CN101251371A - Method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement - Google Patents

Method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101251371A
CN101251371A CNA2008100445993A CN200810044599A CN101251371A CN 101251371 A CN101251371 A CN 101251371A CN A2008100445993 A CNA2008100445993 A CN A2008100445993A CN 200810044599 A CN200810044599 A CN 200810044599A CN 101251371 A CN101251371 A CN 101251371A
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China
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target
displacement
laser
collimation
tunnel
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CNA2008100445993A
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CN100552377C (en
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宋冶
王刚
任和东
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China Railway Southwest Research Institute Co Ltd
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China Railway Southwest Research Institute Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a laser-collimated TBM tunnel clearance displacement monitoring method which is realized by utilizing a longitudinal intervisible space between a heading machine and the circumference of a tunnel and applying the laser collimation principle to a tripod position of a vault and side walls on both sides. The invention is characterized in that: target devices are respectively arranged at the tripod position close to a cutterhead shield tail of the heading machine, a collimated laser source is arranged at the same position which has the distance L not less than 5D (tunnel diameter) behind the target devices, the collimated laser source emits reference beams emitting to the target devices, and the target devices make active homing to measure the displacement. The method can obtain maximum clearance displacement on the cross section within the range of the heading machine and the rear supporting equipment, thereby realizing the clearance displacement monitoring under the TBM construction environment. The invention has the characteristic of large measurement range, and particularly adapts to the deformation monitoring of the soft wall rock. The method is realized and verified under the construction environment of Robbins and Wirth heading machines, and has reliable technology and strong applicability.

Description

A kind of method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement
Technical field
The invention belongs to and use the technical field that laser carries out displacement measurement, relate to the Tunnel Excavation Monitoring method that the tunnel clearance displacement measures under a kind of TBM of being applicable to and the shield-tunneling construction environment.
Background technology
In TBM (rock tunnel(ling) machine) construction,, in this length range, carry out tunnel clearance displacement measurement and be difficult to effectively implement with the existing tunnel monitoring method because development machine and back support equipment almost occupy the whole space of tunnel excavation face rear 160~170m scope.If adopt routine to have dipstick metering survey (convergence gauge and spirit-leveling instrument) and total powerstation not to have means such as dipstick metering survey, because stopping of development machine and back support equipment all is difficult to play a role in this scope.Therefore, data at home and abroad and case history show that the experience of carrying out the tunnel clearance displacement monitoring at present under the TBM execution conditions extremely lacks.For the headroom displacement that solves in development machine and the back support equipment scope measures, need have breakthrough and innovate at the tunnel monitoring technology under the TBM execution conditions.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to: the tunnel clearance displacement monitoring method under a kind of TBM of being applicable to construction environment is provided, can measure development machine and back support equipment scope inner tunnel vault vertical displacement and both sides abutment wall horizontal shift, conventionally have dipstick metering survey and total powerstation not to have means such as dipstick metering survey to be subjected to development machine equipment to stop the technical barrier that to implement to monitor thereby solve.
But the present invention utilizes vertical intervisibility space between development machine and the tunnel perimeter, measures and realize that its method is as follows by vault and 3 positions of both sides abutment wall being used the laser alignment principle:
1) is being close to development machine cutterhead shield afterbody, burying measuring point underground and the target device is installed at vault and abutment wall maximum span place, both sides scar respectively;
2) the collimation laser source is installed in the stable location that is not less than footpath, 5 times of holes at target device rear, and it provides reference beam directive target device;
3) when development machine advances, surrouding rock deformation makes the displacement thereupon of target device, by the target on the manual or electronic slip target device, the hot spot that its alignment is produced on target shows that by the electronic digit on the target device measurement module measures and read the displacement of country rock then.
In the method, vault and abutment wall maximum span place, both sides generally are the maximum positions that tunnel cross-section produces distortion, its displacement vector mainly is positioned at vertically on (vault) and horizontal direction (abutment wall), and this method adopts above-mentioned 3 positions to measure the maximum displacement that can obtain on the section.The stable location of surrouding rock deformation should be located in the collimation laser source, so that stable reference beam to be provided.According to the steric effect of surrouding rock deformation, general surrouding rock deformation mainly occurs in footpath, 3 times of holes of face, exceeds this length surrouding rock deformation and has become stable.This method directly considers by being not less than 5 times of holes, and purpose is to guarantee that lasing light emitter is located at stable location.(as the swelling property country rock) can adopt series connection relay mode that lasing light emitter is caused and be not less than footpath, 10 times of holes even farther in case of necessity, is located at stable location to guarantee lasing light emitter, and this has just guaranteed to implement the engineering reliability of this method.
In the method, the target device that uses adopts the portable structure of loading and unloading fast, only when measuring, install, surveyed promptly and taken off, make whole measurement process can finish the measurement task of all measuring points, having the construction of not being subjected to and disturbing (especially development machine support boots displacement and sprayed concrete, set up link such as steelframe) and characteristic with low cost with a target device.Simultaneously, the target device adopts active homing metering system to measure displacement (repeatability precision<0.5mm), have the characteristic that the not available great-scale displacement of the laser displacement system of chip array elements such as PSD, CCD measures (>150mm), adapt to the deformation monitoring requirement of weak surrounding rock especially.Described target device is easy and simple to handle, and whole measurement process only needs a people can finish (and routine has the dipstick metering survey generally to need two people just can finish).Measurement module on the target device adopts the electronic digit display mode, makes things convenient for reading of data and has higher displacement resolution (0.01mm).
In the method, for cooperating the target device mobility of loading and unloading fast, measuring point spare adopts magnetic texure, embeds high energy magnetic core and register pin on it, makes the absorption of target device and measuring point spare and forces centering.Simultaneously, the recyclable repeated use of described measuring point spare.
In the method, for adapting to the active homing metering system of slidingtype target device, lasing light emitter adopts high-performance small light spot collimation laser device, has Heat stability is good, range inner light beam non-jitter and disperses little, the sharp-edged characteristic of hot spot, can improve the target-seeking precision of target device.Simultaneously, laser stent adopts the universal spherical joint structure, 360 ° and any rotary laser of vertical direction ± 30 ° scope in the horizontal direction, alignment targets device when being convenient to reference beam and locating.
The installation of above-mentioned lasing light emitter and measuring point spare is very simple, all only needs to bore a mounting hole and get final product on scar.
In sum, at the tunnel clearance displacement monitoring under the TBM construction environment, but the method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement that the present invention proposes utilizes vertical intervisibility space between development machine and the tunnel perimeter, carries out 3 measurements at vault and both sides abutment wall, can in development machine and back support equipment scope, obtain on the section maximum net room and move, thereby realize headroom displacement monitoring under the TBM construction environment.System adopts active homing metering system, the laser displacement system that is different from chip array elements such as PSD, CCD, have the wide range characteristic (>150mm), adapt to the deformation monitoring of weak surrounding rock especially, and measurement accuracy satisfies request for utilization (repeatability<0.5mm, resolution 0.01mm).Simultaneously, system architecture is simple, and simple installation measures easily row (only needing a people to finish), and is with low cost, is convenient to promote.This method is verified in the construction environment of Robbins and two kinds of tunneller types of Wirth, and its technology is reliable, applicability is strong.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a monitoring system arrangenent diagram of the present invention, and left side figure is vertical view, and right figure is the transversal section;
Fig. 2 is the technical solution of the present invention fundamental diagram, and left side figure is a skiagraph, and right figure is the transversal section;
Fig. 3 is target device of the present invention and measuring point structural drawing;
Fig. 4 is collimation laser source structure figure in the monitoring system of the present invention.
Mark among the figure: 1 is the target device, and 2 are the collimation lasing light emitter, and 3 is target, 4 bury bar underground for built-in fitting, and 5 for holding out against nut, and 6 is magnetic measuring point spare, 7 is register pin, and 8 is the high energy magnetic core, and 9 is the high energy magnetic core, 10 is slide rule, 11 is high-performance small light spot collimation laser device, and 12 is universal spherical joint, and 13 is laser stent, 14 is locking knob, u 0For being subjected to displacement u before the test of shield tail 1For measuring displacement, u 1maxFor maximum is measured displacement, u MaxBe full displacement maximal value.A is a vault, and B is abutment wall maximum span place, and C is the cutterhead shield, and D is the footpath, hole.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, be close to development machine cutterhead shield tail C, at vault A and the both sides B of abutment wall maximum span place scar target device 1 be installed respectively, collimation laser source 2 is installed in the identical point position that is not less than footpath, 5 times of holes D distance L at its rear, and the latter sends reference beam by vertical intervisibility space directive target device 1 between development machine and the tunnel perimeter.When development machine advanced, surrouding rock deformation made target device 1 displacement thereupon, aimed at hot spot (groove is aimed at or the control of linear array element) by the target on (manual or electronic) the target device 1 that slides 3, measured and read displacement by measurement module 9.Repeatability precision<the 0.5mm (calibrating of 40m baseline field) that measures, displacement resolution 0.01mm, displacement range>150mm.
Require collimation laser source 2 to be located at surrouding rock deformation in the enforcement and stablized the location, so that stable reference beam to be provided.According to the steric effect of surrouding rock deformation, general surrouding rock deformation mainly occurs in the footpath D of 3 times of holes of face, exceeds this length surrouding rock deformation stable (u as shown in Figure 2, that become Max=u 0+ u 1maxWhen measuring point is close to the shield tail and is buried underground, u 0Very I is ignored, the u that surveys 1Be main displacement in the surrouding rock deformation, u Max≈ u 1max).Implement press L ≮ 5D and consider, purpose is to guarantee that lasing light emitter 2 is located at stable location, and (as the swelling property country rock) can adopt the relay mode of connecting that lasing light emitter 2 is caused L ≮ 10D even stable location is located to guarantee lasing light emitter in the farther place in case of necessity.Simultaneously, vault and abutment wall maximum span place, both sides generally are the maximum positions that tunnel cross-section produces distortion, and its displacement vector mainly is positioned at vertically on (vault) and horizontal direction (abutment wall), and employing above-mentioned 3 positions measurement can be obtained maximum displacement on the section in the enforcement.Said method is verified in Robbins and two kinds of tunneller type construction environments of Wirth.
Described target device 1 adopts the portable structure of loading and unloading fast, only forces centering to be installed on the measuring point spare 6 by magnetic and register pin when measuring, and has surveyed promptly and has taken off, the interference of can avoid development machine support boots displacement and pneumatically placed concrete, setting up construction links such as steelframe.Whole measurement process only uses a target device can finish the measurement task of all measuring points.Simultaneously, target device 1 adopts active homing metering system, has the great-scale displacement that the laser displacement system of chip array elements such as PSD, CCD do not possess and measures characteristic, adapts to the deformation monitoring of weak surrounding rock especially.Measuring point spare 6 adopts magnetic texure, embeds high energy magnetic core 8 and register pin 7 on it, is used for adsorption target device 1 and makes it to force centering.Measuring point spare 6 is buried by screw thread and built-in fitting that bar 4 is connected underground and is fastening with holding out against nut 5.
High-performance small light spot collimation laser device 11 is adopted in described collimation laser source 2, the effective range 40~60m of reference beam (being suitable for the tunnel clearance displacement monitoring of footpath, hole 8~10m), spot diameter 5~10mm, edge clear, non-jitter in the effective range.Laser stent 13 adopts universal spherical joints 12,360 ° and any rotary laser of vertical direction ± 30 ° scope in the horizontal direction, alignment targets device 1 when being convenient to the reference beam location, the i.e. fixing universal spherical joint 12 of usefulness locking knob 14 behind the reference beam location.
The built-in fitting of measuring point spare 6 and laser stent 13 all adopts the identical bar 4 of burying underground, and it is buried underground only needs to bore one on scar Mounting hole gets final product.
Burying underground of the installation of said system, measurement and built-in fitting, the platform that all utilizes development machine and back support equipment to provide carries out, and target the utensil wherein electronic and control of linear array element has the remote measurement characteristic, and its measurement need not to utilize above-mentioned platform.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement, utilize vertical intervisibility space between development machine and the tunnel perimeter, measure and realize that its feature is as follows by vault and 3 positions of both sides abutment wall being used the laser alignment principle:
1) be close to development machine cutterhead shield (C) afterbody, bury measuring point spare (6) underground and target device (1) be installed at vault (A) and abutment wall maximum span place, both sides (B) scar respectively;
2) collimation laser source (2) is installed in the identical point position that is not less than the stable location in 5 times of footpaths, hole (D) at target device (1) rear, and the latter sends reference beam by vertical intervisibility space directive target device (1) between development machine and the tunnel perimeter;
3) when development machine advances, surrouding rock deformation makes target device (1) displacement thereupon, by the target (3) on the manual or electronic slip target device (1), the hot spot that its alignment is produced on target shows that by the electronic digit on the target device (1) measurement module (9) measures and read the displacement of country rock then.
2, according to the described a kind of method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement of claim 1, it is characterized in that: used target device (1) adopts the portable structure and the active homing metering system of loading and unloading fast in the measurement; Used measuring point spare (6) adopts magnetic texure, embeds high energy magnetic core (8) and register pin (7) on it; High-performance small light spot collimation laser device (11) is adopted in used collimation laser source (2), and the latter is locked on the laser stent (13) by universal spherical joint (12) and locking knob (14).
3, according to the described a kind of method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement of claim 2, it is characterized in that: the built-in fitting of described measuring point spare (6) and laser stent (13), all adopt the identical bar (4) of burying underground.
CNB2008100445993A 2008-04-14 2008-04-14 A kind of method for monitoring laser collimation TBM tunnel clearance displacement Expired - Fee Related CN100552377C (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101886916A (en) * 2010-06-13 2010-11-17 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Optical observation device of deformation in surrounding rock
CN101975063A (en) * 2010-09-10 2011-02-16 中国矿业大学 Laser guided positioning and orientation device and method of roadheader
CN102506722A (en) * 2011-11-21 2012-06-20 北京中煤矿山工程有限公司 Method for testing displacement of frost wall
CN103573270A (en) * 2013-08-02 2014-02-12 石家庄铁道大学 TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) arc-shaped top shield and method for carrying out surrounding rock supporting by using top shield
CN110081827A (en) * 2019-05-30 2019-08-02 上海隧道工程有限公司 Gap of the shield tail automatic testing method of the machine vision without object of reference
CN111255472A (en) * 2020-02-25 2020-06-09 山东大学 TBM automatic escaping and supporting boot system and method for karst cave unfavorable geology

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19513116A1 (en) * 1995-04-07 1996-10-10 Misoph Rotraud Contactless measurement of tunnel profile or road surface e.g. motorway
CN100504029C (en) * 2004-02-18 2009-06-24 华中科技大学 Electronic laser target of tunnel digging construction guiding system
CN2938029Y (en) * 2006-07-28 2007-08-22 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Device for monitoring tunnel type engineering deformation

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101886916A (en) * 2010-06-13 2010-11-17 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Optical observation device of deformation in surrounding rock
CN101886916B (en) * 2010-06-13 2011-08-17 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Optical observation device of deformation in surrounding rock
CN101975063A (en) * 2010-09-10 2011-02-16 中国矿业大学 Laser guided positioning and orientation device and method of roadheader
CN101975063B (en) * 2010-09-10 2012-08-08 中国矿业大学 Laser guided positioning and orientation device and method of roadheader
CN102506722A (en) * 2011-11-21 2012-06-20 北京中煤矿山工程有限公司 Method for testing displacement of frost wall
CN103573270A (en) * 2013-08-02 2014-02-12 石家庄铁道大学 TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) arc-shaped top shield and method for carrying out surrounding rock supporting by using top shield
CN110081827A (en) * 2019-05-30 2019-08-02 上海隧道工程有限公司 Gap of the shield tail automatic testing method of the machine vision without object of reference
CN111255472A (en) * 2020-02-25 2020-06-09 山东大学 TBM automatic escaping and supporting boot system and method for karst cave unfavorable geology

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