AU2014265071B2 - A building and methods of constructing the building - Google Patents

A building and methods of constructing the building Download PDF

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AU2014265071B2
AU2014265071B2 AU2014265071A AU2014265071A AU2014265071B2 AU 2014265071 B2 AU2014265071 B2 AU 2014265071B2 AU 2014265071 A AU2014265071 A AU 2014265071A AU 2014265071 A AU2014265071 A AU 2014265071A AU 2014265071 B2 AU2014265071 B2 AU 2014265071B2
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building
panel
panels
longitudinal
edge
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AU2014265071A1 (en
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Rodney Killick
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CSR Building Products Ltd
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CSR Building Products Ltd
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Priority claimed from AU2015100472A external-priority patent/AU2015100472A4/en
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Abstract

- 34 A building system and method of constructing a special use building, such as a switch or control room for housing equipment for providing an electrical power supply, from 5 lightweight building panels including locating a number of individual lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) building panels one upon the other in edge-to-edge abutting relationship, in stacked relationship, preferably in a horizontal orientation, to form a self-supporting or load bearing wall of a building in which the longitudinal side edges of each panel are provided with either a first or a second part of two io complementary interconnecting engaging elements for matingly engaging with other complementary engaging elements of adjacent panels for interconnecting two adjacent building panels together to form the wall. One form of the interconnecting elements is a tongue and groove arrangement. The advantage of the building system and the building made thereby is that the building does not require a separate framework to 15 support the lightweight panels thereby providing a saving in materials and costs, as well as construction time allowing the special use building to be constructed at a low cost in areas of limited access, such as in remote countryside without the use of lifting apparatus. 5973275 1 (GHMallers) P91 727.AU.3 WENDYS FIG. 1(a) FIG. 1(b)

Description

1 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
A BUILDING AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING THE BUILDING
FIELD 5 The present invention relates generally to building structures made from building components and/or assemblies and to methods of constructing the building structures.
In one form, the present invention relates to using building components and/or assemblies in new or different orientations to form building structures having enhanced ίο and/or different properties and/or characteristics, including characteristics and/or properties which are compliant with the regulations concerning the various uses of the building structures.
In one form, the present invention relates to building structures assembled from is preformed building components and/or assemblies which are load bearing building components of sufficient strength to be substantially self-supporting when used in new or different orientations to form the building structure.
In one form, the present invention finds particular application in forming building 20 structures having specific functions or uses from building components and/or assemblies by assembling the building components in a new way by orienting the building components and/or assemblies differently so as to meet the requirements of the specific uses or functions of the building structure . 25 Although the present invention will be described with reference to one or other building components for use in assembling and/or constructing one or other type of building structure having desirable characteristics specific to the function and/or use of the building structure, it is to be noted that the scope of the present invention is not restricted to the described embodiment or embodiments but rather the scope of the 30 present invention is more extensive so as to extend to include other forms and arrangements of the building components from which the building structure is assembled, other ways of assembling the various forms of the building components to form the building structure, other forms and arrangements of the building structures, and to uses and/or functions of the building structure other than specifically described. 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 2 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
BACKGROUND
In the past, some types of buildings have been made by assembling prefabricated building components to form the building, such as for example, kit homes or homes 5 made almost exclusively from items made in a factory and transported to the building site for assembling together to form the kit home. However, owing to this type of construction, many different forms of the various building components were required to build the kit home. One example of such building components previously used in assembling such buildings was a building panel or similar. Such building panels were ίο manufactured off-site, such as in a factory or similar, in a range of different types. One such form of the building component is a lightweight building panel.
In the past, such lightweight building panels were used almost exclusively as cladding, facades or similar external covering of a building to form an external wall of the building is for covering the wall and/or for providing protection for the internal structure of the building, including providing security for the building and providing protection from the weather, such as rain, wind, sunlight and the like, as well as providing aesthetically pleasing external wall treatments to enhance the external appearance of the building. Such lightweight building panels were not generally registered as being load bearing or 2 0 self-supporting. Owing to the panels not being load bearing or self-supporting, the use of lightweight building panels almost always required the erection of a supporting framework to support the panels. One form of the supporting framework included a multitude of individual interconnected framework members, such as the example, vertically extending spaced apart stud members forming collectively a stud wall, to 25 which the lightweight building panels could be affixed as cladding or covering in the required positions by suitable fasteners to form the external facade, cladding and similar external covering or wall of the building. Although the supporting framework could be an external framework, it was usual that the supporting framework was an internal framework and the panels formed to external covering of the wall. In one form, 30 lightweight building panels were affixed by suitable fasteners to the individual members of the internal framework. Forms of the internal framework included metal or timber studs, such as aluminium, steel or other alloy, or more traditionally, the studs were made from timber, such as for example, pine or other readily available timber material. One such fastener is typically in the form of a top hat fastener which is located 35 between the interior surface of the lightweight panel and the outwardly facing side of 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 3 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 the internal framework element or stud.
The need for the erection of a separate supporting framework for the building prior to attachment of the building panels as cladding or covering thereto, in accordance with 5 more traditional or conventional building methods or techniques, increased the time taken to erect and construct the building as well as increasing the cost of the building since the framework needed to be formed accurately in the correct position before the remainder of the building could be commenced. ίο Thus, forming a stud wall was a time consuming and expensive preliminary step to forming a building structure, particularly for low cost building such as storage huts, facilities and services sheds, plant and equipment lock-ups and the like where the additional cost of providing a separate framework was not justifiable. is As always, in the building and construction industries, there is a need to be able to produce buildings of a suitable type more quickly and/or at lower cost, preferably using less qualified or less experienced tradespeople. One way of reducing both the time and cost of producing buildings is to dispense either partially or entirely with the expense and effort of producing a separate suitable support framework of individual 2 0 framework members interconnected together either internally or on the exterior of the building. However, this introduces the challenge of being able to produce a building which is sufficiently strong to remain erect, particularly in adverse weather conditions such as high winds and the like, without having to rely on the framework to provide the necessary support and strength for the building. Therefore, there is a need for a 25 different type of construction method or technique to form a building or other construction which has sufficient strength, rigidity and integrity to be load bearing and/or self-supporting so as to be compliant with the relevant sections of the Australian Building Code. 30 Accordingly, it is an aim of the present invention to provide a building system which is less costly to use and/or requires less amount of time to construct by using lightweight building panels in a new and/or different manner to construct the building structure.
Accordingly, it is an aim of the present invention to use existing lightweight building 35 panels in a new or different orientation in the formation and/or construction of a 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMallers) P91727.AU.3 4 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 building or structure that does not have a separate framework structure.
One problem of existing building construction methods and techniques is that many of the building components are too heavy to be lifted manually into place, including many 5 of the components of kit houses or factory built houses. Owing to the weight of the components, a lifting apparatus typically in the form of a lift crane, hoist or other power assisted device or similar, is required to lift the heavy components into position.
Such lifting apparatus and devices are not always available on site, such as when the ίο building is being constructed in a remote location, in the countryside, or in a location with reduced access, such as in a forest or other area. Thus, there is a need for a new type of building construction which uses lightweight building panels which can be assembled together to form the building structure without requiring the services of a power operated or power assisted lift apparatus having a mechanical advantage to lift is the panels into position manually. Even though the lightweight panels can be lifted manually, the structures formed by placing the panels one on top of each other, such as the walls of the structure, are load bearing and form a building structure which is self-supporting. Manhandling the lightweight panels is not possible if the building panel is made from conventional concrete or cast concrete or similar cementitious materials 2 0 containing aggregate, or is made from composite materials having multiple layers or from wood or solid timber, all of which require lifting by power assisted lifting apparatus. Accordingly, there is a need for a building technique and building structure that can be formed from lightweight building components that do not need to be lifted into place by power operated lifting devices. 25
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a building system to construct a building having at least one substantially self-supporting load-bearing wall 30 constructed from a multitude of lightweight building panels made from autoclaved aerated concrete, the wall comprising a first autoclaved aerated concrete building panel of a first thickness having a first longitudinal side along one edge of the first panel in spaced 35 apart substantially parallel relationship to a second longitudinal side along one 23/11/16 8439080 1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 5 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 opposite edge of the first panel, the first longitudinal side and the second longitudinal side defining a first face and a second face of the first panel, one of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the first panel being provided with a tongue and the other of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the 5 first panel being provided with a groove, the tongue and groove being complementary to one another, a second autoclaved aerated concrete building panel of the first thickness having a first longitudinal side along one edge of the second panel in spaced apart substantially ίο parallel relationship to a second longitudinal side along one opposite edge of the second panel, the first longitudinal side and the second longitudinal side defining a first face and a second face of the second panel, one of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the second panel being provided with a tongue and the other of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the second panel is being provided with a groove, the tongues of the first and second panels being complementary to the grooves of the first and second panels enabling cooperative engagement of one of the tongues with one of the grooves, the thickness of the wall being substantially the first thickness of 2 0 the panels over a substantial height of the wall formed from the panels, wherein the first panel and the second panel being arranged with respect to each other such that when the first building panel is located adjacent the second building panel in abutting relationship to each other, one of the first or second longitudinal sides of the 25 first building panel is located in abutting relationship with one of the first or second sides of the second building panel so that the tongue of one of the first or second panels is received in the groove of the other of the first and second panel to interlockingly join the first and second panels to one another to form the wall of the first thickness, 30 the wall further comprising a connection located intermediate the first building panel and the second building panel to assist in joining the first and second panels to one another to form the wall, wherein the connection includes a mechanical connection or a chemical connection or a combination of both a mechanical connection and a chemical 35 connection and a reinforcement mesh located at or along at least a part of one face of 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 6 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 the first panel or along at least part of one face of the second panel or along the respective faces of both the first and second panels, wherein the face of the first panel having the mesh or the face of the second panel having the mesh are either both first faces of the panels or both second faces of the panels. 5
According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a building comprising at least two substantially similar building panels located one on top of the other in ίο edge-to-edge abutting relationship at different heights to form at least part of a substantially self-supporting support wall of the building, said first and second building panels each having a first thickness and each having a first longitudinal side in spaced apart relationship to a second longitudinal side, and a is connection intermediate the first and second building panels when in edge-to-edge relationship one on top of the other, wherein the building is formed by the second building panel being located upon the first building panel so that the building panels are arranged with the respective longitudinal sides extending substantially horizontally with the upper longitudinal edge of the lower building panel in abutting relationship with the 2 0 lower edge of the upper building panel to form part of the support wall of the building in which the wall has a thickness corresponding to the thickness of the building panels in which the weight of the wall is directed through the longitudinal edges of the building panels, wherein the building panels are lightweight building panels. 25 According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of constructing a building from building panels of a common or similar thickness, 30 each panel having a first longitudinal side and a second longitudinal side in spaced apart relationship to one another, said panels being located one above the other to form a substantially self-supporting wall having an upper building panel and a lower building panel located at two different heights to form part of a substantially self-supporting support wall, the method comprising the steps of 35 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 7 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 locating the first building panel in a desired position or location, locating a second building panel in alignment on the first building panel, and 5 locating a connection intermediate the first and second building panels, so that the respective longitudinal sides of each panel extend substantially horizontally in which the lower longitudinal side of the upper building panel is located in abutting relationship on the upper longitudinal side of the lower building panel with the connection located intermediate the two building panels to form part of the support wall of the building in ίο which the wall was a thickness corresponding to the common thickness of the building panels, wherein the building panels are lightweight building panels and the building structure is a self-supporting and load bearing building structure.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS 15
In one form, the building component useful in constructing the building in accordance with the present invention is a building panel. Typically, the building panel is a lightweight building panel, in the form of a slab, block, or other generally rectangular prism or cuboid shape, such as a substantially cuboid or parallelepiped building panel 20 having two opposed longitudinal sides in spaced apart relationship to each other, one on either side or edge of the panel, all sides being located between two opposing faces, and two opposed transverse sides or edges in spaced apart relationship to each other, one on either end of the panel, in which the length of the longitudinal sides is greater, preferably considerably greater, than the length of the transverse sides. More 25 typically, the building panel is a parallelepiped lightweight building panel. In one form, the building panel is a reinforced building panel having internal reinforcement in the form of a mesh of interconnected longitudinal and transverse rods.
Even more typically, the building panel is a lightweight slab building panel, typically a 30 lightweight panel made from autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Preferably, the lightweight building panel is an AAC panel supplied, manufactured and/or available from CSR Building Products Limited, under the name “Hebei® powerpanel”, “Hebei® power floor”, “Hebei® solid panel”, “Hebei® power floor+”, “Hebei® commercial floor”, “Hebei® Smartslab”, “Hebei® Powershield” or similar. 35 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 δ 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
Typical properties of the AAC panel include one or more of the following: TABLE 1 - Material Properties
Property Value Units Dry Density, Pdry 550 kg/m3 Working Density, Pdesign 715 kg/m3 Characteristic Compressive Strength, fuc 4.0 MPa Modulus of Rupture, fu, 0.8 MPa 5
Forms of the panel typically have a longitudinal or lengthwise extending axis extending in a direction corresponding to the long sides of the panel, and a transverse axis extending transverse to the lengthwise extending axis in a direction corresponding to the direction of the short sides of the panel. 10
In one form, the building panel is oriented so that the lengthwise extending axis of the building panel is arranged to extend in columns, typically in substantially parallel rows in abutting relationship with one another within the one column. More typically, the rectangular building panels are arranged to be oriented in a substantially horizontal is orientation with respect to the usual orientation of a building. In this regard, it is to be noted that AAC panels are usually oriented vertically as cladding or covering.
Typically, a multitude of individual lightweight building panels are arranged substantially horizontally in stacked relationship one upon the other at different heights 20 to one another extending in a vertical array typically in edge-to-edge abutting relationship one upon the other, so that the multitude of panels are located at different levels to form the load bearing, self-supporting, support wall or walls of the building, either as stand-alone walls or as interconnected walls. The walls can be external walls or internal walls or a combination of both. In one form, the internal walls are also self-25 supporting walls typically made from panels which are restrained at each or both transverse ends and/or at each longitudinal end. In one form, the external walls are connected to or interconnected with the internal walls using a suitable connector, including a mechanical connector such as a fastener or a chemical connector such as an adhesive or bonding agent or a combination of both mechanical connector and 30 chemical connector. One form of the fastener is a tie or similar linking or joining 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 9 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 element, such as a rod, plate, bar or similar. However, other forms of connectors are possible.
In one form, the building panels are arranged in an array of multiple columns of 5 building panels and multiple rows of building panels in abutting relationship in a regular array or regularly repeating array of panels arranged in a grid or grid-like pattern or arrangement when viewed face on from one side of the wall or similar structure, so as to extend both vertically and horizontally in a repeating pattern. ίο More preferably, when two panels are stacked one upon the other, the lightweight building panels are arranged such that the lower side or edge of a relatively upper panel rests upon the upper side or edge of the relatively lower panel with optionally one or other form of connection or connector located intermediate the upper side of the lower panel and the lower side of the upper panel. 15
It is to be noted that the building panels can be stacked in an array of substantially similar panels in side-to-side relationship in a substantially vertical direction to any reasonable height or with any reasonable number of individual panels. In one form, there can be up to about 10 levels of panels, typically, up to about five or six individual 20 panels, stacked one upon the other in edge-to-edge relationship to form one wall or wall section of the building structure for each storey of the building, including where the building has two or more storeys. However, any number of individual panels can be used to form the support wall or walls of the building depending upon requirements and the type of building being constructed, including any number in a vertical direction and 25 any number in a horizontal direction depending on the style and use of the building.
One preferred use of the building is a utility or services building for housing or containing plant and equipment for providing the utility or service. 30 In one form, the building panels are arranged to span over openings in the building, such as openings corresponding to windows, doors, access hatches, or other spaces for allowing introduction to or withdrawal from the building structure or for storing either permanently or temporarily, equipment or installations or similar, typically to the specific function or use of the building structure, such as electrical monitoring 35 equipment for monitoring the supply of electrical power to or from the building 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 10 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 structure. In one form, the building structure is an electrical switch room.
The building panels are self-supporting so as to require no additional support when spanning over the top of such an opening or access hatch way or the like. However in 5 some buildings, additional support such as for example, in the form of lintels or similar may be provided as required.
In one form, the individual panels have smooth faces or are smooth sided and/or are smooth edged, whereas in another form, the faces of the panel are smooth but the ίο edges or sides of the panels are provided with a surface discontinuity or irregularity, or in another form, both the faces of the panels and the edges or sides of the panels are provided with surface discontinuities or irregularities.
In one form, the faces of the panels are provided with surface decorations, such as for is example, to enhance the visual appeal of the walls of the building or to produce “architectural effects” of the building. In one form, the surface decoration includes troughs or depressions, such as for example, formed by routing or similar treatment of the face or faces of the panel. In one form, the internal and external surfaces of the building panels and/or of the building can have a surface treatment, such as for 20 example, be suitably finished to improve the external and/or internal appearance and/or durability of the panels or to enhance one or more properties of the panel or of the building. One suitable finish of the panels is that the panels are coated or rendered or the like by a suitable coating or surface treatment, to increase the integrity of the building, including the strength of the building or to enhance the visual appeal of the 25 building.
In one form, the surface treatment is a coating, such as a paint coating or a waterproofing coating, or the coating is a render coating. 30 Typically, in one form, the connection between the panels is a surface discontinuity or irregularity provided in or along one or more of the sides or edges of the panels. One form of the connection is an interconnection element or configuration, such as for example, a mating or engagement element located on one or more of the side edges, preferably on or along the longitudinal side edges or on or along the transverse side 35 edges of the panel or on both the longitudinal and transverse side edges of the panel. 23/11/16 8439080 1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 11 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
Preferably, each longitudinal or long edge or side is provided with one form of the interconnection element, typically in the form of cooperative engaging or cooperative mating elements and the transverse or short edges or sides are substantially straight and smooth. In one form, the cooperative engaging or mating elements are in the form 5 of a depression, rebate, groove, trough, channel, cavity, chamber, bore, shaft or similar void or depression. Typically, in another form, the cooperative engaging or mating element is in the form of a surface discontinuity or irregularity in the form of a projection, crest, shaft, ridge, rib, rod, tie, protrusion, tongue, boss, convex extension or other outwardly projecting or extending protrusion or extension. 10
In one form, the outwardly extending projection and the inwardly directed depression are complementary to one another so as to be matched to each other for mating engagement and/or cooperative engagement with each other by the projection being received within the depression to interconnect and/or locate the two panels with is respect to each other. Preferably, the two adjoining panels are centrally located precisely one about the other to form a vertical wall having a substantially constant thickness. More typically, the projection provided on the relatively lower building panel of the two abutting building panels located one above the other is directed upwards in a substantially vertical direction, and is typically received in the downwardly directed 2 0 groove or similar depression or void of the relatively upper building panel to join the two panels together. In one form, the interconnection element is a tongue and groove arrangement.
One form of the interconnection arrangement is of a complex shape or profile having a 25 number of different portions located at different positions along the length of the side edges of the panel. One complex profile includes a central portion and two side portions arranged in stepped or staggered relationship to each other with two transition portions extending between the end of the central portion and the side portion at either side of the profile. In one form, the interconnection arrangement includes a chamfer 30 formed along the abutting outer edges of the profiles of the panels.
In one form, the transverse edges or sides of the panel are smooth, flat, or otherwise free of surface irregularity or discontinuity, i.e. are free of mating or engaging elements. 35 In one form, there is a connection between adjacent building panels, either panels in 23/11/16 8439080 1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 12 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 the same row or panels in the same column or panels in adjacent columns or in adjacent rows to form an interconnected array of panels, such as for example, panels arranged to extend substantially perpendicularly as internal walls of a building or construction. In one form, the panels extend in the same direction to form a wall, 5 whereas in another form, the panels are intermeshed to extend in two different directions to form two interconnected walls, such as for example, at an external corner of the building or where an internal wall extends from the interior or inwardly facing surface of an external wall. ίο In one form, the connection between adjacent or contiguous panels in the same or different row or in the same or different column, is a mechanical component, or an assembly of mechanical components, typically in the form of a mechanical fastener, such as for example, a plate, rod, bar, tie, joiner, , a “v-nail”, gang nail, Tek screw or similar fastener, whereas in another form, the connection is a chemical connection, is such as for example, in the form of a bonding agent and/or sealing agent, typically in the form of an adhesive, cement, grout, sealant, or similar located between the edges or sides of adjacent panels, or a combination of both mechanical fastener and Chemleak bonding agent. 2 0 Forms of the mechanical fastening components for securing one or more AAC panels in place include such components as ties, including tension ties, brackets, such as slotted angle brackets, fasteners such as V-nails. In one form, the tension tie is provided with a flange or other end or edge which extends transversely from the longitudinal axis of the tie, typically perpendicularly. The flange or edge engages with 25 one building component to which the panel is to be attached or mounted, whereas the shank of the tie is provided with multiple spaced apart apertures for receiving fasteners therethrough to securely attach the tie to the panel. In one form, the aperture is of a shape complementary to the profile of the fastener being received in the aperture. Typically, the aperture is a V-shape and the profile of the fastener is also V-shaped, 30 typically a V-shaped nail.
In one form, the mechanical connection is a combination of a tension tie having V-shaped apertures and a slotted angle bracket typically, two spaced apart combinations of bracket and tie, on either side of the building component, to which the lightweight 35 building panel is to be attached. 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 13 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
Forms of the tension ties include 150mm and 200mm tension ties in the form for receiving V-shaped nails. 5 Preferably, the chemical connection is a sealant such as for example, a polyurethane sealant for sealing the joints of the panel, including sealing the joints along the longitudinally extending sides and/or the joints along the transversely extending sides or both. In one form, there is a gap, preferably a small gap of between about 1 to 25mm, preferably from about 5mm to 20mm, more preferably about 10mm, between ίο adjacent building panels. In one form, the polyurethane sealant is “Emer-Seal P40”.
In one form, the connection is a combination of a mechanical connection in the form of a tongue and groove arrangement and a chemical connection in the form of a bonding agent, adhesive or sealant to join the two panels together. 15
In one form, the connection is the mating or engagement elements provided at or along the edges of the building panels, such as the complementary tongue and groove elements provided along respective longitudinal sides or edges of the building panels. 2 0 Another form of connection includes reinforcing and/or strengthening members received internally within one or more selected building panels or within all of the building panels depending on the type and/or style and/or use of the building. In one form, the reinforcing member is an elongate member, such as for example, a reinforcing rod, tube, bar or similar elongate member including a hollow tube or solid 25 rod.
One form of the building panels is provided with receivers for receiving the reinforcing members in use to enhance the strength of the building panels and/or to assist in joining adjacent panels to one another, and hence the support wall and the building so 30 that the building can be constructed having larger dimensions, greater span between walls, is stronger, is better able to withstand loadings due to wind or the like by being in compression, is more resistant to incidents or impact, such as weather occurrences, natural disasters, accidents, malfunctions of equipment or similar, including impacts, explosions, fires or the like. Additionally, the presence of the reinforcing members can 35 make the building more compliant with the relevant regulations governing the use of 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 14 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 the building by being used to more effectively tie or link individual components to each other, such as joining the components comprising the roof structure of the building to the components comprising the wall structure of the building to make the building stronger and more damage resistant. 5
One form of the receiver is a hole, bore, aperture, cavity, channel, groove, hollow, shaft or similar void. Typically, the void is substantially cylindrical and can extend partially or entirely through the thickness of the building panel, partially or entirely through the width of the building panel, or partially or entirely through the length of the building ίο panel depending upon requirements in any combination taking into account the spatial requirements of the reinforcing members received in the voids, such as not to interfere with each other.
The building panel can have a single void, a pair of voids, or multiple voids in any is arrangement or pattern for receiving individual reinforcing rods or bars in corresponding arrangements or patterns depending upon the type of building being assembled and the strength of the building to be compliant with the governing regulations or building codes. The voids in the form of bores can be transversely extending, longitudinally extending, width-wise extending, through the thickness of the 20 panel, or any combination.
In some forms of the building panels, the receiving void is filled with a suitable filler when the reinforcing rod or bar is located therein, to increase the strength, and/or integrity of the building. The filler can be a glue, adhesive, sealant, grout, cement or 25 the like.
In one form, the receiving voids in the form of bores are aligned in register with the mating or engagement elements in the form of the tongue and groove arrangement to assist in strengthening the walls of the building but also in precisely locating one 30 building panel with respect to other building panels to assist in forming a straight wall of a building or a building having straight walls in which the individual building panels are arranged in precise stacked relationship one upon the other to form a wall of uniform and/or constant thickness using the location of the reinforcing rods or similar to position the panels accurately. Preferably, the reinforcing bars are located centrally within the 35 wall panels. 23/11/16 8439080 1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 15 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
In one form, the wall or walls fo the building are a double wall comprising an inner wall of internal panels and an outer wall of external panels. In one form, the wall structure includes an external wall forming the outer wall of the building and an internal wall 5 forming the inner walls to subdivide the building into rooms, compartments, zones, areas or the like.
In one form, the building panels are provided with a slot or similar for receiving one or more mechanical fasteners therein, such as for example, a tension tie. In one form, ίο the internal panels of the inner walls are joined to the external panels of the outer wall with tension ties and “v-nails” received through corresponding V-shaped apertures of the tie at every horizontal panel joint, such as for example, at 600mm centres or less, dependent upon the resulting panel width in corresponding slots provided in the Hebei® building panels, typically in the sides or edges of the panels. 15
In one form, the building panels are substantially rectangular in cross-section or transverse profile, whereas in other forms, the cross-section or transverse section is more complex than being a simple rectangle owing to the presence of lengthwise extending channels, grooves, rebates or similar along one or more edge of the building 20 panel for receiving conduits or similar for providing services or utilities to the building, such as for example, water, including hot water and cold water pipes, electricity cables, including mains power cables or cables for power generated on site and/or within the building, telecommunication cables or similar. 25 In one form, the short transverse sides of the building panels can be arranged to extend at an angle of about 90o to the long sides depending upon the type, style, location or the like, of the building.
In one form, the lightweight building panels are located on footings such as for 30 example, conventional footings of a building, such as a concrete footing in a trench, or on or in a brick footing built as a retaining wall or similar, or concrete stumps, brick piers, or similar, or the footings are formed from the same or modified lightweight building panels as the walls of the building or other construction, in alignment with the panels for forming the support walls. 35 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 16 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
It is to be noted that the building structure or building construction can have any suitable shape, form or style and be constructed for any use or function. Typically, uses of the building structures include domestic dwellings, shared accommodation, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, service facilities, garages, factories, such as 5 for example, utilities buildings, storage buildings, sheds, electrical switch rooms, plant rooms, control rooms, huts or similar.
It is to be noted that the length of the building panel can be any suitable length up to about 6m, with a particularly preferred length being about 4.2m. 10
The building panel can have any suitable width or height, such as for example, up to about 600mm with other widths of 300mm, 400mm and similar, and a thickness of up to about 250mm. Other thicknesses can include any suitable thickness such as from about 50mm to about 350mm, preferably about 100mm, or the like. Panels can be is provided having a thickness of from about 100mm to about 300mm thick, typically in increments of 25mm, i.e. 100mm, 125m, 150mm, 175mm, 200mm, 225mm, 250mm, 275mm, 300mm or 325mm.
In one form, there is a gap between adjacent building panels, such as for example, a 2 0 gap of up to about 10mm. The gap, if present, is filled either partially or entirely with a suitable material, such as for example, sealant, grout, cement, bonding agent, or the like.
In one form of the building panel, packing pieces, shims, spacers or similar can 25 optionally be provided intermediate the footings or base of the building and the first row of building panels to ensure the row of building panels, and also adjacent panels, are level to enable the building to be assembled completely square with each row of panels being horizontal. 30 Although forms of the building panel can be made from any suitable material which is self-supporting and strong enough to span the required distances, it is noted that the preferred material is autoclaved aerated concrete. However, additives can be included in the composition of the mixture from which the building panel is made to modify the properties or characteristics of the building panel in some applications in accordance 35 with the use of the building or where the building has a specific function or purpose, 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 17 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 such as to increase the strength of the panel enabling the building to have increased internal span between walls, to increase flame resistance, increased wind loading, insulation, increased noise abatement, or the like. 5 Typical characteristics of the building panel and of the structure made from the building panels include strength, durability, thermal rating, acoustic insulation, lightweight, resistance to burning, resistance to corrosion, rot, degradation, insect attack, and similar in accordance with regulations relevant to buildings, such as energy ratings for domestic dwelling and commercial buildings and similar. 10
Typical characteristics of building panels and/or buildings assembled from the building panels include the following.
Mean compressive strength of unit (fuc) is in the range from about 2.80 to 5.0, typical is from about 3.0 to 4.5, depending upon the thickness of the panel and the manner in which the compressive strength is calculated.
The building panel when used in an external or internal wall, can span a distance of up to about 5.9m or more when continuously supported by other building panels not 2 0 having auxiliary support, and/or up to about 4.0m when located over a space in the wall, such as for example, over a window or door opening in the wall. However, in some circumstances, the span may be less, such as for example, up to about 3.0m or less when unsupported over an opening, again depending upon the thickness of the building panel which can range from less than about 100mm up to about 250mm in 25 thickness.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Embodiments of building structures will now be described with reference to the 30 accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 (a) is a schematic side front perspective view of one form of a double storey building construction having a side wall formed from a multitude of building panels located one above the other in stacked relationship with a horizontal orientation. 35 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 18 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
Figure 1 (b) is a schematic side front perspective view of the building of Figure 1 (a) exposed to reveal the internal details of one of the side walls of the building showing the horizontal orientation of the panels. 5 Figure 2 is a partial cross-sectional view of the form of the side supporting wall of the building of Figure 1, formed by a multitude of horizontally oriented building panels stacked one above the other in edge-to-edge relationship.
Figure 3 is an enlarged view of circle A of Figure 2. 10
Figure 4 is an enlarged view of circle B of Figure 2.
Figure 5(a) is a schematic cross-sectional elevation view of one form of a building showing the joining of a ceiling to the side wall of the building using a suitable is connector.
Figure 5(b) is a schematic cross-sectional elevation view of one form of a building showing the joining of a floor to the side wall of the building using a suitable connector. 2 0 Figure 6 is a schematic cross-sectional elevation view of another form of a building structure formed by assembling a multitude of horizontally oriented building panels in horizontal edge-to edge relationship one upon the other.
Figure 7(a) is a schematic side sectional view of another form of a building structure 25 made by assembling building panels in a stacked array when in a horizontal orientation.
Figure 7(b) is a schematic partial cross-section view showing parts of the side wall of the building of Figure 7(a). 30
Figure 8(a) is a schematic side elevation view of another form of a building showing the horizontal orientation of the building panels.
Figure 8(b) is a schematic elevation view of another side wall of the building of Figure 35 8(a). 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 19 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
Figure 9 is a schematic transverse cross-section of one form of a reinforced building panel. 5 Figure 10 is an enlarged end view of two building panels in abutting stacked relationship one upon the other showing one form of a complex interconnection arrangement.
Figure 11 is a schematic cross-section view of one form of a mechanical fastener in the ίο form of one form of tension tie and V-nail for securing a building component to a panel.
Figure 12(a) is a side view of one form of a V-nail for cooperative engagement with a tension tie. is Figure 12(b) is a top plan view of the V-nail of Figure 12(a).
Figure 12(c) is a cross-section through A to A of Figure 12(a)
Figure 13 is a plan view of one form of a tension tie having V-shaped apertures for 2 0 receiving the V-shape nail of Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a plan view of another form of a tension tie.
Figure 15 is a plan view of another form of a tension tie. 25
Figure 16 is a plan view of one embodiment of a flat bracket in the form of a flat joining plate.
DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIFIC EMBODIMENT 30
One form of a building structure made from lightweight building panels, typically AAC building panels, in the form of a domestic dwelling or house, generally denoted as 10, is shown in Figure 1. Although one form of the building structure shown in Figure 1 is a domestic dwelling, the building structure is not restricted to domestic dwellings, but 35 includes other forms and types of buildings for a variety of purposes. Other forms of 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 20 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 the building construction are possible, such as for example, commercial and/or industrial buildings such as shops, offices, storage facilities, including sheds, warehouses, garages, huts, rooms for housing utility services, such as for example switch rooms, plant rooms or rooms for housing plant, equipment, installations or the 5 like. A preferred form of building structure is a utilities service room, such as a hut or shed for plant room in the form of a switch room for containing electrical control equipment and/or installations or similar for use with providing and/or controlling electrical power ίο supply and/or electrical supply services, providing telecommunication services, particularly in remote locations, such as for example, in the countryside or away from population centres, such as being located in the bush, wilderness areas, protected areas, environmentally sensitive areas or the like where there is little or no infrastructure to assist in construction of the building structure. One form of a utilities is hut for use as a switch room is shown in Figures 7(a), 7(b), 8(a) and 8(b).
Owing to the particular requirements of a utilities switch room, the requirements of the building structure for housing the electrical switch gear are very stringent making compliance with the building regulations governing the switch rooms difficult. Such 2 0 requirements include characteristics such as strength, durability, fire rating, acoustic noise transmission rates, resistance to flame propagation, resistance to blasts and explosions caused by equipment malfunction, or the like.
Returning to the form of the building structure shown in Figures 1 to 6, one form of the 25 construction details of building 10 is shown in cross-section and elevation view in Figures 2 to 5. This form of the building will be described with reference to one side wall 12 which is a solid wall formed from a multitude of building panels 14.
In one form, building 10 is provided with footings 20, located in ground 22 upon which 30 building 10 is to be positioned, constructed or assembled. Footings 20 can be of any suitable type or style, such as concrete footings, concrete stumps, brick piers, concrete slab or modified lightweight panels, including AAC panels, depending upon the size and type of building 10 and the terrain in which the building is to be constructed. Footings 20 can extend to above ground level as shown in Figure 2, or can be located 35 below ground level either wholly or partially, to be provided with protective barriers. 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 21 2014265071 23 Nov 2016
In one form, footings 20 have an optional rebate, channel or step 24 located around the outer peripheral edge or edges of the footings to receive lower edges 26 of the first row 28 of building panels 30. 5
The optional rebate 24, if provided, on the outer edge 26 of footings 20, has a suitable connection applied to it for sealingly joining the lower edges 26 of each of the panels 30 of the first row 28 of panels to footings 20. One form of the suitable connection is a layer of sealant. However, other forms of the connection are possible including ίο adhesives, bonding agents, mechanical fasteners or similar including combinations of two or more.
Optional packing pieces in the form of shims, spacers or the like (not shown) can be provided within the layer of sealant to adjust the position and level of the first row 28 of is building panels 30 to level and/or straighten the first row of building panels.
The first row 28 of lightweight building panels 30, such as Hebei® AAC panels, is located on top of footings 20 around the edge of building 10 to form a first level of generally horizontally oriented building panels 30 as part of an external supporting wall 20 32 of building 10. A typical form of building panel is a solid slab of cuboid shaped
Hebei® wall panel having a size of up to about 6m in length and a width of up to about 600mm, and a thickness of up to about 250mm as the wall is an external load bearing self-supporting wall. 25 Lower long edge 34 of panel 30 in the first row 28 of panels is provided with a centrally located inwardly directed groove 36 which is located in abutting relationship with the upper surface of the outer edge 26 of footings 20 for receiving a plug of sealant to tie building panel 30 to footings 20. If required, the position of panel 30 is adjusted using the shims so that it is level and/or correctly positioned to form the wall. 30
Panel 30 has a connection or at least one part of a connection in the form of an interconnection element, typically in the form of an upwardly projecting tongue 38 located along the upper edge 39 or side in use. A second row 40 of building panels 42 is located upon the first row 28 of building panels 30 with tongue 38 received in a 35 connection or at least a part of the connection in the form of a complementary 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 22 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 interconnection element, typically in the form of groove 44 of building panel 42 of the second row 40 of building panels 42 to cooperatively interconnect the two panels 30, 42 to each other to assist in forming part of supporting wall 32. It is to be noted that there is a gap, such as a gap of about 10mm between the upper and lower edges of 5 the two panels 30, 42 when in stacked relationship one upon the other. Additionally, there is a gap of about 10mm between the side edges of the panels to the panels on either side thereof. A layer of sealant or adhesive is located between each building panel both along the horizontal longitudinal edge or side 34, 39 of each panel and along the transverse side or edge of each panel to bond the two panels to each and to ίο fill the gaps between adjacent panels.
In the embodiments shown in Figures 1 to 6, support wall 32 is formed by five building panels 30, 42 stacked one upon the other in edge to edge relationship to form the height of the wall of the lower storey 46 of building 10. 15
It is to be noted that the wall may have any suitable height as required, and may be more or less than 5 building panels high. A floor member in the form of a lightweight flooring panel 50 is located on the upper 20 edge of the building panel of the fifth row of building panels (or greater if there are more than 5 building panels stacked one above the other to form wall 32), to extend horizontally inwards of wall 32 to form the ceiling of lower storey 46 of building 10 and the floor of upper storey 52 of building 10 as shown more particularly in Figures 2 and 4. 25
The external support wall 32 of second storey 52 is similarly formed by stacking five horizontally oriented building panels (or greater), in a vertical array on one another in edge-to-edge relationship in a manner similar to that of lower storey 46 with the pairs of connections in the forms of interconnection elements comprising tongues 38 and 30 grooves 36 of each respective pair of panels cooperatively engaged with each other to join the panels together.
With particular reference to Figures 2 and 3, the internal structure of the walls and roof of building 10 is shown in more detail. The topmost building panel 80 has a bore 82 35 extending vertically therethrough from the upper edge to the lower edge, within which 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 23 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 is received a reinforcing bar 84 or similar, and sealed therein with a suitable sealing grout or adhesive, to assist in tying the roof of the building to the wall and to place the wall in compression to improve the strength of the building. 5 Panel 80 is located so that bore 82 is in alignment with a bore in ceiling/roof panel 86 extending transversely from an upper face to a lower face, and a similar bore extending through the thickness of parapet panel 89 for receiving reinforcement bar 84 collectively therethrough when all of panels 80, 86, 89 are aligned with each other so as to interconnect all of the panels to form the top of building 10 as shown more ίο particularly in Figures 2 and 3.
One form of connection between the panels of wall 52 and floor panel 50 includes reinforcements. One such reinforcement is a reinforcement mesh. One form of the reinforcement mesh is a fibreglass reinforcing mesh 54 as part of an external coating is system provided at the wall panel/floor panel junction or at the wall panel/ceiling panel junction. In one form, the fibreglass reinforcing mesh extends to a minimum of 300mm on either side of the junction of the wall panels, i.e. to a minimum length of about 300mm from one side of the ceiling or floor panel and to a minimum length of about 300mm from the other side of the ceiling or floor panel. Reinforcing mesh 54 is 2 0 provided when a reinforcing rod 56 is used to anchor panel 50, such as in a ring bolt sealed in a suitable grout is used in the construction of building 10.
With particular reference to Figure 5, one form of the mechanical fasteners for joining two panels together, such as for example, a vertical wall panel and a horizontal ceiling 25 panel will now be described. One form of the mechanical fastener includes a metal bar or plate 60, typically in the form of a stainless steel flat bar, having one end which is fixedly attached to one side edge of wall panel 62 and having the other end fixedly attached to one side edge of ceiling panel 64 to connect panels 62, 64 to one another. The one end of plate 60 is provided with three V-shaped openings 66 in spaced apart 30 relationship to one another for receiving therethrough respective V-shape nails having complementary cross-sections or profiles or shapes to V-shaped openings 66 to secure one end of plate 60 to wall panel 62. The other end of plate 60 is also provided with three spaced apart V-shaped openings 66 for receiving therethrough respective V-shaped rails (not shown) having complementary profiles to V-shaped openings 66 to 35 secure the other end of plate 60 to ceiling panel 64. Typically, plates 60 are located at 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 24 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 600mm centres of either side of panels 62, 64. In one form, plate 60 is attached to one side of panel 62 whereas in other forms, plate 60 is received within a suitably sizes and positioned slot or rebate in the surface of panel 62 or other panel. 5 In one form, a backing rod 68 is located within the space between the wall panel 62 and ceiling panel 64 as shown more particularly in Figures 5(a) and 5(b). A suitable sealant material, such as a polyurethane sealant is used to seal the space between panels 62, 64 to fully form and seal the joint therebetween surrounding rod 68. ίο A similar joining arrangement is also provided to join wall panel 62 to floor panel 70, also as shown in Figure 5(a).
Another embodiment of a building made using horizontally oriented AAC panels, blocks or slabs is in the form of building 90 having a cantilevered construction is shown is in Figure 6 in which a floor panel 94 spans between two supporting walls 96a, 96b to form a room of a building in which the floor panel is cantilevered beyond the external support wall 96b to form balcony 92 as shown in Figure 6. In this embodiment, five panels are stacked in a horizontal orientation one upon the other in edge-to-edge relationship on a suitable concrete footing or similar as described previously with 2 0 respect to Figures 1 to 4 to form the building structure. It is to be noted that the building 90 can be of any suitable or reasonable height.
Another embodiment of a building made from an assembly of lightweight building panels of AAC is shown in Figures 7(a), 7(b), 8(a) and 8(b) which is one example of a 25 utilities hut for use as a switch room for housing electrical switch gear for controlling distribution of electricity and related equipment. In this embodiment, switch room, generally denoted as 110, is a single storey building having five rows of horizontally oriented lightweight AAC building panels 112 (or greater if required), arranged in a vertical stacked array one on top of each other in edge-to-edge relationship extending 30 horizontally to form the external walls 114 of building 110. Walls 114 are formed in a similar manner to the walls of building 10 as described previously.
Building 110 is provided with a sub-floor structure 116 having two rows of horizontally oriented building panels 117 located onto individual footings 120 to form the base of 35 building 110. However, it is to be noted that the subfloor can have any suitable 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 25 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 number of panels depending upon the height of the subfloor and the terrain in which the building 110 is to be located.
Walls 116 of building 110 are held in compression by suitable fasteners, such as 5 mechanical fasteners, interconnecting individual panels 112 of wall 114. One form of such interconnecting mechanical fasteners will now be described. Panels 114 are collectively provided with bores which are in alignment with each other when panels 114 are stacked one upon the other. Typically, bores have a size of about 32mm. An anchor rod, down rod or similar 122, is received in the aligned bores to interconnect ίο the wall panels and the ceiling/floor panels to each other to increase the strength of building 110. If required, an adhesive in the form of a grout or similar, such as a cement based grout mix or similar is located in the aligned bores around anchor or down rod. Optionally, the grout can be located between individual panels facing the walls, floor and ceiling if required, or deemed necessary, particularly when there is a is gap between adjacent building elements.
One form of the complex interconnection arrangement will now be described with reference to Figure 10 which shows two panels 130, 132 arranged in abutting edge-to-edge relationship one on top of the other. Each panel is provided with both forms of 20 the interconnection elements in the form of substantially tongue and groove arrangement in which panel 130 is provided with a complex groove profile 134 and panel 132 is provided with a complex tongue profile 136 interlockingly engaged with each other. Profile 134 includes a central recessed or depressed section 138 and two side sections 140, 142 located at either side of central section 138 and side section 25 140 and a second transition section 146 extends at the other side between central section 138 and side section 142. Central section 138 and side sections 140, 142 are substantially parallel to each other. A first chamfer 148 is located at or towards one edge of panel 130 adjacent first section side section 140 and a second chamfer 150 is located at or towards the other edge of panel 130. 30
Complex profile 136 of panel 132 is a complex tongue profile having an outwardly extending central section 152 and two side sections 154, 156, one located at either side of central section 152. 35 A first and second transition portion 138, 160 extend between central section 152 and 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 26 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 side sections 154,156, respectively. Chamfers 162, 164 are located along respective side edges of panel 132.
When panels 130,132 are located edge to edge one above the other in abutting 5 relationship, the complementary shapes of the two interlocking profiles 134, 136 cooperatively engage with each other to interlock panels 130,132 to each other.
In Figure 11 is shown one form of the mechanical fastener in the form of a tension tie 170 having a lengthwise extending shank 172 provided with three spaced apart V-10 shaped apertures 174a, 174b, 174c for receiving therein respective V-shaped nails to secure tie 170 to panel 176. Tie 170 is provided with a head 178 arranged to extend at about 90° to the longitudinal axis for engaging a suitable building component, shown schematically in Figure 11 as a plate 180 which can be used to join two adjacent panels together. 15
In Figure 9 there is shown one form of a reinforced lightweight AAC panel 182 having a reinforcing mesh 184 comprising longitudinal rods 186 and transverse rods 188. Panel 182 is provided with one form of complex interlocking profile 190 at one end and the other form of the complex interlocking profile 192 at the other end. 20
In Figures 13 to 15 are shown different forms of tension ties 170 having different numbers of and different arrangements of V-shaped openings 174 provided in respective shanks 172 of ties 170. 25 In Figures 12(a), 12(b) and 12(c) are shown different views of one form of V-nail 196 having two angularly inclined sides 198, 200 meeting along the centre line of nail 196. The forward end of nail 196 is tapered to a point 262 to aid penetration of nail 196 into the AAC panel. The other end of nail 196 is provided with an angularly inclined tail 204 which can be optionally folded to secure attachment of tie 170 or plate 180 to the AAC 30 panel.
ADVANTAGES
Some of the advantages of some embodiments of buildings made in accordance with 35 the method as described herein include the following: 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3 27 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 • The time taken for completing the building to lock up stage is reduced, sometimes considerably reduced as compared to other types of construction since there is no need to first construct a suitable supporting framework, such as a stud wall 5 or similar. • Reduce the time required to complete sections of the building, such as the time required to allow concrete or cement to cure, which otherwise may delay the building process since the next steps in the construction process cannot be taken until the ίο earlier stage is complete. • Acoustic and thermal efficiencies which are compliant with the relevant building code can be obtained when using the minimal wall and floor components to construct the building. 15 • Requirements of the building for compliance with the relevant building codes can be satisfied by customising the building panels to be compliant. • Enables a solid building structure, such as a plant room, domestic home or the 2 0 like, to be constructed which is more cost effective as compared to the cost of comparable homes made using a full clay brick construction. • There is less on-site wastage due to the use of standard sizes of panels in the modular construction of a building. 25 • Improved thermal mass, and • Improved thermal comfort. 30 The described arrangement has been advanced by explanation and many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention which includes every novel feature and novel combination of features herein disclosed.
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the invention described herein is susceptible 35 to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is understood 23/11/16 8439080J (GHMallers) P91727.AU.3 28 2014265071 23 Nov 2016 that the invention includes all such variations and modifications which fall within the spirit and scope.
In the claims which follow and in the preceding description of the invention, except 5 where the context requires otherwise due to express language or necessary implication, the word “comprise” or variations such as “comprises” or “comprising” is used in an inclusive sense, i.e. to specify the presence of the stated features but not to preclude the presence or addition of further features in various embodiments of the invention. 23/11/16 8439080_1 (GHMatters) P91727.AU.3

Claims (20)

  1. THE CLAIMS DEFINING THE INVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS:
    1. A building system to construct a building having at least one substantially selfsupporting load-bearing wall constructed from a multitude of lightweight building panels made from autoclaved aerated concrete, the wall comprising a first autoclaved aerated concrete building panel of a first thickness having a first longitudinal side along one edge of the first panel in spaced apart substantially parallel relationship to a second longitudinal side along one opposite edge of the first panel, the first longitudinal side and the second longitudinal side defining a first face and a second face of the first panel, one of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the first panel being provided with a tongue and the other of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the first panel being provided with a groove, the tongue and groove being complementary to one another, a second autoclaved aerated concrete building panel of the first thickness having a first longitudinal side along one edge of the second panel in spaced apart substantially parallel relationship to a second longitudinal side along one opposite edge of the second panel, the first longitudinal side and the second longitudinal side defining a first face and a second face of the second panel, one of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the second panel being provided with a tongue and the other of the first longitudinal side or the second longitudinal side of the second panel being provided with a groove, the tongues of the first and second panels being complementary to the grooves of the first and second panels enabling cooperative engagement of one of the tongues with one of the grooves, the thickness of the wall being substantially the first thickness of the panels over a substantial height of the wall formed from the panels, wherein the first panel and the second panel being arranged with respect to each other such that when the first building panel is located adjacent the second building panel in abutting relationship to each other, one of the first or second longitudinal sides of the first building panel is located in abutting relationship with one of the first or second sides of the second building panel so that the tongue of one of the first or second panels is received in the groove of the other of the first and second panel to interlockingly join the first and second panels to one another to form the wall of the first thickness, the wall further comprising a connection located intermediate the first building panel and the second building panel to assist in joining the first and second panels to one another to form the wall, wherein the connection includes a mechanical connection or a chemical connection or a combination of both a mechanical connection and a chemical connection and a reinforcement mesh located at or along at least a part of one face of the first panel or along at least part of one face of the second panel or along the respective faces of both the first and second panels, wherein the face of the first panel having the mesh or the face of the second panel having the mesh are either both first faces of the panels or both second faces of the panels.
  2. 2. A building system according to claim 1 in which the reinforcing mesh extends to a distance of at least about 300 mm from the longitudinal edge of either the first panel or the second panel or both the first and second panels to which the reinforcement mesh is attached.
  3. 3. A building system according to claim 1 or claim 2 in which each of the first building panel and the second building panel has the form of being substantially cuboid, a rectangular prism or parallelepiped.
  4. 4. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the first and second building panels are arranged to be oriented in substantially horizontal orientation when the first and second panels are in abutting stacked relationship one upon the other in edge to edge cooperative engagement.
  5. 5. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the self-supporting wall is either an external wall of the building located at, to or towards the outer side of the building or is an internal wall of the building located internally within the building to subdivide the building into separate internal areas, zones or rooms.
  6. 6. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the wall includes an outer wall and an inner wall and the connector joins the inner wall to the outer wall wherein the connector is positioned to extend between one building panel forming the outer wall and one building panel forming the inner wall.
  7. 7. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the first building panel is an upper building panel located on top of the second building panel which is a lower building panel, the upper building panel and lower building panel being in abutting stacked relationship to one another with the tongue of the longitudinal side of the second building panel being received within the groove of the longitudinal side of the first building panel and the first and second building panels being arranged so that the longitudinal sides of the first and second panels extend in a substantially horizontal orientation to form the wall.
  8. 8. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the chemical connector is a sealant, a bonding agent, an adhesive, a cement, or a grout.
  9. 9. A building system according to claim 8 in which the chemical connector is located between the longitudinal sides of the first and second panels having the interlocking tongue and groove to interconnect the first and second panels to one another.
  10. 10. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the mechanical connection is in the form of a fastener in which the fastener is a plate, rod, bar, nail, gang nail or V-nail, and the first or the second panel or both the first and the second panel are provided with a slot or a bore for receiving at least a part of the fastener.
  11. 11. A building system according to claim 10 in which the fastener is a linking element or joining element including a tie, a tension tie, a bracket, a slotted bracket, a slotted angle bracket, a rod, a plate, or a bar.
  12. 12. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the first and second panels are arranged in stacked relationship one above the other to a height corresponding to about ten levels of building panels when stacked in edge to edge abutting relationship.
  13. 13. A building system according to claim 12 in which the first and second panels are arranged in stacked relationship one above the other to a height corresponding to about five or six individual panel heights or widths.
  14. 14. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the building is a utilities or services building for housing equipment and plant for supplying a utility or service, including a switch room for housing electrical switch equipment for supplying, controlling and/or monitoring the supply of electrical power.
  15. 15. A building system according to any preceding claim further including a gap of up to about 25 mm between the longitudinal side of the first panel and the longitudinal side of the second panel when the first and second panels are in abutting edge to edge stacked relationship to each other, and the connection is a chemical connection in which the chemical connection is a bonding agent, adhesive, sealant, grout or cement received in the gap.
  16. 16. A building system according to claim 15 in which the gap between adjacent building panels is in the range from about 5 mm to about 20 mm.
  17. 17. A building system according to claim 15 in which the gap between adjacent building panels is about 10 mm.
  18. 18. A building system according to any preceding claim in which the first panel or the second panel or both the first and second panels are provided with at least one receiver extending either partly or entirely through the panel, wherein the at least one receiver for receiving therein or therethrough, a reinforcing or strengthening member to enhance the strength of the wall formed from the panel.
  19. 19. A building system according to claim 18 in which the reinforcing or strengthening member is received internally within one or more of the building panels or within all of the building panels in which the reinforcing or strengthening member is an elongate element having the form of a reinforcing rod, tube, bar, or shaft, including being hollow or solid.
  20. 20. A building system according to claim 18 or 19 in which the receiver is a single, double or multiple hole, bore, aperture, cavity, channel, groove, hollow, or void in which the reinforcing or strengthening member is received wherein the receiver extends transversely or longitudinally or both within the building panel or panels.
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AU2014265071A AU2014265071B2 (en) 2013-11-20 2014-11-20 A building and methods of constructing the building

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US5226276A (en) * 1991-10-09 1993-07-13 Cahill William R Free standing wall construction, a method of constructing same, and a precast elongated construction member
US20040118056A1 (en) * 2002-12-24 2004-06-24 Peters Andrew J. Wedge-lock building blocks
US20080184649A1 (en) * 2006-10-18 2008-08-07 Ashfaq A. Khan Interlocking Stackable Modular Building Blocks
CN201605705U (en) * 2009-11-24 2010-10-13 天津开发区福林发展有限公司 Multi-cavity plaster composite load-bearing, fencing and heat-insulating block and connection structure for block and whole building
US20130061549A1 (en) * 2011-09-08 2013-03-14 Samobi Industries, Llc Interlocking construction blocks

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US4114333A (en) * 1977-04-05 1978-09-19 Jones Harold E Wall panel unit
US5226276A (en) * 1991-10-09 1993-07-13 Cahill William R Free standing wall construction, a method of constructing same, and a precast elongated construction member
US20040118056A1 (en) * 2002-12-24 2004-06-24 Peters Andrew J. Wedge-lock building blocks
US20080184649A1 (en) * 2006-10-18 2008-08-07 Ashfaq A. Khan Interlocking Stackable Modular Building Blocks
CN201605705U (en) * 2009-11-24 2010-10-13 天津开发区福林发展有限公司 Multi-cavity plaster composite load-bearing, fencing and heat-insulating block and connection structure for block and whole building
US20130061549A1 (en) * 2011-09-08 2013-03-14 Samobi Industries, Llc Interlocking construction blocks

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