CN101055991B - 380V system active power filtering device - Google Patents380V system active power filtering device Download PDF
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- CN101055991B CN101055991B CN2006100350388A CN200610035038A CN101055991B CN 101055991 B CN101055991 B CN 101055991B CN 2006100350388 A CN2006100350388 A CN 2006100350388A CN 200610035038 A CN200610035038 A CN 200610035038A CN 101055991 B CN101055991 B CN 101055991B
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- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
- Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
- Y02E40/00—Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
- Y02E40/20—Active power filtering [APF]
The present invention relates to a kind of 380V system active power filtering device, particularly utilize power electronic technology, adopt the power electronic device exploitation and be applied in the active filter that the quality of power supply is controlled in the electric power system.
In the practical application, eliminate the electric power system harmonic wave and mainly take two kinds of filtering methods: Passive LC filter and Active Power Filter-APF filtering.
What application was maximum on the present engineering is the Passive LC filter, and it is simple in structure, small investment, and reliability is high, and operating cost is also lower.Passive filter (Passive Power Filter is called for short PPF) normally adopts power capacitor, reactor and resistance to combine by functional requirement.Its filtering principle provides a parallelly connected low impedance path, and filtering characteristic is determined by the impedance ratio of system and filter, so just there is following shortcoming in PPF:
(1) influenced by system parameters and operating condition bigger for filtering characteristic, the design difficulty of getting up.Resonance frequency depends on component parameters, therefore can only carry out filtering to main harmonic wave.The drift of LC parameter will cause filtering characteristic to change, and make filtering performance unstable;
(2) electrical network parameter and LC possibly produce parallel resonance, thereby this order harmonic components is amplified, and grid supply quality descends;
(3) filtering requirements and reactive power compensation, pressure regulation require to be difficult to coordinate;
(4) passive parameter is easy to drift about after wearing out, thereby does not finally reach the filter effect of expection.
Active Power Filter-APF (Active Power Filter; Be called for short APF); Promptly utilize controlled power semiconductor to inject and the electric current that the harmonic source current amplitude equates, phase place is opposite to electrical network, the total harmonic current that makes power supply is zero, to reach the purpose of real-Time Compensation harmonic current.It is compared with passive filter, and following characteristics are arranged:
(1) can not only compensate each harmonic, also can suppress flickering, compensating reactive power has the characteristics of one-machine-multi-function, and is comparatively reasonable on cost performance;
(2) filtering characteristic does not receive the influence of system impedance etc., can eliminate the danger with system impedance generation resonance;
(3) have Control Parameter self-adjusting function, but the harmonic wave that automatic tracking and compensating changes promptly have characteristics such as high controllability and fast-response.
Before this, the domestic research that also has a lot of to active power filter: for example, coupling transformer type Series active power filter, but this Active Power Filter-APF can only compensate just half part of ripple voltage.The parallel connection type active power filter that also has, the inaccessible assigned voltage of its electric pressure, perhaps its current harmonics resultant distortion rate and the national regulation value that is reduced to not yet in effect.
Summary of the invention:
The present invention designs on the basis of the These characteristics that has at active power filter.It is an object with the 380V distribution system mainly.The present invention has following characteristics:
1) can realize real time dynamic tracing according to the needs of load, its dynamic characteristic can need reach synchronous with compensation; Can realize simultaneously the function of raising user power factor and reactive power compensation, for the stable control of the quality of power supply plays a role;
2) co-ordination of utilization two CPU realization systems control and human-computer dialogue/information exchange has improved the speed and the real-time of compensation;
3) study and realized the harmonic compensation control strategy of voltage, electric current formed pair of close-loop feedback control, can guarantee the real-time optimization control of harmonic compensation.
Therefore; For reaching the foregoing invention purpose and solving the defective that above-mentioned filter exists; The voltage sensor PT that the 380V system active power filtering device that the present invention designs includes source filter branch road 1, the current sensor CT1 that is connected with the three-phase current of active filter branch road 1, the current sensor CT2 that is connected with the load three-phase current, is connected with three-phase voltage, and the digital signal processor 2 that is connected with above-mentioned four parts.Digital signal processor 2 comprises four modules: control system module, data acquisition module, driver module and warning circuit.The electric current that CT1, CT2 and PT gathered, voltage signal will be sent into the input port 1～7 (being respectively IA, IB, IC, ICA, ICB, ICC, UA) of data acquisition module in the digital signal processor 2.In driver module, the PWM triggering signal of being sent by the control system module is through amplifying the IGBT gate-drive link of sending into active filter branch road 1 after isolating.The built-in protection of IGBT module will be through terminal ALM output alarm signal, and this signal is delivered to the pulse locking pin of ADMC401 in the control system module after warning circuit is isolated conversion, thereby the IGBT module of active filter branch road 1 is quit work.
This device also comprises demonstration and the human-machine conversation control device that carries out communication through system bus and digital signal processor 2; It is the single-chip microcomputer of MCS196/KC that said demonstration and human-machine conversation control device adopt model.
Described current sensor CT2 is the electromagnetic type current sensor; Inverter in this device is connected in parallel in the three-phase system, adopts IGBT inverse parallel diode structure, and this structure can guarantee the stable of direct voltage.Inverter is depressed work at constant dc, thus can be according to the situation of change of system power, and the operating state of flexible inverter realizes the compensating action of harmonic current.
This device has good inhibition effect to the harmonic wave in the distribution system, and can compensate harmonic wave.It is to be main object with the 380V distribution system, and the design object of control capacity is positioned at 50～600kVar, to satisfy most of user's demand.In the selection of control structure and mode, the double closed-loop control system that the present invention has adopted voltage, electric current variable to form, hardware circuit design has then adopted two CPU controlling schemes to realize the requirement of real-time.Therefore it has high dynamic adjustments ability and ability strengthening system dynamic stability, improves power factor, simultaneously also for power department reduces operating cost, the burning voltage amplitude provides strong guarantee.
Filter with is in the past compared, and the present invention has following advantage: (1) can effectively reduce the influence of the harmonic wave of load generating to the system power quality.Under the condition of three-phase commutation bridge load running, system power harmonic wave resultant distortion rate drops to below 10% from 29%.(2) greatly reduced system's each harmonic containing ratio.(3) from control strategy, it is idle that this device also can reach bucking-out system simultaneously, improves the effect of power factor.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1, circuit basic block diagram
Fig. 2, parallel connection type APF schematic diagram
The overall structure circuit block diagram of Fig. 3, the external gradual change type active power filter of voltage
The hardware principle block diagram of Fig. 4, active filter control system
(1), the basic functional principle of application of the present invention (active filter) and characteristic (is known technology with lower part and Fig. 1 and Fig. 2)
Shown in Figure 1 is system's basic structure.Electric power system is delivered to non-linear rectification load with electric energy behind long Distance Transmission line, corresponding equivalent transfer impedance is used L 1Expression, L is then used in the substitutional connection impedance between from the access point to the load 2Expression.Obviously, load current i LIn contain abundant harmonic components.Generally speaking, for the high-frequency harmonic that reduces in the circuit pollutes, locate to connect a passive filtration unit PPF at common node PCC (Point of Common Coupling) usually.
Harmonic component in the circuit generally also has a large amount of low-order harmonic components except high order harmonic component, it then is difficult to eliminate with passive device, otherwise it is very huge that the volume of filter just becomes.For this reason, active filter in the parallel connection of common connecting point place makes the electric current in the filter branch road have only harmonic component, and its amplitude is identical with harmonic current in the load, but in the opposite direction.Promptly
i L(t)＝i 1(t)+i h(t)
i com(t)＝-i h(t) (1)
i s(t)＝i L(t)+i com(t)＝i 1(t)
In the formula, i L(t) be load current, it can be decomposed into fundametal compoment i 1(t) harmonic sum component i h(t).In the ideal case, the current i in the active filter branch road Com(t) and i h(t) just in time offset, so just can guarantee the system transmissions current i s(t) do not contain harmonic component in.
The basic controlling of active filter can be explained by Fig. 2.At first; The three-phase current of digitial controller acquisition system; According to instantaneous " p-q " theory that proposes in the seventies in last century by Akagi; The three-phase electric weight is transformed into the α of two phases; The β coordinate system; And then and instruction electric current compares, behind relevant control strategy, export corresponding controlled quentity controlled variable, adopts the gate pole of special modulation technique output corresponding modulation ripple to IGBT at last again, makes it the required harmonic current of output loading.When adopting conventional space vector modulation technique, just can be through the required modulation signal of output harmonic wave compensation after the suitable computing.Here should benly be; Instruction current in fact is the harmonic component part of load current; If also will eliminate the idle component of load current, then also should comprise corresponding reactive current part in the instruction current.Therefore, when carrying out controlling Design, should take all factors into consideration.
(2), the selection of the input of real time control variables and sampling method
The accuracy of sample of signal is directly connected to the effect of compensation and control, and therefore, means that signal obtains and method are the problems that necessary emphasis consideration solves in the device design.The realization of the high accuracy convenient detection method of offset current is the bottleneck that APF uses.
Active filter is according to the three-phase circuit instantaneous reactive power theory, and the high fdrequency component through control instantaneous active power, reactive power realizes the inhibition of system harmonics and compensation to reach filter effect.It has very fast response speed, can both implement dynamic compensation to the harmonic wave and the reactive power that change, and compensation characteristic receives the electric network impedance parameter influence less.
In order when guaranteeing detection signal precision and real-time, to reduce product cost as much as possible; Adopted common 6 electromagnetic type current sensors and 1 voltage sensor in the device, active filter branch road three-phase current, system A phase voltage and load three-phase current have been detected respectively.
Accompanying drawing 3 is structure chart of the present invention, has comprised the control strategy of direct current intermediate voltage harmonic current double closed-loop control simultaneously.As shown in Figure 3; The voltage sensor PT that the present invention includes active filter branch road 1, the current sensor CT1 that is connected with the three-phase current of active filter branch road 1, the current sensor CT2 that is connected with the load three-phase current, is connected, and the digital signal processor 2 that is connected with above-mentioned four parts with three-phase voltage; Described current sensor CT2 is the electromagnetic type current sensor.
The control of active filter is vital, and as closed-loop control, it generally all has voltage, current signals, the obtaining of reference signal, and the functions such as output of trigger impulse.In time domain control method, the technology of the most often using has: instantaneous meritorious, idle (p-q) theory, sliding mode technology and synchronization detection method etc.At this moment, reference signal obtains the transient deviation that generally all is based on compensating signal.The theoretical basic conception of instantaneous p-q is that instantaneous three-phase voltage, current conversion are become two phase α, and the β coordinate system produces compensating signal with this.Instantaneous active power and reactive power are to calculate through voltage, the current signal of gathering.Through using low pass or high pass filter, also can obtain the active power and the reactive power of harmonic wave.For the three-phase three-wire system system, the transfer equation that three-phase changes two phases into is:
Instantaneous meritorious calculating formula with idle component is:
Instantaneous active power and reactive power can be decomposed into three components after low pass and high-pass filtering:
p＝p 1+p h
q＝q 1+q h
In the formula, p 1And q 1Corresponding fundametal compoment, and p hAnd q hThen corresponding harmonic component after low pass and high-pass filtering.The harmonic compensation current of output then is:
The main thought of the external gradual change type control strategy of the voltage that the present invention adopted " external " is, on the theoretical foundation of traditional active filtering, increased a Voltage loop at the outer shroud of closed loop controller, and interior ring then is classical electric current loop.Its operation principle is at first to set an initial voltage U Dset, and start filter, this initial voltage and filter dc voltage U dDeliver to pi regulator relatively and regulate, and, obtain reflecting a set-point of direct voltage and load current sum the output valve of adjuster and α component (synchronous rotating reference frame) addition of load current.Under stable state, the output of pi regulator is a steady state value basically, and at this moment, the value of this voltage and electric current sum has reflected the variation of load current basically.But this control strategy can be stablized the direct-current working volts of active filter, promptly guarantees the steady operation of system.Process of the test shows, added this voltage control loop after system could steady operation.
Substantially the same as for current inner loop control procedure after the outer voltage with traditional active filtering control principle; Promptly carry out LPF earlier; Obtain fundametal compoment; And the α that will rotate synchronously, the β coordinate system converts time dependent three-phase coordinate system again into, obtains reflecting the harmonic current instantaneous value after the instantaneous value of it and load current compares; The offset current of it and active filter relatively after again negate just can deliver to the gate-drive link of IGBT among the IPM, so far just accomplished all control procedures.
What is called in the control strategy " gradual change " is meant the set point U of the given voltage of direct current DsetAt active filter individual progressive formation is arranged from start to the stable operation process.
Design object of the present invention mainly is to the 380V system, when satisfying the high-efficiency harmonic compensate function, can also reduce cost to greatest extent, is beneficial to introduce to the market.Hardware circuit have two kinds available, to be this device link to each other with electric power system through transformer a kind of structure; To be this device directly link to each other with electric power system through three inductance that are connected for second kind of structure.The present invention launches to second kind of hardware circuit.The connection inductance that is adopted is to be made by the ordinary silicon steel disc, and its inductance value value is between 2.5-4mH.Accompanying drawing 4 is the hardware principle block diagram of control system of the present invention.
Relevant analytic process by equation (1)-(3) and front can be known; Accomplish the control strategy of the external gradual change of voltage; Control system at first will be accomplished variable data collections such as three-phase offset current, threephase load electric current, direct voltage and alternating voltage, and the reliability of these variablees of being gathered is vital for control system.Also to accomplish output control, changes in coordinates and the control computing of PWM ripple simultaneously, and function such as corresponding man-machine interface.Obviously, guarantee the reliability of control system,, also must accomplish the task of digital filtering except on input channel, considering the Anti-Jamming Technique.Consider that from the angle of real-time real-time that some control computing requires is very high, and the randomness of man-machine interface part is bigger, and the operation of this part can not influence ongoing control procedure, but also response fast.Therefore, adopt a CPU to realize that many-sided control is very difficult, and the nested setting of interrupting is easy to make program to become chaotic, real-time also can not get guaranteeing.Adopted two CPU to coordinate the control circuit structure in the native system.Because control will be accomplished digital filtering operation, coordinate transform, PWM output pulse control, the collection of input signal and the functions such as protection of power component with calculating, real-time and arithmetic speed require very high.Native system adopts ADMC401 to be responsible for this a part of work, and it is the DSP single-chip microcomputer of AD company, and the instruction cycle is 38.5ns, 12 A/D converters of 8 passages, and the change-over time of all passages, special-purpose PWM control can be satisfied system requirements less than 2 μ s; Man-machine interface part is less demanding for speed, has adopted MCS196/KC in the system, it mainly accomplish LCD demonstration, keyboard program, with communication and the management role of main control computer ADMC401.In addition, MCS196/KC also has the A/D input terminal of 8 path 10 positions, also can realize monitoring to other peripheral variable, and accomplish Long-distance Control.
It is the structure that ADMC401 can realize 16 flexible three-phase PWM waveform generators able to programme that the master control chip is selected the main cause of ADMC401, and its main feature is:
The polarity of the pwm signal that is produced can be carried out programming Control through chip output pin PWMPOL, the PWM pattern that promptly the ADMC401 chip can be designed to or high level HI is effective or low level LO effectively controls; Produce switching frequency Dead Time and the minimum pulse width of PWM pattern can be respectively register PWNTM, PWNDT and PWMPD through separately carry out programming Control.
The main cause that demonstration and human-machine conversation control are chosen 80C196KC is that this model single-chip microcomputer instruction is abundant, arithmetic speed is faster, powerful serial port is arranged.
The control system module that belongs to digital signal processor 2 with top.The peripheral control circuit that other three modules of digital signal processor 2 are the control system module is respectively: data acquisition module, driver module and warning circuit.The electric current that CT1, CT2 and PT gathered, voltage signal will be sent into the input port 1～7 (being respectively IA, IB, IC, ICA, ICB, ICC, UA) of data acquisition module, and current signal is sent into the A/D passage of control system module after conversion; Voltage signal is used for the zero-crossing pulse that reference signal resets through the trigger generation behind filtering compensation, this pulse will be sent into the control system module through the external interrupt input channel of ADMC401.The control system module is sent the PWM triggering signal and it is sent into the corresponding input port of driver module.In driver module, triggering signal is sent into the IGBT gate-drive link of active filter branch road 1 after amplifying isolation.The built-in protection of IGBT module will be through terminal ALM output alarm signal, and this signal is delivered to the pulse locking pin of ADMC401 in the control system module after warning circuit is isolated conversion, thereby the IGBT module is quit work.
The effect of data acquisition module is the three-phase transient current I that obtains load-side and compensation control side Al, I Bl, I ClAnd I Ac, I Bc, I Cc, the system's phase voltage that is used to synchronizing signal is provided is (like U A) and DC side intermediate voltage U dNumerical value, realize switch motion and the synchronous function of system voltage.In order to realize the accurate sampling to the three-phase voltage electric current, to reach idle accurate calculating and to produce correctly control signal timely, the actual signal processing circuits has adopted digital filtering technique.
The design object of driver module circuit is that anti-interference complete electricity with forceful electric power side and weak-feedback side of transmission line signal is isolated.Two kinds of isolation technologies are arranged usually, promptly with the insulation blocking of photoisolator photoelectricity or use the pulse transformer insulation blocking.Consider the volume of design cost and device, this driver module adopts the photoelectricity insulation blocking.
The design of warning circuit mainly is to launch to power model IGBT.The model of the IGBT-IPM module that this device is used is 7MBP150RA 120.It is the R series IGBT-IPM module that the Japanese fuji motor is produced.This module is compared with series module in the past, has some new features: adopt soft switch technique, have low surge, low noise characteristic meets the EMC requirement easily; VCE (sat) and switching loss are comprehensively improved, and reduce total losses; Reduce the inner member number significantly, improved global reliability; Adopt the overtemperature protection of IGBT tube core, prevent the damage that causes because of the tube core abnormal heating; Packaging height reduces, and when keeping interchangeability, continues to carry out miniaturization work.Its in-built electrical airway dysfunction comprises: 1) built-in three-phase inverting circuit is with IGBT and fast recovery diode, and inner distribution connects.Drawn screw connecting terminal on the module, need not weld; 2) a built-in braking is used to consume the feedback energy when slowing down with IGBT and fast recovery diode, to suppress the promotion of principal voltage between PN.3) the built-in drive circuit of whole IGBT, having that soft switch control, single supply drives need not anti-inclined to one side power supply and prevent the characteristics that mislead.4) after the action of the brachium pontis protection instantly beginning, module output is total reports to the police.5) overcurrent of built-in whole IGBT, short circuit, control line under-voltage, tube core is overheated and defencive function such as insulated substrate temperature overheating, when these protection actions, terminal ALM can export an alarm signal.So when the design warning circuit, be to take measures areput according to this alarm signal.
The meter that do not have of warning circuit has adopted the multiple protective processing.First heavily protection be to forbid pin PWMTRIP to the alarm signal of main circuit through directly inserting the ADMC401 pulse-width modulation PWM behind the photoisolator TLP521, so just realized in ADMC401, forbidding that control signal exports.Second heavily protection be alarm signal after isolating photoelectricity latch through latch CD4044 and anti-phase after receive on two enable of 74HC244.When warning occurs, block the output of 74HC244, thereby blocked control signal.
The reliability that improves control system also will be considered the content of following two aspects:
● the hardware designs aspect: little except considering to take up room when being designed with source filter control system printed circuit board (PCB), connect up attractive in appearance outside, also to consider reliability of operation.The major measure of the raising control system reliability of on hardware designs, taking has:
(1) rationally utilizes decoupling capacitor.The ROHS of cross-over connection 0.1uF is as decoupling capacitor, to eliminate the suffered noise jamming of power supply in adverse circumstances between the power supply terminal of each piece digital integrated circuit chip and ground.
(2) use of shielding conductor and twisted-pair feeder.Shielding conductor can make holding wire avoid electrostatic interference, and twisted-pair feeder then can suppress electromagnetic induction interference.
(3) circuit board wiring that holds water and cabling.As the high frequency digital circuits cabling should be carefully, short; The address wire of memory, data wire, control line also will be lacked as far as possible; As suitable vertical each other, oblique of the lead of two panels wiring or crooked cabling; Use via hole, wire jumper, the suitably overstriking or the like of power line and ground wire less as far as possible.
(4) rational Application of isolation technology, one of purpose of Signal Spacing are to keep apart interference source and the part of be prone to disturbing, and make the contact of its inhibit signal but the contact of electricity does not directly take place.Just added isolating transformer in the time of this Control System Design, and in driver module and warning circuit design, adopted photoelectric isolation technology in the voltage porch of acquisition module.
● software design aspect: adopted software anti-jamming such as digital filtering, input port signal duplicate detection, delivery outlet Refresh Data, software interception technology (instruction redundancy, software trap) and " house dog " technology.
During on-the-spot the operation, model machine is directly linked to each other with electrical network through connecting inductance.Whole electric device, high about 2 meters of fuselage, long 0.6 meter, wide 1 meter.Floor space is little, and is in light weight.
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|CN2006100350388A CN101055991B (en)||2006-04-14||2006-04-14||380V system active power filtering device|
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|CN2006100350388A CN101055991B (en)||2006-04-14||2006-04-14||380V system active power filtering device|
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|CN101055991A CN101055991A (en)||2007-10-17|
|CN101055991B true CN101055991B (en)||2012-02-15|
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|CN2006100350388A CN101055991B (en)||2006-04-14||2006-04-14||380V system active power filtering device|
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Families Citing this family (11)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|CN101834444A (en) *||2010-05-10||2010-09-15||江苏华峰电器控制设备有限公司||Active filtering reactive power compensation device|
|CN101924365B (en) *||2010-08-11||2013-02-20||芜湖明远电力设备制造有限公司||Dynamic harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation control system and control method thereof|
|CN101950966B (en) *||2010-08-17||2013-02-13||南京航空航天大学||Dual-buck full-bridge parallel-connected active electric filter based on frequency multiplication SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation) control|
|CN102403957A (en) *||2011-11-08||2012-04-04||厦门大学||Harmonic-free frequency conversion speed adjusting device|
|CN103730898A (en) *||2013-12-03||2014-04-16||南方电网科学研究院有限责任公司||Method for additional function control for modularized multilevel current converter|
|CN103956734B (en) *||2014-05-09||2016-08-24||深圳市海亿达能源科技股份有限公司||A kind of multiple target comprehensive power quality controls and optimizes device|
|CN104362645B (en) *||2014-10-27||2016-04-27||西安交通大学||Based on the active harmonics resistance control method of pouring-in reactive-load compensation capacitor|
|CN104901281A (en) *||2014-12-29||2015-09-09||长沙贝士德电气科技有限公司||Driving protection circuit based on IGBT inverter circuit applications|
|CN105222603A (en) *||2015-11-09||2016-01-06||四川华索自动化信息工程有限公司||A kind of carbon baking furnace LPF current stabilization shaping type temperature alarm system|
|CN105391088A (en) *||2015-12-14||2016-03-09||天津理工大学||Single-phase multi-inverter parallel system with LCL filter and control method for single-phase multi-inverter parallel system|
|CN109617076B (en) *||2018-12-29||2020-09-18||燕山大学||Voltage detection type active filter for improving electric energy quality at PCC|
- 2006-04-14 CN CN2006100350388A patent/CN101055991B/en not_active IP Right Cessation
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