BRPI0616068A2 - methods of removing so3 from a flue gas stream, and providing a dry flue gas injection sorbent - Google Patents

methods of removing so3 from a flue gas stream, and providing a dry flue gas injection sorbent Download PDF

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Publication number
BRPI0616068A2
BRPI0616068A2 BRPI0616068A BRPI0616068A2 BR PI0616068 A2 BRPI0616068 A2 BR PI0616068A2 BR PI0616068 A BRPI0616068 A BR PI0616068A BR PI0616068 A2 BRPI0616068 A2 BR PI0616068A2
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additive
flue gas
throne
sorbent composition
sorbent
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Portuguese (pt)
Inventor
John Maziuk
Rasik Raythatha
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Solvay Chemicals Inc
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Priority to US22905605A priority Critical
Application filed by Solvay Chemicals Inc filed Critical Solvay Chemicals Inc
Priority to PCT/EP2006/066359 priority patent/WO2007031552A1/en
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Publication of BRPI0616068A2 publication Critical patent/BRPI0616068A2/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • B01D53/508Sulfur oxides by treating the gases with solids

Abstract

METHODS OF REMOVING SO ~ 3 ~ FROM A COMBUSTION GAS CURRENT AND SUPPLYING A DRY SORVE FOR COMBUSTION GAS INJECTION The invention relates to a method of removing SO ~ 3 ~ from a COMBUSTION gas stream. combustion having increased amounts of SO 3 formed by a NO 2 removal system including the injection of a sorbent composition into the flue gas stream. The sorbent composition includes an additive and a sodium sorbent such as mechanically refined throne or sodium bicarbonate. The additive is selected from magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof. The concentration of SO 3 ~ in the flue gas stream is reduced and the formation of a liquid phase NaHSO 4 reaction product is minimized.

Description

"METHODS FOR SO3 REMOVAL FROM A DECOMBUSING GAS CURRENT AND SUPPLYING A SORVO SEPARATE COMBUSTION GAS INJECTION"
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to gas purification, and more particularly to a method of purifying waste gases containing noxious gases such as SO3.
SO3 is a harmful gas that is produced by sulfur-containing combustible combustion. When present in the flue gas, SO3 can form an acid mist that condenses into electrostatic precipitators, ducts or bag housings, causing corrosion. SO3 at concentrations as low as 5-10 ppm in exhaust gas can also result in white, blue, purple or black plume gas cooling plumes in the atmosphere cooling air.
The effort to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants through selective catalytic reactors (SCRs) has resulted in the unintended consequence of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and thereby increasing total SO3 emissions. SCRs employ a catalyst (typically vanadium pentoxide) to convert NOx to N2 and H2O with the addition of NH3, but there is also an unwanted oxidation of SO2 to SO3. Although the highest concentrations of chimney SO3 are still relatively low, emissions can sometimes produce a highly visible secondary plume, which, although unregulated, is nonetheless perceived by many to be problematic. Efforts to reduce SO3 levels to a point where no secondary SO3 plumes are visible can impede particulate collection for stations employing electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). SO3 in the flue gas absorbs the ash particles and decreases the ash resistivity, thus enabling ESP to capture the particle by electrostatic means. Many plants actually inject SO3 to decrease the ash resistivity when the ash resistivity is too high.
SO3 reacts with water vapor in the flue gas ducts of the coal power plant and forms gaseous H2SO4. A non-condensing portion in the air baskets. Another portion of the sulfuric acid vapor may condense in the duct if the temperature of the duct is too low, thereby corroding the duct. The remaining acid vapor condenses when applied, is extinguished when it contacts the relatively cold atmosphere, or when wet scrubbers are employed for desulfurization of combustion gas (FGD) in the scrubber's extinction zone. Rapid extinction of acid vapor in the FGD tower results in a fine acid mist. The droplets are often too thin to be absorbed in the FGD tower or to be captured in the mist eliminator. Thus, there is only one SO3 removal limited by the FGD towers. If the levels of sulfuric acid emitted by the chimney are quite high, a secondary plume appears.
Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been used with a variety of sorbents to remove SO3 and other flue gas gases. However, DSI has typically been made in the past at temperatures below about 187.8 ° C because the equipment material, as a bag-storage medium, may not withstand higher temperatures. In addition, many sorbent materials sinter or melt at temperatures greater than about 204.4 ° C, which makes them less effective in gas removal. Another problem is that under certain conditions of temperature and gas concentration, reaction products of many sorbent materials adhere to equipment and pipelines, which requires frequent cleaning of the process equipment.
In one aspect, a method of removing SO3 from a flue gas stream having increased amounts of SO3 formed by a NOx removal system includes injecting a sorbent composition into the flue gas stream. The sorbent composition includes a additive and a sodium sorbent, such as mechanically refined throne or sodium bicarbonate. The additive is selected from magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof. The concentration of SO3 in the flue gas stream is reduced and the formation of a liquid phase NaHSO4 reaction product is minimized.
In another aspect, a method of supplying a sorbent for flue gas injection includes the supply of throne. A sorbent composition is formed by combining with the throne an additive selected from magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof. The sorbent composition is transported in a vessel to the site of a flue gas injection. Sorbent composition is discharged from the vessel and injected into the combustion gas stream. Sufficient amounts of additive are combined with the throne to increase the flowability of the pot sorbent composition.
The foregoing paragraphs have been provided by way of general introduction, and are not intended to limit the scope of the following claims. Preferred embodiments, along with other advantages, will be better understood by reference to the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is a phase diagram showing the SO3 trone derivation products as a function of combustion gas temperature and SO3 concentration.
Fig. 2 is a schematic figure of an embodiment of a flue gas desulphurization system.
The present invention is described with reference to the drawings in which similar elements are referred to by similar numerals. The relationship and operation of the various elements of the present invention are best understood by the following detailed description. However, the embodiments of the present invention described below are exemplary only, and the present invention is not limited to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings.
Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been used as a low cost alternative to a dry or wet spray purification system for SO3 removal. In the DSI process, the sorbent is stored and injected dry into the gas duct, where it reacts with the acid gas. Under certain processing conditions, the sorbent reaction product and acid gas is a sticky ash. Sticky ash tends to stick to the equipment and process ducts, thus requiring frequent cleaning. Thus, it would be beneficial to have a process that minimizes the amount of sticky ash reaction product.
A particular sorbent that can be used for SO3 removal is trone. Trona is a mineral that contains about 85-95% sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2CO3-NaHCO3 ^ H2O). A vast deposit of mineral throne is found in southeastern Wyoming near Green River. As used herein, the term "throne" includes other sources of sodium sesquicarbonate. Other sorbet that can be used is baking soda. The term "combustion gas" includes the exhaust gas of any combustion process classification (including coal, oil, natural gas, etc.). Combustion gas typically includes acidic gases such as SO2, HCl, SO3 and NOx.
When heated to or above 135 ° C, desodium sesquicarbonate undergoes rapid calcination of sodium bicarbonate contained in sodium carbonate as shown in the following reaction:
2 [Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H20] 3Na2 CO3 + 5H20 + CO2
A preferred chemical reaction of the sorbent composition with oSO3 is shown below:
Na2CO3 + SO3 Na2SO4 + CO2
However, under certain conditions, undesirable reactions may occur which produce sodium bisulfate. If sodium sesquicarbonate has not been completely calcined before the reaction with SO3, the following reaction occurs:
NaHCO3 + SO3 NaHSO4 + SO3
Under certain conditions, another undesirable reaction produces sodium bisulfate as represented below:
Na2CO3 + SO3 + H2SO4 -> 2NaHS04 + CO2
Sodium bisulfate is an acid salt with a low melting temperature and is unstable at high temperatures, decomposing as indicated in the following reaction:
2NaHS04 Na2S2O7
The reaction product type of Na2C03 and SO3 depends on the concentration of SO3 and flue gas temperature. Fig. 1 is a phase diagram showing typical SO3 trone reaction products as a function of flue gas temperature and SO3 concentration. In particular, above a certain concentration of SO3, the deriving product may be solid NaHSO4, liquid NaHSO4, Na2SO4 or Na2S2O7, depending on the flue gas temperature.
Liquid NaHSO4 is particularly undesirable because it is "sticky" and tends to adhere to process equipment, and cause other particulates, such as ash, to also adhere to the equipment. Thus, it may be desirable to operate the process under conditions where the amount of reaction product of liquid NaHSO4 is minimized. The limit in Fig. 1 between liquid NaHSO4 and solid Na2SO4 at a temperature above 187.8 ° C may be represented by the equation log [S03] = 0.009135T - 2.456, where ondelog [S03] is Iog at 10 of the concentration of SO3 in ppm and T is the flue gas temperature in ° F. Thus, when throne is injected into combustion gases at temperatures between about 187.8 ° C and about 273.9 ° C, and at a concentration of SO3 greater than the amount defined by log [S03] = 0.009135T - 2.456, NaHSO4 reaction product in faseliquid is formed.
It has been found that the use of a sorbent composition comprising mechanically refined throne and an additive minimizes the amount of sticky ash formed in the process. Baking soda can be used instead of highchair. The additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof. The additive preferably includes magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, or mixtures thereof, and most preferably includes calcium carbonate. The additive is preferably between 0.1 and 5%, more preferably between 0.5 and 2% by weight of the trone or other sodium sorbent. The sorbent composition is injected into the combustion gas stream. The sorbent composition is maintained in contact with the combustion gas for a time sufficient to react a portion of the sorbent composition with a portion of the SO3 to reduce the concentration of flue gas current SO3. Preferably, the formation of a liquid phase NaHSO4 shear product is minimized so that little sticky ash is formed. Although not intended to be limited by any theory, it is believed that the additive will react with H2SO4 present in the combustion stream to remove it, thereby minimizing the production of NaHSO4 in the liquid phase.
Thus, the system can be operated in a range of temperatures and SO3 concentrations where NaHSO4 in liquid phase would form in the absence of the additive. In one embodiment, the temperature residual gas where the throne is injected is between about 187.8 and 260 ° C. The flue gas temperature is preferably greater than about 370 ° C, more preferably greater than about 196.1 ° C. The combustion temperature is preferably less than about 260 ° C, more preferably less than about 232.2 ° C, and more preferably less than about 212.8 ° C. The flue gas temperature is most preferably between about 196.1 and about 212.8 ° C. Alternatively, the temperature range may be expressed as a function of SO3 concentration. Thus, the process can be operated at a temperature and concentration of SO3 where log [S03]> 0.009135T - 2.456, where [SO3] is the concentration of SO3 in ppm and T is the flue gas temperature in ° F.
The SO3 concentration of the flue gas stream to be treated is generally at least about 3 ppm, and commonly between about 10 ppm and about 200 ppm. The desired outlet SO3 concentration of the flue gas is preferably less than about 50 ppm, more preferably less than about 20 ppm, more preferably less than about 10 ppm, and more preferably less than about 5 ppm. The reaction by-product is collected with ash.
Trona, like most alkaline reagents, will tend to react faster with the strongest acids in the first gas stream, and then, after some residence time, it will react with the weaker acids. Such gas constituents as HCl and SO3 are strong acids and throne will react faster with these acids than with a weak acid such as SO2. Thus, the injected sorbent composition can be used to selectively remove SO3 without substantially decreasing the amount of SO2 in the flue gas stream.
A schematic of an embodiment of the process is shown in Fig. 2. The furnace or combustion 10 is supplied with a fuel source 12, such as coal, and with air 14 to burn the fuel source 12. From the combustor 10, combustion are conducted to a heat exchanger or air heater 30. Ambient air 32 may be injected to lower the temperature of the combustion gas. A selective catalytic reduction device (SCR) 20 can be used to remove NOx gases. The output of the heat exchanger or air exchanger 30 is connected to a particulate collection device 50. The departmental collection device 50 removes particles made during the combustion process, such as ashes, from the flue gas before it is conveyed to a optional humidifier 54 and then for flue gas 60 for exhaust. The particulate collection device 50 may be an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Other types of particulate collection devices, such as a pouch housing, may be used for solids removal. The bag housing contains filters to separate particles made during the combustion process from the flue gas.
The SO3 removal system includes a source of sorbent composition 40. Sorbent composition 40 includes an additive and a disodium sorbent such as trone or sodium bicarbonate. Sodium sorbent is preferably throne. The throne is preferably provided as particles with an average particle size between about 10 microns and about 40 microns, more preferably between about 24 microns and about 28 microns. The average particle size of the additive may generally be about the same size as the trone and is preferably between about 10 microns and about 25 microns. The sorbent composition is preferably in a dry granular form.
A suitable throne source is T-200®, which is a finely tuned mechanically available from Solvay Chemicals. The T-200 highchair contains about 97.5% sodium sesquicarbonate and has an average particle size of about 24-28 microns. The system may also include a ball mill sprayer or other type of mill to decrease and / or otherwise controlling the particle size of the highchair or other sorbent compositions.
It has also been found that the additive can improve the flow properties of the highchair when added to it. A method of providing a dry sorbent for flue gas injection includes combining the additive and the throne to form a sorbent composition. The additive may be magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof. The sorbent composition is transported in a vessel to a flue gas injection site. The sorbent composition is discharged from the vessel and injected into the flue gas stream, wherein sufficient amounts of additive are combined with the throne to increase the flowability of the sorbent composition out of the vessel.
The sorbent composition is transported from the sorbent composition source 40 to the injector 42. The sorbent composition may be pneumatically transported or by any other suitable method. As shown in Fig. 2, the injection apparatus 42 introduces the sorbent composition into the flue gas duct section 44, which is arranged in a position upstream of the bag housing inlet and preferably downstream of the heat exchanger outlet. The injection system is preferably designed to maximize contact of the sorbent composition with SO3 in the combustion gas stream. Any type of injection apparatus known in the art may be used to introduce the sorbent composition into the gas duct. For example, injection can be performed directly by a compressed air driven eductor.
The process does not require any pulp or reactor equipment if the sorbent composition is stored and injected dry in the flue gas duct 44 where it reacts with the acid gas. However, the process can also be used with flue gas wetting or wet injection sorbent composition. Additionally, the particulates may be collected wet through a wet scrubber 54 if the process is used for acid mist purification. In particular, the flue gas sulfurization system may be operated such that removal of SO3 is accomplished by injecting the sorbent composition into the combustion gas, although most of the SO2 is removed by the wet scrubber 54.
The process may also be varied to control the flue gas temperature. For example, the temperature of the combustion gas upstream of the throne or other sodium sorbent may obtain the desired flue gas temperature where the sorbent composition is injected. Additionally, ambient air 32 may be introduced into the combustion gas stream to decrease the flue gas temperature and the monitored flue gas temperature where the sorbent composition is injected. Other possible methods of controlling the combustion gas temperature include the use of heat exchangers and / or air coolers. The process may also vary the throne injection site or include multiple sites for injection of the sorbent composition.
For desulphurization attainment, the sorbent composition is preferably injected at a rate relative to the SO3 flow rate to provide a normalized stoichiometric sodium to sulfur ratio (NRS) of about 1.0 or greater. The NSR is a measure of the amount of injected reactant relative to the theoretically required amount. NSR expresses the stoichiometric amount of sorbent required to react with all acid gas. For example, an NRS of 1.0 means that sufficient materials have been injected to theoretically produce 100 percent removal of SO3 in incoming flue gas; an NSR of 0.5 will theoretically produce 50% SO3 removal. The reaction of SO3 with sodium carbonate is very fast and efficient, so that an NSR of only about 1 is generally required for SO3 removal. The sorbent composition preferably reacts with SO3 over SO2, so that SO3 will be removed even if large amounts of SO2 are present. Preferably, an NSR less than 2.0 or more preferably less than 1.5 is used such that no substantial reduction in the concentration of SO2 in the combustion gas caused by reaction with excess sorbent. As NOx removal systems tend to oxidize existing SO2 In SO3, the injection system can also be combined with a NOx removal system. The highchair injection system can also be combined with other SOx removal systems such as sodium bicarbonate, lime, limestone, etc. in order to improve performance or remove additional hazardous gases such as HCl, NOx, and the like.
An electrical generation plant uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and no bag housing. The plant uses a catalyst for NOx removal, which causes high levels of SO3 in combustion gases. The concentration of SO3 in the flue gas is about 100 ppm and about 125 ppm. The Solvay Chemicals T-200® Throne is injected to remove SO3 from flue gas.
As a comparative example, throne is injected at a temperature of 204.4 ° C without additive at NSR values of about 1.5. Perforated ESP plates in the plant exhibit a significant solids buildup that requires frequent cleaning.
A sorbent composition comprising trone and 1% calcium carbonate is injected into the flue gas at a temperature of 204.4 ° C at NSR values of about 1.5. A perforated plate of an ESP in the plant following the operation of the SO3 removal system is relatively free of solids buildup.
According to the present invention, the use of an additive reduces the amount of sticky tailings in the SO3 removal process compared to a process using trone without an additive under the same processing conditions.
The embodiments described above and shown herein are illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the present invention is indicated by the claims rather than by the above description and the accompanying drawings. The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Accordingly, these and other changes which are within the scope of the claims are intended to be incorporated herein.

Claims (41)

  1. Method of removing SO3 from a combustion gas stream having increased amounts of SO3 formed by a NOx removal system, characterized in that it comprises injecting a sorbent composition into the flue gas stream, comprising a additive and a sorbent. sodium to reduce the concentration of SO3 in the flue gas stream and minimize the formation of a liquid phase NaHSO4 reaction product, in which sodium sorbent is selected from the group consisting of: mechanically refined throne, sodium bicarbonate, mixtures thereof, and the additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flue gas temperature is between 187.8 and 260 ° C.
  3. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flue gas temperature is between 196.1 and 232.2 ° C.
  4. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the additive is between 0.1 and 5% by weight of the throne.
  5. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the additive is between 0.5 and 2% by weight of the throne.
  6. Method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.
  7. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the additive comprises calcium carbonate.
  8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flue gas stream comprises at least 3 ppm SO 3 upstream of the site where the sorbent composition is injected.
  9. A method according to claim 20, characterized in that the flue gas stream comprises between 10 and 200ppm SO3 upstream of the site where the sorbent composition is injected.
  10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sodium sorbent comprises trone with an average particle size smaller than 40 microns.
  11. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sodium sorbent comprises trone with an average particle size between 24 and 28 microns.
  12. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sorbent composition is injected as a dry material.
  13. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the concentration of SO3 is greater than an amount according to the equation IogfSO3]> 0.009135T - 2.456, where T is the flue gas temperature at 0F and [SO3] is the concentration of SO3 in ppm.
  14. Method of removing SO3 from a combustion gas stream having increased amounts of SO3 formed by a NOx removal system, characterized in that it comprises: - providing a sorbent composition comprising tronamechanically refined and an additive selected from the group consisting of decarbonate. of magnesium, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof, - inject the sorbent composition into the combustion gas stream, where the flue gas temperature is greater than 187,8 ° C and less than 232, 2 ° C; e- keeping the sorbent composition in contact with the combustion gas for a time sufficient to react a portion of the sorbent composition with a portion of the SO3 to reduce the concentration of the flue gas current SO3 and minimize the formation of a phase-in NaHSO4-derivative product net.
  15. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the additive is between 0.1 and 5% by weight of the throne.
  16. Method according to claim 14, characterized in that the additive is between 0.5 and 2% by weight of the throne.
  17. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.
  18. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the additive comprises calcium carbonate.
  19. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the average particle size of the additive is between 20 microns and 25 microns.
  20. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the flue gas stream comprises at least 3ppm of SO3 upstream of the site where the sorbent composition is injected.
  21. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the flue gas stream comprises between 10 and 200ppm SO3 upstream of the site where the sorbent composition is injected.
  22. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the concentration of SO3 is greater than an amount according to the equation IogfSO3]> 0.009135T - 2.456, where T is the flue gas temperature at 0F and [SO3]. is the concentration of SO3 in ppm.
  23. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the average throne particle size is between 10 and 40 microns.
  24. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the flue gas temperature is between 196.1 and 212.8 ° C.
  25. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the sorbent composition is injected at a rate with respect to the SO3 discharge to provide a normalized stoichiometric ratio of disodium to sulfur between 1.0 and 1.5.
  26. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the sorbent composition is injected as a dry material.
  27. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that it also comprises combining the additive with the throne before providing the sorbent composition to the location of the combustion gas stream.
  28. 28. Method of removing SO3 from a combustion gas stream comprising between 3 ppm and 200 ppm SO3, characterized in that it comprises: - providing a sorbent composition comprising trone and an additive selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof; wherein the additive is between 0.1 and 5% by weight of the throne; e- injecting the sorbent composition into the combustion gas stream, wherein the flue gas temperature is between 187.7 and-232.2 ° C.
  29. A method according to claim 28, characterized in that the additive is between 0.5 and 2% by weight of the throne.
  30. A method according to claim 28, characterized in that the additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.
  31. A method according to claim 28, characterized in that the average throne particle size is between 24 and 28 microns.
  32. A method according to claim 28, characterized in that the flue gas temperature is between 196.1 and 212.8 ° C.
  33. A method according to claim 28, characterized in that the concentration of SO3 is greater than an amount according to the log equation [S03]> 0.009135T - 2.456, where T is the flue gas temperature at 0F and [ SO3] is the concentration of SO3 in ppm.
  34. 34. A method of supplying a dry flue gas injection sorbent, comprising: - providing the throne, - combining with the throne an additive selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and mixtures thereof to form a sorbent composition - transport the sorbent composition in a vessel to the site of a flue gas injection - discharge the sorbent composition out of the vessel and inject sorbent composition into the flue gas stream in that sufficient amounts of additive are combined with the throne to increase the sorbent composition of the sorbent outside the vessel.
  35. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the additive is between 0.1 and 5% by weight of the throne.
  36. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the additive is between 0.5% and 2% by weight of the throne.
  37. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the additive is selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.
  38. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the additive comprises calcium carbonate.
  39. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the average particle size of the throne is less than 40 microns.
  40. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the average particle size of the throne is between 24 microns and -28 microns.
  41. The method according to claim 34, characterized in that the average particle size of the additive is between 20 microns and 25 microns.
BRPI0616068 2005-09-15 2006-09-14 methods of removing so3 from a flue gas stream, and providing a dry flue gas injection sorbent BRPI0616068A2 (en)

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US22905605A true 2005-09-15 2005-09-15
PCT/EP2006/066359 WO2007031552A1 (en) 2005-09-15 2006-09-14 Sulfur trioxide removal from a flue gas stream

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WO2007031552A1 (en) 2007-03-22
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EP1937391A1 (en) 2008-07-02

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