CN101567475B - Lithium battery/battery pack measuring and protecting circuit based on current subsection detecting technique - Google Patents

Lithium battery/battery pack measuring and protecting circuit based on current subsection detecting technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101567475B
CN101567475B CN2008100528356A CN200810052835A CN101567475B CN 101567475 B CN101567475 B CN 101567475B CN 2008100528356 A CN2008100528356 A CN 2008100528356A CN 200810052835 A CN200810052835 A CN 200810052835A CN 101567475 B CN101567475 B CN 101567475B
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China
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current
battery
circuit
voltage
mode
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CN2008100528356A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101567475A (en
Inventor
马建国
王永生
喻明艳
张丽君
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天津泛海科技有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention relates to a lithium battery/battery pack measuring and protected circuit based on a current subsection detecting technique, which realizes intelligent controls of electric quantity detection for batteries, charge and discharge control, overcurrent/overvoltage protection, short circuit protection, and the like, and adopts a micro-control unit (MCU) mode to realize precision measuring control and intelligent management. The MCU transmits battery sampling voltage and current data to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to carry out quantitative analysis; the quantitative data and optimization data prestored in the MCU are compared; and the minimus information is fed back to a switch controlled by an analog front end (AFE) module to precisely control parameters of charge and discharge current, voltage, and the like. The detection mode of the MCU for the charge and discharge current of the batteries adopts the subsection detecting technique, wherein the charge and discharge current of the batteries are converted into digital signals by a voltage-mode converting circuit and a current-mode comparator, and the digital signals are sent to a central processing unit (CPU) in the MCU to carry out analysis and battery control. The invention improves the measuring precision, reduces the cost of design and production of chips and reduces the power consumption of the chips.

Description

Based on the lithium battery/battery pack metering of current subsection detecting technique and the circuit of protection
Technical field
The invention belongs to the electric current metering and the protection of TunePower or battery pack, the circuit of particularly a kind of lithium battery/battery pack metering and protection based on current subsection detecting technique.
Background technology
The rechargeable type battery is reusable battery, and kinds such as plumbic acid, NI-G, ni-mh, lithium ion, fuel cell are arranged usually.In recent years, extensive use along with portable product, increasing product adopts lithium battery to do its main power supply, lithium battery has: volume is little, energy density is high, the low advantage such as environment friendly and pollution-free of memory-less effect, cycle life height, high-voltage battery, self-discharge rate, especially aspect the notebook power supply, its excellent high-energy advantage is brought into play incisively and vividly especially.But because energy density is high and distinctive chemical characteristic, also there are hidden danger in the fail safe of lithium ion battery and stable aspect, as overcharge and crosses high temperature and may burn even cause to explode, and overdischarge may cause the damage of battery itself.So, calculate extremely important to monitoring, protection and the electric weight of lithium ion battery precision.
Fig. 1 has shown a kind of basic framework of existing batteries charging protective circuit.Protective circuit is connected on protected battery/battery pack 100, for example on the lithium battery group.Existing battery pack protective circuit comprises usually: battery voltage detection circuit 110, discharge and recharge control switch 120, microcontroller 130, battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 140.
The voltage that battery voltage detection circuit 110 is gathered battery send and microcontroller 130, and microcontroller is analyzed the cell voltage state, if note abnormalities, as overvoltage or low pressure, then control discharges and recharges control switch, and then the control charge and discharge process.Simultaneously, microcontroller measures and monitors by the charging and discharging currents of 140 pairs of batteries of current detection circuit, works as unusual circumstance, and as overcurrent or short circuit, then the microprocessor controls charge and discharge switch is realized the control to charge or discharge.
Traditional detection to charging and discharging currents, the sensitive resistance 141 of need in the loop, connecting usually, the voltage signal that electric current is changed into by sensitive resistance is measured through voltage-mode testing circuit 142 then, and the result is sent and microcontroller.
In battery charge and discharge process, the excursion of charging and discharging currents may be from several milliamperes to tens amperes.Therefore, when adopting sensitive resistance with current conversion voltage, in order to reduce the internal resistance of battery pack, reduce power consumption, the resistance value of choosing usually is in the milliohm magnitude.Yet when charging and discharging currents at MAH, the voltage signal that converts to is in several microvolt magnitudes, this is a very faint signal, the noise in the circuit will cause inaccurate to such current detecting.Simultaneously, may reach several amperes, tens amperes even higher for the charging and discharging currents of lithium battery group is the highest, use such as electric automobile etc., like this, its dynamic range will reach 10 4~10 5, this will require to be higher than 14 A/D conversion accuracy, has increased the complexity of hardware widely, and the realization cost of circuit.
Must be accurately to the measurement of charging and discharging currents, otherwise, the capacity status of counting cell correctly: when discharge, may cause over-discharge can, can cause battery failure; When charging, may cause overcharging, will cause battery high-temperature, battery failure be may cause, even burning and blast caused.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is: the circuit that a kind of lithium battery based on current subsection detecting technique/battery pack metering and protection are provided.The technology that provides a kind of current segmenting to detect, the mode that adopts current-mode and voltage-mode to make up is to improve the detection dynamic range and the accuracy of detection of lithium battery/battery pack 200 charging and discharging currents.
Main purpose of the present invention is to solve the inexactness that voltage signal detects in the above-mentioned conventional art, adopts the current-mode mode when detecting little current signal, improves accuracy of detection.
Another main purpose of the present invention is the great dynamic range requirement that solves detection signal in the above-mentioned conventional art, adopts the segmentation detection mode, so just reduce to the requirement of testing circuit dynamic range, the while has also been improved the reliability of accuracy of detection and system.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
The circuit of a kind of lithium battery/battery pack metering and protection based on current subsection detecting technique, by a utmost point that discharges and recharges the protected battery/battery pack 200 of control switch 220 connections, another utmost point of protected battery/battery pack connects battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240, connect battery voltage detection circuit 210 respectively between protected battery/battery pack series connected battery, battery voltage detection circuit 210 is connected microcontroller 230 with battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240; In the microcontroller by central processor CPU connection mode number converter ADC and voltage-mode testing circuit 242 and current-mode testing circuit 243, central processor CPU is connected battery voltage detection circuit 210 respectively with analog to digital converter ADC, battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240 is made of sensitive resistance 241, voltage-mode testing circuit 242 and segmented current mould testing circuit 243, it is characterized in that: be provided with segmented current testing circuit 243 in microcontroller 230, battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240 comprises segmented current testing circuit 243 and voltage-mode testing circuit 242.
The segmented current testing circuit has many reference current circuits CR, each reference current circuit in many reference current circuits connects an end of a comparison circuit CC input, the shunt current Isense of charging current Icharge or the discharging current Idischarge segmented current mould testing circuit of flowing through, segmented current mould testing circuit 243 is in parallel with the sensitive resistance 241 of voltage-mode testing circuit, the output of comparison circuit connects comparand register, and comparand register connects computer bus.
Effect of the present invention is:
The intelligent control technology and the realization technology thereof of the protection of this lithium battery and lithium battery group are in order to realize the Based Intelligent Control such as electric weight detection, charging and discharging control, overcurrent/overvoltage protection, short-circuit protection to battery.Applicable to the application that contains the lithium battery group; such as communication handheld terminal (mobile phone, palmtop PC, PDA etc.), notebook computer, radio station, the equipment (as the base station) of preparing and carrying the usefulness rechargeable battery, electric bicycle, electric automobile etc.; can the charging and discharging currents of lithium battery/battery pack be measured and monitor; and detect the voltage/current of lithium battery/battery pack, realize overcurrent/overvoltage, short-circuit protection.
Adopt microcontroller (MCU) mode, realize precision measure, precision control and intelligent management.MCU sends analog to digital converter (ADC) to the voltage of battery sampling and current data and carries out quantitative analysis, data that quantize and the optimization data that are stored in MCU are in advance compared, again that this is small feedback information is given the switch of analog front-end module (AFE) control, thereby realizes charging and discharging currents, the isoparametric accurate control of voltage.Wherein, MCU adopts the technology of segmented current detection to the detection mode of the charging and discharging currents of battery: Weak current adopts the technology of current sample, the comparison of electric current stepping to detect; For big electric current, be voltage signal at first with current conversion, be converted into digital signal by ADC then, these two parts result gives that CPU (CPU) among the MCU is analyzed and the control of battery.Can improve certainty of measurement like this, can reduce chip design and production cost again, and reduce chip power-consumption.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is traditional lithium battery/battery pack metering and the circuit structure of protecting.
Among the figure: 100 batteries/battery pack
110 finish the analog front circuit of battery voltage detection and switch control
120 discharge and recharge control switch
130 microcontrollers (MCU)
140 battery charging and discharging current detection circuits
Be the sensitive resistance of voltage signal with current conversion in 141 current detection circuits
Voltage-mode testing circuit in 142 current detection circuits
Fig. 2 is the circuit structure of the lithium battery that detects based on current segmenting of the present invention/battery pack metering and protection.
200 batteries/battery pack
210 finish the analog front circuit of battery voltage detection and switch control
220 discharge and recharge control switch
230 microcontrollers (MCU)
240 battery charging and discharging current detection circuits
Be the sensitive resistance of voltage signal with current conversion in 241 current detection circuits
Voltage-mode testing circuit in 242 current detection circuits
Current-mode testing circuit in 243 current detection circuits
Fig. 3 is the exemplary construction that circuit segments detects in the circuit of the lithium battery that detects based on current segmenting of the present invention/battery pack metering and protection.
200 batteries/battery pack
Be the sensitive resistance of voltage signal with current conversion in 241 current detection circuits
Voltage-mode testing circuit in 242 current detection circuits
Current-mode testing circuit in 243 current detection circuits
Embodiment
The circuit of a kind of lithium battery/battery pack metering and protection based on current subsection detecting technique, by a utmost point that discharges and recharges the protected battery/battery pack 200 of control switch 220 connections, another utmost point of protected battery/battery pack connects battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240, connect battery voltage detection circuit 210 respectively between protected battery/battery pack series connected battery, battery voltage detection circuit 210 is connected microcontroller 230 with battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240; In the microcontroller by central processor CPU connection mode number converter ADC and voltage-mode testing circuit 242 and current-mode testing circuit 243, central processor CPU is connected battery voltage detection circuit 210 respectively with analog to digital converter ADC, battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240 is made of sensitive resistance 241, voltage-mode testing circuit 242 and segmented current mould testing circuit 243, it is characterized in that: be provided with segmented current testing circuit 243 in microcontroller 230, battery charging and discharging current detection circuit 240 comprises segmented current testing circuit 243 and voltage-mode testing circuit 242.
The segmented current testing circuit has many reference current circuits CR, each reference current circuit in many reference current circuits connects an end of a comparison circuit CC input, the shunt current Isense of charging current Icharge or the discharging current Idischarge segmented current mould testing circuit of flowing through, segmented current mould testing circuit is in parallel with the sensitive resistance 241 of voltage-mode testing circuit, the output of comparison circuit connects comparand register, and comparand register connects computer bus.
To achieve these goals, the mode that weak current adopts current segmenting to detect adopts current ratio mode to draw measurement result simultaneously, sees among Fig. 2 243; And for big electric current, adopt analog to digital converter that current conversion is carried out analog-to-digital conversion to voltage and obtain data volume, see among Fig. 2 242.Together send and microcontroller as the battery current image data by the data that above-mentioned two parts obtain.
Battery pack 200 is objects that the present invention measures and protects.It can or compose in parallel by single-unit or multi-section serial.
Lithium battery/battery pack metering and guard method circuit based on current subsection detecting technique; can the charging and discharging currents of lithium battery/battery pack be measured and monitor; and detect the voltage/current of lithium battery/battery pack, realize that the protection of overcurrent/overvoltage, short-circuit protection and metering intelligence control circuit comprise:
Analog front-end module: the voltage signal of gathering battery send with microcontroller and measures, and under the commands for controlling of microcontroller, charge and discharge switch is opened or closed control, to finish the control of charging and discharging currents.Simultaneously, analog front-end module provides power supply for microcontroller;
Microcontroller: finish Based Intelligent Control to battery metering and protection.Electric current and the voltage signal gathered are analyzed, finished metering, reflect current battery capacity state electric current by the software in the microcontroller; And according to cell voltage and the electric current gathered, the control analog front-end module realizes the control that discharges and recharges to battery, to realize overcurrent/overvoltage, short-circuit protection;
Current segmenting testing circuit: finish signals collecting to the battery charging and discharging electric current.
Current segmenting testing circuit wherein, in conjunction with the working method of current-mode and voltage-mode, weak current adopts the acquisition mode of current-mode, and big electric current adopts the acquisition mode work of voltage-mode.
The current segmenting testing circuit, the mode that weak current adopts current segmenting to detect is worked; And for big electric current, adopt analog to digital converter that current conversion is carried out analog-to-digital conversion to voltage and obtain data volume.
Current segmenting testing circuit, weak current adopt current comparator to finish the data acquisition of segmented current.
The current segmenting testing circuit, the data that data that the current segmenting detection obtains and analog-to-digital conversion obtain are together sent and microcontroller as the battery current image data.
Lithium battery/battery pack metering and guard method circuit based on current subsection detecting technique; applicable to the notebook that contains the lithium battery group; can the charging and discharging currents of lithium battery/battery pack be measured and monitor; and detect the voltage/current of lithium battery/battery pack, realize overcurrent/overvoltage, short-circuit protection.
The present invention is directed to above-mentioned situation, the technology that provides a kind of current segmenting to detect, the mode that adopts current-mode and voltage-mode to make up is to improve the detection dynamic range and the accuracy of detection of lithium battery/battery pack 200 charging and discharging currents.See Fig. 2 based on the lithium battery/battery pack metering of current segmenting detection and the circuit structure of protection.
Main purpose of the present invention is to solve the inexactness that voltage signal detects in the above-mentioned conventional art, adopts the current-mode mode when detecting little current signal, improves accuracy of detection.
Another main purpose of the present invention is the great dynamic range requirement that solves detection signal in the above-mentioned conventional art, adopts the segmentation detection mode, so just reduce to the requirement of testing circuit dynamic range, the while has also been improved the reliability of accuracy of detection and system.
To achieve these goals, the mode that weak current adopts current segmenting to detect adopts current ratio mode to draw measurement result simultaneously, sees among Fig. 2 243; And for big electric current, adopt analog to digital converter that current conversion is carried out analog-to-digital conversion to voltage and obtain data volume, see among Fig. 2 242.Together send and microcontroller as the battery current image data by the data that above-mentioned two parts obtain.
Battery pack 200 is objects that the present invention measures and protects.It can or compose in parallel by single-unit or multi-section serial.
What Fig. 3 showed is the exemplary construction of this current subsection detecting technique.Adopt the working method of current-mode for the electric current of milliampere (mA) magnitude, carry out current ratio respectively by current comparator, for example ± 100mA, ± 50mA, ± 25mA, ± 10mA, ± 5mA and ± the 1mA segmentation, see among Fig. 3 243, the result is saved in the electric current comparand register.And, when electric current is flowed through sense resistance, terminal voltage is changed for the electric current more than the mA magnitude, and this voltage carries out level shift and is exaggerated, and be converted to the corresponding digital amount by analog to digital converter (ADC), and be saved in the result register of ADC, see among Fig. 3 242.Current segmenting circuit is operated under two kinds of mode of operations:
● the current comparator detection mode
Gallon for milliampere (mA) magnitude adopts the form of segmented current comparator to finish.For example ± 100mA, ± 50mA, ± 25mA, ± 10mA, ± 5mA and ± the 1mA segmentation.From above each segmented current, adopt current mirroring circuit, tell 1% electric current (even can be littler, such as 0.1%), adopt the current-mode comparator to compare then and obtain a result, deposit in the result register then.As seen, adopt the mode of current-mode, can improve certainty of measurement, the value of (1mA 1%) is not a very little amount for the magnitude of current because 0.01mA.For fear of the work of current comparator ADC is surveyed the inaccuracy of being brought, when electric current during greater than 100mA, the current comparator module quits work, and simultaneously, starts ADC work.
● ADC gallon pattern
The digital quantity that voltage drop on the sensitive resistance is converted to through ADC characterizes the current value of current stream.Can learn current by the size (or ohmically polarity of voltage) of judging digital quantity is charged state or discharge condition, and the digital quantity with ADC output is saved in the result register then, and produces interruption, is responded by CPU (CPU).Between one section gallon integration period, carry out n sampling, finish adding up and the calculating of mean value of electric current then.Electric current add up and the calculating of mean value can be finished by hardware, also can finish by software.When electric current during less than 100mA, close ADC by software or hardware, make ADC be in stop mode, so that reduce power consumption.
Like this, by above technology, in this example, the electric current of minimum detectable is for being 1mA.If the sense resistance of usefulness is 10m Ω, needing the maximum current of monitoring is 10A, and then to need detection range be 1mV~100mV to voltage-mode, and the magnitude of voltage minimum that needs to detect also has 1mV, and dynamic range also only is 100 times, and 8 (7 effective accuracies) are just ADC is enough.
But each circuit module among Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 all chip internal is realized or outside the realization.
Though below invention has been described in conjunction with example, be not that protection scope of the present invention is as the criterion with claim institute restricted portion in order to qualification the present invention.Any technology entity or method that other people are finished are if the scope that is defined with claims is identical or for a kind of equivalence change, all will be regarded as being covered by in the protection range of this patent.

Claims (2)

1. the circuit of the lithium battery based on current subsection detecting technique/battery pack metering and protection, connect the utmost point of protected battery/battery pack by discharging and recharging control switch, another utmost point of protected battery/battery pack connects the battery charging and discharging current detection circuit, connect battery voltage detection circuit respectively between protected battery/battery pack series connected battery, battery voltage detection circuit is connected microcontroller with the battery charging and discharging current detection circuit; In the microcontroller by central processor CPU connection mode number converter ADC and voltage-mode testing circuit, central processor CPU is connected battery voltage detection circuit respectively with analog to digital converter ADC, charging and discharging currents testing circuit (240) is made of sensitive resistance (241), voltage-mode testing circuit (242) and segmented current mould testing circuit (243), it is characterized in that: be provided with segmented current mould testing circuit (243) in microcontroller, the battery charging and discharging current detection circuit connects segmented current mould testing circuit (243).
2. the circuit of the lithium battery based on current subsection detecting technique according to claim 1/battery pack metering and protection, it is characterized in that: (1) voltage-mode testing circuit connects the two ends of sensitive resistance (241), charging current Icharge or the discharging current Idischarge sensitive resistance (241) of flowing through forms voltage difference, the voltage-mode testing circuit is converted to digital signal with this voltage difference, and send and CPU; (2) segmented current mould testing circuit has many reference current circuits CR, each reference current circuit in many reference current circuits connects an end of a comparison circuit CC input, the shunt current Isense of charging current Icharge or the discharging current Idischarge segmented current mould testing circuit (243) of flowing through, segmented current mould testing circuit (243) is in parallel with the sensitive resistance (241) of voltage-mode testing circuit, the output of comparison circuit connects comparand register, and comparand register connects computer bus.
CN2008100528356A 2008-04-22 2008-04-22 Lithium battery/battery pack measuring and protecting circuit based on current subsection detecting technique CN101567475B (en)

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JP2011135656A (en) * 2009-12-22 2011-07-07 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Battery system, vehicle with the same, and method for detecting internal short circuit in the battery system
CN103051041A (en) * 2011-10-14 2013-04-17 湖南巨邦新能源科技有限公司 Intelligent following-type charger
CN103515936B (en) * 2013-10-12 2016-01-20 深圳市朗科智能电气股份有限公司 A kind of lithium-ion-power cell electric discharge multi-stage current protection device
CN103762623B (en) * 2013-12-23 2016-01-20 惠州市蓝微电子有限公司 A kind of lithium battery management system integrated circuit
CN104502845A (en) * 2014-11-19 2015-04-08 成都嵌智捷科技有限公司 Over-current protection type electric quantity detection circuit
CN104897953A (en) * 2015-01-30 2015-09-09 中天储能科技有限公司 Accurate lithium battery BMS system charging and discharging current sampling and calculation circuit and control method
CN104931894A (en) * 2015-07-14 2015-09-23 国家电网公司 System for sampling lithium ion battery state parameters
CN107342600A (en) * 2017-01-19 2017-11-10 深圳天邦达科技有限公司 The energy storage battery management system of circulation between a kind of control lithium battery group
CN107092217A (en) * 2017-06-21 2017-08-25 中车株洲电力机车研究所有限公司 A kind of rectification feedback Forecasting Methodology and device based on SOC
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CN108957336A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-12-07 东莞市德尔能新能源股份有限公司 A kind of power battery high_voltage isolation measuring system based on AFE(analog front end)
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