CN101633065B - Microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing system and processing method thereof - Google Patents

Microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing system and processing method thereof Download PDF

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CN101633065B
CN101633065B CN2009101830761A CN200910183076A CN101633065B CN 101633065 B CN101633065 B CN 101633065B CN 2009101830761 A CN2009101830761 A CN 2009101830761A CN 200910183076 A CN200910183076 A CN 200910183076A CN 101633065 B CN101633065 B CN 101633065B
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China
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processing
injection
filter
nozzle
electrolyte
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CN2009101830761A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101633065A (en
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赵建社
李昞晖
黄巍
袁立新
余毅权
张立鑫
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南京航空航天大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing system and a processing method thereof, which belongs to the technical field of electrolysis processing. The microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing system comprises a pulse direct-current power supply, an electrolyte jet injection device, an electrolyte circulating and filtering system, a workpiece installing and fixing system and a worktable motion control system, wherein a filter core body and a nozzle are arranged in the electrolyte jet injection device, are made of metal materials, thereby not only increasing filter effect and eliminating an electrolyte pulsation phenomenon, but also leading the electrolyte to be sufficiently polarized negatively under the function of a high-voltage pulse direct-current electric field and then to transmitted to a position to be processed of a processing workpiece in a high-speed flowing mode, electrochemical anode dissolution is generated at the injection point, the high-quality and efficient processing of microstructures such as small holes, narrow grooves, dimpling pits, and the like are realized by using the numerical control motion of a machine tool worktable.

Description

Microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing and processing method
One, technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing and processing method, belong to technical field of electrolysis processing.
Two, background technology
Along with accurate apparatus product towards high-performance, high reliability and integrated direction fast development, a large amount of different micro-structurals have appearred in product parts, for Aero-Space, the minute aperture of size between 100 μ m~1.5mm that extensively exists in the accurate apparatus product, narrow groove, finedraw, miniature pit, the processing of micro-structurals such as fine indentation, developed multiple minute yardstick processing method at present, mainly contain fine Machining Technology for Cutting and fine special processing technology, wherein fine special processing technology dominate mainly comprises fine electric spark processing, micro-electrochemical machining processing, Laser Processing, the LIGA technology, electron beam processing, ion beam processing and theirs is compound, combination processing.Each manufacturing technology all has its significant advantage, and the limitation of himself is also arranged, and for example electron beam processing, ion beam processing are easy to realize the ultraprecise microfabrication, the machining accuracy height, and because processing is to carry out in a vacuum, machined surface quality, but processing cost is higher; The LIGA technology can produce depth-to-width ratio greater than 500, surface roughness is in the three-dimensional metal micro-structural of sub-micrometer range, extremely current researcher pays close attention to, but it must use the X ray light source of high strength, high collimation and special mask plate, cost is high, and be difficult to the parts with microstructure processing of inclined-plane, cascaded surface, free form surface, simultaneously because the LIGA technology adopts electroforming process, can also be restricted by the metal parts material category of its processing, be generally nickel and copper, therefore in commercial Application, also be restricted.And laser fine processing, though fine electric spark processing all made remarkable progress in the last few years, be easy to realize the process automation, processing for special micro-structural and hard-cutting material part is very favourable, but owing to be subjected to the restriction of process principle, finished surface is easy to generate micro-crack, residual stress and metamorphic layer, influenced the reliability that part uses thus, thereby limited the application of this technology in some product, after making processing, do not produce blemish, people are to improving process conditions, optimizing technology parameters has been done many effort, but still fails so far to tackle the problem at its root.Electrolyzed Processing, the processing of particularly electric liquid bundle (or claiming electric jet) aperture, efficient is higher and be " three do not have " (no recast layer, no residual stress, the non-microcracked) process technology of generally acknowledging, the ripe already aperture processing that is applied to parts such as blade of aviation engine such as the U.S., Britain, Russia, China also began to be applied in recent years, had more successfully solved the recast layer problem.In the process, work piece connects positive pole, in being the insulating glass pipe nozzle of contraction shape, there are a wire or metal tube to connect negative pole, between positive and negative electrode, add 100~1000V high voltage direct current, the electrolyte that the acidproof high-pressure pump of low discharge will purify is pressed into the conductive seal head and enters in the glass tube electrode, after " negative polarization ", " cutting " processing is carried out at the position to be processed of high fast direction processing work.But the glass atomizer that uses in its processing is cracked easily, has influenced the stability of processing, and in addition, manufacturing and designing of glass tube nozzle is extremely complicated, has increased the technical costs of commercial Application virtually.
Three, summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of simple in structure, stable performance, microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing and processing method that machining accuracy is high.
A kind of microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing, comprise high-voltage pulse power source, electrolyte jet injection apparatus, the circulate electrolyte filtration system, workpiece installs and fixes and the working table movement control system, it is characterized in that: above-mentioned electrolyte jet injection apparatus comprises the injection apparatus housing with circular cylindrical cavity, be installed on the nozzle of injection apparatus housing bottom, be installed on the filter body in the injection apparatus housing, and be wrapped in filter screen on the filter body external cylindrical surface, filter body has been divided into two parts with the circular cylindrical cavity of injection apparatus housing, annular chamber between injection apparatus housing and filter body is an outer chamber, and the circular cylindrical cavity that filter body and nozzle form is an inner chamber body; Electrolyte only can enter outer chamber by the inlet that is arranged on the injection apparatus housing, and then enters inner chamber body through numerous apertures of filter screen on being distributed in filter body, after the position to be processed of nozzle directive workpiece; Above-mentioned injection apparatus housing links to each other to feed shaft with Z by the insulating mounting seat; Above-mentioned injection apparatus housing, nozzle, filter body are the metallic conduction material, wherein the exposed parts of injection apparatus housing and nozzle is handled through insulation, the positive pole of high-voltage pulse power source links to each other with workpiece by the workpiece sectional fixture, negative pole links to each other with filter body, and above-mentioned workpiece sectional fixture also is the metallic conduction material.
A kind of pulse electrolysis jet processing method of utilizing above-mentioned pulse electrolysis jet system of processing, it is characterized in that: electrolyte is under the effect of hydraulic pump in the process, through entering the outer chamber of injection apparatus housing and filter body formation from the feed liquor connector behind the two-stage filter, enter in the inner chamber body of filter body and nozzle formation by filter screen after being full of outer chamber, under the high-voltage pulse power source effect,, produce the electrochemistry anodic solution at the spray site place and remove material by the position to be processed of abundant " negative polarization " back from the high fast direction workpiece of nozzle.The electrolyte injection apparatus adopts not feeding or smaller or equal to the mode of trace through giving of primary clearance, in conjunction with by platen and the Z numerical control campaign to feed shaft, thereby realizes the high-quality and efficient processing of micro-structurals such as aperture, narrow groove, nick hole.
Beneficial effect: the electrolysis jet flow system of processing among the present invention is to realize the microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing technology and custom-designed, comprises high-voltage pulse power source, electrolysis jet flow injection apparatus, circulate electrolyte filtration system, workpiece installs and fixes and the working table movement control system.Wherein the electrolyte injection apparatus is to realize that electrolyte filters electrolyte before forming spraying liquid bunch, the pulsation phenomenon that elimination is caused by hydraulic pump equal pressure element, the abundant key of " negative polarization ", its key structure is the innovative design of injection apparatus inner filter core body, filter body and nozzle have all adopted metal material (as brass material) to make, conduct electricity very well, electrolyte is full of the inner chamber body of whole filter body in the process, under the high-voltage pulse power source effect, can make electrolyte by abundant " negative polarization ", and because filter body has been divided into inner chamber body and outer chamber with the cavity of injection apparatus housing, the existence of filter screen makes that electrolyte flow need overcome big resistance between interior outer chamber, can be effectively to electrolyte filtering and alleviate, even elimination pulsation phenomenon, make electrolyte pass through to form stable electrolyte jet beam behind the nozzle, and has a breaking length that processing needs, make add man-hour nozzle and workpiece can keep certain primary clearance, when processing is carried out under the Z axle drives, injection apparatus can be done the feed motion less than primary clearance, and nozzle does not go deep into the aspect ratio that machining area just can improve electrolysis jet flow processing, thereby can realize aperture by the plane motion of workbench, narrow groove, groove, the high-quality processing of various micro-structurals such as pit improves the electrolysis jet flow processing flexibility and processing.Because whole injection apparatus has adopted metal material, outer surface and sprayed insulated paint, make it possible to avoid the broken easily phenomenon of glass atomizer in the electric liquid Shu Xiaokong processing, thereby improve the stability of process.In addition, the use of high-voltage pulse power source also can improve the locality of electrolysis jet flow processing to a certain extent, thereby improves machining accuracy.Whole electrolysis jet flow processing unit (plant) system architecture is simple, the use aspect, in conjunction with the electrolysis jet flow processing technology, is expected to realize the high-quality and efficient processing of various micro-structurals, has the important application prospect.
Four, description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of pulse electrolysis jet processing unit (plant) of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a pulse electrolysis jet processing unit (plant) system diagram of the present invention.
Number in the figure title: 1, feed liquor connector, 2, Z is to feed shaft, 3, the insulating mounting seat, 4, plug, 5, seal washer, 6, filter body, 7, filter screen, 8, the injection apparatus housing, 9, nozzle, 10, electrolysis jet flow injection apparatus, 11, work box, 12, workpiece, 13, the workpiece sectional fixture, 14, X, Y two-way feed workbench, 15, liquid back pipe, 16, electrolytic bath, 17, grade one filter, 18, pressure regulating overflow valve, 19, hydraulic pump, 20, ball valve, 21, hydralic pressure gauge, 22, secondary filter, 23, high-voltage pulse power source.
Five, the specific embodiment
The device of realizing minute yardstick electrolysis jet flow processing technology of the present invention comprises high-voltage pulse power source, electrolysis jet flow injection apparatus, circulate electrolyte filtration system, workpiece installs and fixes and the working table movement control system.
Circulate electrolyte filtration system in the system of processing comprised grade one filter 17, secondary filter 22, pressure regulating overflow valve 18, hydraulic pump 19, ball valve 20, feed liquor connector 1, work box 11, liquid back pipe 15 and electrolytic bath 16.Add man-hour electrolyte under the effect of hydraulic pump 19 by grade one filter 17, pressure regulating overflow valve 18, ball valve 20, secondary filter 21, enter in the electrolysis jet flow injection apparatus 10 through feed liquor connector 23, pass through the work surface of nozzle 9 high fast direction workpiece then, electrolyte after the processing imports work box 11 bottoms, is back to electrolytic bath 16 for recycling via liquid back pipe 15.Electrolyte pressure and flow are regulated by pressure regulating overflow valve 18 and ball valve 20 in the process, and the electrolyte pressure situation of change shows by hydralic pressure gauge 21.
High-pressure electrolysis liquid jet injection apparatus in the system of processing comprises insulating mounting seat 3, plug 4, seal washer 5, filter body 6, filter screen 7, injection apparatus housing 8, nozzle 9.Electrolyte enters in the annular outer-cavity body that filter body 6 and injection apparatus body 8 form through feed liquor connector 23, be full of outer chamber after, see through the inner chamber body that filter screen 7 enters filter body 6 under pressure, through the work surface of nozzle 9 high fast direction workpiece.Nozzle 9 and filter body 6 all adopt the good brass material manufacturing of electric conductivity, nozzle 9 is installed in the cylinder shape groove of injection apparatus housing 8 bottom interior wall, filter body 6 is pressed on the nozzle 9 nozzle is carried out Z to fixing, pulse dc power 23 negative poles link to each other with filter body 6 in the injection apparatus, the inner chamber body that is formed by filter body and nozzle all has negative electricity like this, makes that electrolyte therein can be by abundant " negative polarization ".The innovative design of filter body, make electrolyte to be filtered again, can also further eliminate because the pulsation phenomenon that hydraulic pump equal pressure device causes, unique metallic nozzle structural design can either guarantee that the electrolyte jet beam has the stable breaking length that satisfies processing request, and in process, the nozzle fracture phenomena can not occur, improve processing stability greatly.The outer surface of injection apparatus body is coated with insulating barrier to guarantee the integral insulation of whole injection apparatus, makes situations such as avoiding short circuit, discharge in process to have improved the security of processing.
Workpiece in the system of processing installs and fixes and the working table movement control system comprises Z to feed shaft 2, workpiece 12, workpiece sectional fixture 13 and X, Y two-way feed workbench 14.Workpiece 12 is by workpiece sectional fixture 13 and 23 anodal linking to each other of high-voltage pulse power source, and have the high-pressure pulse direct current field between injection apparatus shell 8 bodies, the electrolyte jet behind the negative polarization produces the electrochemistry anodic solution at the workpiece work surface and removes material under the high-pressure pulse direct current field action.There is the initial manufacture gap between workpiece 12 and the nozzle 9, electrolysis jet flow injection apparatus 10 links to each other to feed shaft 2 with Z by insulating mounting seat 3, can do microfeed less than primary clearance with the increase aspect ratio to feed shaft 2 to workpiece 12 by control Z with the carrying out of processing.Workpiece 12 and workpiece sectional fixture 13 are fixed in X, and on the Y two-way feed workbench 14, by control X, Y two-way feed workbench 14 can process micro-structurals such as narrow groove, groove on workpiece.
Minute yardstick electrolysis jet flow technological method for processing of the present invention is to utilize above-mentioned electrolysis jet flow system of processing, the positive pole of high-voltage pulse power source 23 is connect on the workpiece sectional fixture 13, make the workpiece positively charged, on the negative pole connection filter element body 6 with the pulse power 23, make filter body 6 and nozzle 9 electronegative, thereby make electrolyte can be after feed liquor connector 1 enters injection apparatus 10 under the effect of hydraulic pump 19 by fully " negative polarization ", form electrolyte jet beam through nozzle 9 backs with stable breaking length, the position to be processed of directive workpiece 12, remove metal material based on electrochemistry anodic solution principle, by platen 14 and Z numerical control campaign, can realize the aperture of great surface quality to feed shaft 2, narrow groove, the processing of micro-structurals such as nick hole.Microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing technology based on system of processing of the present invention has the characteristics high, that surface quality is good, machining accuracy is high of stablizing of processing.
As shown in Figure 1, injection apparatus housing 8 bottom interior wall are provided with the cylinder shape groove of laying nozzle 9, nozzle 9 is installed in this groove, axially be fixed by filter body 6, injection apparatus housing 8 has served as the mount pad of nozzle 9 like this, and filter body 6 has served as clamping element, simple in structure, because nozzle 9 is mounted in the inwall of injection apparatus housing 8, prevents drainage easily, sealing is better.

Claims (3)

1. microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing comprises high-voltage pulse power source, electrolyte jet injection apparatus, circulate electrolyte filtration system, workpiece installs and fixes and the working table movement control system,
It is characterized in that:
Above-mentioned electrolyte jet injection apparatus comprises injection apparatus housing (8), the nozzle (9) that is installed on the injection apparatus housing bottom with circular cylindrical cavity, be installed on the filter body (6) in the injection apparatus housing (8) and be wrapped in filter screen (7) on the filter body external cylindrical surface, filter body (6) has been divided into two parts with the circular cylindrical cavity of injection apparatus housing, annular chamber between injection apparatus housing (8) and filter body (6) is an outer chamber, and the circular cylindrical cavity that filter body (6) and nozzle (9) form is an inner chamber body;
Electrolyte only can enter outer chamber by the inlet that is arranged on the injection apparatus housing (8), and then enters inner chamber body through numerous apertures of filter screen (7) on being distributed in filter body (6), after the position to be processed of nozzle (9) directive workpiece (12);
Above-mentioned injection apparatus housing (8) links to each other to feed shaft (2) with Z by insulating mounting seat (3);
Above-mentioned injection apparatus housing (8), nozzle (9), filter body (6) are the metallic conduction material, wherein the exposed parts of injection apparatus housing (8) and nozzle (9) is handled through insulation, the positive pole of high-voltage pulse power source (23) links to each other with workpiece (12) by workpiece sectional fixture (13), negative pole links to each other with filter body (6), and above-mentioned workpiece sectional fixture (13) also is the metallic conduction material.
2. microscale pulse electrolysis jet system of processing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: injection apparatus housing (8) bottom interior wall is provided with the cylinder shape groove of laying nozzle (9), nozzle (9) is installed in this groove, axially is fixed by filter body (6).
3. pulse electrolysis jet processing method of utilizing the described pulse electrolysis jet of claim 1 system of processing is characterized in that:
Electrolyte is under the effect of hydraulic pump (19) in the process, through entering the outer chamber of injection apparatus housing (8) and filter body (6) formation from feed liquor connector (1) behind the two-stage filter, enter in the inner chamber body of filter body (6) and nozzle (9) formation by filter screen (7) after being full of outer chamber, quilt abundant " negative polarization " back is from the position to be processed of the high fast direction workpiece of nozzle (9) (12) under high-voltage pulse power source (23) effect, produce the electrochemistry anodic solution at the spray site place and remove material, by platen (14) and Z numerical control campaign, thereby realize aperture to feed shaft (2), narrow groove, the high-quality and efficient processing of micro-structurals such as nick hole.
CN2009101830761A 2009-07-30 2009-07-30 Microscale pulse electrolysis jet processing system and processing method thereof CN101633065B (en)

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