the freezing small sample of secondary, and according to the distribution of the freezing small sample of secondary, the grating of the underground silt underwashing model under the state that is washed and the distribution of factor of porosity.
The state of described requirement of experiment has flushing time, soil sample or husky sample height change, different Inlet and outlet water mode, different intake pressure, and the combination of above-mentioned two or more states.
Described soil sample or husky sample perhaps fill up 109 spaces, raising middle flask chamber silt or fill a part of silt by requirement of experiment, and set void ratio and grating by requirement of experiment for original state or the sample for bank up temporarily according to the 109 size cuttings of raising middle flask chamber.
The present invention obtains the underground silt underwashing sample of solid state with freezing method, this sample real simulation underground silt underwashing state, the observation data that obtains has Hydraulics and River Dynamics and rock-soil mechanics engineering using value.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is for the void ratio that the enough direct methods of energy record the underground silt of different scouring state under certain hydraulic pressure distributes, particle grading distribution.In river flood control was administered, soil, sandstone were built a dam, fill to need artificial heap to filler, and just can carry out simulated experiment in the laboratory by device of the present invention and observation procedure, for flood control improvement engineering provides reference and foundation.Have that principle is clear and definite, simple in structure, convenience operation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a structural representation front view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a structural representation left view of the present invention;
A-A sectional top view among Fig. 3 Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a B-B cross section upward view among Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is upper plate and side plate assembling enlarged drawing for the enlarged drawing at III place among Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is lower plate and side plate assembling enlarged drawing for the enlarged drawing at IV place among Fig. 2;
Fig. 7 is upper plate and baffle plate assembling enlarged drawing for the enlarged drawing at I place among Fig. 1;
Fig. 8 is lower plate and baffle plate assembling enlarged drawing for the enlarged drawing at II place among Fig. 1.
Among the figure, 1011--upper plate, 1012--lower plate, the 102--side plate, 103--baffle plate, 104--screen board, 105--washes away the case water hole, plate set bolt around the 1061--, 1062--upper and lower plates set bolt, the 107--water delivery hose, case chamber, a 108--left side, 109--raising middle flask chamber, the right case of 110--chamber, the 111--rubber sheet gasket, 201--fixed station, 202--lower plate set bolt, 203--fixed station back up pad, 301--inclination fixed station, 302--pillar, the long rotating shaft of 3021--, the 303--lifting support, the last lifting double-screw bolt of 3031--, 3032--lifting swivel nut, lifting double-screw bolt under the 3033--, 304--inclination fixed station back up pad, the short rotating shaft of 305--, 401--prevents warm heat insulating box plate, 402--household freezer water hole.
Embodiment
The invention provides a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device and method, the accompanying drawing below in conjunction with embodiment illustrates the specific embodiment of the present invention.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, device is formed by washing away case, fixed station 201, tilting gearing and household freezer.
Wash away case and be used to hold soil sample or husky sample, and in this case, carry out the scouring model experimental of underground silt.Casing lower plate 1012 usefulness lower plate set bolts 202 are fixed on the fixed station 201, two side plates 102 and about two baffle plate 103 usefulness all around plate set bolt 1061 be fixed together, upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012 and two side plates 102 and about two baffle plates 103 form and wash away case, and be fixed on the fixed station 201 by upper and lower plates set bolt 1062.Side plate 102 has rubber blanket with the part that baffle plate 103 contacts, and with fastening driving fit, prevents to leak.As shown in Figure 5, upper plate 1011 is a groove structure with the junction of side plate 102, and is provided with rubber sheet gasket 111 in groove, reaches side plate location and sealing and prevents the requirement of leaking.Side plate 102 is a transparency glass plate, can observe directly the inner situation of washing away.Equally, as shown in Figure 6, lower plate 1012 is a groove structure with the junction of side plate 102, and in groove, be provided with rubber sheet gasket 111, as shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8, baffle plate 103 reaches with upper plate 1011 and the junction of lower plate 1012 is a groove structure, and is provided with rubber sheet gasket 111 in groove.It is indoor that two screen boards 104 are positioned at the case that washes away case, and the case chamber that will wash away case is divided into left case chamber 108, raising middle flask chamber 109 and right case chamber 110, as shown in Figure 3.Baffle plate 103 has a plurality of case water holes 105 that wash away, its quantity and distribution are by the decision of device size, there are 16 to wash away case water hole 105 on every baffle plate of present embodiment 103, and evenly distribute, washing away case water hole 105 is the passages that wash away the water inlet or the draining of case, and according to requirement of experiment, the water effect is called the inlet opening if play into, if play a role in the drainage, be called osculum.Screen board 104 is placed in the groove of upper plate 1011 and lower plate 1012, and groove is screen board 104 location, and the gauze of certain pore size size is arranged on the screen board, is used to support soil sample or Shayang County of experiment usefulness.To test with soil sample or husky sample and be positioned in the raising middle flask chamber 109, and in left case chamber 108 and right case chamber 110, place big particle diameter gravel as required or do not place big particle diameter gravel.The left case chamber 108 on both sides and right case chamber 110 can be played the effect of regulating and cushioning to the current of water inlet or water outlet, reduce boundary effect, the left case chamber 108 of drain-side or right case chamber 110 can hold the silt of a precipitation part 109 outputs from the raising middle flask chamber simultaneously, to prevent to stop up osculum.
Fixed station 201 is used for fixing and washes away case, and lower plate set bolt 202 will wash away case and be fixed on the fixed station 201.
Tilting gearing is used for washing away the case inclination and keeping certain angle, to satisfy the demand of different angles experiment.As shown in Figure 4, two pillar 302 lower ends are fixed on the inclination fixed station 301, and the upper end is connected with fixed station back up pad 203 hinges with long rotating shaft 3021.The lower end of lifting support is connected by inclination fixed station back up pad 304 hinges on short rotating shaft 305 and inclination fixed station 301 the right, and the upper end of lifting support is connected by inclination fixed station back up pad 304 hinges on short rotating shaft 305 and fixed station 201 the right.Two pillars 302 and lifting support support fixation platform 201.Lifting support is made of by be threaded lifting double-screw bolt 3031 and lifting double-screw bolt 3033 lifting swivel nut 3032, and lifting swivel nut 3032 can rotate, and makes lifting support rise or decline, reaches the experiment angle of inclination requirement of washing away case.Long rotating shaft 3021 and pillar 302 welding, lifting double-screw bolt 3031 and short rotating shaft 305 welding, lifting double-screw bolt 3033 and short rotating shaft 305 welding.
Household freezer is used to hold and washes away case, fixed station 201 and tilting gearing, washes away soil sample in the case or Shayang County lowers the temperature freezing to washing away.Inclination fixed station 301 is weldingly fixed on the household freezer base plate.Anti-warm heat insulating box plate 401 is a transparent panel with side plate 102 height and the corresponding part of width, so that observe the situation of washing away of washing away in the case, on the anti-warm heat insulating box plate 401 with about two baffle plate 103 counterparts household freezer water hole 402 is arranged, with water delivery hose 107 the case water hole 105 that washes away on the baffle plate 103 is connected with household freezer water hole 402, and with household freezer water hole 402 and outer water tube UNICOM.
After the equipment installation, carry out underground silt underwashing model experiment observation.Below be the embodiment of test soil sample or husky sample height change, requirement of experiment descends 20% for the soil sample height, and concrete steps are as follows:
(1) loam cake of household freezer is opened, adjust lifting support 303 height, make fixed station 201 for being horizontally disposed with, remove upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, open upper plate 1011, washing away each case chamber internal surface of case, i.e. the case chamber internal surface of lower plate 1012, side plate 102, baffle plate 103 and upper plate 1011 brush subzero oil;
(2) place soil sample in washing away the raising middle flask chamber 109 of case, soil sample for 109 spaces, raising middle flask chamber are piled with, and is set void ratio and grating by requirement of experiment by requirement of experiment, in left case chamber 108 and right case chamber 110 in the big particle diameter gravel of placement; On side plate 102 and baffle plate 103, place rubber sheet gasket 111, build upper plate 1011, and screw upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, will wash away left case chamber 108, raising middle flask chamber 109 and 110 sealings of right case chamber of case;
(3) according to experiment wash away the requirement of case angle of inclination, rotate lifting swivel nut 3032, adjust the degree of tilt of fixed station 201; Connect household freezer water holes 402 and wash away case water hole 105 with water delivery hose 107, household freezer water hole 402 water inlet directions are set, the household freezer water hole 402 of water inlet is connected with outside water inlet pipe by the mode of washing away of requirement of experiment;
(4) by requirement of experiment hydraulic pressure is set, opens current, the silt that washes away in the case is washed away, observe the silt underwashing process, or at the transparent lateral plate place video camera or camera are set, record washes away process;
(5) etc. wash away when reaching the soil sample height and descending the state of 20% requirement of experiment, close current, stop to wash away, and keep washing away the water level in the case; Start freezing equipment, carry out freezing washing away case;
(6) after freezing the finishing, open household freezer, water delivery hose 107 is unpluged disengaging wash away case water hole 105, remove upper and lower plates set bolt 1062, and touch upper plate 1011, remove upper plate 1011, remove lower plate set bolt 202, touch and wash away case, lift lower plate 1012, with side plate 102, baffle plate 103, screen board 104 and the indoor freezing soil sample of each case are taken out from household freezer together, plate set bolt 1061 around removing, touch and dismantle side plate 102 and baffle plate 103 take out screen board 104 by cutting, obtain the left case chamber 108 through freezing setting, the freezing sample that washes away in raising middle flask chamber 109 and the right case chamber 110;
(7) the freezing sample that washes away in the raising middle flask chamber 109 is carried out the grid mark location, obtain the freezing small sample of secondary at place, each point position again through cutting;
(8) to the freezing small sample of secondary carry out independent measurement, thaw, weighing, screening, obtain grating, the factor of porosity of the freezing small sample of secondary, and, obtain soil sample height the descend grating of the underground silt under 20% scouring state and the distribution of factor of porosity according to the distribution of the freezing small sample of secondary.
The invention solves and use direct method, keep the original scouring state and the not disturbance of taking a sample to close under the situation of measurement point, measure void ratio and the grain composition and the distribution thereof of underground silt, have that principle is clear and definite, simple in structure, convenience operation.Just can carry out underground silt underwashing model experiment in the laboratory by device of the present invention and observation procedure, the artificial heap of administering for river flood control fillers, and soil, sandstone are built a dam, fill provides reference and foundation.Be applicable to the laboratory study of underground silt underwashing.

Claims (10)

1. underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device, it is characterized in that, device is formed by washing away case, fixed station (201), tilting gearing and household freezer, washing away case is fixed on the fixed station (201), tilting gearing support fixation platform (201), tilting gearing is fixed on the base plate of household freezer, washes away case, fixed station (201) and tilting gearing and is installed in the household freezer; Described household freezer is made of anti-warm heat insulating box plate (401), household freezer loam cake and base plate; The described case that washes away, casing lower plate (1012) is fixed on the fixed station (201) with lower plate set bolt (202), two side plates (102) and about two baffle plates (103) with around plate set bolt (1061) be fixed together, upper plate (1011) and lower plate (1012) constitute with side plate (102) and baffle plate (103) washes away box body, be fixed on the fixed station (201) by upper and lower plates set bolt (1062), two screen boards (104) place the groove of upper plate (1011) and lower plate (1012), will wash away case and be separated into left case chamber (108), raising middle flask chamber (109) and right case chamber (110); There is the fixed station back up pad (203) of two symmetrical distributions on the left side on the downward plane of fixed station (201), there is an inclination fixed station back up pad (304) at center, the right, on fixed station back up pad (203) and the inclination fixed station back up pad (304) circular shaft hole is arranged all, two pillars of tilting gearing (302) upper end is connected with fixed station back up pad (203) hinge with long rotating shaft (3021), long rotating shaft (3021) is affixed with two pillars (302), the lower end of pillar (302) and inclination fixed station (301) are affixed, last lifting double-screw bolt (3031), lifting swivel nut (3032) and following lifting double-screw bolt (3033) are by the composition lifting support that is threaded, the upper end of lifting support is connected with inclination fixed station back up pad (304) hinge of short rotating shaft (305) with fixed station (201) the right, the short rotating shaft (305) of the inclination fixed station back up pad (304) on the upper end of connection lifting support and fixed station (201) the right is affixed with last lifting double-screw bolt (3031), the short rotating shaft (305) of the inclination fixed station back up pad (304) on the lower end of connection lifting support and inclination fixed station (301) the right is affixed with following lifting double-screw bolt (3033), and inclination fixed station (301) is fixed with the base plate welding of household freezer; The household freezer water hole (402) that washes away case water hole (105) and household freezer that washes away on the baffle plate (103) of case is connected with water delivery hose (107).
2. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 1 is characterized in that described side plate (102) is a transparency glass plate.
3. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 2 is characterized in that, described household freezer, and going up with side plate (102) height and the corresponding part of width at the anti-temperature heat insulating box plate (401) in two blocks of side plates (102) outside is transparent panel.
4. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described upper plate (1011) and lower plate (1012) with side plate (102) and baffle plate (103) contact position, upper plate (1011) and lower plate (1012) are all fluted, and rubber sheet gasket (111) is arranged in groove.
5. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described screen board (104), and gauze grid pore diameter range is for being not more than 3 millimeters.
6. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described long rotating shaft (3021) is affixed for welding with pillar (302), connecting the upper end of lifting support and the short rotating shaft (305) of the inclination fixed station back up pad (304) on the right of the fixed station (201) is welding with the affixed of last lifting double-screw bolt (3031), and connecting the lower end of lifting support and the short rotating shaft (305) of the inclination fixed station back up pad (304) on the right of the inclination fixed station (301) is welding with the affixed of following lifting double-screw bolt (3033).
7. a kind of underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device according to claim 1 is characterized in that described range of adjustment of washing away the case angle of inclination is 0 °~46 °.
8. a underground silt underwashing model experiment method is characterized in that, observes the method for underground silt underwashing with underground silt underwashing bath scaled model experimental device as claimed in claim 3, and concrete steps are:
Step 1) is opened the loam cake of household freezer, adjust lifting support (303) highly, make fixed station (201) for being horizontally disposed with, remove upper and lower plates set bolt (1062), open upper plate (1011), washing away each case chamber internal surface of case, i.e. the case chamber internal surface of lower plate (1012), side plate (102), baffle plate (103) and upper plate (1011) brush subzero oil;
Step 2) in washing away the raising middle flask chamber (109) of case, places soil sample or husky sample, in left case chamber (108) and right case chamber (110), place big particle diameter gravel or do not place big particle diameter gravel; Go up placement rubber sheet gasket (111) at side plate (102) and baffle plate (103), build upper plate (1011), and screw upper and lower plates set bolt (1062), will wash away left case chamber (108), raising middle flask chamber (109) and right case chamber (110) sealing of case;
Step 3) is washed away the requirement of case angle of inclination according to experiment, rotates lifting swivel nut (3032), adjusts the angle of inclination of fixed station (201); Connect household freezer water hole (402) and wash away case water hole (105) with water delivery hose (107), household freezer water hole (402) water inlet direction is set, the household freezer water hole (402) of intaking is connected with outside water inlet pipe by the mode of washing away of requirement of experiment;
Step 4) is provided with hydraulic pressure by requirement of experiment, opens current, and the silt that washes away in the case is washed away, and observes the silt underwashing process, or at the transparent lateral plate place video camera or camera is set, and record washes away process;
When step 5) etc. are washed away the state that reaches requirement of experiment, close current, stop to wash away, and keep hydraulic pressure, start the freezing equipment of household freezer, carry out freezing washing away case;
Step 6) is freezing finish after, open household freezer, case water hole (105) is washed away in water delivery hose (107) disengaging, remove upper and lower plates set bolt (1062), and touch upper plate (1011), remove upper plate (1011), remove lower plate set bolt (202), touch and wash away case, lift lower plate (1012), with side plate (102), baffle plate (103), indoor freezing soil sample of screen board (104) and each case or husky sample take out from household freezer together, plate set bolt (1061) around removing, touch and side plate of dismantling (102) and baffle plate (103), take out screen board (104), obtain left case chamber (108) through freezing setting by cutting, the freezing sample that washes away in raising middle flask chamber (109) and the right case chamber (110);
Step 7) is carried out the grid mark location to the freezing sample that washes away in raising middle flask chamber (109), obtains the freezing small sample of secondary at place, each point position again through cutting;
Step 8) to the freezing small sample of secondary carry out independent measurement, thaw, weighing, screening, obtain grating, the factor of porosity of the freezing small sample of secondary, and according to the distribution of the freezing small sample of secondary, the grating of the underground silt underwashing model under the state that is washed and the distribution of factor of porosity.
9. a kind of underground silt underwashing model experiment method according to claim 8, it is characterized in that, the state of described requirement of experiment has flushing time, soil sample or husky sample height change, different Inlet and outlet water mode, different intake pressure, and the combination of above-mentioned two or more states.
10. a kind of underground silt underwashing model experiment method according to claim 8, it is characterized in that, described soil sample or husky sample are original state sample or the sample for bank up temporarily according to the cutting of raising middle flask chamber (109) size, perhaps raising middle flask chamber (109) are filled up silt or filled a part of silt, and set void ratio and grating by requirement of experiment by requirement of experiment.
CN2009100922499A 2009-09-08 2009-09-08 Scouring model experimental device of underground silt and method CN101666720B (en)

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