CA1221539A - Fuel compositions - Google Patents

Fuel compositions

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Publication number
CA1221539A
CA1221539A CA000440943A CA440943A CA1221539A CA 1221539 A CA1221539 A CA 1221539A CA 000440943 A CA000440943 A CA 000440943A CA 440943 A CA440943 A CA 440943A CA 1221539 A CA1221539 A CA 1221539A
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CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
ethanol
gasoline
composition
amount
butanol
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
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CA000440943A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Edmond J. Derderian
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Union Carbide Corp
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Union Carbide Corp
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Publication date
Priority to US448,280 priority Critical
Priority to US06/448,280 priority patent/US4541836A/en
Application filed by Union Carbide Corp filed Critical Union Carbide Corp
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Publication of CA1221539A publication Critical patent/CA1221539A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L1/00Liquid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10L1/02Liquid carbonaceous fuels essentially based on components consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only
    • C10L1/023Liquid carbonaceous fuels essentially based on components consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only for spark ignition

Abstract

ABSTRACT

A phase-stable aqueous gasoline/ethanol fuel composition containing an additional alcohol selected from the group consisting or n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures thereor, as well as a method for producing said fuel composition.

Description

122~ ~39 FUEL COMPOSITIONS

8rief Summary of the Invention Technical Field This invention pertains to highly phase-stable gasoline-alcohol fuel compositions ~or use in internal combustion engines and to a ~ethod for ~reparing said compositions.
~ack~rouna of_the Invention There is always a need to improve the qu~lity and perfor~ance of motor gasoline.
Particular beneficial improvement~ desired include, e.g. lower cost, increased fuel economy, higher octane rating ~anti-knock quality), and decreased exhaust emissions.
For instance, the use of absolute ethanol (Z00 proof et~anol) ~5 a fuel component and octane improver in blends with gasoline is well known in the art, as seen e.g. by commercial ~gasohol~ which consists essentially o~ a 90/10 volume percent blend of gasoline and absolute ethanol. ~owever, ~uel composition blends of ga~oline and e~hanol are very sensitive to water contamination and in general have heretofore exhibited a very limited phase stability tolerance for water, psrticularly at low temperatures of ~bout 0C and below. ~oreover, it ~8 well known that ~uch phase separation into a ga~oline-rich phase and an ethanol-water phase can re~ult ~nd lead to severe ~nternal combustion en~ine operation problems, e.g. stalling, ~uel line ~reez~ng, and the like. Such phase separation probability i~ believed to be the primary reason ~21~ii39 that the only commercially available gasoline-ethanol uel compositions are those prepared using absolute ethanol instea~ of hydrous ethanol. horeover while a gasol~ne-ethanol fuel composition producer may take precautions to avoid phase separation by excluding water during the production, storage and distribution o~ such fuel composi~ions, there is little, i~ anything, that can be done by the producer to avoid water contamination during the retail marketing and/or individual use or such fuel compositions.
Consequently, the discovery of gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions having improved phase stability tolerances to water over a wi~e temperature range such as those that woula have cloud points o~ 0C or below, while at the same time having octane ratings above that of the gasoline employed, would obviously be or no small importance to the çtate or the ~rt. Such superior phase-stable fuel compositions would permit the use oS hydrous ethanol instead of absolute eth~nol in the ~roduction o~ said fuel compositions and such an accomplishment in itself~would lead to a wide variety of obvious benef~ts, not the least of which is the fact that the production o~ hydrous ethanol is less energy-intensiYe than the production of absolute ethanol and thus is rar easier and much less expensive to produce.
Indeed, the search for phase-sta~le gasoline-hydrous e~hanol fuel composition~ ~uitable for u~e in internal combustion engines ha~ been a long and constant one in the art as seen e.g. by the following prior nrt.

, ~22~39 U.S. Patents 4,207,076 and 4,207,077 are directed tO fuel compositions consisting of a major ~mount of gasoline, a minor amount of 190 proof ethanol and an alkyl-t-butyl ether as a cosolvent.
U.S. Patent 3,B22,119 is directed to an Anti~pollution, anti-~nock ~uel composition comprising a mixture of gasoline~ wate~ and an alcohol containing from 4 to 8 carbon atoms~ Sald patent further discloses that additionally simple alcohols such as methanol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl or isopropyl can be employed as a solubilizing 3~ent.
A technical paper entitled ~Use of 95~
Ethanol in Mixtures With Gasoline~ by A. Schmidt, in Comm. Eur. Communities tRep.] EUR June l9Bl, EUR
7091, Energy Biomass, Conf., 1st pp. 928-933 (Eng.) is directed to gasoline-95~ ethanol mixtures and their phase stability at low temperatures as well as to the use or propanols or butanols as co-solvent~.
Hydrocarbon Processing, May, 197g, pp. 127 to 138, contains an article ~Alcohols as ~otor Fuels?~ by J. Xeller which discusses gasoline blends of methanol and ethanol along with higher alcohol~
as a cosolvent to improv~ water tolerance (page 133).
U.S. Patent 2,1~4,021 is directed tO fuel compositions for internal combustion engines comprising a non-benzenoid hydrocarbon composition, water, ethanol, ~nd as ~tabilizing agents therefore, a saturated aliphatic ether and a higher alcohol, in a quantity sufficient to maintaih a homogeneous mixture or blend at sub-zero temperaturefi.
~ owever, none of the above prior art re~erences is ~een to d~sclose an example of a ~ingle specific gasoline-ethanol fuel com~osition as encompassed by the inv~ntion of this application, , nor are said references seen to render obvious the unique combination of phase stability and high octane properties possessed by the fuel compositions of this invention.
Disclosure of this Invention Thus, it is an object of this invention to provide novel phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethan~l fuel compositions for use in internal combustion engines, said compositions not only having a cloud point of below 0~, but also having an octane rating above both that of the gasoline employed as well as above that of a comparable non-aqueous mixture of said gasoline and ethanol. It is a further object of this invention to provide a novel method (process) for preparing said phase-stable agueous gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions. Other objects and advantages of this invention will become readily apparent from the following description and appended claims.
More specifically, this invention is directed to a phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel composition consisting essentially of gasoline, water, ethanol and an ad~itional alcohol selected from the group consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof, wherein the amount of water and ethanol present in said composition is equivalent to said composltion containing a hydrous ethanol having a proof of from about 188 to about 199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12 weight percent and wherein the amount of said additional alcohol present in said composition ranges from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the remainder of ~aid composition consisting essentially of said gasoline, said composition further having a 122~539 cloud point of about -8C or below an~ a (~ ~ M)/2 octane rating above both that o~ the gasoline employed as well as above that or a non-aqueous mixture of sald gasollne and an amount of ethznol equal to the amount of ethanol present in saia composition.
Alternatively, this invention may be described as a method for preparing a phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel composition for use in internal combustion engines, said composition having a cloud poinl o~ about -8C or below, a (R + M)/2 octane rating above both that of the gasoline employed as well as above that of a nonaqueous mixture or said gasoline and an amount o~ ethanol e~ual to the amount of ethanol present in said composition, which comprises mixing gasoline, water and e~hanol, With an additional alcohol selected ~rom the group consisting o~ n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-methyl-l~butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof, wherein the amount oP water and ethanol present in said composition is equivalent to said composition containing a hydrous ethanol having a proor or ~rom about 188 to about 199 in an amount ranging~from about 1 tO about 12 weight percent and wherein the amount or said addition alcohol present in said composition ran~es from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the remainder of said composition consisting essentially of said gasoline.

Detailed Description As noted herein above, the phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions of this invention consist essentially of gasoline, water, ethanol and an additional alcohol selected 1~21539 from the gro~p consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof.
It has been surprisingly discovered that by mixing said composition components that a phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol ~uel composition can ~e ~repared which has a cloud point of about -8C or below and in addition a (R+M)/2 octane rating above both that of the gasoline employea as well as above that of a non-aqueous ~gasohol~ type mixture of said gasoline and an amount of ethanol equal to the amount o~ ethanol present in said composition.
The gasoline com~onent emplo~able in the fuel compositions of this invention may be any conventionally known gasoline base stock, including hydrocarbon fuel mixtures having a gasoline boiling range of about 30C to aboue 215C. Methods ~or obtaining such gasoline base stocks and hydrocarbon mixtures are well known in the art and obviously need not be enumerated herein. More speci~ically the gasoline components employable in tbis invention are those having an aromatic content o ~rom about 10 to about 50 percent b~ volume, pre~erably about 20 to about 40~ by volume. In addition, the more prererred gasoline components have a (R + ~)/2 octane rating ranging ~rom about 75 to about 89, although gasoline components haviny higher or lower octane ratings may be employed, i~ desired.
Likewise, while leaded gasoline components may be employed in this in~ention, it is more preferred to e~ploy an unleaded gasoline component for obvious anti-pollution reasons.

.

~2;~539 ~ hus in accordance with the present invention gasoline, water and e~hanol are mixed with an additional alcohol ~elected fro~ the group consisting o~ n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol,

2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof, the most pre~erred ad~itional alcohol being iso-butanol.
The components o~ the fuel com~ositions o~
this inventio~ may be employed singularly or ~s mixtures and mixed in any order using any mixing or blending apparatus and technique desired.
The amount of water:and ethanol present in the fuel composition o~ this invention i8 equal to that amoun~ which would be equiva~ent to said composition containing a hydrous ethanol having a proo~ o~ ~rom about 188 to ~bout 199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12 weight percent.
Thus it is to be understood that while it would be preferred to employ said ~ater and ethanol in the form of such a hydrous ethanol in such amounts, the fuel compositions of this invention can alternatively be produced, if desired, using anhydrous S200 proofJ et~anol, sufficient water being provided ~y an alternative mean~ tO arrive at ~ fuel composition that would be equivalent to a composition containing hydrous ethanol in the proo~
and amount desired by this invention. In general it is pre~erred that the amount o~ water ~nd ethanol present ln the fuel composition of this invention be egu~valent to said com~osition oontaining a hydrous ethanol having a proof of from ~bout 188 to ~bout 193 in ~n amount ranging from about B to about 11 weight percent and more pre~erably a hydrDus ethanol having a proor of about 190 in an amount of about 10 weight percent.

1~2~539 The amount of aaditional alcohol selected from the group consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol, i~o-bu~anol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pen~anol, ana mixtures thereof that may be present in the ~uel composition or this invention may ranye from about 2 to about 4 percent by weight. while amounts 9f additional alcohol having above 4 percent by weight can also lead ~o fuel compositions having a cloud point of ~bout -8C or below, such higher amounts are no~ necessary to achieve the desired results of the subject invention and thus are considered to be economically waste~ul.
horeover, it is to be understood that while selection of the various fuel composition component amounts required to achieve the results desired will be dependent upon one's experience in the utilization or the ~ubject invention, only fi ~inimum measure o~ experimentation ~hould be necessary in order to ascertain those component amounts which will be su~icient to procuce the desired results ~or any given situation.
~ oreo~er, while the remainde~ of the fuel composition in addition ~o said above-discussed water, ethanol and addi~onal ~lcohol component~
consists essentially of 8aid gasoline component, it is of course to be understood that the fuel composition m~y, if desired, contain 0 to about 0.1 weight percent of any ~uitable conventional eorrosion inhibitor, metal deactivator or antioxidant.
As employed herein and as well known in the art, ~(R + M)/2X represents the Suel composition's octane number or r~tin~ which is calculated by ~veraging the sum of ~id fuel composition's research sctane number (RON), measured according to ASTM Method D2699 ~nd its motor octane number (~ON), measured according to ASTM Method D2700. As further employed herein the term ~cloud pointn represents that temperature in degrees Centigrade at which the ~uel composition changes from a clear and transparent fluid to one which i~ cloudy.
The subject invention is indeed unique and beneficial in that it allows for highly phase-seable gasoline-et~anol fuel compositions ~uitable ~or use in conventional non-dual injection spark-ignition internal combustion engines ~o be pre~ared utilizing hydrous ethanol. The ~uel compositions of this invention possess thermodynamic stability over a wide r2nge o~ temperatures as low as about -BC or below. Moreover the ability eo employ hydrous ethanol, the production of which is le~s energy-intensive than anhydrous ethanol, eliminates the economic~l need o~ costly distillation requirements attendant to the production of anhydrous ethanol from renewable, non-petroleum sources, thus providing a highly economical ~nd easily preparable fuel b~end. At the same time the subject invention allows~for the use of anhydrous (200 proo~) ethanol in the refinery as an octane additive to the gasoline, since detrimental phase separation problems which can be caused by contamination w$th even ~mall amounts of water may be overcome by the make-up of the fuel composition 30 Of thiB invention.
In addition to such excellent thermodyna~ic ~tability~ fuel compositions of thi~ invention have been found to posses~ ~ (R ~ ~)/2 octane rating above not only that of the gasoline employed, but ~22~53~

also ~bove that of a non-aqueous ~gasohol~ type mixture of said gasoline and an amount or et~anol equal to the amount of ethanol present in said fuel composition. Thus the ~ubject invention offers a means for improving the octane rating ~anti-knock quality) of not only gasoliné, but gasohol as well.
Further evidence has been found to indicate that the fuel compositions of this invention may provide excellent fuel economy which ~uggest~ decreased exhaust emissions as well.
The following examples are illustrative of the present invention and are not to be regarded as limitative. It i~ to be understood that ~11 of the parts, percentages and proportions referred to herein and in the appended claims are by weight unless otherwise noted.
EXAMPLES i-3 Three series o~ ~uel compositions were prepared in which the amount of gasoline, the amount of water and the amount of ethanol were maintained constant while a constant amount of dif~ercnt additional alcohols was mixed with the base composition. Tne gasoli~e employed in each instance was an unleaded gasoline wh$ch had a tR I M)~2 octane rating of about 87 and contained about 30~ by volume of aromatic3, while the Amount o~ water and ethanol employed in each instance was equivalent to employing about 191 proof ethanol. The additional ~lcohols employed in each instance were n-butanol, iso-butanol, t-butanol, n-pentanol, and a mixture of pri~ary amyl alcohols (~nalysis: about 98.7 wt. ~
tot~l ~myl alcohol; about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and aboue 32.56 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol ~nd

3-methyl-1-butanol~. In one series (Example 2J
about 86.0 grams of gasoline, about 10.0 grams of anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol and about 0.6 grams of water were mixeo with about 2.0 grams of the additional alcohol. In like manner the two additional series or fuel compositions were prepared, Example 1 using about 43.0 grams of gasoline, about 5.0 grams of anhydrous (200 proo~) ethanol, about 0.3 grams o~ water and about 0.5 ~0 grams o~ the aaditional alcohol and Example 3 using about 43.0 grams of gasoline, about 5.0 grams of anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol, about 0.3 grams of water and about 1.5 grams of the adaitional alcohol. ~ithout tne additional alcohol the - 15 equivalent gasoline/anhxdrous (200 proof) - ethanol/water mixture had a cloud point o~ 14C.
The cloud points o~ the resultiny compositions were then measured and are recorded below.
ExamDle 1 Examole 2 Example 3 Cloud point (C) Cloud point lC) Cloud point (C) of 88.12 wt.~ o~ 87.22wt.~ o~ 86.35 wt. ~
gasoline, 10.25 gasoline, 10.14 gasoline, 10.04 wt.~ 200 etha- wt.~ 200 etha- wt.~ 200 etha-nol, 0.61wt.% nol, 0.61wt.~ nol, 0.60 wt.
water, 1.02wt.~ water, 2.03wt.~ water, 3.01 wt.
A¢ditional additional ~ additional additional Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol n-butanol -7 -20 -41 iso-butanol -3 -19 -35 30 t-butanol 8 5 -3 n-pentanol -6 -25 -43 mixture of primary amyl alcohols -5 -22 -40 Note that the t-butanol failed to provide a cloud point or -BC. even at the 3.0 weight percent level.

A systematic study was performed on the temperature stability of four ~uel compositions 122~539 consisting of an unleaded gasoline having a (R ~
M)/2 octane rating of about 87 and containing about 30~ by volume of aromatics, ~aid composition also con~aining ethanol, water and an additional alcohol ~elected rrom the group consisting of n-butanol, iso-butanol, n-pentanol and a mixture or primary amyl ~lcohols (analys$s: about 98.7 wt ~ total ~myl alcohol; about 66.14 wt. 8 n-pentanol and about 32.56 wt. X 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-l-butanol). The procedure was as follows.
First to 42.76 gr~ms o the base gasoline was added 5.24 grams of 200 proor denatured ethanol. The ethanol used was denatured with 4.54 weight percent or the same gasoline used, thus in er~ect one started out with 43 grams o~ gasoline and 5 gr~ms of ethanol. To the gasoline/ethanol mixture was added 1 gram of the additional alcohol and enough water so that the contained ethanol/water would correspond to 191 proof ethanol ~nd the cloud point of the compositions determined. ~hen more water was added ~o that the ethanol/water contained would correspond to 190 proof ethanol And the cloud points determined again. Then keeping the~contained ethanol/water at 190 proof, another 0.5 grams os the additional 2S alcohol was added and the cloud points measure~
again~ Then more water was added so that the contained ethanol/water corresponded to 189 proof ethanol and the cloud points measured again. ~elow are the reported results of said measured cloud points and eheir relation~hip to the amount and type of ~dditional alcohol employed and to the corresponding ethanol proof of the ethanol/water contained in each composition.

~22~L~;39 ~t ~
Additional Additional Ethanol Cloud AlcoholAlcohol Proo~ Point, C.
n-butanol 2.0 191 -20C
n-butanol 2.0 190 - 9C
n^butanol 3.0 190 -25C
n-butanol 3.0 189 -13C
iso-bu~anol2.0 191 -19C
iso-butanol2.0 lgO -~C
iso-butanol3.0 190 -23C
iso-butanol3.0 189 -11C
n-pentanol 2.0 191 -25C
n-pentanol 2.0 190 -13C
n-pentanol 3.0 190 -32C
n-pentanol. 3.0 ~89 -17C
mixture of primary amyl alcohol~ 2.0 . 191 -22C
mixture of primary amyl alcohols 2.0 190 -10C
mixture of primary amyl alcohols 3.0 190 -26C
~ixture of ~rimary amyl alcohol~ 3.0 1~9 -15C
The ~bove data shows that at constant amount o~ water and constant amount o~ contained 25 ethanol~water (i.e. ethanol proo~), the cloud point decreased with the amount of additional alcohol added. Also at constant amount or additional alcohol, the cloud point increased with increasing amounts of water.

EXA~PLE S
Three fuel compositions designated G~, G6 and G7, each containing about R6.3 weight percent gasoline, about 10.7 weight percent o~ 190 proof ethanol ~nd about 3.0 weight percent of an 35 additional alcohol were prepared and evaluated ver~us unleaded ga~ol~ne and ~gasohol~ (90/10~ by volume mixture of gasoline and anhydrous t200 proof) ethanol) in ter~ of their research octane number i.

(RON) and motor octane number (MON). Designated fuel composition G5 employed a mixture of primary amyl alcohols (analysis: about 98.7 wt. ~ total amyl alcohol; about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and about 32.56 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) an~ had a cloud point o~ -26C, designated fuel composition G6 employed n-butanol and had a cloud point of -25C, while designate~ fuel composition G7 employed iso-butanol and ha~ a cloud point of -23C. A fuel composition designated G8 and containing about 84.53 wt. ~ or gasoline, about 10.71 wt. ~ of 188 proof ethanol and about

4.76 wt. ~ of a mixture of primary amyl alcohols ~analysis: about 98.7 wt. ~ of total amyl alcohol;
about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and about 32.56 wt. ~
2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) was also prepared, said designated fuel composition having a cloud point o~ -26C. All four said designated compositions and the gasohol were prepared using the same unleaded gasoline base fuel which contained about 30 percent aromatics by volume. Then all ~our designated fuel compositions were evaluated versus the unleaded gasoline em~loyed and ~gasohol~ (90/10 by volume mixture of sai~ gasoline and anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol~ in terms of their research octane number (RON) and motor octane number ~ON).
The octane me~surements were performed on standard test equipment using ASTM ~ethod D 2699 to measu~e RON and AS~M Method D 2700 to measure MON. The (R
M)/2 octane rating for each fuel was calculated by ~eraging the values of RON and MON. The octane numbers measured were as follows:

, -15- ~221539 F _ RON MON (R ~ M)/2_ Unleaded Gasoline 89.4 84.2 86.8 Gasonol 95.4 86.2 90.8 G5 - 96.9 86.6 91.B

5 G6 95.7 86.3 91.0 G7 96.7 86.8 91.8 G8 95.7 86.0 90.8 Said data snows that the (R + M)/2 octane values of ruels G5, G6 and G7 or this invention are much nigner than the corresponding value for the base unleaded gasoline ana are also higher than the correspondin~ value ~or the ~gasonol" tested, while ruel G8, not of this invention, did not have a (R+~)/2 value above that of the "gasonol~. Moreover an evaluation of the physical properties of fuel composition G7 showed that it meets all of the standard specifications ror automotive gasoline (ASTM D439) with tne exc~ption of the 50 percent distillation point whicn should not be ~elow 170F.

EXA~PLE 6 The same unleaded gasoline, ~gasohol~ and G5, G6, G7 and G8 fuel com~ositions employed in Example 5 above were also evaluaeed ~or ruel economy. The fuel economy measurements were oDtained on a dynanome~er-mountea 2.3 liter 4-cylinder Ford Pinto engine using a test procedure optimized tO detect small dlfSerences in fuel consumption. The fuel economy was measured at five 30 engine opera~in~ conditions described in terms oS
RP~ (revolutions per minute) and hHP (brake horsepower). Engine parameters, SUCh as spark-timing, were set in sucn a way as to obtain optimum performance with the base unleaded gasoline 35 fuel.

1~2153~

Tne percent change (gain or loss) in fuel economy based on an average or twenty runs for each RPM/ HP operating mode conducted for the same period of time for each fuel in terms of the ~uel consum~tion o~ the gasohol, G5, G6, G7 and G8 fuels versus that of tne base unleaded gasoline is reported below.
% Change in Fuel Econom~ Over Base Unleaded Gasoline Operating ~ode ------------Fuels------------RPM/BHP Gasohol Gs G6 G7 G8 _ 1000/0.25 0.7** 0.6** 1.0* 1.7***0.7**
1750/4.8 0.6** 3.2**~* 0.7* 1.0***0.6***
15 ~750/9.6 0.6*~* 2.2**~* 0.2* 0.2** 2.8****
2500/17.5 -0.4** 0.9~* 0.2* 1.6**** 1.2****
2500/21.2 -0.4** 0.0* -0.1* 0.3** -1.8*~**
* Statistical signi~icance at less than 90 percent probability level.
~0 ** Sratistical signiricance at the 90 percent probabillty level.
*** Statistical significance at the 95 ~ercent probability level.
**~* Statistical significance at ~he 99 percent probability level.
Said data indicates that the G5, G6 and G7 fuel compositions of this invention provlde~
better fuel economy than tne base unleaaed gasoline while that or the G5 and G7 fuel com~osition was even clearly better than that of the gasohol. ~hile said laboratory test ~rocedure can be used only to determine relative fuel consumption or various fuels, ~ucn procedures are satisfactory for base comparisons and screening purposes. Moreove~, the higher octane numbers or the G5, G6 and G7 .

12~:1539 fuel compositions shown in Example 5 cuggest that optimizing t~e spark-timing ot the engine to take ~dvantage of the higher (R ~ M)/2 octane ratings could result in further lowering the ~uel 5 consumption of said compositions relative to the base unleaded gasoline by a signi~icant amount thereby evidencing an even greater gain in ~uel economy.
~X~PLE 7 The ~ollPwing series or fuel compositions were prepared employing an unleaded gasoline that haa a (X + M)/2 octane rating of about 87 and contained a~out 30 percent aromatics by volu~e and their cloud points determined.
Composition A
85.44 wt. * gasoline 10.60 wt. ~ 190 proo~ ethanol 3.96 wt. ~ iso-butanol Cloud Point -35C.
Composition B
86.3 wt. ~ gasoline 10.7 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol 3.0 ~t. ~ 2-but~nol Cloud~Point - 10C.
An early cloud point determination o~ the same Composition a gave a reading of -3C, however, said ex~eriment is considered to have been inaccurate due to additional water contained in t~e 2-butanol ~ample.
Composition C
86.1 wt. ~ gasoline 11.0 wt. ~ 190 proof eth~nol 2.9 wt. ~ mixture of 15~ iso-butan 85~ n-butanol Cloud Point - 20C.

Com~osition D
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline 10.90 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol 3.85 wt. ~ ~ixture of 15~ iso-butanol and 35~ n-bueanol 5 - Cloud Point - 27C.
~ he water content in said Composition D was increased first to effect a composition h~ving 189 proof ethanol and then to e~fect a composition having 188 proo~ ethanol. The cloud points ot these new compositions were now -24C. and -14C.
respectively.
Composition E
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline 10.90 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol 3. B5 wt. ~ n-butanol Cloud Point - 35C.
Composition F
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline 10.90 wt. ~ lgO proof ethanol 29 3.85 wt. ~ n-pentanol Cloud Point ~ C.
Composition G
85.25 wt. ~ ~asoline 10.90 wt. ~ 190 ~roof ethanol 3.B~wt. ~ mixture of primary amyl alcohol~ (analysis: about 99.6 wt. ~ total amyl alcobol;
61.2 wt. ~ n-pentanol and 4bout 38.4 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) Cloud Point ^ 35C.
Another cloud ~oint determination of the ~ame composition using a crude mixture of primary ~myl alcohols gave ~ cloud point of -27C.
ComDosition H
86.08 wt. ~ gasoline 11.01 w~. ~ 190 proof ethanol 2.91 wt. ~ mixture of primarya~yl alcohols (same ~nalysis as in composition G.) Cloud Point - lBC.
comPosition I
85.12 wt. ~ gasoline 11.04 wt. 4 18~ proof ethanol 3.84 wt. S mixture o~ ~rimary amyl alcohols (same analysis as in Example 4 Cloud Point -11C.

A ~eries o fuel compositions were prepared using a gasoline ha~ing A ~R.+ ~)/2 octane rating o~
about 87 ~nd containing ~bout 30 percent aromatics by volume, anhydrous (200 proot~ ~thanol and i~o-butanol wherein the amount or water wa~ varied to effect different proof~ o~ ethanol. The results of said experi~ents are given below.
200 Rroof Iso- Effected Gasoline ~thanol Wate~ butanol Proof o~ Cloud Wt. ~ Wt. t Wt. ~ Wt. ~ ~thanol Pt., C.
90.62 5.19 0.35 3.85 189.9 -33 9~.58 5.19 0.38 3.85 189.1 -23 90.53 5.19 0.4~ 3.84 187.5 -14 90.49 5.18 0.48 3.84 186.4 20 Various modifications and variations o~
this inven~ion will be obviou~ to a worker ~killed in the ~rt and it is to be understood that such modifications and variation3 are to be included within the purview o~ this application ~nd the s~irit and scope of the appended claims.

1352~
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Claims (9)

THE CLAIMS ARE
1. A phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel composition consisting essentially of gasoline, water, ethanol and iso-butanol, wherein the amount of water and ethanol present in said composition is equivalent to said composition containing a hydrous ethanol having a proof of from about 188 to about 199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12 weight percent and wherein the amount of iso-butanol present in said composition ranges from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the remainder of said composition consisting essentially of said gasoline, said composition further having a cloud point of about -8°C. or below and a (R+M)/2 octane rating above both that of the gasoline employed as well as above that of a non-aqueous mixture of said gasoline and an amount of ethanol equal to the amount of ethanol present in said composition.
2. A composition as defined in claim 1, wherein the gasoline has a (R+M)/2 octane rating of from about 75 to about 89 and an aromatic content of from about 10 to about 50 percent by volume.
3. A composition as defined in claim 2, wherein the gasoline has an aromatic content of from about 20 to about 40 percent by volume and the amount of ethanol and water present in said composition is equivalent to hydrous ethanol having a proof ranging from about 188 to about 193 in an amount ranging from about 8 to about 11 weight percent.
4. A composition as defined in claim 3, wherein the amount of ethanol and water present is equivalent to hydrous ethanol having a proof of about 190 and wherein the amount of iso-butanol is about 3 weight percent.
5. A method for preparing a phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel composition for use in internal com-bustion engines, said composition having a cloud point of about -8°C. or below, a (R+M)/2 octane rating above both that of the gasoline employed as well as above that of a non-aqueous mixture of said gasoline and an amount of ethanol equal to the amount of ethanol present in said composition, which comprises mixing gasoline, water and ethanol, with iso-butanol, wherein the amount of water and ethanol present in said composition is equivalent to said composition con-taining a hydrous ethanol having a proof of from about 188 to about 199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12 weight percent and wherein the amount of iso-butanol present in said composition ranges from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the remainder of said composition consisting essentially of said gasoline.
6. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the gasoline has a (R+M)/2 octane rating of from about 75 to about 89 and an aromatic content of from about 10 to about 50 percent by volume.
7. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the gasoline has an aromatic content of from about 20 to about 40 percent by volume and the amount of ethanol and water present in said composition is equivalent to hydrous ethanol having a proof ranging from about 188 to about 193 in an amount ranging from about 8 to 11 weight percent.
8. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the amount of ethanol and water present in said composi-tion is equivalent to hydrous ethanol having a proof of about 190 and wherein the amount of iso-butanol is about 3 weight percent.
9. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the ethanol and water are employed in the form of hydrous ethanol.
CA000440943A 1982-12-09 1983-11-10 Fuel compositions Expired CA1221539A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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US448,280 1982-12-09
US06/448,280 US4541836A (en) 1982-12-09 1982-12-09 Fuel compositions

Publications (1)

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CA1221539A true CA1221539A (en) 1987-05-12

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CA000440943A Expired CA1221539A (en) 1982-12-09 1983-11-10 Fuel compositions

Country Status (4)

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AU (1) AU564852B2 (en)
BR (1) BR8306714A (en)
CA (1) CA1221539A (en)
IN (1) IN161559B (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9447352B2 (en) 2005-06-21 2016-09-20 She Blends Holding B.V. Motor fuel based on gasoline and ethanol

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9447352B2 (en) 2005-06-21 2016-09-20 She Blends Holding B.V. Motor fuel based on gasoline and ethanol
US9816042B2 (en) 2005-06-21 2017-11-14 She Blends Holding B.V. Motor fuel based on gasoline and ethanol

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU564852B2 (en) 1987-08-27
BR8306714A (en) 1984-07-17
AU2221683A (en) 1984-06-14
CA1221539A1 (en)
IN161559B (en) 1987-12-26

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