CN101560929A - Variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl - Google Patents

Variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101560929A
CN101560929A CNA2009100854415A CN200910085441A CN101560929A CN 101560929 A CN101560929 A CN 101560929A CN A2009100854415 A CNA2009100854415 A CN A2009100854415A CN 200910085441 A CN200910085441 A CN 200910085441A CN 101560929 A CN101560929 A CN 101560929A
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wall surface
lower wall
adjustable
sidewall
scramjet engine
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CN101560929B (en
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崔凯
杨国伟
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Institute of Mechanics of CAS
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Institute of Mechanics of CAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to a variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl, which comprises side walls and a fixed lower wall surface; two sides of the fixed lower wall surface are provided with the side walls; a turning axle arranged on a lip of the fixed lower wall surface is hinged with an adjustable lower wall surface under the fixed lower wall surface; and the adjustable lower wall surface deflects around the turning axle by the driving of a drive mechanism, and the deflection position of the adjustable lower wall surface is limited by a limiting and locking mechanism. In the variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl, the adjustable lower wall surface deflecting around the lip of the fixed lower wall surface is arranged under the fixed lower wall surface, and the change of aeroperformance of an aerocraft is realized by adjusting the incidence of the adjustable lower wall surface, so that the aerocraft obtains the optimal aeroperformance under different flight regimes.

Description

A kind of variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl
Technical field
The present invention relates to the scramjet engine is the technology of hypersonic aircraft configured of power system, refers to a kind of outer cowling of high aeroperformance of scramjet engine especially.
Background technique
Hypersonic aircraft is meant with 5 Mach or more speed at atmospheric layer with stride the aircraft that flies in the atmospheric layer.When aircraft during with hypersonic flight, wave resistance and frictional resistance sharply increase, and cause the increase of aerodynamical resistance and reducing of motor power nargin, produce the serious resistance matching problem that pushes away.Be the drag reduction lift-rising, guarantee the integral working of aircraft, generally body and motor are carried out the integrated design of height, promptly fuselage precursor and engine inlets combine together, body and nozzle combine together behind the fuselage.
The hypersonic aircraft that with the scramjet engine is power generally can be divided into precursor, motor and three parts of back body, no matter is that U.S.'s X-43A aircraft of having taken a flight test is (referring to Voland R T.Huebner L D.and McClinton C R.
Figure A20091008544100031
Hypersonicvehicle techn0logy development.Acta Astronautica.2006.59:181-191), the x-51 aircraft developed (referring to Graham w, Hyper reality, Aviation Week﹠amp; Space Technology.2008:
Figure A20091008544100032
), other aircraft of still various countries' research and development (as Timothy F.O ' Brien.and M J Lewis, Rocket-BasedCombined-Cycle Engine Integration on an Osculating ConeWaverider Vehicle.Journal of Aircraft.2001.38 (6):
Figure A20091008544100033
With Lobbia M.Suzuki K.Numerical Investigation of
Figure A20091008544100034
Derired Hypersonic Transport Configurations.
Figure A20091008544100035
2003-3804,2003 etc.) all adopt this allocation plan.In this scheme, the aircraft precursor generally adopts the configured scheme of rider body, except that aircraft required part lift and pitch moment are provided, also need serve as the precompression face of engine inlets.Back body generally adopts the collocation form of single wall expanding nozzle, it is main in order to the thrust of aircraft to be provided, simultaneously also to produce lift and pitch moment and (see K G Bowcutt et al, Advancements in Multidisciplinary DesignOptimization Applied t0 Hypersonic Vehicles to Achieve
Figure A20091008544100041
AIAA-2008-2591,2008).
In three constituent elements of above-mentioned aircraft, aircraft precursor (rider body) and back body all are the hot research problem in recent years, pertinent literature is more, newer for (Pan and Yan, Aerodynamic study of three waveriders based on a newoptimizationprocess, AIAA-2008-170,2008) and (D Kliche et al, Multidisciplinary Analysis and Evaluation of
Figure A20091008544100042
Combustion Ramjets, AIAA-2008-2602,2008) etc., its goal in research is mainly the profile by analysis and optimal design precursor and back body, reaches the purpose of improving vehicle lift-drag or increasing thrust.The present inner flow passage part that mainly concentrates on motor of engine section research for aircraft comprises the design of parts such as intake duct, firing chamber, distance piece, also can find a large amount of pertinent literatures and patent etc.But, particularly, do not find pertinent literature or patent as yet to improve the outer cowling configured research of aeroperformance for the outer cowling of motor.With regard to ratio, the length of engine section generally accounts for more than 1/3 of whole hypersonic aircraft length, therefore if can effectively utilize this part, can improve the aeroperformance of whole aircraft largely.
The regime of flight of hypersonic aircraft generally comprises to be quickened and the two states that cruises, and when aircraft is in acceleration flight, need improves the net thrust of motor as far as possible, or reduce the resistance of aircraft as far as possible.When being in average flight state, needing increases the ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient of aircraft under the condition that guarantees motor power and aircraft resistance coupling, to obtain bigger voyage.Obviously, different regime of flight cause different aircraft configuration demands.Constitute from the integral body of aircraft, than aircraft precursor and back body, it is less relatively that the outer cowling of motor is partly born function, a little less than other parts coupling, therefore can consider to be designed to tunable component and the other parts of aircraft are not produced and disturb.The present invention promptly proposes based on above background.
Summary of the invention
Based on above background, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of different flight state at aircraft, use the variable geometry aircraft notion, by changing the angle of the outer adjustable lower wall surface of cowling of motor, realize the change of aircraft aeroperformance, and then under different flight state, obtain optimum aeroperformance.
For achieving the above object, variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl of the present invention, comprise sidewall and fixing lower wall surface, fixedly the both sides of lower wall surface are provided with sidewall, fixedly the turning axle that is provided with on its lip of the below of lower wall surface is hingedly connected with adjustable lower wall surface, this adjustable lower wall surface provides power around described turning axle deflection by driving mechanism, and limits adjustable lower wall surface inflection point by limitation locking mechanism.
Further, the shape of described fixedly lower wall surface and adjustable lower wall surface is identical, and wherein, described fixedly lower wall surface and adjustable lower wall surface are plane or curved surface.
Further, when described adjustable lower wall surface was curved surface, the crowning of adjustable lower wall surface upwards was installed on the described turning axle.
Further, described sidewall be shaped as quadrangular plan, the lower edge of this sidewall is to be the downward-sloping straight line of starting point with fixing lower wall surface lip, its angle of inclination is no more than 8 °.
Further, when described adjustable lower wall surface was plane or curved surface, the extreme lower position of the bottom surface deflection of this adjustable lower wall surface was not less than the plane of the lower edge formation of described two sidewalls.
Further, described drive unit is the aft mounted bullet drawing device of described fixedly lower wall surface, and this bullet drawing device provides power to described adjustable lower wall surface, makes adjustable lower wall surface to the base deflection of described sidewall or to the deflection of described fixedly lower wall surface direction.
Further, described bullet loads and is changed to strong elastic device or small blasting drive unit.
Further, described limitation locking mechanism comprises guide rail that is provided with on the sidewall and the sliding guide that is slidingly matched with guide rail, this guide rail extends and terminates in place, sidewall base to the base of described sidewall from described fixedly lower wall surface, sliding guide is arranged on the described adjustable lower wall surface, and be erected in the described guide rail on the two side, the two ends when the place that sliding guide moves to guide rail fix at guide rail in the groove at place.
Variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl of the present invention, below the fixedly lower wall surface of external cowling of scramjet engine, be provided with around the fixing adjustable lower wall surface of lower wall surface lip deflection, by adjusting the inclination angle of adjustable lower wall surface, realize the change of aircraft aeroperformance, and then under different flight state, obtain optimum aeroperformance.When aircraft is in when quickening regime of flight, movable lower wall surface zero deflection overlaps with fixing lower wall surface, this moment aircraft the long-pending minimum relatively of fluoran stream surface, adjustable lower wall surface inclination angle is less relatively, helps reducing the pressure drag and the shock wave drag of aircraft.When aircraft is in average flight state, movable lower wall surface is (clockwise) deflection several angle (specifically deflection numerical value is determined according to environmental conditions such as flying height, flight Mach number and flying drilling angle) downwards, this moment, the fluoran stream surface of cowling amassed increase, movable lower wall surface can produce extra lift by the compression incoming flow, although resistance increases simultaneously, but ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient can effectively improve, and helps the increase of aircraft voyage.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of external cowling of scramjet engine of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is hypersonic aircraft two dimensional configurations figure;
Fig. 3 is the pressure distribution contour map of configuration among Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 a is the schematic representation of 2 ° of the movable lower wall surface deflections of the outer cowling of the present invention;
Fig. 4 b is the schematic representation of 4 ° of the movable lower wall surface deflections of the outer cowling of the present invention;
Fig. 4 c is the schematic representation of 6 ° of the movable lower wall surface deflections of the outer cowling of the present invention;
Fig. 4 d is the schematic representation of 8 ° of the movable lower wall surface deflections of the outer cowling of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the schematic representation of sidewall of the present invention.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl, comprise sidewall 2 and fixing lower wall surface 3, fixedly the both sides of lower wall surface 3 are provided with sidewall 2, fixedly the turning axle 1 that is provided with on its lip of the below of lower wall surface 3 is hingedly connected with adjustable lower wall surface 4, this is adjustable, and lower wall surface 4 provides power around described turning axle 1 deflection by driving mechanism, and limits adjustable lower wall surface 4 inflection points by limitation locking mechanism.
As shown in Figure 5, sidewall 2 is provided with guide rail 21, adjustable lower wall surface 4 is provided with the sliding guide 41 that can slide in guide rail 21, sliding guide 41 is erected in the guide rail 21 on the two side 2, playing drawing device 5 by one on adjustable lower wall surface 4 and the fixing lower wall surface 3 links to each other, playing drawing device 5 can eject adjustable lower wall surface 4 or pull-up downward or upward, playing drawing device 5 gives adjustable lower wall surface 4 downward power, slide guide 41 on the adjustable lower wall surface 4 moves downward along guide rail 21, thereby adjustable lower wall surface 4 is moved down, when sliding guide 41 moves to the position, base of sidewall 2, it fixes in the groove 22 that is provided with on sidewall 2, makes adjustable lower wall surface 4 in this fixed-site; Play the pulling force that drawing device 5 makes progress for adjustable lower wall surface 4, adjustable lower wall surface 4 can be got back to the position that overlaps with fixing lower wall surface 3 again.
Main design philosophy of the present invention is (being example with curved surface lower wall cowling) here as shown in Figure 1, comprise sidewall 2, fixedly lower wall surface 3 and adjustable lower wall surface 4 three parts altogether, wherein fixing and adjustable lower wall surface 3,4 partially overlaps at lip, two sidewalls 2 are the plane vertical with lower wall surface 3,4, that shape is generally is trapezoidal (or arbitrary quadrilateral, be as the criterion with the actual design demand).2 times end lines of sidewall are generally downward-sloping straight line (its angle of inclination generally is no more than 8 degree).(as lip is straight line to the straight line that adjustable lower wall surface 4 can the lip two-end-point constitutes for axle, promptly be axle with the lip) rotation, when lower wall surface 3,4 is the plane, the maximum deflection position is no more than 2 times end lines of sidewall, when lower wall surface 3,4 is curved surface, be no more than the straight line that two sidewalls, 2 line lower extreme points are connected to form with lip relative edge's inflection point.When movable lower wall surface 4 zero deflections, overlap with fixing lower wall surface 3.
Outer cowling principle analysis of the present invention:
When aircraft is in when quickening regime of flight, movable lower wall surface zero deflection overlaps with fixing lower wall surface, this moment aircraft the long-pending minimum relatively of fluoran stream surface, the lower wall surface inclination angle is less relatively, helps reducing the pressure drag and the shock wave drag of aircraft.When aircraft is in average flight state, movable lower wall surface is (clockwise) deflection several angle (specifically deflection numerical value is determined according to environmental conditions such as flying height, flight Mach number and flying drilling angle) downwards, this moment, the fluoran stream surface of cowling amassed increase, movable lower wall surface can produce extra lift by the compression incoming flow, although resistance increases simultaneously, but ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient can effectively improve, and helps the increase of aircraft voyage.
Outer cowling practice effect check of the present invention:
The present invention program's validity is checked in the following way, and Fig. 2 has provided a kind of hypersonic aircraft two dimensional configurations figure.
Adopt numerical calculation that this configuration is analyzed, design conditions are flying height 25km, flight Mach number 6, and flying drilling angle 2 degree, the motor inlet adopts the extrapolation condition, and engine export is handled (mainly investigating the lift and the resistance of aircraft) as fixed wall.The pressure distribution contour map that numerical calculation obtains as shown in Figure 3.
And then with the basis that is configured as shown in Figure 2, the outer cowling of motor is carried out deflection, from the numerical calculation angle, aforementioned movable lower wall surface is carried out deflection, be equivalent to the cowling lower wall surface is carried out deflection (under hypersonic and condition that rotation angle is less, two wall crevice places do not have to flow substantially, when therefore calculating movable lower wall surface and fixedly the slit between the lower wall surface trailing edge also can be used as wall and handle).With movable lower wall surface turn clockwise respectively 2,4,6,8 the degree after, the aircraft profile of acquisition is respectively as Fig. 4 a, 4b is shown in 4c and the 4d.
Adopt same numerical calculation condition (comprising inlet flow conditions, computing grid yardstick) that above four kinds of external forms are analyzed, institute's result of calculation that obtains is shown in table 1-table 3.(angle of yaw is to show zero deflection, profile promptly shown in Figure 2 at 0 o'clock in the table.
Lift coefficient under the different movable lower wall angle of yaw of table 1 relatively
Figure A20091008544100081
Resistance coefficient under the different movable lower wall angle of yaw of table 2 relatively
Figure A20091008544100082
Ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient under the different movable lower wall angle of yaw of table 3 relatively
Figure A20091008544100083
As can be seen from Table 2, when the drift angle of movable lower wall surface is 0 (zero deflection, movable lower wall surface and fixing lower wall surface coincidence status), the resistance coefficient minimum of aircraft helps the acceleration flight of aircraft this moment.Along with the increase at movable lower wall surface inclination angle, by table 1-table 3 as can be seen, the lift coefficient of aircraft, resistance coefficient and ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient all increase to some extent, but the increase of lift coefficient is more obvious, so ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient significantly increases, when maximum is about zero deflection 3 times.If therefore carry out cruising flight, can effectively increase the voyage of aircraft with this state.In addition, along with the inclination angle of movable lower wall surface is strengthened gradually, the resistance coefficient of aircraft obviously increases, the ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient that shows as aircraft this moment increases slowly (continuing to increase the inclination angle may cause ratio of lift coefficient to drag coefficient to descend), therefore, the angle of swing of movable lower wall surface is unsuitable excessive, generally is advisable to be no more than 8 degree, the lower edge inclination angle of while two sidewalls also has been no more than this angle and has been advisable, to try one's best by reducing the surface friction drag that sidewall brings.
It is the hypersonic aircraft of power that the present invention is only applicable to adopt scramjet engine; Hypersonic aircraft involved in the present invention can adopt sharp leading edge or passivation leading edge, and its design is identical with computational methods; Account for the aircraft of whole aircraft size large percentage for motors such as hypersonic guided missiles, adopt the present invention can more effectively improve the aeroperformance of aircraft.
It is to be noted and any distortion of under design of the present invention, being made according to the specific embodiment of the present invention all do not break away from the protection domain that spirit of the present invention and claim are put down in writing.

Claims (8)

1. external cowling of scramjet engine, comprise sidewall and fixing lower wall surface, fixedly the both sides of lower wall surface are provided with sidewall, it is characterized in that, fixedly the turning axle that is provided with on its lip of the below of lower wall surface is hingedly connected with adjustable lower wall surface, this adjustable lower wall surface provides power around described turning axle deflection by driving mechanism, and limits adjustable lower wall surface inflection point by limitation locking mechanism.
2. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the shape of described fixedly lower wall surface and adjustable lower wall surface is identical, and wherein, described fixedly lower wall surface and adjustable lower wall surface are plane or curved surface.
3. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that, the extreme lower position of the bottom surface deflection of described adjustable lower wall surface is not less than the plane of the lower edge formation of described two sidewalls.
4. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, when described adjustable lower wall surface was curved surface, the crowning of adjustable lower wall surface upwards was installed on the described turning axle.
5. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described sidewall be shaped as quadrangular plan, the lower edge of this sidewall is to be the downward-sloping straight line of starting point with fixing lower wall surface lip, its angle of inclination is no more than 8 °.
6. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described drive unit is the aft mounted bullet drawing device of described fixedly lower wall surface, this bullet drawing device provides power to described adjustable lower wall surface, makes adjustable lower wall surface to the base deflection of described sidewall or to the deflection of described fixedly lower wall surface direction.
7. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 6 is characterized in that, described bullet loads and is changed to strong elastic device or small blasting drive unit.
8. external cowling of scramjet engine as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described limitation locking mechanism comprises guide rail that is provided with on the sidewall and the sliding guide that is slidingly matched with guide rail, this guide rail extends and terminates in place, sidewall base to the base of described sidewall from described fixedly lower wall surface, sliding guide is arranged on the described adjustable lower wall surface, and be erected in the described guide rail on the two side, the two ends when the place that sliding guide moves to guide rail fix at guide rail in the groove at place.
CN2009100854415A 2009-05-22 2009-05-22 Variable incidence scramjet engine outboard cowl Expired - Fee Related CN101560929B (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106270110A (en) * 2016-10-19 2017-01-04 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Trousers punch press process method
CN109018382A (en) * 2018-08-07 2018-12-18 深圳市福来过科技有限公司 A kind of aircraft engine deformation dome structure
CN112483256A (en) * 2020-12-06 2021-03-12 西安长峰机电研究所 Automatic opening and closing device for air inlet of ramjet engine

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
IT1105806B (en) * 1978-04-19 1985-11-04 Palmonari Carlo E Gavioli Gabr DRYING CHAMBER
US6779268B1 (en) * 2003-05-13 2004-08-24 General Electric Company Outer and inner cowl-wire wrap to one piece cowl conversion
FR2892999B1 (en) * 2005-11-08 2008-02-01 Airbus France Sas AIRCRAFT COMPRISING A CENTRAL CARRIAGE PRESSURE ADJUSTER VESSEL BY LOCAL GEOMETRIC DEFORMATIONS

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106270110A (en) * 2016-10-19 2017-01-04 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Trousers punch press process method
CN106270110B (en) * 2016-10-19 2018-04-17 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Radome fairing punch press process method
CN109018382A (en) * 2018-08-07 2018-12-18 深圳市福来过科技有限公司 A kind of aircraft engine deformation dome structure
CN112483256A (en) * 2020-12-06 2021-03-12 西安长峰机电研究所 Automatic opening and closing device for air inlet of ramjet engine
CN112483256B (en) * 2020-12-06 2022-08-23 西安长峰机电研究所 Automatic opening and closing device for air inlet of ramjet engine

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