Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of sealing effectiveness better, can be applicable to the sealing arrangement that adopts the gear-driven high speed train power car of various forms drive gear casing,, satisfy the needs of high speed train operation to overcome the deficiency of prior art.
The present invention has made detailed conscientious testing and verification to following technical matters in R﹠D process.
In high speed train power car drive gear casing, because the needs of transmission of power, the saturating case shaft extension end of its transmission shaft unavoidably adopts the version that runs through of axle and casing.The axle rotating speed height of high-speed drive gear case, the linear velocity big (usually greater than 50m/s) at sealing position, because the restriction of used leakproofing material, this sealing that runs through the position can only be adopted non-contacting seal version.And owing to the restriction of structure space with for the consideration on the maintenance cost, driving gearbox for high speed train almost all adopts the traction gear lubrication by atomization.As everyone knows, in any high-speed gear box that adopts lubrication by atomization, all be full of oil gas two-phase fluid compound.The high speed revolution of gear and acutely stir oil, make gear case pressure inside distributed pole inhomogeneous, and the irregularity of this distribution of pressure is not only relevant with the construction parameter of gear case itself, also relevant with operation conditions such as gear rotational speed, the rotation direction etc. of gear case, this has brought very big difficulty for design of final fuel return hole, thereby how reasonably to design the problem that the final fuel return hole of hermetically-sealed construction has just become high-speed drive gear case developers to study.Aforementioned prior art is located at said zone of negative pressure with the exit of final fuel return hole, this negative pressure of utilizing produces power oil return mode, at traction gear is that the space of straight gear or casing is very big, when adopting complicated deflector structure to overcome the side action of blast of non-spur gear, has positive effect, but still exist deficiency, its deficiency mainly shows: 1, because it is very complicated that high-speed drive gear box body internal pressure distributes, body structure with gear case, the rotation direction of gear, gear teeth form, composite factors such as the logarithm of gear are relevant, therefore, zone of negative pressure reasonably is set by a large amount of tests and adopts complicated structure, and this result who obtains by test do not have ubiquity, is difficult to promote; 2, because the miniaturization of high-speed gear box, gap between gear and casing is limited, is difficult to have enough spaces to be taken measures, and makes final fuel return hole exit be in the negative pressure place all the time, particularly when traction gear was non-spur gear, the acquisition of this zone of negative pressure almost was impossible.And the present invention is arranged on the exit of final fuel return hole below the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of oil sump of cabinets cavity, avoided this problem of oil-air pressure maldistribution in the casing, when avoiding under a certain operating mode final fuel return hole to be in relatively high pressure and make oil return not smooth, the lubricating oil that action of blast occurred in both sides pours in down a chimney with helical wheel or double helical gear high speed revolution, thereby makes final fuel return hole become the phenomenon of fuel feed hole.From above argumentation as can be known, final fuel return hole exit is arranged at below the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of casing oil sump, and oil return can not be subjected to the influence of the casing internal pressure inequality that high-speed rotary gear causes; But because the miniaturization of high-speed gear box, make that the spacing between gear and the box body wall is very little, gear is when high speed revolution, under a certain condition, make lubricating oil be piled up in to be opened in the following final fuel return hole zone of liquid level of cabinets cavity oil sump, the final fuel return hole of this moment also is equivalent to a fuel feed hole, for eliminating this phenomenon, can in drainback passage, offer the oil return cushion chamber, make oil return smooth and easy by scantling of structure and the position of optimizing the oil return cushion chamber.In sum, be located at below the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of oil sump of cabinets cavity by exit and the oil return cushion chamber is set in drainback passage the final fuel return hole of drainback passage, then can make hermetically-sealed construction not be only applicable to adopt the high-speed drive gear case that comprises straight gear, helical wheel, double helical gear and other any exposed gear, and sealing effectiveness is better.
The high-speed drive gear case is subjected to the restriction of structure and assembly space, oil level in the gear case is generally lower, and when high-speed gear rotates, a large amount of lubricating oils is dispersed in the cabinets cavity space, may cause to be opened in the following instantaneous liquid level that exposes of fuel return hole of casing oil sump liquid level, saidly before occurring in pour in down a chimney phenomenon and make oil return not smooth.For guaranteeing that oil return is smooth and easy under any condition, make the lubricating oil that arrives the hermetically-sealed construction place, can enter drainback passage swimmingly and be back in the oil sump of gear case, simultaneously for fear of issuable the pouring in down a chimney of lubricating oil that is present in the oil sump, in drainback passage, be provided with two oil return cushion chambers, will help the smooth and easy of oil return more, thereby reach better sealing effectiveness.Test results shows that this secondary oil return cushion chamber structure is rational, feasible.
When adopting bearing, particularly when bearing is the angular contact bearing of anti-installation, because the power of angular contact bearing draws the oil effect, make that the relief chamber A and the relief chamber B pressure that are present between moving oil seal ring and the quiet oil seal ring are higher, and the pressure of relief chamber C and relief chamber D is lower.If the relief chamber that the internal pressure of inboard is higher and the lower relief chamber of internal pressure in the outside, return words in the gear case case via a drainback passage by final fuel return hole, just might be under the effect of siphon effect, the relief chamber that high and low internal pressure takes place is scurried oil mutually, makes sealing effectiveness very good inadequately.Thereby with two relief chambers of prime (inboard) and back level (outside) two relief chambers, import at the preceding said oil return of end just cushion chamber by former and later two branch's drainback passages respectively, then by main drainback passage via terminal oil return cushion chamber, return in the gear case by final fuel return hole, can avoid producing foregoing problems.
The axle rotating speed height of high-speed drive gear case, the linear velocity that runs through the position are big, and usually greater than 50m/s, because the restriction of leakproofing material, the sealing at this position can only be adopted contactless, gapped hermetically-sealed construction form.The traction gear of high-speed gear box belongs to heavy-duty gear, its oil body is generally bigger, because of the oil mass that high speed revolution spare is taken out of in the capillary action that adds the superficial makings that stays man-hour many, making sealing reach " 0 " leaks, also can in labyrinth packing, adopt the viscous fluid dynamic seal or adopt the resistive sealing of viscous fluid flow, or the associating seal form that adopts viscous fluid dynamic seal and the resistive sealing of viscous fluid flow to combine.Wherein the viscous fluid dynamic seal can utilize the conical surface to draw the principle of oil or adopt the conical surface to draw oily principle and realize with the mode that oil slinger and oil return ditch combine; And the resistive sealing of viscous fluid generally realizes by the configuration relation of optimizing little gap and relief chamber.
The reliability of the sealing arrangement of driving gearbox for high speed train depends primarily on two aspects, on the one hand the lubricating oil that enters the hermetically-sealed construction place is successfully got back in the fuel tank, and this point is discussed preceding; Reduce the oil mass that can arrive the hermetically-sealed construction place as best one can guaranteeing to have under the prerequisite of enough oil lubrication bearings on the other hand.The diameter of the bearing of high-speed drive gear case is generally bigger, particularly use the high-speed gear box of Hollow Shaft Transmission, its bearing bore diameter usually reaches 500mm, at first must guarantee its sufficient lubrication for this class bearing, but must limit its lubricants capacity again simultaneously, arrive the oil mass of sealing place with minimizing, thereby reach the purpose of the burden that alleviates sealing mechanism.In order to reach said double effects, can an oil seal washer with two-sided effect be set at bearing front end (being the bearing inboard) or at first position near the gear housing inboard.Can reduce the oil gas that enters bearing by gear case so on the one hand, reduce the operation pressure at sealing position; And can also guarantee the lubricating oil that enters from by the oil inlet that oil seal washer constituted on the other hand, be thrown to equably on the bearing, and be not thrown to other position.
Driving gearbox for high speed train is installed in the bottom of train, and the metal powder under dirt on the railway roadbed and the brake block mill all is fatal to traction gear in the gear case and bearing; It also is very deletrious that the sewage of while when sleet is iced sky or flushing gear case enters gear case.Thereby the sealing arrangement of driving gearbox for high speed train preferably has inside and outside dual face seals effect.
Based on above cognition of integrating theory with practice, the present invention realizes that the technical scheme that its purpose is taked is, it has contactless labyrinth packing mechanism, and leads to the inner chamber of driven wheel box body by the drainback passage that said sealing mechanism is drawn, and is provided with the oil return cushion chamber in drainback passage; The exit of the final fuel return hole of drainback passage is located at below the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of oil sump of drive gear casing cabinets cavity, and final fuel return hole makes oil return cushion chamber and oil sump connect.
Technical scheme by the invention described above can clearly be seen that, because the exit of final fuel return hole is located under the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of oil sump, thereby avoided the interior oil-air pressure (comprising malleation and negative pressure) of gear case body and given the adverse effect that final fuel return hole caused, simultaneously owing on drainback passage, be provided with the oil return cushion chamber, and further subdued in the casing oil-air pressure for the negative effect of drainback passage, owing to rotating the lubricating oil that is caused, high-speed gear is piled up in the smooth problem of the oil return that causes in final fuel return hole exit with having avoided, thereby overcome prior art only be suitable for traction gear be straight gear and limitation that lubricating oil pours in down a chimney easily takes place, realized that the present invention is applicable to employing various forms gear, and the better purpose of sealing effectiveness.
For in the oil sump of gear housing inner chamber under the fewer condition of the lubricating oil of depositing, the consideration that can make final oil return outlet can not expose the lubricating oil pasta to greatest extent, the present invention can also be located at the exit of final fuel return hole the bottom of oil sump.
For further performance oil return cushion chamber is subdued in the gear case oil-air pressure for the positive role of oil return adverse effect, the said oil return cushion chamber of the present invention can be the sidepiece that is positioned at casing, and the terminal oil return cushion chamber of its bottom surface below the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of the oil sump of cabinets cavity, also can be the sidepiece that is positioned at oil sump, and the terminal oil return cushion chamber of the bottom surface of its bottom surface and oil sump on same aspect.
The present invention also is located at the oil sump bottom with the exit of final fuel return hole, and connects with the oil sump bottom, and simultaneously said oil return cushion chamber is the sidepiece that is positioned at oil sump, and the terminal oil return cushion chamber of the bottom surface of its bottom surface and oil sump on same aspect.The purpose of doing like this is to expose pasta for the exit of avoiding final fuel return hole to greatest extent, helps the smooth and easy oil return of drainback passage more, thereby reaches better sealing effectiveness.
Make final fuel return hole exit moment expose pasta in the cabinet space to pour in down a chimney phenomenon for fear of interspersing among in a large number owing to the lubricating oil in the oil sump; improve sealing effectiveness to guarantee further that oil return is smooth and easy; the present invention is provided with two oil return cushion chambers on said drainback passage; one of them is the cushion chamber of end oil return just; another is a terminal oil return cushion chamber; and just hold the oil return cushion chamber to connect by a main drainback passage and terminal oil return cushion chamber at least; and final fuel return hole makes terminal oil return cushion chamber and oil sump connect, and constitutes the secondary buffer oil return thus.
For the consideration on the manufacturing process, the terminal oil return cushion chamber that is communicated with the casing oil sump that the present invention is included is directly created at the casing direct casting, and is the open type oil pocket, is fixed with the chamber lid on it is uncovered, and is coated with sealant layer on its faying face.Main drainback passage and final fuel return hole all directly process on casing, and a plurality of holes are arranged respectively; The cushion chamber of end oil return just directly processes on casing, is the selenodont oil pocket.This structure not only can be simplified fine-processing technique, but also can improve qualified casting, thereby has reduced manufacturing cost.
The present invention is preferred contactless labyrinth packing mechanism existing multiple contactless labyrinth packing mechanism having been done repeatedly on the basis of comparative study, is made up of the first moving oil seal ring, the second moving oil seal ring, the first quiet oil seal ring, the second quiet oil seal ring and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring.Move the radially little gap that oil seal ring is worked in coordination and formed with first respectively by the first quiet oil seal ring, the second quiet oil seal ring and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring, with the radially little gap of being worked in coordination and being formed by the 3rd quiet oil seal ring and the second moving oil seal ring, and relief chamber A, the B, C, D, the E that are present between above-mentioned moving oil seal ring and the quiet oil seal ring constitute the resistive sealing of viscous fluid flow.
Draw oily principle as can be known according to circular conical surface, cone sticks to the lubricating oil of conical surface around its axis rotation the time, be subjected to an action of centrifugal force perpendicular to rotation axis.The component of this centnifugal force on the conical surface always points to big end by small end, makes lubricating oil flow to big end from the cone small end, forms hydrodynamic seal, thereby can further improve sealing effectiveness.For this reason, the fitting surface R at the radially little free-running fit position of the first quiet oil seal ring that the present invention is included and the first moving oil seal ring, all adopt cone match with the 3rd quiet oil seal ring and the first fitting surface Y that moves the radially little free-running fit position of oil seal ring, and the big end of the conical surface points to box house, forms the viscous fluid dynamic seal by conical surface pumping effect.By the gap between male cone (strobilus masculinus) in optimizing and the tapering of circular cone, and and the resistive sealing of above-mentioned viscous fluid flow organically integrate, both can realize that " 0 " of gear case is leaked, the dirty foreign material of environment can not sucked in the gear case again simultaneously.This dynamic seal does not need extra power, belong to contactless dynamic seal and do not need to maintain, and along with the raising of rotating speed, dynamic action also increases, thereby it is particularly suitable for the sealing of high-speed gear box thereupon.Meanwhile, the present invention also is provided with oil slinger in the groove of the first moving oil seal ring; In the outside of the first quiet oil seal ring and the inboard of the second quiet oil seal ring, be respectively equipped with annular oil return ditch.Obviously, its objective is and make the lubricating oil that enters relief chamber B be thrown on the annulus internal chamber wall of forming by the first quiet oil seal ring and the second quiet oil seal ring by the oil slinger of high speed revolution, reflex to two annular oil return ditches that are arranged on the quiet oil seal ring again, make most oil directly enter drainback passage and no longer enter later labyrinth packing place like this, thereby further improved the sealing effectiveness of sealing mechanism.
In order to cater to the characteristics of different pressures in each relief chamber, realize oil return purpose smoothly, the included drainback passage of the present invention is by preceding drainback passage, a back drainback passage, main drainback passage and final fuel return hole are formed, one end of a preceding drainback passage is by preceding oil-collecting grooving, fuel return hole respectively with relief chamber A, B connects, one end of a back drainback passage is by back oil-collecting grooving, fuel return hole respectively with relief chamber C, D connects, before the other end of drainback passage and a back drainback passage connect with first end oil return cushion chamber respectively, the other end of a back drainback passage also can directly connect with terminal oil return cushion chamber.
The oily grooving of preceding oil-collecting grooving that the present invention includes and back directly processes on bearing seat respectively, and respectively by connecting, connect by a plurality of fuel return holes respectively between back oil-collecting grooving and relief chamber C, D between preceding oil-collecting grooving and relief chamber A, B in lowest order and distribution in circumferential ± 25 ° scope at lowest order and a plurality of fuel return holes of in circumferential ± 25 ° scope, distributing.Obviously, the purpose of doing so still is further to alleviate the oil return resistance, realizes that oil return is unimpeded along reaching.
When the present invention is in the bearing end, in view of guaranteeing have under the prerequisite of enough oil lubrication bearings, reduce the oil mass that can arrive the hermetically-sealed construction place as best one can, with the operation pressure at reduction sealing position with because too much lubricating oil is given the heating that bearing was caused burden, the present invention is also at the bearing front end or at first position near the gear case inboard, be provided with oil seal washer, and the big end of the outermost circle position of oil seal washer system points to first cone of box house, annular flange with respect to the bearing seat of this first cone, it is second cone that has same tapering with this first cone, said two cones have certain interval and configuration relatively each other, enter bearing to prevent too much lubricating oil.Be provided with the cone of big end directed outside at the lateral surface of oil seal washer, to guarantee the lubricated of bearing.
The present invention is realizing that internal sealing lubricating oil is not in the external leakage, also in the outboard end of the 3rd quiet oil seal ring, be provided with the external sealing mechanism of forming by little gap, external cavity F and eduction port, to prevent that gear case external contamination thing from entering in the gear case and cause gear, bearing failure and pollution lubricating oil, further improves practical value of the present invention.
The first quiet oil seal ring, the second quiet oil seal ring and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring that the present invention is included, under working condition, the three is an integral body.But because the planform more complicated of three quiet oil seal rings, in order to simplify technology, conveniently to process, reduce manufacturing cost, the present invention preferably first quiet oil seal ring, the second quiet oil seal ring and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring three is the apportion product, is to make three's all-in-one-piece via welding.
After technique scheme of the present invention was implemented, what it had was rational in infrastructure, and good sealing effect goes for the characteristics such as high speed train power car drive gear casing sealing of various forms gear, is conspicuous.
The specific embodiment
By above given accompanying drawing, can clearly understand technical scheme of the present invention.Below in conjunction with the description of accompanying drawing, will and realize that the technical scheme of purpose is clearer to purpose of the present invention by the specific embodiment.
One of specific embodiment:
What say is that a kind of gear housing runs through the invention structure that the position has bearing, please join and read accompanying drawing 1,2,3.Gear housing 10, the first quiet oil seal ring 6, the second quiet oil seal rings 5 and the 3rd quiet oil seal rings 2 among the present invention are articles made of aluminium alloy, and three quiet oil seal rings 2,5 and 6 respectively processing after by the one that is welded; The bearing seat 8 and first moving oil seal ring 4, the second moving oil seal rings 3 and oil seal washer 9 all are steelwork, and bearing seat 8 is linked by screw retention with casing 10, and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring 2 and bearing 7 (outer shroud) link with bearing seat flush fit (interference fit); And gear 23 is to be closed by two relative bolts of helical wheel, and is bolted to connection with hollow shaft.Oil seal washer 9, bearing 7 (interior ring), first moving oil seal ring 4, the second moving oil seal ring 3 link with hollow shaft 1 flush fit from the inside to the outside successively.
By first quiet oil seal ring 6, second quiet oil seal ring 5 and the 3rd quiet oil seal ring 2, respectively the radially little gap of forming with the first moving oil seal ring 4, move the oil seal ring 3 relative radially little gaps of forming by the 3rd quiet oil seal ring 2 with second, and said radially little clearance control in 0.5-0.8mm and relief chamber A, B, C, D, E constitute the resistive labyrinth seal structure of contactless viscous fluid flow; And fitting surface R, the Y at said little free-running fit position, it all is cone match, and the big end of the conical surface points to casing 10 inside, and in the groove of the first moving oil seal ring 4, be provided with oil slinger 4-1, this oil slinger and the first moving oil sealing 4 are one, inboard (facing a side of bearing 7) at the outside of the first quiet oil seal ring 6 (side of bearing 7 dorsad) and the second quiet oil seal ring 5 is respectively equipped with annular oil return ditch 6-1,5-1.And said oil return ditch 6-1,5-1 process with the first quiet oil seal ring 6 and second quiet oil seal ring 5 one respectively, constitute associating labyrinth packing mechanism thereby constitute contactless dynamic seal and combine with the flow resistance sealing.
At the promptly inboard oil seal washer 9 with two-sided effect that is provided with of the front end of bearing 7, the big end of outermost circle position system of oil seal washer 9 points to the casing 10 in-to-ins first cone 9-1; With respect to the annular flange of the bearing seat 8 of the first cone 9-1, be the second cone 8-1 that has same tapering with the first cone 9-1, the first cone 9-1 has certain clearance and relative configuration each other with the second cone 8-1; The outside of oil seal washer 9 is provided with the cone 9-2 that big end points to bearing 7 near bearing portion, and cone 9-2 processes with oil seal washer 9 one.
The cushion chamber of end oil return just 20b, be located at the fitting surface place of gear housing 10 and bearing seat 8 and directly process, and terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a, the oil sump 10-1 outside that is located at casing 10 directly casts, and be the opened type cavity, on the opening surface of terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a, be fixed with chamber lid 21 by screw, on the fitting surface of the bead of chamber lid 21 and said terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a, be coated with sealant layer.And the bottom surface of terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a and the bottom surface of oil sump 10-1 are on same horizontal bedding.
Preceding oil-collecting grooving 18 is located on the inner headed face of bearing seat 8, and directly bores on bearing seat 8.Back oil-collecting grooving 15 is located on the periphery of the 3rd quiet oil seal ring 2, also can be located on the inner headed face of bearing seat 8.Before oil-collecting grooving 18 and back oil-collecting grooving 15 be crescent shape respectively, and separately respectively by 5 radially fuel return hole 17,16 and 14,13 connect with relief chamber A, B, C, D respectively.And preceding oil-collecting grooving 18 and back oil-collecting grooving 15, connect with just holding oil return cushion chamber 20b with a back drainback passage 19d by drainback passage 19 preceding included drainback passage 19c by 5 respectively, the cushion chamber of end oil return just 20b connects via drainback passage 19 included 4 main drainback passage 19b and terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a, and 7 final fuel return hole 19a are located at the bottommost of terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a and casing 10, and make the oil sump 10-1 of terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a and casing 10 connect.
In the outboard end of the 3rd quiet oil seal ring 2, be provided with little gap 11, external cavity F and eduction port 12, and form external sealing mechanism thus.
Two of the specific embodiment:
Please join and read accompanying drawing 1,2 and 3.Specifically be a kind of the present invention who does not possess bearing 7, as shown in Figure 1, only just remove bearing 7, other is all identical with one of the specific embodiment of the present invention.
Three of the specific embodiment:
Please join and read accompanying drawing 1,2 and 3.Below terminal oil return cushion chamber 20a is positioned at the internal memory lubricating oil pasta line of the sidepiece of casing 10 and the oil sump 10-1 that its bottom surface is positioned at casing 10 inner chambers, other all with one of the specific embodiment of the present invention or two identical.
Test results shows, because the present invention is arranged on the exit of final fuel return hole 19a the bottom of the oil sump 10-1 of gear case body 10, with on drainback passage, be provided with two oil return cushion chamber 20a and 20b, add and adopted quiet oil seal ring and the radially little free-running fit of moving oil seal ring and be little gap cone match and oil seal washer 9, thereby really accomplished the no leak of high-speed drive gear case.
The restriction that field of application of the present invention is not described by this specification sheets.At the gear case sealing arrangement of other application,, then be subjected to the present invention to advocate to protect the restriction of right equally if its technical scheme is identical with the present invention.