CA2043261A1 - Dry grinding wheel - Google Patents

Dry grinding wheel

Info

Publication number
CA2043261A1
CA2043261A1 CA 2043261 CA2043261A CA2043261A1 CA 2043261 A1 CA2043261 A1 CA 2043261A1 CA 2043261 CA2043261 CA 2043261 CA 2043261 A CA2043261 A CA 2043261A CA 2043261 A1 CA2043261 A1 CA 2043261A1
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
particles
abrasive
abrasive article
silicon
dimension
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA 2043261
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Muni S. Ramakrishnan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
Original Assignee
Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US59446690A priority Critical
Priority to US594,466 priority
Application filed by Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc filed Critical Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
Publication of CA2043261A1 publication Critical patent/CA2043261A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24DTOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING
    • B24D3/00Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents
    • B24D3/02Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent
    • B24D3/20Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent and being essentially organic
    • B24D3/28Resins or natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24DTOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING
    • B24D3/00Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents
    • B24D3/34Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents characterised by additives enhancing special physical properties, e.g. wear resistance, electric conductivity, self-cleaning properties

Abstract

ABSTRACT:

Organically bonded abrasive articles comprising seeded sol gel alumina filamentary abrasive particles have an improved dry grinding performance when the particles have silicon-enriched surfaces.

Description

~ 3~

Muni S. Ramakrishnan 28 Lanthorn Road Northborough, MA 01532 _MPROVED DRY GRINDING W}~BEL

BacX~rou~d o~ the Invention:
This invention relates to organic bonded grinding wheels and specifically to wheels in which the abrasive particles comprise seeded sol gel alpha alumina in the form of extruded filamentary par~icles.

It has been known from the teachings of US Patent 3,041,156 tna- the treatment of alumina abrasive particles with an organo-silane prior to formation of an organic bonded wheel results in a lo wheel that performs better in a wet grinding application by comparison with a wheel in which the particles have received no such treatment. This was believed to be because the particles were thereby protected from the action of water during the grinding action that perhaps would result in significant deterioration of that surface. This reasoning was supported by the observation that little or no improvement was observed in dry grinding applications when a silane treatment was used.

With the development of sol gel alumina abrasive particl s, and particularly seeded sol gel alpha alumina abrasive particles which are characterized by sub-micron sized crystal structures, the practice of treating particles to be incorporated into an organic bonded wheel with an organo-silane has continued, and essentially the same results have been observed.

Recently, however, new abrasive particles have been developed which, while being formed from a seeded sol gel alpha alumina, made as described for example in US Patent 4,623,364, e~hibit a behavior that is quite atypical of alumina abrasive particles in organ:ic grinding wheels. These new particles have a ~3~ ~
subst~ntially constant cross-section along one dimension and an aspect ratio along that direction (that is the ratio of the length to the greatest cross-sectional dimension), of at least about one. They are typically made by extrusion of a seeded sol gel material that forms alpha alumina upon firing. Their behavior is unusual and unexpected because the dry grinding performanca can be significantly improved by treating ~he particles to provide them with a silicon enriched surface. As indicated above, the prior experience has been that placing such a coating on particles for use in a dry grinding wheel applica-tion would have little or no effect.

Descri7tion of the Invention The present invention provides an abrasive article compris-ing an organic bond material and abrasive particles formed of sub-micron si~ed crystals of a seeded sol gel alpha alumina, said particles having a substantially constant cross-section in one dimension and an aspect ratio in that dimension of at least about one, and having a silicon-enriched surface.

When the surface of the particles is described as "silicon-enriched", it is implied that the surface of the particles has a silicon content that is at least an order of magnitude greater than the body of the particles. The silicon is in the form of a silicon-containing compound and, in the finished abrasive product, this may be silica, although this is not in~ariably the case. Usually the body will contain only trace amounts of silicon or a silicon-containing compound, whereas the surface ~ill have a coating extending over at least a significant part of the particle surface area of silica or a silicon-containing material.

The coating can be applied as an organo-silane compound, preferably one that contains functional groups that aid in producing a unifo~n coating over the particle surface. Such functional groups include, for example: amino, acrylic, methacrylic, vinyl and mercapto. Alternatively, the silicon can be applied as colloidal or fumed silica or, in the form of a compound such as a silicon ether, silicon ester, silicone or silicate.

The ~ond that is used can be any resinous formulation useful for the formation of organic bonded abrasive articles. These are often based on phenolic resins and particularly resols. They may, however, comprise other components such as novolacs, urea/
formaldehyde resins, cross-linking aclditives, elastomers, fillers, grinding aids and the like.

The silicon-containing compound may ~e applied by any convenient procedure such as immersion of the particles in a solution, sol, colloidal dispersion, or other fine dispersion of the compound. The particles can also be tumbled with a fiIl21y divided form of the compound. It may also be dssirable to include with the compound an additive that will enhance the adhesion of the compound to the particles.

The prererred additives are amino-silanes such as those available commercially from Union Carbide as A-llO0 and Dow Corning as Z 6032.

The abrasive particles comprise seeded sol gel alpha alumina particles and preferably have a density that is at least 95~ of the theoretical density. They preferably have a hardness that is at least 18 Gpa, although densities of as low as 16 ~pa can, on occasions, be useful. The shape of the particles, however, appears to be critical in securing the advantages of the invention. The reason for this dependance is not fully understood but it may relate to the generally micro-crac~ free surface of particles that are formed by a shaping process, as opposed to being formed by crushing larger bodies. The shaping -process results in a ge~erally constant cross-sectional shape along one dimension and an aspect ratio of at least about one.
The cross-section can be any convenient shape such as round, oval, square, triangular, star-shaped and the like. Deviations from this constancy of cross-sectional shape may be tolerated, such as would result from the accretion of relatively small particles to the outside surface of the abrasive particles, so long as the basic underlying shape remains essentially constant.
Generally, a round cross-section is preferred for its simplicity.
The greatest dimension of the cross-section is conveniently expressed as a grit size and this ca;n range from 16 to about 400 or more. With decreasing size, however, it becomes more di_ficult to produce such shaped particles such that the preferred sizes are from about 20 to about 240 grit. Although in certain applications, a very coarse grit gives very desirable r~sults, it is found that in other situations finer grits such as r~i'l50 to about 240 can display even greater superiority. ~ *~

The aspect ratio of the particles can be from about 1 to about lO or even higher. The higher ratios, however, raise handling problems and, particularly in coated abrasive applications, are difficult to orient appropriately with conventional application techniques. It is, therefore, usual to use particles with aspect ratios of from about 3 to about 6.

The seeded sol gel abrasive particles can be used in admixture with other abrasives such as fused alumina, fused alumina-zirconia, silicon carbide, CBN, and friable filler/
abrasive particles such as bubble alumina and conventional mineral particles such as cryolite and the like.

h The for~ of the abrasive product can be a wheel or wheel segment or any other form of abrasive tool. It can also be a coated abrasive belt or pad with the abrasive particles held on a usually flexible substrate by a maker coat, and overlaid with a size coat.

It is found that the advantages of the invention are observed most clearly when the product is used in very aggressive grinding conditions. As the pressure or the downfeed is reduced, the advantages tend to reduce or sometimes disappear.

DescriDtion of Preferred Embodiments The invention is now described with referencs to the following Examples which are for the purpose or illustration only and are intended to imply no necessary limitation on the essential scope of the invention.

Example 1:
A number of wheels were produced using extruded seeded sol gel abrasive particles with a grit size of 24 and an aspect ratio of about 1.7. In each case, the bond used was Norton Company's B65 system and active fillers were used. The proportions of each component were kept constant.

The only difference between the wheels was that one, (A), received a coating of Union Carbide's A 1100 amino-silane to a level of 0.05% by weight of the grain, a second, (B), had similar amount of Dow Corning's Z 6032 amino-silane and the third, (Comp.), received no treatment at all.

The silane was applied to the grain in the form of a 25%
aqueous solution which was added in the amo~nt necessary to give an application level of 0.05% by weight. This was mixed for 15 minutes and then placed in an oven at 140 degrees centigrade for 12-24 hours to drive off the water.

The wheels wer- 406.4 mm x 3.3 mm x 25.4 mm in size and had rough sides. The test performed was a cut-off test on a Stone M-150 cut-off machine operating in dry mode. The wheel speed was 2865 rpm and three break-in cuts were made berore measurements were made. The test bars were 38 mm diameter 304 stainless steel. Cuts wPre made at 2.5 sec/cut and 4.0 sec/cut. Different wheels were used for each cut ratP. A total of 30 cu~s were made with each wheel and two wheels of each type were tested. The average of all the parameters measured for each wheel type was calculated and the results are set forth in Table 1 below.

, 3 ~ ~ ~

Tabl~ 1 Cut-~ff ~est Re3ults Wheel Time/Cut A . T . Avg . G Std . E Rel.G Rel.Pow.
Sec. mm Ratio Dev. kw % %
Comp. 1 2 5 3.28 3.27 0.4 10.9 lOo ~00 4.0 3.33 5.51 0.39 7.2 100 100 4.0 3.25 _ _ .. _ I __ _= _ ¦A 2.5 3.28 8.42 0.01 11.35 258 104 2.5 3.28 _ __ I _ _ = ~ ~ 3.28 9.94 0.32 7 77 180 5 B 2 5 3.23 7.33 0.68 11.33 224 104 = ~ ~ 3.23 9.52 0.57 7.77 1 173 In the above Table:
' A.T. indicates average thicXness of the wheel and therefore of the cut made;
Avg. G Ratio is the metal removal rate divided ~y the wheel wear rate over the thirty cuts made with each wheel and averaged for the two wheels tested;
Std. Dev. indicates the standard deviation from average G Ratio value reported;
' E is the average of the power consumed in making the thirty cuts with each wheel; and Rel.G and Pow. give the % improvement over Comp. 1 shown by A and B.

6~P~32~
From the aoove data, it can clearly be seen that the silane treatment produces an improvement of the order of 100% in the grinding ratio at a comparable power draw-down.

Example 2:
In this Example, a Taguchi-style study of four variables was made. These variables were:
Resin Bond: Two bonds were used, the bond used in Example 1 and a second phenolic resin bond identified by the Norton designation "B25".
Wheel Thic~ness: 3.3mm and 4.1mm.
Cut Rate: 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 sec/cut.
Silane Treatment: With and without the treatmeni described in Example 1.

The result showed that the G Ratio for untreated grits was 11.2650, whereas the treated grain product showed a G Ratio of 16.2145. This represents a 44% improvement.

Example 3:
This Example is essentially a repeat of Example 1, with the exception that 36 grit abrasive grains were used. In addition, very aggressive cutting conditions were used. At a one second per cut rate for a T grade wheel made from grains that had been pre-treated with the A-llO0 amino-silane, the G Ratio measured was 125%
of that measured for a similar wheel in which the grains had not been pre-treated with the amino-silane. However, when the cut rate was reduced to 2.5 seconds, there was no significant differ~nce in the measured G Ratio. This result may also reflect a decreasing impact of the amino-silane treatment on the G Ratio with decreasing grit size.

~ ~ ~ ?~
Example 4:
This Example is similar to that reported in ExampLe 2 and is based on a Taguchi designed series of tests with the results set forth in an ANOVA level average table as shown in Table 2 below.

. -- . =
T~ble 2: G-~Ratio _ _ Aggressive Cut Mixed Cuts l I
Treatment 24 Grit 36 Grit 24 G it 36 Grit l . I
w/A1100 12.2959.985 18.375 12.6925 _ _ I
None 7.9208.765 4.415 12.3794 In the above Table 2, the silane treatment was as described in Example 1, the "aggressive" cut rate was one second per cut and the "mixed" cut rate averaged the values obtained at the aggressive rate (one), and thre~ at slower, less aggressive rates (2.S sec.).

From this data, it can be seen that the advantage of the silane treatment is most apparent when the wheel is used at aggressive cut rates and with coarser grit sizes.

Example 5:

This Example demonstrates that the degree of improvement shown in Example l, in the context of extruded filamentary grains, is not shown in conventional crushed grain of similar grit size under similar grinding conditions.

Essentially the same test as is described in Example 1 is used to evaluate wheels containing standard crushed seeded sol gel alumina grain abrasive (24 grit), from Norton Company, on 1018 steel and 304 steel. The wheels were formed under identical conditions except that one set received a silane treatment as described in Example 1 and a second set did not. The sets o~

wheels were then subjected to side-~y-side tests at a variety of grinding conditions. The results are set forth in Table 3.

Su~strate/ ¦ G-Ratlo at Specified Cut Rate Treatment 2 sec/cut 3.5 sec/cut 4 sec/cut _ _ . . _ _ 1018 Steel o Treat. 6 89 _ 10.98 ____ Silane Traat. 6.49 10.97 ____ _ _ _ I
304 Steel l _ _ I
No Treat. 7.90 ____ 12.94 Silane Treat. ¦8.17 ¦ ____ ¦ 13.69 As can be seen from the above, the silane treatment has only an insignificant effect at the aggressive grinding conditions, whereas the same t.eatment produces a spectacular improvement with i5 the filamentary abrasive particles.

Example 6:
This Example illustrates the effect of varying the amount OI
silane used on the grinding performance of an organic wheel com-prising filamentary sol gel alumina abrasive particles.

The same silane treatment was used as is described in Example 1 with the difference that 1/2x, lx, 2x, 5x, and lOx silane addition levels in the treatment solution described in Example 1 were used. Thus, for example, 1/2x indicates that enough silane was added to provide a coating of 0.025% (1/2x 0.05%), of the silane, based on the weight of the grain. The results on 301 steel at 1 sec/cut and 4 sec/cut grinding rates are shown in Table 4 below. The results at the higher rate are given in parentheses.

v ~

- - -Table 4 Silane Metal Removal Rel. G-Ratio % Rel. Power Treatment in3/min.
None _ 100 (100) 100 (100) I 1/2x 5.g8 (3.29) 2417 (200) 124 (123) lx 6.08 ~3.36)__ _ 2408 (133) l2~ 9_ I .. . _ _ 2x 5.89 (3.36) 2016 (134) 120 (115) I . _ ~
5x 6.03 (3.36) 2016 (160) _ 116 (127) I lOx 6.08 (3.36) 1~14 (160) 116 (111) These results indicate that heavier silane trsatments are not necessarily advantageous in terms of higher G-Ratio or lower power consumption. Indeed, there seems to be little advantage in using a silane addition level over about 0.1% by weight of the grain.

E2ample 7:
This Example shows the advantage from the use of the silane treatment when the grain particles have been previously treated with a conventional iron oxide/glass frit treatment to coat the grains with a coarse textured ceramic layer designed to improve adhesion between the organic bond and the abrasive particles. As in Example 1, enough of the same silane was added to give a coating on the grain equivalent to 0. 05% of the grain weight. The results of the grinding test, performed on 301 steel using the procedure set forth in Example 1, are set forth in Table 5 below.

J i,~ J

¦ ~able 5 I _ _ _ _ ¦Silane Metal Removal Rel. G-Ratio % Rel. Power %
¦1 sec/cutin3/min. _ _ r None ~ 5.98 100 100 Troated 6.08 1090 113 I _ 4 sec/cut _ _ _ I None 3.42 100 100 ¦ Treated 3.47 _ 232 _ 120 As will be seen, the same pattern of advantage is also shown with thesQ treated abrasives as was demonstrated above.

Claims (7)

1. An abrasive article comprising an organic bond material and shaped abrasive particles formed of sub-micron sized crystals or a seeded sol gel alpha alumina, said particles having a substantially constant cross-sectional shape in one dimension and an aspect ratio in relation to that dimension of at least about one, and having a silicon-enriched surface.
2. An abrasive article according to Claim 1 in which the aspect ratio of the particles is from about 1 to about 5.
3. An abrasive article according to Claim 1 in which the grit size of the particles is from about 16 to about 35.
4, An abrasive article according to Claim 1 in which the particles incorporated into the articles have a surface coating comprising from about 0.02 to about 1.0 % of the total weight of the treated particles of a silicon-containing compound, the weight of the compound being expressed as silica.
5. An abrasive article according to Claim 1 in which the surface coating applied to the particles is selected from amino-silanes, silica sols or gels, and fumed silica.
6. An abrasive article according to Claim 1 in which the organic bond material is selected from phenolic resins, "A" and phenolic resins with cross-linking components incorporated therein.
7. A method of dry grinding a substrate which comprises contacting the substrate with an abrasive product under abrading conditions aid product comprising an organic bond material and abrasive particles formed of sub-micron crystals of a seeded sol gel alpha alumina, said particles having a substantially constant cross sectional shape in one dimension and an aspect ratio in relation to that dimension of at least about one, and having a silicon-enriched surface.
CA 2043261 1990-10-09 1991-05-24 Dry grinding wheel Abandoned CA2043261A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US59446690A true 1990-10-09 1990-10-09
US594,466 1990-10-09

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2043261A1 true CA2043261A1 (en) 1992-04-10

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2043261 Abandoned CA2043261A1 (en) 1990-10-09 1991-05-24 Dry grinding wheel

Country Status (3)

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EP (1) EP0480133A3 (en)
JP (1) JPH04226862A (en)
CA (1) CA2043261A1 (en)

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CA2115889A1 (en) * 1993-03-18 1994-09-19 David E. Broberg Coated abrasive article having diluent particles and shaped abrasive particles
US5549962A (en) * 1993-06-30 1996-08-27 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Precisely shaped particles and method of making the same
JP2740744B2 (en) * 1994-09-22 1998-04-15 株式会社ノリタケカンパニーリミテド Resinoid grindstone
US8628597B2 (en) 2009-06-25 2014-01-14 3M Innovative Properties Company Method of sorting abrasive particles, abrasive particle distributions, and abrasive articles including the same
JP5723383B2 (en) 2009-12-02 2015-05-27 スリーエム イノベイティブ プロパティズ カンパニー Methods of making coated abrasive articles and coated abrasive article
RU2013135445A (en) 2010-12-31 2015-02-10 Сэнт-Гобэн Керамикс Энд Пластикс, Инк. The abrasive article (variants) and the method of molding
US8986409B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2015-03-24 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Abrasive articles including abrasive particles of silicon nitride
WO2013003831A2 (en) 2011-06-30 2013-01-03 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Liquid phase sintered silicon carbide abrasive particles
CA2850147A1 (en) 2011-09-26 2013-04-04 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Abrasive articles including abrasive particulate materials, coated abrasives using the abrasive particulate materials and methods of forming
CN109054745A (en) 2011-12-30 2018-12-21 圣戈本陶瓷及塑料股份有限公司 Shape abrasive grain and forming method thereof
EP2797716A4 (en) 2011-12-30 2016-04-20 Saint Gobain Ceramics Composite shaped abrasive particles and method of forming same
WO2013102176A1 (en) 2011-12-30 2013-07-04 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Forming shaped abrasive particles
US8840696B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2014-09-23 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Abrasive particles having particular shapes and methods of forming such particles
EP2802436A4 (en) 2012-01-10 2016-04-27 Saint Gobain Ceramics&Plastics Inc Abrasive particles having complex shapes and methods of forming same
US9242346B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-01-26 Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. Abrasive products having fibrillated fibers
KR101888347B1 (en) 2012-05-23 2018-08-16 생-고뱅 세라믹스 앤드 플라스틱스, 인코포레이티드 Shaped abrasive particles and methods of forming same
BR112014032152A2 (en) 2012-06-29 2017-06-27 Saint Gobain Ceram & Plastics Inc abrasive particles having particular shapes and methods for forming such particles
RU2614488C2 (en) 2012-10-15 2017-03-28 Сен-Гобен Абразивс, Инк. Abrasive particles, having certain shapes, and methods of such particles forming
WO2014106173A1 (en) 2012-12-31 2014-07-03 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Particulate materials and methods of forming same
WO2014161001A1 (en) 2013-03-29 2014-10-02 Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. Abrasive particles having particular shapes and methods of forming such particles
WO2014210160A1 (en) * 2013-06-25 2014-12-31 Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. Abrasive article and method of making same
TW201502263A (en) 2013-06-28 2015-01-16 Saint Gobain Ceramics Abrasive article including shaped abrasive particles
WO2015048768A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2015-04-02 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Shaped abrasive particles and methods of forming same
MX2016008494A (en) 2013-12-31 2016-10-28 Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc Abrasive article including shaped abrasive particles.
US9771507B2 (en) 2014-01-31 2017-09-26 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Shaped abrasive particle including dopant material and method of forming same
WO2015160855A1 (en) 2014-04-14 2015-10-22 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Abrasive article including shaped abrasive particles
US9902045B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-02-27 Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. Method of using an abrasive article including shaped abrasive particles
US9914864B2 (en) 2014-12-23 2018-03-13 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Shaped abrasive particles and method of forming same
US9707529B2 (en) 2014-12-23 2017-07-18 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Composite shaped abrasive particles and method of forming same
US9676981B2 (en) 2014-12-24 2017-06-13 Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. Shaped abrasive particle fractions and method of forming same
TWI634200B (en) 2015-03-31 2018-09-01 聖高拜磨料有限公司 And a method of forming a fixed abrasive article
CN107636109A (en) 2015-03-31 2018-01-26 圣戈班磨料磨具有限公司 Fixed abrasive articles and methods of forming same

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SU1112043A1 (en) * 1982-06-15 1984-09-07 Предприятие П/Я В-2038 Grinding material
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JPH07324470A (en) * 1994-05-31 1995-12-12 Natl House Ind Co Ltd Clearance covering structure between buildings

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0480133A2 (en) 1992-04-15
EP0480133A3 (en) 1992-09-16
JPH04226862A (en) 1992-08-17

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