CN101259548A - Composite electrode for fine electric spark processing - Google Patents

Composite electrode for fine electric spark processing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101259548A
CN101259548A CNA2008100110025A CN200810011002A CN101259548A CN 101259548 A CN101259548 A CN 101259548A CN A2008100110025 A CNA2008100110025 A CN A2008100110025A CN 200810011002 A CN200810011002 A CN 200810011002A CN 101259548 A CN101259548 A CN 101259548A
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electrode
composite electrode
electric spark
processing
electrochemical deposition
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王元刚
赵福令
王津
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Dalian University of Technology
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Dalian University of Technology
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Abstract

A composite electrode for micro electric spark machining pertains to the fields of special processing and micro processing, which is mainly applied in the processing of the micro electric spark deep hole and the three-dimensional milling. The composite electrode is characterized in that the composite electrode is composed of an electrode substrate and an electrochemical deposition layer. The manufacturing method of the composite electrode mainly comprises five processes of preparing the electrode substrate, an activation treatment of added granules, configuring the electrochemical deposition working liquid, carrying out the pre-treatment of the deposition of the electrode substrate and a cathode, implementing electrochemical deposition technique and removing the deposition layer material at the bottom surface of the electrode. The composite electrode has the advantages that the composite electrode can realize the end-surface even loss of the composite electrode in the electric discharge machining with the help of the galvanic corrosion resistance performance difference between the substrate material and the deposition layer material and the blocking and regelation roles of high melting point granules which are dispersed in the deposition layer material on the molten substrate material under the premise of not changing the electric spark discharge machining performance; the composite electrode has simple manufacturing technique and can realize the on-line processing or mass production according to the usage.

Description

Composite electrode for fine electric spark processing
Technical field
The invention belongs to the special process and Micrometer-Nanometer Processing Technology field, relate to a kind of special process combination electrode, refer more particularly to the combination electrode that fine electric spark deep hole and three-dimensional Milling Process are used.
Background technology
Along with the development of industrial miniaturization and precise treatment, the developing direction that is processed into high technology content of miniature deep hole and microscopic three-dimensional structure is such as fine structures such as the little spray among printing ink hole, engine nozzle and the MESM, Micropumps.This class fine structure adopts precision optical machinery processing technology to exist machining accuracy to cannot say for sure shortcomings such as card, working (machining) efficiency are low, complicated shape processing difficulties; In the special process, electron beam and ion beam processing need be carried out under vacuum condition, and limitation is arranged in actual applications; The form accuracy of Laser Processing and surface smoothness are relatively poor usually; LIGA processing needs synchronous light source, and costs an arm and a leg etc., in the fine electric spark process because of contactless stress, as long as the size of control electrode just can realize corresponding shape processing request, be subjected to extensive attention both at home and abroad.What domestic and international now industry and scientific research field generally used is with online making of homogeneous material or shaped electrode, export license is inevitable as can be known from the discharge mechanism of spark machined, and especially the reason of discharge is even more serious in the loss of electrode end surface marginal position easily owing to the tip; The discharge processing that continues causes electrode shape, and great changes will take place, and final workpiece to be machined loses precision; Particularly in the three-dimensional Milling Process of fine electric spark, because export license, actual machining shape differs greatly with desired shapes.Can improve export license to a certain extent even if make electrode with high rigidity, materials with high melting point, but the defective that can not fundamentally overcome homogeneous material and brought.
Following three class patented technology and methods are now disclosed:
The first, as described in patent documentation 1,4, its electrode sections is non-circular, and the discharging gap that is equivalent between electrode and workpiece has increased drain chip removal space, makes good processing stability, and therefore the tapering of processed pore structure is little, precision is high.
Second, as patent documentation 2,3, the employing computer control module is come detecting electrode volumetric wear rate and is adjusted the electrode 3 D motion trace according to actual conditions and come the compensating electrode loss, and scientific paper 1,2 quantitative compensation that adopts, layering compensation, the compensation method on the electrode length direction such as uniform loss is proposed, all in experiment, obtain significantly improvement effect.
The 3rd, be that the surface of online cutting electrode is coated with silver and realizes high conduction and heat conductivility as patent documentation 5, to improve the work piece cut quality.
Patent documentation 1:(China) publication number CN2363821
The patent documentation 2:(U.S.) publication number US5354961
The patent documentation 3:(U.S.) publication number US4345131
Patent documentation 4:(China) publication number CN101108433
Patent documentation 5:(China) publication number CN1060805
Scientific paper 1: Zhao Wansheng, Li Zhiyong, Wang Zhenlong etc. the research of micro three-dimensional structure electric spark milling key technology. Micrometer-Nanometer Processing Technology, 2003 (3): 49-55.
Scientific paper 2:Z.Y.Yu, T.Masuzawa, M.Fujino.Micro-EDM forThree-Dimensional Cavities-Development of Uniform Wear Method.CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, 1998,47 (1): 169-172
Patent documentation 1~5 described technology and method still are the homogeneous material electrode in essence, concentrate the loss at position not improve at electric fields such as electrode seamed edges.Only patent documentation 1~4 described technology is because chip removal is convenient or follow the compound crudy that makes of other processing methods to increase; But the complexity of patent documentation 1,4 described electrode structures has determined its difficulty that electrode is made when the structure of processing fine sizes.
Patent documentation 2,3 and scientific paper 1,2 are subjected to workpiece, electrode material because of export license speed in addition, the variation of technological parameter and discharge condition and changing, so, how to feed back to the loss state in the control system for processing in real time and be the difficult point of this technology, and said method only considers that the compensation of electrode length do not consider the variation of electrode shape electrode compensation.
Patent documentation 5 applied fields are in the Wire-cut Electrical Discharge Machining, its objective is and guarantee electrode side excellent conducting performance, in principle, its essence is not to utilize the electric erosion resistance between the material can difference but utilize high conduction performance to improve crudy, and, silver point is less than 1000 degrees centigrade, and this technology is applied to the variation that has strengthened electrode shape on the contrary in the fine electric spark processing.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of composite electrode for fine electric spark processing, the side of this combination electrode and end face edge have high anti-Characteristics of Spark Erosion, realize the effect of electrode end surface uniform loss in edm process.
Technical scheme of the present invention is to deposit the material that one deck contains refractory particle by electrochemical deposition process on electrode matrix, mainly comprises: the online making electrode or the ready prepd electrode that is installed are as electrode matrix on the fine electric spark machining tool; The used working solutions of technology such as oil removing, etch and electrochemical deposition are implemented in configuration; To electrode matrix, corresponding negative electrode and add particle surface and carry out technical finesse before the necessary electrochemical deposition such as oil removing, etch, activation; Electrochemical deposition one deck thickness is micron-sized composite on the electrode matrix surface; Remove the electrode end surface deposited material layer, obtain needed combination electrode.
Such scheme can realize that the cardinal principle of electrode end surface uniform loss can be summarized as follows: compare with traditional electrode, owing to add the refractory particle with good anti-electric corrosion performance in matrix, composite has lower electrode relative loss factor.Analyze to show that because matrix has lower fusing point, and the powder fusing point is than high many of matrix, the heat that is produced by spark discharge on the electrode is mainly by the matrix conduction, thereby causes the evaporation and the fusing of matrix.The refractory particle of disperse in matrix has barrier effect to the fusion matrix material, can regelation rapidly on particle at discharge batch melting matrix, thereby reduced the ablation amount of electrode material, improved the anti-electric corrosion performance of electrode lateral location and guaranteed the roughness of electrode surface.Therefore composite becomes a sheath layer of electrode end surface, protects the loss of its inner base, concerning end face, has guaranteed the anti-galvanic corrosion ability of end face edge.
Effect of the present invention and benefit are: under the prerequisite that does not change processing characteristics, guaranteed the end surface shape of electrode in discharge processing; The powder concn that is suspended in the electrochemical deposition working solution can be according to the performance adjustment of electrode matrix material to guarantee the loss speed unanimity of combination electrode each position of end face in spark machined; Manufacturing process is simple, can realize on-line machining or batch process according to purposes.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a cylinder combined electrode structure schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is an apparatus structure schematic diagram of making combination electrode.
Among Fig. 1,2,1 electrode matrix, 2 disperses are in the refractory particle of sedimentary deposit, 3 sedimentary deposit materials, 4 dops, 5 annulus, 6 electrochemical deposition working solutions.
Fig. 3 is the combination electrode SEM photo that the embodiment of the invention obtains after enforcement.
Fig. 4 is the combination electrode process spark machined rear electrode loss local pictures that present embodiment obtains after enforcement.
Fig. 5 is that embodiment electrode used therein matrix is in spark machined rear electrode loss local pictures.
The specific embodiment
Describe embodiments of the present invention in detail below in conjunction with technical scheme and accompanying drawing.
The manufacture process of composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of the present invention, is mainly implemented to form by electrode matrix preparation, electrode matrix plating pre-treatment, electrochemical deposition liquid configuration, electrochemical deposition to realize online preparation by means of the fine electric spark machining tool.With the diameter is the pure copper tube electrode manufacturing Cu-ZrB of 0.2mm 2Combination electrode is an example, describes implementation process of the present invention in detail.
Concrete steps are as follows:
Step 1: to ZrB 2Particulate carries out activation processing.Treatment process is as follows: soak 1 hour → deionization washing → 0.5M/L HNO under the magnetic agitation effect in acetone soln 3It is 7 → filtration that solution soaks 2 hours (magnetic agitation) → deionized water rinsing to pH values.
Step 2: preparation Working solution prescription:
Electrochemical deposition working solution formula of liquid
Figure A20081001100200061
Figure A20081001100200071
General etch Working solution prescription (percent by volume)
Figure A20081001100200072
Gloss etch Working solution prescription (percent by volume)
Figure A20081001100200073
Weak etch Working solution prescription (percent by volume)
Figure A20081001100200074
Step 3: on the fine electric spark machining tool, be installed ready prepd homogenous material electrode as electrode matrix 1 by dop 4; Guarantee annulus 5, electrode matrix 1 axis parallel of precipitation equipment.
Step 4: annulus 5 and electrode matrix 1 are carried out the electrochemical deposition pre-treatment.Treatment process is as follows: electrochemical degreasing → deionization washing → general etch → deionization washing → gloss etch → deionization washing → weak etch → deionization washing.Cleaning is to guarantee in the electrochemical deposition process matrix material and ZrB 2Powder 2 materials form the important step of close binder.
Step 5: the electrode through cleaning is placed in the electrochemical deposition working solution 6 that configures, electrode matrix 1 is rotated with constant rate of speed 2r/m, inhomogeneous with the deposition that the elimination geometrical factor causes, in this process, guarantee 6 even, the nothing precipitation generations of electrochemical deposition working solution; Said process is finished under following electrical quantity: average current density 5A/dm 2, pulse frequency 200-2000Hz, dutycycle 10%-90%; 5 minutes working times.
Step 6: under the ultrasonic wave effect, clean combination electrode with deionized water, remove the end face sedimentary deposit simultaneously, promptly obtain Cu-ZrB 2Combination electrode.
Shown in Fig. 3 electrode axis section SEM photo, Cu-ZrB 2Combined electrode structure densification, material evenly distribute.Fig. 4, Fig. 5 be the electrode made through this embodiment with not through the electrode of embodiment under the same condition through processing after, electrode side SEM photo can be found thus, the present invention is to the effect of improving of export license.
In addition, the present invention is not limited to the foregoing description.As long as the item essence identical construction that has and in the desired scope of right of the present invention, put down in writing, produce the technology of identical action effect, all belong in the technical scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a composite electrode for fine electric spark processing is characterized in that this combination electrode is that micron-sized deposited material layer constitutes by electrode matrix with being electrochemically-deposited in the electrode matrix lateral thickness.
2. according to the described composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of claim 1, it is characterized in that manufacture method mainly comprises: steps such as electrode matrix preparation, the configuration of electrochemical deposition working solution, the pre-treatment of electrode matrix deposition, enforcement electrochemical deposition process, removal electrode bottom surface sedimentary deposit material.
3. according to the described composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of claim 1, it is characterized in that electrode matrix is the electrode or the shaped electrode of online making.
4. according to the described composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of claim 1, it is characterized in that preparing that to be mixed with granularity in the electrochemical deposition working solution of this combination electrode be micron-sized particle.
5. according to the described composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of claim 1, it is characterized in that the anti-electric corrosion performance of deposited material layer changes by the content that changes particle in the electrochemical deposition working solution.
6. according to the described composite electrode for fine electric spark processing of claim 1, it is characterized in that the online manufacturing on the fine electric spark machining tool of this combination electrode finishes.
CNA2008100110025A 2008-04-11 2008-04-11 Composite electrode for fine electric spark processing Pending CN101259548A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102950343A (en) * 2012-11-15 2013-03-06 大连理工大学 Method using non-conductive plastic as electrode micro-machining structure
CN106141339A (en) * 2015-04-08 2016-11-23 苏州含光微纳科技有限公司 A kind of multi-electrode fine electric spark forming and machining method and device
CN106964854A (en) * 2016-01-13 2017-07-21 东北林业大学 A kind of complicated electrode preparation method for electrochemistry processing and forming
CN110814449A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-02-21 深圳大学 Gradient material electrode and preparation method thereof
CN113020726A (en) * 2021-03-04 2021-06-25 贵阳航发精密铸造有限公司 Adjustable electrode chuck

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102950343A (en) * 2012-11-15 2013-03-06 大连理工大学 Method using non-conductive plastic as electrode micro-machining structure
CN102950343B (en) * 2012-11-15 2014-10-15 大连理工大学 Method using non-conductive plastic as electrode micro-machining structure
CN106141339A (en) * 2015-04-08 2016-11-23 苏州含光微纳科技有限公司 A kind of multi-electrode fine electric spark forming and machining method and device
CN106964854A (en) * 2016-01-13 2017-07-21 东北林业大学 A kind of complicated electrode preparation method for electrochemistry processing and forming
CN110814449A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-02-21 深圳大学 Gradient material electrode and preparation method thereof
CN110814449B (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-09-08 深圳大学 Gradient material electrode and preparation method thereof
CN113020726A (en) * 2021-03-04 2021-06-25 贵阳航发精密铸造有限公司 Adjustable electrode chuck
CN113020726B (en) * 2021-03-04 2022-07-05 贵阳航发精密铸造有限公司 Adjustable electrode chuck

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