AU2008301860B2 - Extraction of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing materials - Google Patents

Extraction of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing materials Download PDF

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AU2008301860B2
AU2008301860B2 AU2008301860A AU2008301860A AU2008301860B2 AU 2008301860 B2 AU2008301860 B2 AU 2008301860B2 AU 2008301860 A AU2008301860 A AU 2008301860A AU 2008301860 A AU2008301860 A AU 2008301860A AU 2008301860 B2 AU2008301860 B2 AU 2008301860B2
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hydrocarbon
turpentine liquid
terpineol
containing
organic matter
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AU2008301860A1 (en
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Liang-Tseng Fan
William Arthur Fitzhugh Lee
Mohammad Reza Shafie
Julius Michael Tollas
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Green Source Energy LLC
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Green Source Energy LLC
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Priority to US97396407P priority Critical
Priority to US60/973,964 priority
Priority to US12/053,126 priority
Priority to US12/053,126 priority patent/US8101812B2/en
Priority to US12/174,139 priority
Priority to US12/174,139 priority patent/US8272442B2/en
Priority to PCT/US2008/010831 priority patent/WO2009038728A1/en
Application filed by Green Source Energy LLC filed Critical Green Source Energy LLC
Publication of AU2008301860A1 publication Critical patent/AU2008301860A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of AU2008301860B2 publication Critical patent/AU2008301860B2/en
Priority claimed from AU2012244185A external-priority patent/AU2012244185B2/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/04Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by extraction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/06Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by destructive hydrogenation
    • C10G1/065Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by destructive hydrogenation in the presence of a solvent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G21/00Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents
    • C10G21/06Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents characterised by the solvent used
    • C10G21/12Organic compounds only
    • C10G21/14Hydrocarbons
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G21/00Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents
    • C10G21/06Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents characterised by the solvent used
    • C10G21/12Organic compounds only
    • C10G21/16Oxygen-containing compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1011Biomass
    • C10G2300/1014Biomass of vegetal origin
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1033Oil well production fluids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1096Aromatics or polyaromatics
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/40Characteristics of the process deviating from typical ways of processing
    • C10G2300/4081Recycling aspects
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/80Additives
    • C10G2300/805Water
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/50Improvements relating to the production of products other than chlorine, adipic acid, caprolactam, or chlorodifluoromethane, e.g. bulk or fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals
    • Y02P20/58Recycling
    • Y02P20/582Recycling of unreacted starting or intermediate materials
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P30/00Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry
    • Y02P30/20Bio-feedstock

Abstract

A method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material includes the steps of providing a first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid; contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with the turpentine liquid to form an extraction mixture; extracting the hydrocarbon material into the turpentine liquid; and separating the extracted hydrocarbon material from a residual material not extracted.

Description

WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 EXTRACTION OF HYDROCARBONS FROM HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING MATERIALS CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION [001] The present application is a Continuation-in-part of U.S. Application Serial Nos. 12/174,139, filed July 16, 2008, and 12/053,126, filed March 21, 2008, and claims benefit of U.S. provisional application 60/973,964, filed September 20, 2007, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. FIELD OF THE INVENTION [002] The present invention relates to the field of extraction of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing materials. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [003] The liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of fossil fuels, also called hydrocarbon containing organic matter, in solid, semi-solid, highly viscous or viscous form (individually and jointly referred to as fossil fuels hereafter) have proven to be extremely challenging and difficult. As used herein, such fossils fuels include, but are not limited to, hydrocarbon containing organic matter within coal, oil shale, tar sands and oil sands (hereinafter jointly called tar sands), as well as crude oil, heavy crude oil, crude bitumen, kerogen, natural asphalt and/or asphaltene. The difficulty can in part be attributed to the fact that these fossil fuels include complex organic polymers linked by oxygen and sulfur bonds, which are often imbedded in the matrices of inorganic compounds. A need exists to produce additional liquid hydrocarbon feed 1 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 stock for the manufacture of liquid and gaseous fuels as well as for the production of various chemicals, pharmaceuticals and engineered materials as the demand and consumption for hydrocarbon based materials increases. [004] Various technologies or processes have been developed to liquefy, solubilize and/or extract the fossil fuels. None of the prior art liquefaction, solubilization and extraction technologies or processes, however, has proven to be commercially viable on a large scale for all types of fossil fuels. This is due to the fact that all of the prior art technologies and processes for the liquefaction, solubilization or extraction of hydrocarbons developed to date are expensive to deploy and operate. Additionally, the prior art processes and technologies for the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of hydrocarbons may be difficult to scale up, operate and/or control because of one or more of the following reasons: (1) operating at an inordinately elevated pressure; (2) operating at a very high temperature; (3) the need for expensive processing vessels and equipment that require the external supply of hydrogen under extreme conditions; (4) being subjected to a mixture, or composition, of two or more reagents, catalysts and/or promoters, which are frequently highly toxic and are neither renewable nor recyclable; (5) requiring to supply a special form of energy, e.g., microwave radiation; (6) long process times for partial liquefaction, solubilization or extraction; (7) requiring extraordinarily fine particles with a size of about 200 mesh (0.074 mm), which is profoundly difficult and costly to manufacture and handle; and (8) being incapable of recovering and recycling the necessary reagents, catalysts and/or promoters. Thus, there exists a need to provide additional techniques and processes for the increased recovery of hydrocarbon materials. [005] For primary drilling operations, it would be advantageous to employ a process that would enhance solubilization and encourage movement of additional or trapped hydrocarbon 2 containing organic matter that could then be recovered allowing existing pressure gradients to force the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter through the borehole. In particular, it would be useful to solubilize heavier hydrocarbons that usually remain in the reservoir through primary drilling operations. [006] For secondary and tertiary or enhanced oil recovery operations, it would be advantageous to employ a process that would enhance solubilization of oil to recover hydrocarbon-containing organic matter in the reservoir in a manner that is cost effect and that does not damage the reservoir. While effective methods and compositions exist for tertiary operations, current methods suffer due to expense of operations in comparison to the value of the produced hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. Throughout this specification, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprise", or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated integer or group of integers but not the exclusion of any other integer or group of integers. Each document, reference, patent application or patent cited in this text is expressly incorporated herein in their entirely by reference, which means that it should be read and considered by the reader as part of this text. That the document, reference, patent application, or patent cited in this text is not repeated in this text is merely for reasons of conciseness. Reference to cited material or information contained in the text should not be understood as a concession that the material or information was part of the common general knowledge or was known in Australia or any other country. SUMMARY OF INVENTION [007] hi accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a method of.extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material, includes the steps of providing a first liquid including a turpentine liquid and contacting the hydrocarbon containing material with the turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed, as well as residual material. The extraction mixture contains at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid. The residual material includes non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material. The residual material can also includes a reduced portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter in the circumstance where all such hydrocarbon-containing material has not been solubilized by the turpentine liquid and moved into the extraction mixture. The residual material is then separated from the extraction mixture. The extraction mixture is further separated into a first 3 portion and a second portion. The first portion of the extraction mixture includes a hydrocarbon product stream that includes at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter extracted from the hydrocarbon-containing material.. The second portion of the extraction mixture includes at least a portion of the turpentine liquid. In one embodiment, substantially all of the turpentine liquid is recovered in the recycle stream. [008] In another embodiment, substantially all hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is extracted into the extraction mixture. In such embodiment, the residual materials are essential oil-free and can be further used or disposed without impact to the environment. In accordance with the present invention, there is further provided a method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon- containing material into a turpentine liquid, comprising the steps of: providing a first liquid comprising said turpentine liquid; contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture being a one-phase liquid and comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; separating the extraction mixture from the residual material; and separating the extraction mixture into a first portion and a second portion, the first portion of the extraction mixture comprising a hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, the second portion of the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the turpentine liquid. wherein the turpentine liquid comprises at least about 30% by volume of a-terpineol and at least about 15% by volume of p-terpineol or wherein the turpentine liquid comprises at least about 40% by volume of a-terpineol. In accordance with the present invention, there is further provided a method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon- containing material, the method comprising the steps of: providing a first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid, the turpentine liquid comprising a terpineol; contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture 4a comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; and separating the extraction mixture from the residual material. In accordance with the present invention, there is further provided an apparatus for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from solid or semisolid hydrocarbon containing materials into a turpentine liquid, comprising: a turpentine liquid supply comprising said turpentine liquid containing terpineol for extracting hydrocarbons-containing organic matter from the hydrocarbon containing materials, , wherein said turpentine liquid is supplied so as to contact said hydrocarbon-containing materials in a ratio greater than or equal to 2:1; a contacting vessel, said contacting vessel having a first inlet and being in fluid communication with the turpentine liquid supply through the first inlet, the contacting vessel being operable to receive the hydrocarbon-containing materials in an interior portion through a second inlet, the contacting vessel being operable to maintain the hydrocarbon-containing materials and the turpentine liquid in the interior portion of the contacting vessel for a predetermined amount of time operable to form an extraction mixture and a residual material, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; the contacting vessel comprising a first outlet for recovering the extraction mixture from the contacting vessel and a second outlet for recovering the residual material from the contacting vessel, the contacting vessel being operable to allow for mechanical agitation; a holding tank, said holding tank being in fluid communication with the contacting vessel through a line, wherein the holding tank is operable to receive the extraction mixture from the contacting vessel, wherein the line includes a filter to prevent the passage of solids to the holding tank; and collection means for collecting the residual material from the second outlet of the contacting vessel. 4b BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [009] Figure 1 is a schematic for one embodiment of an apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbons from tar sands. [0010] Figure 2 is a schematic for one embodiment of an apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale. [0011] Figure 3 is a schematic for one embodiment of an apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbons from coal. [0012] Figure 4 is a schematic for the enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons from a subsurface reservoir. 4c WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0013] In one aspect, the present invention relates to a readily deployed composition for the extraction, liquefaction and/or solubilization of fossil fuels from coal, oil shale, tar sands and the like, as well as from reservoirs. [0014] According to one embodiment, a method is providing including the steps of liquefying, solubilizing and/or extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon containing material, such as for example, coal, oil shale, tar sands, or a reservoir containing heavy crude oil, crude oil, natural gas (which frequently coexists with crude oils and other said fossil fuels), or a combination thereof. Hydrocarbon-containing organic matter includes, but is not limited to, heavy crude oil, crude oil, natural gas and the like. Hydrocarbon-containing organic matter can be solid, semi-solid, liquid, sludge, viscous liquid, liquid or gaseous form. Other materials that are suitable hydrocarbon-containing materials for treatment using the method of this invention include liquid and solids that include hydrocarbon-containing materials as well as a residual material. Exemplary hydrocarbon-containing materials can also include oil tank bottoms, oil pit or pond sludge and slurry mix, discarded foods, manure, sewage sludge or municipal garbage. Liquefying, solubilizing and/or extracting the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter includes the step of providing a turpentine liquid, contacting the hydrocarbon containing material with the turpentine liquid so as to extract at least a portion of said hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from said hydrocarbon-containing material into said turpentine liquid to create an extraction mixture that includes the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter that has been removed from the hydrocarbon-containing material and the turpentine liquid, and separating the extracted organic matter in the turpentine liquid from any residual material not extracted. Turpentine liquid can include an amount of terpineol. Naturally 5 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 occurring turpentine liquid includes an amount of terpene. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes a-terpineol. [0015] In certain embodiments, the ratio of turpentine liquid to hydrocarbon-containing material is greater than or equal to about 1:2 and 4:1, in some embodiments greater than or equal to about 1:1, and in some embodiments the ratio can be greater than or equal to 2:1 In embodiments relating the reservoir recovery, the ratio can be greater than or equal to about 3:1, and in other embodiments relating to reservoir recovery the ratio can be greater than or equal to about 4:1. For purpose of application in a reservoir, pore volume is used to determine an estimated measure of the hydrocarbon-containing material. In other aspects of this invention, such as in the use of tar sands and coal and oil shale, volume of the hydrocarbon-containing material can be more directly measured. [0016] In certain embodiments, the minimum organic matter contained in the hydrocarbon containing material is greater than or equal to about 1% by weight, in other embodiments greater than or equal to about 10% by weight, and in still further embodiments greater than or equal to about 14% by weight of the hydrocarbon-containing material. [0017] In one embodiment of the invention, a liquefaction, solubilization or extraction reagent of choice for the hydrocarbon-containing matter is a natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine, which can include x-terpineol, or a-terpineol itself. [0018] In certain embodiments, the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of fossil fuels or hydrocarbon-containing organic matter can be carried out at a temperature, which is within the range of about 2*C to about 300'C. In certain embodiments, the organic matter or material is contacted with a turpentine liquid at a temperature of less than about 300*C, or less than about 6 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 60*C. In other embodiments, the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction temperatures can be within the range of about 20 0 C to about 200*C. The pressure under which the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of fossil fuels is to be carried out may typically be within the range of about 1.0x10 4 Pascals (0.1 atm) to about 5.0x10 6 Pascals (50.0 atm). In certain embodiments, the process can be conducted at a pressure between about 5.Ox 104 Pascals (0.5 atm) to about 8.0x10 5 Pascals (8.0 atm). In certain other embodiments, the fossil fuels or hydrocarbon-containing organic matter to be liquefied, solubilized and/or extracted by immersion in, or contact with, one or more turpentine liquid can be in the form of a bed of particles, pieces, chunks or blocks of fossil fuels whose sizes are within the range of about 0.74 mm to about 10 mm in a liquefaction, solubilization or extraction vessel (reactor hereafter) that contains one or more of the said liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction reagents. In certain embodiments, the sizes of the particles, pieces, chunks or blocks of fossil fuels are within the range of about 0.149 mm (100 mesh) to about 20 mm. In certain embodiments, the bed of particles, pieces, chunks or blocks of fossil fuels is agitated by passing the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction reagent or reagents in the form of liquid through the bed of particles, pieces, chunks or blocks by boiling the reagent or reagents. In certain embodiments, the duration of liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction is between about 1 minute to about 90 minutes. The fossil fuels can be partially or fully liquefied, solubilized and/or extracted; the degree of liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction can be effected by controlling the operating conditions, such as temperature, pressure, intensity of agitation and duration of operation, and/or adjusting the type, relative amount and concentration of the liquefaction, solubilization or extraction reagent or reagents in the reactor. 7 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0019] The basis of one aspect of the present invention is the unexpected discovery that when about 500 grams of the reagent, ax-terpineol, were added to about 250 grams of the 60-mesh sample of coal from the Pittsburgh seam in Washington County of Pennsylvania in a tray, the reagent's color turned pitch black almost immediately, and remained so after several hours. This indicated that the color change was not due to the suspension of the coal particles, but rather was indicative of the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the coal. Subsequently, this 2:1 mixture of a-terpineol and the coal sample was transferred from the tray to a capped and tightly sealed jar and was maintained under the ambient conditions of about 20'C and slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm) for about 25 days. The conversion, (i.e., the degree of liquefaction), of the coal sample was determined to be about 71 wt. % after filtering, washing with ethanol, drying, and weighing. This 71 wt. % conversion corresponds to nearly all the solubilizable bitumen (organic matter) present in the coal sample whose proximate analyses are 2.00 wt. % of as-received moisture, 9.25 wt. % of dry ash, 38.63 wt. % of dry volatile matter, and 50.12 wt. % of dry fixed carbon. A series of subsequent experiments with coal, as well as oil shale and tar sands under various operating conditions, has shown that the family of reagents that includes natural and/or synthetic turpentines containing pinenes, and alcohols of pinene, i.e., terpineols, are inordinately effective in liquefying, solubilizing and/or extracting kerogen (organic matter), bitumen (organic matter) and/or asphaltene (organic matter) in the fossil fuels, including coal, oil shale, tar sands, heavy crude oil and/or crude oil, without requiring the aid of any catalyst or alkaline metals. These reagents, except mineral turpentine that is derived from petroleum, are renewable and "green," i.e., low in toxicity, and relatively inexpensive, as compared to all other known liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction reagents for the fossil fuels, such as tetraline, xylene, anthracene, and various solutions or 8 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 mixtures of these reagents with other compounds. Even mineral turpentine derived from petroleum, although not renewable, is relatively low in toxicity and is inexpensive. It was also found that any of the said liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction reagents penetrates or diffuses into the particles, pieces, blocks or chunks of fossil fuels through their pores at appreciable rates, thus causing these particles, pieces, chunks or blocks to subsequently release the liquefiable, solubilizable or extractable fraction in them often almost nearly completely even under the far milder conditions, e.g., ambient temperature and pressure, than those required by the recent inventions pertaining to the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of the fossil fuels, such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, crude oil and heavy crude oil. [0020] An aspect of the present invention provides a method of liquefying, solubilizing and/or extracting the fossil fuels or hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from hydrocarbon containing material, such as coal, oil shale and tar sands, wherein a portion of solid or semi-solid fossil fuels is contacted with a turpentine liquid in an extraction mixture, which can be in an absence of an alkali metal, catalyst, hydrogen (H 2 ) and/or carbon monoxide (CO). While hydrogen and CO can be useful as a mixing agent, one embodiment of the invention includes the process and the composition in the absence of hydrogen and CO. [0021] In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid is selected from natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a-pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, p-terpineol, y terpineol, polymers thereof, and mixtures thereof. In certain other embodiments, the turpentine liquid is selected from geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2 pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isobomeol, p-menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p-menthan-8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, and mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid is selected from anethole, 9 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof. [0022] According to an aspect, solid or semi-solid fossil fuels or other hydrocarbon-containing materials, such as coal, oil shale, tar sands and heavy crude oil, or for example oil tank bottoms, oil pit or pond sludge, discarded foods, manure, sewage sludge or municipal garbage, may be provided in any size that facilitates contact with a turpentine liquid. The fossil fuels or hydrocarbon-containing materials can be provided as particles, pieces, chunks, or blocks, for example, large fragments or pieces of coal or oil shale. According to a certain aspect of the invention, the fossil fuel or hydrocarbon-containing material is provided as particles. According to a certain aspect of the invention, the particles of fossil fuel or hydrocarbon-containing materials have an average particle size of from about 0.074 mm to about 100 mm. In certain other embodiments, the particles of fossil fuel have an average particle size from about 0.074 mm to about 25 mm. [0023] According to an aspect of the present invention, a second liquid can be added to the turpentine liquid. According to a certain aspect of the invention, the second liquid can be selected from lower aliphatic alcohols, alkanes, aromatics, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, carbon bisulfide and mixtures thereof. Exemplary mixtures include solvents manufactured in petroleum refining, such as decant oil, light cycle oil and naphtha, or solvents manufactured in dry distilling coal and fractionating liquefied coal. 10 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0024] As used herein, lower aliphatic alcohols refers to primary, secondary and tertiary monohydric and polyhydric alcohols of between 2 and 12 carbon atoms. As used herein, alkanes refers to straight chain and branched chain alkanes of between 5 and 22 carbon atoms. As used herein, aromatics refers to monocyclic, heterocyclic and polycyclic compounds. As used herein, aliphatic amines refers to primary, secondary and tertiary amines having alkyl substituents of between 1 and 15 carbon atoms. In certain embodiments, benzene, naphthalene, toluene or combinations thereof are used. In another embodiment, the lower aliphatic alcohols noted above can be used. In one embodiment the solvent is selected from ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, pentane, heptane, hexane, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetraline, triethylamine, aniline, carbon bisulfide, and mixtures thereof, at a temperature and pressure operable to maintain the solvent in liquid form. [0025] In certain embodiments, the ratio of turpentine liquid to any other turpentine-miscible solvent contained in said fluid is greater than or equal to 1:1, in certain embodiments greater than or equal to about 9:4. In certain embodiments, the ratio is greater than or equal to about 3:1. In yet other embodiments, the ratio is greater than or equal to 4:1. [0026] According to an aspect of the present invention, the fossil fuel and the turpentine liquid are contacted at a temperature of from about 2*C to about 300*C. In certain embodiments, the fossil fuel is contacted by the turpentine liquid at a temperature of less than about 200*C. [0027] According to a further aspect of the present invention, the fossil fuel and the turpentine liquid are contacted at a pressure of from about I.0x10 4 Pascals (0.1 atm) to about 5.0x10 6 Pascals (50 atm). According to an aspect, the method is executed at a pressure of from about 0.5 atm to about 8 atm. 11 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0028] According to an aspect of the present invention, the method further includes providing an extraction vessel within which the solid or semi-solid fossil fuel is contacted with the turpentine liquid. According to an aspect, agitation means can be provided whereby the fossil fuel and the turpentine liquid contained within the reactor or extractor vessel are mixed and agitated. [0029] According to an aspect of the present invention, the fossil fuel and turpentine liquid can be incubated in a holding tank so as to prolong their time of contact. According to a further aspect, the degree of liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction is controlled by the length of time the solid or semi-solid fossil fuel is in contact with the turpentine liquid and/or the temperature of the mixture of the fossil fuel and turpentine liquid. [0030] According to an aspect of the present invention, the fossil fuel is contacted with a heterogeneous liquid including a turpentine liquid and water as an agitant. [0031] In certain embodiments, the ratio of turpentine fluid to water is greater than or equal to about 1:1 by volume, to avoid slurry formation, which may render separation of the extracted organic matter in the turpentine liquid-containing fluid difficult. [0032] According to an aspect of the present invention, the fossil fuel is contacted by the turpentine liquid in the presence of an energy input selected from thermal energy in excess of about 300"C, pressure in excess of 50 atm, microwave energy, ultrasonic energy, ionizing radiation energy, mechanical shear-forces, and mixtures thereof. [0033] According to an aspect of the present invention, a liquefaction or solubilization catalyst is provided to the mixture of fossil fuel and turpentine liquid. 12 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0034] According to an aspect of the present invention, the reaction or solubilization mixture is supplemented by the addition of a compound selected from hydrogen, carbon monoxide, water, metal oxides, metals, and mixtures thereof. [0035] According to an aspect of the present invention, a microorganism is included in the reaction or solubilization mixture. Select chemical bonds, for example, sulfur cross-links and oxygen cross-links, in the hydrocarbons of fossil fuels and other hydrocarbon-containing materials are broken by biotreatment with bacillus-type thermophilic and chemolithotrophic microorganisms selected from naturally occurring isolates derived from hot sulfur springs. The breaking of these select chemical bonds facilitates the solubilization of hydrocarbons in fossil fuels and other hydrocarbon-containing materials. [0036] Still other aspects and advantages of the present invention, it will become easily apparent by those skilled in the art from this description, wherein it is shown and described certain embodiments of the invention, simply by way of illustration of the best mode contemplated of carrying out the invention. As will be realized, the invention is capable of other and different embodiments, and its several details are capable of modifications in various obvious respects, without departing from the invention. Accordingly, the description is to be regarded as illustrative in nature and not as restrictive. [0037] In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material comprising a viscous liquid, liquid or gaseous fossil fuel material. The method provides a first liquid that includes a turpentine liquid. The turpentine liquid is contacted with the hydrocarbon containing material in-situ in an underground formation containing said fossil fuel material, 13 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 thereby forming an extraction mixture so as to extract hydrocarbon-containing organic matter into said turpentine liquid and form an extraction liquid. The extraction liquid is removed from said formation, wherein the extraction liquid includes the turpentine liquid containing the extracted hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. The extracted hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is separated from a residual material not extracted. The method can further include separating said extracted hydrocarbon material from the turpentine liquid. The viscous liquid, liquid or gaseous fossil fuel material can be heavy crude oil, crude oil, natural gas, or a combination thereof. The underground formation may be a crude oil reservoir or a natural gas reservoir, for example. [0038] The present invention can be deployed readily in-situ to liquefy and/or solubilize directly the fossil fuels in underground formations, and extract the resulting liquid products from such formations. [0039] An extraction reagent of the present invention is a liquid, which has a very strong physio chemical affinity with bituminous organic matter, including bitumen, kerogen and/or tar, in solid coal, oil shale and tar sands. When the extraction reagent of the present invention and bituminous organic matter comprising mainly hydrocarbons come into direct contact with each other, the organic matter dissolves into the extraction reagent of the present invention, thereby liquefying the organic matters. Upon contact, the hydrocarbons and the extraction reagent of the present invention rapidly form a homogeneous solution, i.e., a one-phase liquid. [0040] It is possible to take advantage of the physico-chemical affinity between the extraction reagent of the present invention and the bituminous matter for enhancing oil recovery from oil reservoirs under in-situ conditions. The prior art in-situ recovery techniques applied to-date in 14 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 oil reservoirs resort mostly to the so-called frontal displacement method. This process is strictly controlled by the characteristics of the multi-phase fluid flow in a porous medium. This tends to leave a large portion, often exceeding about 40% of the original oil, unrecovered, even for the "good" low viscosity oil reservoirs. The extraction reagent of the present invention enhances oil recovery by overcoming the complex behavior of the multi-phase flow prevailing under in-situ conditions. [0041] The present invention takes advantage of the very strong physico-chemical affinity of the turpentine liquid. [0042] One method of the present invention injects an extraction reagent of the present invention into an oil or natural gas reservoir through an injection well. [0043] Oil is dissolved into the extraction reagent of the present invention when the two come into contact in an oil reservoir, thereby yielding a homogeneous solution, i.e., a one-phase liquid. The extraction reagent of the present invention does not simply displace the oil as it travels from the injection well to the producer well; dissolution of previously trapped oil into the extraction reagent of the present invention continues until the extraction reagent is fully saturated with oil. Thereafter, the extraction reagent becomes inactive in the additional oil recovery process and simply flows through the pores of the reservoir as a one-phase liquid, eventually reaching a production well. [0044] The following illustrates three specific embodiments of in-situ methods for oil recovery of the present invention. 15 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0045] In a first in-situ embodiment, about three (3.0) to seven (7.0) pore volumes of an extraction reagent of the present invention are injected into an oil reservoir already water-flooded to the residual oil saturation while producing about 51% of the original oil in the reservoir. The injection of the extraction reagent can unexpectedly produce about an additional 41% of the original oil in the reservoir. This embodiment of the method was experimentally validated, as described in Example 22 herein below. [0046] In a second in-situ embodiment, about two (2.0) to five (5.0) pore volumes of an extraction reagent of the present invention are injected into an oil reservoir. At the outset, the injection causes only oil to be produced until about one-third (0.3) to three-quarter (0.75) of pore volume of the extraction reagent of the present invention is injected; thereafter, the extraction reagent of the present invention in which oil is dissolved, is produced. The majority of the oil present can be recovered upon injecting between about one and a half (1.5) to three and a half (3.5) pore volumes of the reagent. The method unexpectedly recovers about 90% of the original oil in the reservoir. This embodiment of the method also is experimentally validated, as described in Example 22 herein below. [0047] In a third in-situ embodiment, an extraction reagent of the present invention is injected to improve the oil recover from oil reservoirs containing very viscous oil, e.g., the reservoirs of the "Orinoco Oil Belt" in Venezuela. The recovery factor with prior art recovery methods is low, ranging from 10% to 15% of the original oil in such reservoirs. The unexpected increase in the recovery efficiency from these reservoirs with injection of the turpentine liquid extraction reagent of the present invention can be further enhanced by adopting horizontal wells for both producers and injectors, and periodic steam soaking of these wells. 16 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0048] Ultimate recovery of natural gas from a large gas reservoir can be increased with the injection of an extraction reagent of the present invention into a reservoir. The gas production form such a reservoir often creates dangerously large-scale subsidence on the surfaces of the gas field, e.g., the "Groeningen" field in the Netherlands. As such, it is necessary that the reservoir pressure be maintained by water injection. The water injected into the reservoir traps about 30% of the gas in-situ at high pressure due to the two-phase flow of water and gas through the reservoir with a low permeability. With the injection of an extraction reagent of the present invention, the trapped gas in the reservoir is dissolved in the reagent and flows to the producer wells. By separating the reagent and gas at the surface, the gas is recovered and the reagent is recycled for reuse. [0049] The extraction methods of the present invention can be implemented after one or more of the known methods for facilitating oil production, e.g., CO 2 or natural gas injection and surfactant addition, are executed. EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION [0050] Coal [0051] In certain embodiments, anthracite or bituminous coal can be ground to sizes ranging from about 0.841 mm (20 mesh) to about 0.149 mm (100 mesh), and subsequently be solubilized and/or extracted, i.e., liquefied, by immersing in a turpentine liquid under a pressure within the range of about 1.0x10 5 Pascals (1 atm) to about 2.0x10 5 Pascals (2.0 atm). In certain other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine that includes up to about 50-70 volume % of a-terpineol, about 20-40 volume % of p-terpineol, and about 10 volume % of other components. In certain embodiments, the bed of ground anthracite or 17 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 bituminous coal can be agitated by passing said turpentine liquid at a temperature in the range between 80'C and about 130*C, or possibly up to the boiling point of said turpentine liquid. In certain other embodiments, the duration of solubilization and/or extraction, i.e., liquefaction, can be within about 10 minutes to about 40 minutes. In certain embodiments, the contact time for the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from coal is less than 5 minutes. [0052] In some embodiments, lignite, brown coal, or any other low-rank coals can be ground to sizes ranging from about 0.419 mm (40 mesh) to about 0.074 mm (200 mesh), and subsequently be solubilized and/or extracted, i.e., liquefied, by immersing in a turpentine liquid under a pressure within the range of about 1.0x10 5 Pascals (1 atm) to about 2.0x10 5 Pascals (2.0 atm). In certain other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine that includes about 70-90 volume % of a-terpineol, about 5-25 volume % of p-terpineol, and about 5 volume % of other components. In other embodiments, the bed of ground lignite, brown coal, or any other low-rank coals can be agitated by passing said turpentine liquid at a temperature in the range between about 80'C and about 130*C, or possibly up to the boiling point of said turpentine liquid. In certain other embodiments, the solubilization and/or extraction, i.e., liquefaction, can be within about 20 minutes to about 60 minutes. In certain embodiments, the contact time for the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from coal is less than 5 minutes. [0053] Oil Shale [0054] In certain embodiments, oil shale can be ground to sizes ranging from about 0.419 mm (40 mesh) to 0.074 mm (200 mesh), and subsequently be solubilized and/or extracted, i.e., liquefied, by immersing in a turpentine liquid under a pressure within the range of about I.Ox1.05 18 Pascals (1 atm) to about 2.OxI0 5 Pascals (2.0 atm). In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine that includes about 70-90 volume % of a- terpineol, about 5-25 volume % of P-terpineol, and about 5 volume % of other components. In certain other embodiments, the bed ground oil 5 shale can be agitated by passing said turpentine liquid at a temperature in the range between about 800C and about 1300C, or possibly up to the boiling point of said turpentine liquid. In other embodiments, the solubilization and/or extraction, i.e., liquefaction, can be within about 30 minutes to about 60 minutes. In certain embodiments, the contact time for the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic 10 matter from oil shale is less than 5 minutes. [0055] Tar sands [0056] In certain embodiments, tar sands can be broken up to sizes ranging from about 25.4 mm (1 mesh) to 4.76 mm (4 mesh), and subsequently be solubilized and/or extracted, i.e., liquefied, by immersing in a turpentine liquid under a pressure 15 within the range of about 1.0x1.05 Pascals (1 atm) to about 2.0x10 5 Pascals (2.0 atm). In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral that includes containing about 40-60 volume % of a-terpineol, about 30-50 volume % of p-terpineol, 5 volume % of a and/or p-pinene and about 5 volume % of other components. In another embodiment, a ground tar sand bed can be agitated by 20 passing said turpentine liquid at a temperature in the range between about 600C and about 900C, or possibly up to the boiling point of said turpentine liquid. In other embodiments, the solubilization and/or extraction, i.e., liquefaction, can be within about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes. In certain embodiments, the contact time for the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands is less than 5 25 minutes. 19 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [0057] Crude oil [0058] In certain embodiments, light and medium crude oil can be produced in situ, i.e., removed from an underground reservoir, for primary, secondary or tertiary recovery, by injecting about one (1.0) to about five (5.0) pore volumes of a turpentine liquid. In other embodiments, between about two (2.0) and about four (4.0) pore volumes of a turpentine liquid can be injected. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine that includes about 40-70 volume % of a-terpineol, about 30-40 volume % of p-terpineol, 10 volume % of a and/or p-pinene and about 10 volume % of other components. In certain embodiments, the injection of a turpentine liquid can be followed by waterflooding with about one (1.0) to about three (3.0) pore volumes of water. [0059] In certain embodiments, heavy and extra heavy crude oil can be produced in situ, i.e., removed from an underground reservoir, for primary, secondary or tertiary recovery, by injecting about one (1.0) to about five (5.0) pore volumes of a turpentine liquid. In other embodiments, between about two (2.0) and about four (4.0) pore volumes of a turpentine liquid can be injected. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can be natural, synthetic or mineral turpentine that includes about 50-70 volume % of a-terpineol, about 20-35 volume % of p-terpineol, 10 volume % of a and/or p-pinene and about 5 volume % of other components can be used in conjunction with steam injection. [0060] Referring to Figure 1, an apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands is provided. Apparatus 100 includes turpentine liquid supply 102, which can optionally be coupled to a pump 104, to supply a turpentine liquid to contacting vessel or extraction vessel 110. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid supply can include means 20 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 for heating the turpentine liquid. In certain embodiments, the contacting vessel can be an inclined rotary filter or trommel. Tar sand sample 106 is provided to conveyor 108 or like feeding apparatus for supplying the tar sands to an inlet of contacting vessel 110. Optionally, conveyor 108 can include a filter screen or like separating apparatus to prevent large particles from being introduced into the process. Contacting vessel 110 includes at least one inlet for turpentine liquid to be introduced and contacted with the tar sands. Contacting vessel 110 can include a plurality of trays or fins 114 designed to retain the tar sands in the contacting vessel for a specified amount of time, and to increase or control contact between the tar sand particles and the turpentine liquid. In certain embodiments, the contacting vessel can be an inclined rotary filter. An extraction mixture that includes the extracting liquid and hydrocarbon-containing organic matter extracted from the tar sands is removed from contacting vessel 110 via outlet 116, which can include filter 118 to prevent the removal of solids with the extraction mixture that includes the extracted hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. Pump 120 can be coupled to outlet 116 to assist with supplying the extraction mixture to holding tank 122. Line 124 can be coupled to holding tank 112 for supplying the extraction mixture for further processing. After extraction of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, inorganic solids and other materials not soluble in the turpentine liquid can be removed from the contacting vessel via second conveyor 126. Some turpentine liquids include, but are not limited to, liquids that include a-terpineol and P-terpineol. [0061] Referring now to Figure 2, apparatus 200 is provided for the recovery of hydrocarbon containing organic matter from oil shale and other sedimentary rock formations that include recoverable hydrocarbon materials. Oil shale sample 202 is supplied to grinder or crusher 204 to reduce the size of the oil shale. Preferably, grinder or crusher 204 reduces the oil shale to 21 between about 0.074 and 0.42 mm in diameter. Crushed oil shale may optionally be supplied to a filter to ensure uniform and/or conforming particle size. First conveyor 206 provides particles from grinder or crusher 204 to contacting vessel 208. 5 Contacting vessel 208 is coupled to turpentine liquid supply 210, which may optionally be coupled to a pump, and which supplies a turpentine liquid to at least one inlet 212 coupled to contacting vessel 208. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid supply can include means for heating the turpentine liquid. Contacting vessel 208 can include a plurality of trays or fins 214 designed to retain LO the oil shale in the contacting vessel for a specified amount of time, and to increase or control contact between the oil shale particles and the turpentine liquid. In certain embodiments, the contacting vessel can be an inclined rotary filter or trommel. An extraction mixture stream that includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the oil shale is collected via outlet 216 1s and supplied to holding tank 220. Pump 218 is optionally coupled to outlet 216 to assist with the supply of the extraction mixture stream to holding tank 220. The extraction mixture stream can be coupled to line 222 for supplying the extraction mixture stream to further processing. Second conveyor 224 assists with the removal of inorganic or insoluble materials from contacting vessel 208. Turpentine liquids can zo include, but are not limited to, a- terpineol and P-terpineol. [0062] Referring now to Figure 3, apparatus 300 is provided for the recovery of hydrocarbon- containing organic matter from coal. Coal sample 302 is supplied to grinder or crusher 304 to reduce the size of the coal. Preferably, grinder or crusher 304 reduces the coal to between about 0.074 and 0.84 mm in diameter, depending 25 upon the quality of the coal sample. In certain embodiments, the grinder or crusher 304 can be a wet grinder. Crushed coal may optionally be supplied to a filter to ensure uniform and/or conforming particle size. Crushed coal is supplied 22 to first contacting vessel 306. First contacting vessel 306 is also coupled to a turpentine liquid supply 308, which may optionally be coupled to pump 310, and which supplies the turpentine liquid to first contacting vessel 306. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid supply can include means for heating the 5 turpentine liquid. First contacting vessel 306 includes mixing means 312 designed to agitate and improve or control contact between the solid coal particles and the turpentine liquid. An extraction mixture stream that includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the coal is collected via first contacting vessel outlet 313 and supplied to second contacting vessel 316. Pump to 314 is optionally coupled to outlet 313 to assist with the supply of the extraction mixture stream to the second contacting vessel 316. Second contacting vessel 316 can include a series of trays or fins 318 designed to increase or control separation of the solids and turpentine liquids. Optionally, the second contacting vessel 316 can be an inclined rotary filter or trommel. The extraction mixture stream can be collected IS from second contacting vessel outlet 320, which may optionally be coupled to pump 322, to assist with supply of the extraction mixture stream to holding tank 324. Liquid coal and any turpentine liquid present in holding tank 324 can be supplied to a liquid coal refinery or other processing step via line 326. Conveyor 328 can be coupled to second contacting vessel 316 for removal and recovery of the solids as a by-product 2o of the process. Turpentine liquids can include, but are not limited to, a-terpineol and p-terpineol. The apparatus 300 can also be used to process high and low grade oil shale. [0063] Referring now to Figure 4, process 400 is provided for the enhanced recovery of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing subsurface 25 formation. Hydrocarbon-containing reservoir 404 is shown positioned below the surface 402. Production well 406 is already in operation. Injection well 408 is provided for the injection of a turpentine 23 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 liquid via line 410. The turpentine liquid facilitates the liquefaction, solubilization and/or extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter present in the reservoir, as well as providing the driving force to push the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter in the formation toward the production well. A hydrocarbon product stream that includes injected turpentine liquid is collected via line 412. Turpentine liquids can include, but are not limited to, a-terpineol and p terpineol. [0064] In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid for increasing production from an oil well is provided that includes at least 30% by volume of natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a-pinene, P-pinene, a-terpineol, p-terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a terpene, p-terpene, y-terpene, or mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 30% by volume geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2-pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isoborneol, p menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p-menthan-8-yl acetate, 7 hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, or mixtures thereof. In yet other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 30% by volume anethole, camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2 methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10 camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, or mixtures thereof. [0065] In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 40% by volume a terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 25% by volume p terpineol. In yet other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 40% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 25% by volume p-terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 50% a-terpineol, and in certain embodiments also includes p 24 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 terpineol. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 20% by volume of p terpineol. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes between about 50 and 70% by volume of a-terpineol and between about 10 and 40% by volume of p-terpineol. [0066] In another aspect, a process for increasing production from a sub-surface hydrocarbon containing reservoir undergoing enhanced recovery operations is provided that includes injecting a turpentine liquid into the reservoir through an injection well to stimulate production of the hydrocarbon-containing material. The turpentine liquid can include at least one compound selected from natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a-pinene, s pinene, a-terpineol, P-terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a-terpene, p-terpene, y-terpene, and mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include at least one compound selected from geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2-pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isoborneol, p-menthan-8-ol, a terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p-menthan-8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, and mixtures thereof. In yet other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include at least one compound selected from anethole, camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6 octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6 dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof. A hydrocarbon-containing organic matter production stream that includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbons is recovered from the production well associated with the hydrocarbon-containing reservoir. The hydrocarbon-containing organic matter production stream can be separated into a recovered hydrocarbons stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream. In certain embodiments, the method 25 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 of further can further include the step of injecting the turpentine liquid recycle stream into the injection well. [0067] In another aspect, a method for the increasing production from a hydrocarbon-containing sub-surface hydrocarbon formation undergoing enhanced recovery operations is provided. The method includes the steps of injecting a turpentine liquid into the formation through an injection well. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 40% by volume a-terpineol and at least 10% by volume p-terpineol. The turpentine liquid solubilizes, extracts and/or displaces the hydrocarbon-containing materials from the formation, which are subsequently recovered from the formation with the turpentine liquid through a production well. In certain embodiments, the method further includes separating the hydrocarbons from the turpentine liquid. In yet other embodiments, the method further includes recycling the turpentine liquid to the injection well. In certain embodiments, a-terpineol is present in an amount between about 40 and 70% by volume. In certain other embodiments, a-terpineol is present in an amount of at least 70% by volume. In yet other embodiments, p-terpineol is present in an amount between about 10 and 40% by volume. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid further includes up to about 10% by volume y-terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include up to about 25% by volume of an organic solvent selected from methanol, ethanol, propanol, toluene and xylenes. The method is useful for the recovery of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter during primary, secondary and tertiary recovery operations, including after secondary recovery operations that include waterflooding. [0068] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid for the recovery of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands is provided. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 30% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 25% by volume P-terpineol. In another 26 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 30 and 70% by volume a-terpineol, between about 25 and 55% by volume p-terpineol, up to about 10% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 10% by volume p-terpene. [0069] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from high grade coal sources, such as for example, anthracite or bituminous coal, is provided. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 45% by volume a terpineol and at least about 15% by volume p-terpineol. In another embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 45 and 80% by volume a-terpineol, between about 15 and 45% by volume P-terpineol, up to about 10% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 10% by volume p terpene. [0070] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from low grade coal sources is provided. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 60% by volume a-terpineol and up to about 30% by volume p-terpineol. In another embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 60 and 95% by volume a terpineol, up to about 30% by volume p-terpineol, up to about 5% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 5% by volume p-terpene. [0071] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from oil shale is provided. As used herein, oil shale generally refers to any sedimentary rock that contains bituminous materials. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 60% by volume a-terpineol and up to about 30% by volume P-terpineol. In another embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 60 and 95% by volume a-terpineol, up 27 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 to about 30% by volume p-terpineol, up to about 5% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 5% by volume P-terpene. [0072] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid is provided for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from light and medium crude oil. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 40 and 70% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 30 and 40% by volume p-terpineol. In yet another embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 40 and 70% by volume a-terpineol, between about 30 and 40% by volume p-terpineol, up to about 10% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 10% by volume p-terpene. [0073] In another aspect, a turpentine liquid is provided for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from heavy and extra heavy crude oil. In one embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes at least about 50 and 70% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 30 and 40% by volume p-terpineol. In another embodiment, the turpentine liquid includes between about 50 and 70% by volume a-terpineol, between about 30 and 40% by volume p-terpineol, up to about 10% by volume a-terpene, and up to about 10% by volume p-terpene. [0074] In another aspect, a method for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands is provided. The method includes mining a formation rich in tar sands to provide a tar sand sample, wherein the tar sand sample includes a recoverable hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and residual inorganic or insoluble material. The tar sand sample is supplied to a contacting vessel, wherein the contacting vessel includes at least one inlet for supplying a turpentine liquid for recovery of hydrocarbons from the tar sands. The tar sand sample is contacted with a turpentine liquid to extract the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the tar sands to produce a residual material and an extraction mixture. The extraction mixture 28 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, and the residual material is separated from the turpentine liquid to produce hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream. In certain embodiments, the method further includes the step of recycling the turpentine liquid recycle stream to the contracting vessel. In other embodiments, the extraction mixture can be separated by distillation to produce the hydrocarbon product stream and the turpentine liquid recycle stream. [0075] In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include a-terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include at least about 40% by volume a-terpineol and between 10 and 40% by weight p-terpineol. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 4 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the tar sands and recover hydrocarbons. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 2.0 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the tar sands and recover hydrocarbons. [0076] In another aspect, a method for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon rich oil shale is provided. The method includes mining a rock formation that includes hydrocarbon-containing organic matter to produce a hydrocarbon containing oil shale that includes a recoverable hydrocarbon material and inorganic or insoluble material. The oil shale is ground to produce crushed hydrocarbon-containing oil shale. The crushed hydrocarbon containing oil shale is then filtered with a filter screen to prevent or control the excessively large particles from being supplied to the extraction process. The crushed hydrocarbon-containing oil shale is fed to a contacting vessel, wherein the contacting vessel includes at least one inlet for supplying a turpentine liquid for recovery of hydrocarbons from the crushed hydrocarbon containing oil shale. The crushed hydrocarbon-containing oil shale is contacted with the turpentine liquid to extract the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the crushed 29 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 hydrocarbon-containing oil shale to produce inorganic solids and an extraction mixture that includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbons. The inorganic or insoluble materials are removed from the extraction mixture, and the recovered hydrocarbons are separated from the turpentine liquid to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid recycle stream is recycled to the contracting vessel. In other embodiments, the crushed hydrocarbon-containing oil shale has a mean particle size of less than about 0.42 mm in diameter. In other embodiments of the method for the recovery of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from oil shale, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a pinene, $-pinene, a-terpineol, $-terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a-terpene, 0-terpene, y terpene, or mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2 pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isobomeol, p-menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p-menthan-8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, and mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from anethole, camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, isobomyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include a terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include at least about 40% by volume a-terpineol and between 10 and 40% by weight p-terpineol. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 4 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the oil shale and recover 30 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 2.0 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the oil shale and recover hydrocarbons. [0077] In another aspect, a method for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a coal rich sub-surface formation is provided. The method includes mining the sub-surface formation to produce coal, wherein the coal includes a recoverable hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and inorganic or insoluble material. The coal is ground to produce crushed coal and filtered to provide a sample of uniform or desired size. The crushed coal is fed to a contacting vessel, wherein the contacting vessel includes at least one inlet for supplying a turpentine liquid for recovery of hydrocarbons from crushed coal, and contacted with the turpentine liquid to extract the hydrocarbons from the crushed coal to produce inorganic solids and an extraction mixture. The extraction mixture includes the turpentine liquid and recovered hydrocarbons. The inorganic or insoluble solids are separated from the extraction mixture, and the recovered hydrocarbons are separated from the turpentine liquid to produce a liquid coal product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream. In certain embodiments, the method further includes recycling the turpentine liquid recycle stream to the contracting vessel. In yet other embodiments, the liquid coal product stream is supplied to a liquid coal refinery. In certain embodiments, the coal sample includes a low grade coal having a mean particle size of less than about 0.42 mm. In certain embodiments, the coal sample includes a high grade coal having a mean particle size of less than about 0.84 mm. [0078] In yet other embodiments of the method for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from coal, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a-pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, p terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a-terpene, p-terpene, y-terpene, or mixtures thereof. In 31 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2-pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isobomeol, p-menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p menthan-8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, and mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least one compound selected from anethole, camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 60% by volume a terpineol. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 45% by volume a terpineol and at least about 15% by volume P-terpineol. In certain other embodiments, the turpentine liquid includes at least 60% by volume a-terpineol and up to about 30% by volume p terpineol. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 4 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the oil shale and recover hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. In certain embodiments, between 0.5 and 2.0 equivalents of the turpentine liquid is used to contact the oil shale and recover hydrocarbon-containing organic matter. [0079] In another aspect, a system for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic material from tar sands is provided. The tar sands recovery system includes a tank for supplying a turpentine liquid and a contacting vessel, wherein the contacting vessel includes at least one inlet for introducing the turpentine liquid and at least one outlet for recovering an extraction mixture from the contacting vessel. The system also includes a first conveyor for supplying tar sands to the contacting vessel. A holding tank that includes a line connecting the holding tank to the contacting vessel is provided, wherein the line connecting the contacting vessel and the holding 32 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 tank includes a filter to prevent the passage of solids to the holding tank. The system also includes a second conveyor for the recovery and transport of the solids. [0080] In one embodiment, the contacting vessel is a rotary inclined filter that includes a series of fins or trays for separating and or controlling the tar sands. In another embodiment, the fins or trays are provided to increase or control the contact time between the tar sands and the turpentine liquid. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include a-terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include between about 30% and 70% by volume a terpineol and between about 25% and 55% by weight p-terpineol. [0081] In another aspect, a system for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from oil shale is provided. The system includes a tank for supplying a turpentine liquid and a grinder for comminuting the oil shale to a reduced particle size. A contacting vessel is provided that includes at least one inlet for introducing the turpentine liquid, at least one inlet for receiving crushed oil shale, at least one outlet for recovering solids from the contacting vessel and at least one outlet for recovering an extraction mixture from the contacting vessel. A first conveyor is provided for supplying crushed oil shale to a contacting vessel. The system further includes a holding tank, wherein the holding tank includes a line connecting the holding tank to the contacting vessel, wherein the line includes a filter to prevent the passage of solids to the holding tank; a second conveyor for recovering solids. In certain embodiments, the system further includes a line for supplying a reaction mixture including recovered hydrocarbons and the turpentine liquid to a refinery for further separation and/or processing. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include a-terpineol. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include between about 60% and 95% by volume a-terpineol and up to about 30% by weight P 33 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 terpineol. In other embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include between about 70% and 90% by volume a-terpineol and between about 5% and 25% by weight p-terpineol. [0082] In another aspect, a system for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from coal is provided. The system includes a tank for supplying a turpentine liquid and a grinder for comminuting coal to produced particulate matter of a reduced size. A contacting vessel is provided that includes at least one inlet for introducing the turpentine liquid and at least one outlet for recovering solids and liquids from the contacting vessel. The contacting vessel includes also stirring means for thoroughly mixing the turpentine liquid and the comminuted coal . A separator is provided for separating the solids and liquids, wherein the separator includes an inlet, an outlet and a line connecting the inlet of the separator to the outlet of the contacting vessel. The system also includes a holding tank, wherein the holding tank includes a line that connects the holding tank to the separator, wherein the line can include a filter to prevent the passage of solids to the holding tank. [0083] In certain embodiments, the system further includes a filter for selectively preventing particles having a mean diameter greater than about 0.85 mm from being introduced to the contacting vessel. In certain other embodiments, the system further includes a line for supplying a liquid coal product to a refinery for further processing. In certain embodiments, the system further includes a first conveyor for supplying crushed coal to the contacting vessel. In other embodiments, the system further includes a second conveyor for removing solids from the separator. In certain embodiments, the turpentine liquid can include a-terpineol. In embodiments directed to the recovery of hydrocarbons from high grade coal, the turpentine liquid can include between about 45% and 80% by volume a-terpineol and between about 15% and 45% by weight p-terpineol. In embodiments directed to the recovery of hydrocarbons from 34 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 low grade coal, the turpentine liquid can include between about 60% and 95% by volume a terpineol and between about 0% and 30% by weight p-terpineol. [0084] In another aspect, a method for optimizing a turpentine liquid for extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from hydrocarbon containing matter is provided. Generally, the method includes providing a sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material and analyzing the hydrocarbon material to determine the type ofhydrocarbon being extracted. A formulation for extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the hydrocarbon material is provided, wherein the formulation is a function of the type of formation and the size of the particulate hydrocarbon material. Generally, the formulation includes at least about 40% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 10% by volume p-terpineol. The amount of a-terpineol and p-terpineol in the formulation is then adjusted based upon the parameters noted above. In general, while the above noted method provides a good starting point for determining the desired formulation for extraction of various hydrocarbon containing materials, for other hydrocarbon containing materials and under specified operating conditions, either a series of statistically designed experiments or a series of experiments according to an optimization method can be performed to determine the optimum composition of the liquid turpentine. [0085] As shown in Table 1, the specific formulation for extraction, liquefaction and/or solubilization of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands varies based upon the particle size. In certain embodiments, the method for preparing a turpentine liquid for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from tar sands includes adjusting the amount of a terpineol and p-terpineol in the formulation as a function of the size of the hydrocarbon rich solid particulate being extracted. In other embodiments, if the hydrocarbon-containing organic particulate matter includes low grade coal or an oil shale, the amount a-terpineol in the 35 turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. In other embodiments, if the hydrocarbon-containing organic particulate matter includes tar sands, the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased. In 5 other embodiments, if the hydrocarbon-containing organic particulate matter includes tar sands and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is less than about 4.76 mm, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased, hi other embodiments, if the hydrocarbon-containing organic particulate matter includes tar sands and the 10 mean diameter of the particulate matter is greater than about 1 inch (1 mesh), then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. Table 1. Formulations for Extraction of Tar Sands based upon Particle Size Particle Size a-terpineol p-terpineol a-/ p-terpene other (lesh/mm diameter) < 4 Mesh (4.76 30-5/ 0 vol 35-55% vol 10% vol 5% vol mm) I mesh (1 inch) - 40-60% vol 30-50% vol 10% vol 5% vol 4 mesh (4.76 mm) > I mesh (1 inch) 50-70% vol 25-45% vol 10% vol 5% vol 15 [0086] Similar to what is shown above with respect to the extraction of tar sands, as shown in Tables 2 and 3, the formulation for extraction, liquefaction and/or solubilization of coal depends both on particle size and on the quality of the coal being extracted, hi one embodiment of the method for preparing a turpentine liquid for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, if 36 the hydrocarbon-containing matter includes anthracite, bituminous coal, or other high grade coal and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is less than about 0.15 mm, then the amount a- terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased. In other embodiments, if 5 the hydrocarbon rich particulate matter includes anthracite, bituminous coal, or other high grade coal and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is greater than about 0.84 mm, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. In another embodiment, if the hydrocarbon rich particulate matter includes low grade coal and lo the mean diameter of the particulate matter is less than about 0.074 mm, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased and the amount of p terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased. In another embodiment, if the hydrocarbon rich particulate matter includes low grade coal and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is greater than about 0.42 mm, then the amount a- terpineol 15 in the turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. Table 2. Formulations for Extraction of High Grade Coal based upon Particle Size Particle Size a-terpineol p-terpineol a-/ p-terpene other (Mesh/mm diameter) < 100 mesh 45-65% vol 35-45% vol 10% vol 0% vol (0.149 mm) 20 mesh (0.841 50-70% vol 20-40/o vol 10% vol 0% vol mm) - 100 mesh (0.149 mm) > 20 mesh (0.841 60-80% vol 15-35% vol 10% vol 0% vol mm) 37 Table 3. Formulations for Extraction of Low Grade Coal based upon Particle Size Particle Size a-terpineol P-terpineol a-/ P-terpene other (Mesh/mm diameter) < 200 mesh 60-80% vol 10-30% vol 5% vol 0% vol (0.074 mm) 40 mesh (0.420 70-90% vol 5-25% vol 5% vol 0% vol mm) - 200 mesh (0. 074 mm) > 40 mesh (0.420 75-95% vol 0-20% vol 5% vol 0% vol mm) [0087] Similar to what is shown above with respect to the extraction of tar sands, as 5 shown in Table 4, the formulation for extraction, liquefaction and/or solubilization of oil shale depends on particle size. In one embodiment of the method for preparing a composition for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, if the hydrocarbon rich particulate matter includes an oil shale and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is less than about 0.074 mm, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine 10 liquid is decreased and the amount of P-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased. In another embodiment, if the hydrocarbon rich particulate matter includes oil shale and the mean diameter of the particulate matter is greater than about 0.42 mm, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. 38 Table 4. Formulations for Extraction of Oil Shale based upon Particle Size Particle Size a-terpineol p-terpineol a.-/ P-terpene other (Mesh/mm diameter) < 200 mesh 60-80% vol 10-30% vol 5% vol 0% vol (0.074 mm) 40 mesh (0.420 70-90% vol 5-25% vol 5% vol 0% vol mm) - 200 mesh (0. 074 mm) > 40 mesh (0.420 75-95% vol 0-20% vol 5% vol 0% vol mm) [0088] The extraction of crude oil similarly depends on the type of crude oil being extracted, liquefied, and/or solubilized. As shown in Table 5, the formulation for the 5 extraction, liquefaction and/or solubilization of crude oil depends is a function of both particle size and the quality of the density of the crude oil being extracted. The method includes providing a turpentine liquid formulation that includes at least 50% by volume a-terpineol and at least 20% by volume p-terpineol; adjusting the amount of a-terpineol and p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid formulation based upon the Lo density of the liquid hydrocarbon being extracted. In one embodiment, if the API gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon being extracted is greater than about 220, then the amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased and the amount of p terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased. In another embodiment, if the API gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon being extracted is less than about 220, then the 15 amount a-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is increased and the amount of p-terpineol in the turpentine liquid is decreased. As used herein, light oils have an API of at least about 31*, medium crude oils have an API of 39 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 between about 22' and about 310, heavy oil has an API of between about 10' and about 220, and extra heavy oil has an API of less than about 100. Table 5. Formulations for Extraction of Crude Oil based upon API Density Crude Type a-terpineol p-terpineol a-/ p-terpene other Light/medium 40-70% vol 30-40% vol 10% vol 10% vol crude (API greater than 220) Heavy/Extra 50-70% vol 20-35% vol 10% vol 5% vol Heavy (API less than 220) [0089] In another aspect, a method for preparing a turpentine liquid for enhancing recovery of liquid hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a sub-surface formation is provided. The method includes providing a formulation comprising at least 50% by volume a-terpineol and at least 20% by volume P-terpineol, and adjusting the amount of a-terpineol and p-terpineol in the formulation based upon the geological features of the sub-surface formation. [0090] In another aspect, a composition for cleaning and/or recovering hydrocarbons from a liquid hydrocarbon-containing vessel is provided, wherein the composition includes at least one compound selected from natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, p-terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a-terpene, p-terpene, y terpene, or mixtures thereof. In other embodiments, the composition for cleaning and/or recovering hydrocarbons includes at least one compound selected from geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha-1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2-pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2 pinanol, dihydromycenol, isoborneol, p-menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p-menthan 40 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, and mixtures thereof. In yet other embodiments, the composition for cleaning and/or recovering hydrocarbons includes at least one compound selected from anethole, camphene; p-cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6 octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6 dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, the composition includes at least one compound from the following: a-pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, and p-terpineol. In another embodiment, the composition includes at least 25% by volume a-terpineol or p terpineol. [0091] In another aspect, a method for cleaning and/or recovering hydrocarbons from a liquid hydrocarbon-containing vessel is provided. The method includes contacting the interior of vessel with a hydrocarbon cleaning composition that includes at least one compound selected from a-pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, and p-terpineol to create a mixture, wherein the mixture includes the liquid hydrocarbon residue and the hydrocarbon cleaning composition. The mixture is recovered and removed from the vessel. In certain embodiments, the cleaning composition includes at least 25% by volume of a-terpineol or s-terpineol. In certain other embodiments, the cleaning composition includes at least 25% by volume of a-terpineol and at least 25% by volume p-terpineol. EXAMPLES [0092] Example 1. In this example, coal from the Pittsburgh seam in Washington County, Pennsylvania was liquefied with reagent a-terpineol. The coal sample was obtained from the 41 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 Coal Bank at Pennsylvania State University, which provided the following proximate analyses for it; 2.00 wt. % of as-received moisture, 9.25 wt. % of dry ash, 38.63 wt. % of dry volatile matter, and 50.12 wt. % of dry fixed carbon. The particle size of coal sample was about 60 mesh. About 60 grams of a-terpineol was gently added to about 30 grams of the coal sample placed in an extraction vessel, thus giving rise to the reagent-to-sample ratio of 2 to 1. The capped, but not tightly sealed, extraction vessel containing the resultant mixture of a-terpineol and coal was maintained at the constant temperature of about 96*C and continually agitated. Without boiling the a-terpineol, the pressure in the extraction vessel remained at the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm). After about 30 minutes, the mixture was filtered and the coal particles retained on the filter were washed with ethanol and dried to a constant weight. On the basis of weight loss, the conversion, i.e., the extent of liquefaction, of the coal sample was determined to be about 68 wt. %. [0093] Example 2. This example is identical to Example 1 in all aspects except two. After maintaining the temperature at about 96*C, for about 30 minutes, as done in Example 1, the extraction vessel containing the coal sample and a-terpineol was maintained at a temperature at about 135"C for an additional period of about 30 minutes. The pressure in the extraction vessel remained at the ambient pressure of slightly less than about I.01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm). The conversion, i.e., the degree of liquefaction, of the coal sample was determined to be about 70 wt. [0094] Example 3. The coal sample used was from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those used in the preceding two examples. About 31 grams of a-terpineol were added to about 31 grams of the coal sample in an extraction vessel . The mixture was maintained at about 96"C and an ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm) for 42 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 about 30 minutes. The conversion, i.e., the degree of liquefaction, of the coal sample attained was determined to be about 71 wt. % by weighing the sample after filtering, washing, and drying as done in the preceding two examples. [0095] Example 4. This example is identical to Example 3, except that about 30 wt. % of a terpineol was replaced with hexane, providing a reagent that includes 70 wt.% a-terpineol and 30 wt. % hexane. This reduced the conversion, i.e., the degree of liquefaction to about 1.3 wt. %. [0096] Example 5. The source and proximate analyses of coal sample and experimental conditions in terms of temperature, pressure and reagent-to-sample ratio for this example were the same as those of Example 3. The duration of the extraction, however, was reduced from about 30 minutes to about 20 minutes. Additionally, about 30 wt. % of the a-terpineol was replaced with 1-butanol, providing a reagent that includes 70 wt.% a-terpineol and 30 wt. % 1 butanol. The amount of coal liquefied was only about 0.30 gram, corresponding to conversion of about 1.0 wt. %. [0097] Example 6. This example is the same as Example 3 in terms of the source and proximate analyses of coal sample and temperature, pressure and duration of the extraction. The amount of the coal sample used was, however, about 25 grams and the reagent comprised about 24 grams (80 wt. %) of a-terpineol and about 6 grams (20 wt. %) of xylenes, providing a reagent that includes 70 wt.% a-terpineol and 30 wt. % xylenes. The coal liquefied was about 10.0 grams, corresponding to conversion of about 40 wt. %. [0098] Example 7. In this example, coal from the Wyodak seam in Campbell County, Wyoming was liquefied with reagent a-terpineol. The coal sample was obtained from the Coal Bank at Pennsylvania State University, which provided the following proximate analyses for it; 26.30 wt. 43 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 % of as-received moisture, 7.57 wt. % of dry ash, 44.86 wt. % of dry volatile matter, and 47.57 wt. % of dry fixed carbon. The coal sample's particle size was about 20 mesh. About 60 grams of a-terpineol was gently added to about 30 grams of the coal sample placed in an extraction vessel , a reagent-to-sample ratio of about 2 to 1. The capped, but not tightly sealed, extraction vessel containing the resultant mixture of a-terpineol and coal was maintained at a constant temperature of about 96*C and continually agitated. Without boiling of the a-terpineol, the pressure in the extraction vessel remained at the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01xi0 5 Pascals (I atm). After about 30 minutes, the mixture in the extraction vessel was filtered and the coal particles retained on the filter were washed with ethanol and dried to a constant weight. On the basis of weight loss, the conversion, i.e., the degree of liquefaction, of the coal sample was detennined to be 75 wt. %. [0099] Example 8. The experiment in this example was carried out under the conditions identical to those of the preceding example except one. About 15 grams of a-terpineol were added, instead of about 60 grams, as done in the preceding example, to about 30 grams of the coal sample, thus attaining the reagent-to-coal ratio of 0.5 to 1. The conversion, i.e., the degree of liquefaction, of the coal sample attained decreased from about 75 wt. %, attained in the preceding example, to about 69 wt. %. [00100] Example 9. In this example, about 3 grams of oil shale from the Green-river region of Colorado was solubilized with about 9 grams of a-terpineol, thus giving rise to the reagent-to-sample ratio of 3 to 1, to extract kerogen (organic matter) and/or bitumen (organic matter) from it. The organic carbon content, including both volatile and fixed carbon, was determined to be about 22.66 wt. % by a certified analysis company. Two experiments with the oil-shale samples, having the particle size of 60 mesh, were carried out under the ambient 44 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 temperature and pressure of about 25*C and slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm), respectively. The weight losses of the samples were determined by weighing after filtering, washing with ethanol, and drying. These losses were about 9 wt. % after about 30 minutes and about 17 wt. % after about 45 minutes. From these weight losses, the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction of organic matter, i.e., kerogen and/or bitumen, was estimated to be about 40 wt. % for the former and was about 75 wt. % for the latter. [00101] Example 10. This example duplicated the preceding example with the exception that a single experiment, lasting about 15 minutes, was carried out at the temperature of about 96"C, instead of about 25*C. The weight loss of the oil shale sample was about 12 wt. %, corresponding to the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of kerogen (organic matter) of about 53 wt. % [00102] Example 11. In this example, bitumen (organic matter) in tar sands from Alberta, Canada, was solubilized and extracted with commercial grade synthetic turpentine. The tar sands sample was obtained from Alberta Research Council, which provided the following proximate analyses for it; 84.4 wt. % of dry solids, 11.6 wt. % of dry bitumen, and 4.0 wt. % of as-received moisture. About 30 grams of synthetic turpentine were gently added to about 15 grams of the tar-sands sample in a capped, but not tightly sealed, extraction vessel , utilizing a reagent-to-sample ratio of about 2 to 1 by weight. This extraction vessel , containing the resultant mixture of synthetic turpentine and tar sands, was maintained at a constant temperature of about 96 0 C and continually agitated. Without boiling of the synthetic turpentine, the pressure in the extraction vessel remained at the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x105 Pascals (1 atm). After about 20 minutes, the mixture in the extraction vessel was filtered and the solids (tar sands) retained on the filter were washed with ethanol and dried to a constant weight. 45 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 On the basis of weight loss, the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen from the tar-sands sample was determined to be about 100 wt. %. [00103] Example 12. In this example, about 60 grams of the tar-sands sample from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those of the preceding example were extracted by about 60 grams of a-terpineol, instead of commercial-grade synthetic turpentine, which includes a-terpineol. The resultant reagent-to-sample ratio was I to 1 instead of 2 to I as in the preceding example. The experiment lasted about 30 minutes at the temperature of about 96*C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x105 Pascals (1 atm). The conversion, i.e., the extent of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) in the tar-sands sample was determined to be about 100 wt. %. [00104] Example 13. In this example, about 60 grams of the tar-sands sample from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those of the preceding two examples were extracted by about 60 grams of synthetic turpentine, which is of the commercial grade. The resultant reagent-to-sample ratio, therefore, was about 1 to 1. The experiment was carried out for about 30 minutes at the temperature of about 96'C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (I atm). The conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) in the tar-sands sample was determined to be about 70 wt. %. [00105] Example 14. The experiment in this example duplicated that in Example 8 in all aspects except that the reagent-to-sample ratio was reduced from about 2 to 1 to about 0.5 to 1: About 60 grams to the tar-sands sample was extracted by about 30 grams of synthetic turpentine, which is of the commercial grade. The conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) decreased from about 100 wt. % attained in Example 9 to about 70 wt. %. 46 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 [00106] Example 15. The experiment in this example repeated that of the preceding example with a-terpineol instead of the commercial-grade synthetic turpentine. The conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) in the tar-sands sample was about 70 wt. % as in the preceding example. [00107] Example 16. The experiment in this example was carried out under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x 10 5 Pascals (1 atm) with the tar-sands sample from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those in the preceding examples with tar sands. About 60 grams of commercial-grade synthetic turpentine was added to about 60 grams of the tar-sands sample, thus giving rise to the reagent-to-sample ratio of about 1 to 1. The temperature of the sample and commercial-grade synthetic turpentine was maintained at about 65"C for about 30 minutes followed by cooling to about 15 C within about 5 minutes. Subsequently, the tar sands sample was filtered, washed, dried and weighed. On the basis of weight loss, the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) in the tar-sands sample was determined to be about 70 wt. %. [00108] Example 17. The experiment in this example repeated that of the preceding example with a-terpineol instead of commercial grade synthetic turpentine. The conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) increased to about 90 wt. % from about 70 wt. % of the preceding examples. [00109] Example 18. In this example, a tar-sands sample, weighing about 30 grams, from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those in Examples 11 through 17, was extracted with a liquid that included about 20 grams (80 wt. %) of a-terpineol and about 5 grams (20 wt. %) of toluene at the temperature of about 96"C under the ambient pressure of slightly less 47 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 than about 1.O1x105 Pascals (1 atm). The duration of the experiment (reaction or extraction time) was about 30 minutes. The weigh loss of the sample was about 10.2 grams. From this weigh loss, the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) was estimated to be about 33 wt. %. [00110] Example 19. Three tar-sands samples, all from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those used in all preceding examples with tar sands were extracted by reagents comprising various amounts of a-terpineol and ethanol at the temperature of about 15 0 C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01 x 105 Pascals (1 atm). The duration of each experiment (reaction or extraction time) was about 15 minutes for each tar-sands sample. The first sample was extracted with a mixture comprising about 0 gram (0 wt. %) of a-terpineol and about 15 grams (100 wt. %) of ethanol, i.e., with pure ethanol. The second sample was extracted with a mixture comprising about 7.5 grams (50 wt. %) of a-terpineol and about 7.5 grams (50 wt. %) of ethanol. The third sample was extracted with a mixture comprising about 12 grams (80 wt. %) of a-terpineol and about 3 grams (20 wt. %) of ethanol. The weight losses and the estimated conversions, i.e., the degrees of extraction, of bitumen (organic matter) in the three samples were about 0.2 gram (1.0 wt. %), 0.6 gram (3.0 wt. %) and 0.9 gram (4.5 wt. %), for the first, second and third sample, respectively. [00111] Example 20. Irregular-shaped pellets of commercial-grade asphalt whose average size was about 15 mm were solubilized and extracted with a-terpineol and at the ambient temperature of about 22'C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about I .01x10 5 Pascals (1 atm). The first sample weighing about 20 grams was solubilized and extracted with about 40 grams of a-terpineol, and the second sample also weighing about 20 grams was solubilized and extracted with about 20 grams of a-terpineol. Both samples were completely 48 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 dissolved after 30 minutes. These experiments were carried out to simulate the solubilization and extraction of heavy crude oil, which tends to be rich in asphaltenes like asphalt. [00112] Example 21. In this example, bitumen (organic matter) in tar-sands from the same source with the same proximate analyses as those used in all previous examples with tar sands was solubilized and extracted with two varieties of vegetable oils, soybean oil and corn oil. The vegetable oils are completely miscible with turpentine liquid. In the first experiment, a tar sands sample weighing about 15 grams was blended and agitated continually with about 30 grams of soybean oil for about 20 minutes at the temperature of about 96*C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x105 Pascals (1 atm). The weight loss was about 0.5 gram from which the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen in the sample was estimated to be about 3.3 wt. %. In the second experiment, a tar-sands sample weighing about 30 grams was blended and agitated continually with about 60 grams of corn oil for about 30 minutes at the temperature of about 175*C under the ambient pressure of slightly less than about 1.01x10 5 Pascals (latm). The weight loss was about 4.8 grams from which the conversion, i.e., the degree of extraction, of bitumen in the sample was estimated to be about 12 wt. %. [00113] Example 22. Two tests were performed on Berea sandstone plug core samples to determine the effect of reagent injection on oil recovery from core. The first test was designed to determine the increment oil recovery due to a- terpineol injection after a field had already undergone waterflooding to the limit. The selected core contained 9.01 mL of laboratory oil simulating crude oil. The waterflooding with aqueous solution containing 3.0% of potassium chloride produced 4.6 mL of oil. Five (5) pore volumes of a-terpineol injection produced additional 3.61 mL of oil, thereby leaving the core with less than 8.0% of oil remaining in the original volume. The second test was designed to represent the increased recovery that could be 49 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 expected from a virgin reservoir with a-terpineol injection. The selected core contained 8.85 mL of laboratory oil simulating crude oil. Oil production began after approximately 0.5 pore volumes of a-terpineol injection, which was continued until 3.5 pore volumes; however, the majority of the oil was recovered after only 2.5 pore volumes of a-terpineol injection. A total of 7.94 mL of laboratory oil was recovered, thereby leaving the core with less than 7.5% of oil remaining in the original volume. [00114] In one experiment, various different ratios of a turpentine liquid to tar sand sample were tested. The turpentine liquid for each of the experiments provided below had the same formulation, wherein the composition included about 60% by volume a-terpineol, about 20% by volume p-terpineol, and about 20% by volume y-terpineol. The tar sands were a different mix of ores from Alberta, Canada, having a bitumen content of approximately 12% by weight and a water content of between about 4-5% by weight. The experiments were all performed at atmospheric temperature. [00115] As shown in Table 6 below, recovery of hydrocarbons from tar sands across all ratios provided below (i.e., ratios of turpentine liquid to tar sands ranging from 1:2 to 2:1) resulted in good recovery of hydrocarbons and little discernible difference. With respect to the temperature at which the extraction is carried out, it is believed that the optimum temperature for the extraction, solubilization and/or liquefaction of hydrocarbons from tar sands is 65'C. As shown in the table, at about 130*C, the amount of hydrocarbons recovered is reduced. It is noted however, that for certain solids from which it is particularly difficult to recover hydrocarbons, increasing the temperature of the extraction solvent can increase the amount of hydrocarbons that are recovered. Finally, it is shown that exposure time had very little effect on the amount of 50 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 materials that were extracted. This is likely because the shortest extraction time was 20 minutes, which is believed to be more than adequate for the extraction of the hydrocarbons from tar sands. Table 6 Tar Extractable Weight Ratio of Amount Percent Temp, Exposure Sand HC of tar sand of HC HC *C Time, Weight, weight, g extraction to extracted, extracted minutes g solvent solvent g 15 2.0 30.0 1:2 3.2 161 96 20 60 7.8 120.0 1:2 5.4 69 96 30 60 7.8 31.6 2:1 9.6 123 96 30 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 7.6 97 65 30 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 4.0 51 130 30 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 6.3 80 65 30 [00116] Additional experiments were conducted using alternative solvents, namely ethanol and corn oil, which was compared with the composition that included about 60% by volume a-terpineol, about 20% by volume p-terpineol, and about 20% by volume y-terpineol. As noted in Table 7 provided below, the performance of ethanol and corn oil were unexpectedly substantially lower than the composition that included 60% by volume a-terpineol, about 20% by volume p--terpineol, and about 20% by volume y-terpineol. For example, whereas the terpineol composition achieved complete or nearly complete extraction of extractable hydrocarbons, ethanol yielded only 10% of the recoverable hydrocarbons and heated corn oil yielded only 33% of the recoverable hydrocarbons. 51 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 Table 7 Chemical Tar Extractable Weight Ratio Amount Percent Temp, Exposure Sand HC of of tar of HC HC 'C Time, Weight, weight, g extraction sand to extracted, extracted minutes g solvent solvent g Ethanol 15 2.0 15.0 1:1 o.2 10 15 15 Corn oil 30 3.9 60.0 2:1 1.3 33 175 30 60/20/20 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 7.6 97 65 30 terpineol 60/20/20 60 7.8 31.6 2:1 9.6 123 96 30 terpineol [00117] As shown in Table 8 below, the performance of various turpentine liquid formulations, including turpentine liquid formulations that include only a-terpineol and a terpineol in combination with various known organic solvents, are provided. The first three compositions presented in the table include a-terpineol, p-terpineol, and y-terpineol. For example, the first same includes about 60% by volume a-terpineol, about 30% by volume p terpineol, and about 10% by volume y-terpineol. The results unexpectedly show that as the concentration of the a-terpineol increases, performance of the turpentine liquid increases to the point that when the turpentine liquid includes approximately 70% a-terpineol, full extraction of the hydrocarbon material from the tar sand sample is achieved. [00118] The second set of data is presented for extraction of hydrocarbon bearing tar sands with pure a-terpineol. As shown, extraction of greater than 100% is achieved, likely due to inconsistencies in the hydrocarbon content of the samples. However, the results generally 52 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 demonstrate the unexpected result that a-terpineol is capable of extracting substantially all of the recoverable hydrocarbon from a tar sand sample. [00119] Finally, the last data provided in Table 8 illustrates the effectiveness of mixed systems of a-terpineol and known organic solvents. As shown, substantially complete recovery of recoverable hydrocarbons is achieved with a composition that includes a 1:1 ratio of a terpineol to ethanol. This is unexpected as pure ethanol only removed about 10% of the total recoverable hydrocarbons. Additionally, mixed systems that include either a 1:1 or a 3:1 ratio of a-terpineol to toluene still resulted in the recovery of 77% and 92% of the total recoverable hydrocarbons. This was an unexpected result. Table 8 Chemical Tar Extractable Wt. of Ratio of Amount Percent Temp, Exposure comp. Sand HC wt., g solvent tar sand of HC HC "C Time, wt., g to solvent extracted, extracted minutes g 60/30/10 60 2.0 60.0 1:1 7.1 91 96 30 terpineol 40/30/20 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 4.7 60 96 30 terpineol 70/20/10 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 7.9 101 96 30 terpineol 100/0/0 60 7.8 60.0 1:1 10.0 128 96 30 terpineol 100/0/0 60 7.8 120.0 1:2 8.7 111 96 30 terpineol 100/0/0 60 7.8 31.0 2:1 9.6 123 96 30 terpineol 50% a- 15 2.0 15.0 1:1 8.1 103 65 30 terpineol/ 53 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 Chemical Tar Extractable Wt. of Ratio of Amount Percent Temp, Exposure comp. Sand HC wt., g solvent tar sand of HC HC C Time, wt., g to solvent extracted, extracted minutes g 50% ethanol 80% a- 15 2.0 15.0 1:1 1.2 62 15 15 terpineol/ 20% ethanol 75% a- 30 3.9 25.0 1:0.8 1.8 92 15 15 terpineol/ 25% toluene 50% a- 30 3.9 26.0 1: 0.9 3.0 77 96 30 terpineol/ 50% toluene 50% a- 30 3.9 26.0 1:0.9 2.4 61 96 30 terpineol/ 50% xylenes [001201 The results for the extraction of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from hydrocarbon-containing material described in the specification, and especially in the Examples above, were unexpected. 1001211 As used herein, the terms first, second, third and the like should be interpreted to uniquely identify elements and do not imply or restrict to any particular sequencing of elements or steps. [001221 As used herein, the terms about and approximately should be interpreted to include any values which are within 5% of the recited value. Furthermore, recitation of the term about and approximately with respect to a range of values should be interpreted to include both the upper and lower end of the recited range. As used herein, the terms first, second, third and 54 WO 2009/038728 PCT/US2008/010831 the like should be interpreted to uniquely identify elements and do not imply or restrict to any particular sequencing of elements or steps. [001231 While the invention has been shown or described in only some of its embodiments, it should be apparent to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible to various changes without departing from the scope of the invention. 55

Claims (36)

1. A method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon containing material into a turpentine liquid, comprising the steps of: providing a first liquid comprising said turpentine liquid; contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture being a one-phase liquid and comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; separating the extraction mixture from the residual material; and separating the extraction mixture into a first portion and a second portion, the first portion of the extraction mixture comprising a hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, the second portion of the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the turpentine liquid. wherein the turpentine liquid comprises at least about 30% by volume of a-terpineol and at least about 15% by volume of P-terpineol or wherein the turpentine liquid comprises at least about 40% by volume of a-terpineol.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said first liquid consists of the turpentine liquid is selected from the group consisting of natural turpentine, synthetic turpentine, mineral turpentine, pine oil, a- pinene, p-pinene, a-terpineol, P-terpineol, y-terpineol, terpene resins, a-terpene, P- terpene, y-terpene, geraniol, 3-carene, dipentene (p-mentha 1,8-diene), nopol, pinane, 2-pinane hydroperoxide, terpin hydrate, 2-pinanol, dihydromycenol, isoborneol, p-menthan-8-ol, a-terpinyl acetate, citronellol, p menthan-8-yl acetate, 7-hydroxydihydrocitronellal, menthol, anethole, camphene; p cymene, anisaldeyde, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, isobornyl acetate, ocimene, alloocimene, alloocimene alcohols, 2-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7,8-epoxyoctane, camphor, citral, 7-methoxydihydro-citronellal, 10-camphorsulphonic acid, cintronellal, menthone, and mixtures thereof.
3. The method of Claim 1, wherein said hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is solid or semi-solid, wherein said hydrocarbon-containing material comprises a plurality of 56 particles, the particles having an average particle diameter from about 0.74 millimeters to about 25 millimeters.
4. The method of Claim 1, further comprising the step of adding a second liquid to the turpentine liquid, the second liquid being selected from the group consisting of lower aliphatic alcohols, lower alkanes, lower aromatics, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, pentane, heptane, hexane, benzene, toluene, xylene, anathracene, tetraline, triethylamine, aniline, and mixtures thereof.
5. The method of Claim 8, wherein the step of contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid further comprises the step of agitating the extraction mixture using water at a temperature around a boiling point of water in such a way as to ensure the ratio of turpentine liquid to water is at least 1:1 by volume.
6. The method of Claim 1 further comprising the step of heating the turpentine liquid to a temperature to a point above ambient temperature to about 2000C before contacting the turpentine liquid with (i) the hydrocarbon-containing material, or (ii) the hydrocarbon-containing material at a pressure of from about 1.Ox104 Pascals (0.1 atm) to about 5.0x10 6 Pascals (50.0 atm).
7. The method of Claim 1, further comprising the step of providing means for contacting said hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and said turpentine liquid in situ in an underground formation containing said hydrocarbon-containing organic matter , and means for extracting said hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from said underground formation.
8. The method of Claim 1, wherein said hydrocarbon containing material is contacted by said turpentine liquid at a temperature of (i) less than about 3000C, or (ii) less than about 600C.
9. The method of Claim 1 wherein the hydrocarbon-containing material is in an underground formation and the contacting of the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid occurs in situ in the underground formation; and further comprising the steps of recovering the extraction mixture through a production well in fluid communication with the underground formation, wherein the residual material remains in situ in the underground formation, and 57 reinjecting the recycle stream into the injection well for further extraction of hydrocarbon material.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein the underground formation is undergoing primary recovery of the hydrocarbon material.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the ratio of turpentine liquid to a hydrocarbon containing material selected from the group consisting of coal, oil shale, oil (tar) sands, and crude oil is greater than or equal to 1:2.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein the turpentine liquid comprises between about 50% by volume a-terpineol and at least about 20% by volume @-terpineol.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the turpentine further comprises at least one of a- terpene, P- terpene or y-terpene.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein the turpentine liquid comprises a-terpineol and @ terpineol, wherein the ratio of a-terpineol to p-terpineol is (i) at least about 1.3:1; or (ii) at least about 2:1.
15. The method of claim 1 for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material, said hydrocarbon material comprising oil (tar) sands, wherein the contacting of the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid comprises the step of supplying the oil (tar) sands to an interior portion of an extraction vessel and supplying the turpentine liquid to the interior portion of the extraction vessel for a period of time operable to extract a substantial portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the hydrocarbon-containing material.
16. The method of claim 1 for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material, said hydrocarbon material comprising oil shale, the method further comprising the step of: grinding the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter to create a plurality of particles, the particles defining an average diameter size in the range of 4.8 mm to 25 mm such that the plurality of particles is contacting the turpentine liquid.
17. The method of claim 1 for extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon-containing material, said hydrocarbon material comprising coal, the method further comprising the steps of: 58 grinding the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter to create a plurality of particles, the particles defining an average diameter size in the range of 0.8 mm to 0.07 mm such that the plurality of particles is contacting the turpentine liquid.
18. A method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon containing material, the method comprising the steps of: providing a first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid, the turpentine liquid comprising a-terpineol; contacting the hydrocarbon-containing material with said turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; and separating the extraction mixture from the residual material.
19. The method of claim 18 further comprising the step of separating the extraction mixture into a hydrocarbon product stream and a recycle stream, the hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter, the recycle stream containing at least a portion of the turpentine liquid, and recycling the recycle stream to contact the hydrocarbon-carbon containing material.
20. An apparatus for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from solid or semisolid hydrocarbon containing materials into a turpentine liquid, comprising: a turpentine liquid supply comprising said turpentine liquid containing terpineol for extracting hydrocarbons-containing organic matter from the hydrocarbon containing materials, wherein said turpentine liquid is supplied so as to contact said hydrocarbon-containing materials in a ratio greater than or equal to 2:1; a contacting vessel, said contacting vessel having a first inlet and being in fluid communication with the turpentine liquid supply through the first inlet, the contacting vessel being operable to receive the hydrocarbon-containing materials in an interior portion through a second inlet, the contacting vessel being operable to maintain the hydrocarbon-containing materials and the turpentine liquid in the interior portion of the contacting vessel for a predetermined amount of time operable to form an extraction mixture and a 59 residual material, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the hydrocarbon-containing material that are not soluble in the turpentine liquid; the contacting vessel comprising a first outlet for recovering the extraction mixture from the contacting vessel and a second outlet for recovering the residual material from the contacting vessel, the contacting vessel being operable to allow for mechanical agitation; a holding tank, said holding tank being in fluid communication with the contacting vessel through a line, wherein the holding tank is operable to receive the extraction mixture from the contacting vessel, wherein the line includes a filter to prevent the passage of solids to the holding tank; and collection means for collecting the residual material from the second outlet of the contacting vessel.
21. The apparatus of Claim 20 further comprising a separation vessel for receiving the extraction mixture, the separation vessel being operable to substantially separate the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the turpentine liquid.
22. The apparatus of Claim 20 further comprising a recycle stream for receiving the turpentine liquid from the separation vessel, the recycle stream operable to return the turpentine liquid from the separation vessel to the contacting vessel for reuse.
23. The apparatus of claim 20 further comprising a grinder, said grinder being configured to reduce the size of the hydrocarbon containing materials for contact with the liquid turpentine in the contacting vessel.
24. The apparatus of claim 20 wherein said contacting vessel is a rotary inclined filter further comprising a plurality of fins or trays configured to control contact time between the turpentine liquid and the hydrocarbon containing materials.
25. The apparatus of claim 20 wherein said contacting vessel further comprises means for mixing the hydrocarbon containing material and the turpentine liquid.
26. The apparatus of claim 20 further comprising a second contacting vessel coupled to the first contacting vessel, wherein the second contacting vessel comprises an inlet for receiving a turpentine liquid and a coal sample material, a first outlet for recovery of at least a portion of the extraction mixture and a second outlet for removing at 60 least a portion of the residual material from the mixing vessel, wherein the second contacting vessel is located between and coupled to the first contacting vessel and the holding tank
27. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is recovered from oil (tar) sands, the method comprising: obtaining oil (tar) sands comprising recoverable hydrocarbon-containing organic matter; providing a first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid, the turpentine liquid containing terpineol; supplying the oil (tar) sand sample to a contacting vessel, said contacting vessel comprising at least one inlet for supplying the turpentine liquid; contacting the oil (tar) sand sample with the turpentine liquid in a contacting vessel and agitating the oil (tar) sand sample with the turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non- soluble material from the tar sands that is not soluble in the turpentine liquid, said contacting vessel comprising at least one inlet for supplying a turpentine liquid; separating the extraction mixture from the residual material; separating the extraction mixture into a hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream, the hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the oil (tar) sands; and recycling at least a portion of the turpentine liquid recycle stream to the contacting step; wherein said turpentine liquid comprises a-terpineol and B-terpineol.
28. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is recovered from comminuted hydrocarbon-containing oil shale, the method comprising: providing the comminuted hydrocarbon-containing oil shale; 61 providing a first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid; filtering the comminuted hydrocarbon-containing oil shale; feeding the crushed hydrocarbon-containing oil shale to a contacting vessel, the contacting vessel comprising at least one inlet for supplying the turpentine liquid to the contacting vessel; contacting the comminuted hydrocarbon-containing oil shale with turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the oil shale that is not soluble in the turpentine liquid separating the extraction mixture from the residual material; and separating the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the turpentine liquid in the extraction mixture to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream, the hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the comminuted hydrocarbon containing oil shale; and recycling at least a portion of the turpentine liquid recycle stream to the contacting step.
29. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is recovered from hydrocarbon- containing coal rich sub-surface formation, the method comprising: obtaining coal, said coal comprising a recoverable hydrocarbon-containing organic matter; grinding the coal to produce crushed coal; filtering the crushed coal; feeding the crushed coal to a contacting vessel, said contacting vessel comprising at least one inlet for supplying a turpentine liquid to the contacting vessel; . contacting the crushed coal with turpentine liquid such that an extraction mixture is formed and a residual material is formed, the extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and the turpentine 62 liquid, the residual material comprising at least a portion of non-soluble material from the coal that is not soluble in the turpentine liquids; separating the residual material from the extraction mixture; and separating the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the turpentine liquid to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid recycle stream, the hydrocarbon product stream comprising at least a portion of the hydrocarbon- containing organic matter from the coal; and recycling at least a portion of the turpentine liquid recycle stream to the contacting step.
30. The method of claim 1, wherein the of hydrocarbon-containing organic matter is recovered from a production well coupled to a hydrocarbon-containing sub-surface formation, the subsurface formation comprising hydrocarbon-containing material, the method comprising: providing an injection well, said injection being in fluid communication with the sub-surface formation; providing a first liquid, the first liquid comprising a turpentine liquid comprising terpineol; injecting the turpentine liquid through the injection well and into the formation, wherein the turpentine liquid and the hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from the hydrocarbon containing sub-surface formation form an extraction mixture comprising at least a portion of the extraction mixture hydrocarbon-containing organic matter and at least a portion of the turpentine liquid; recovering the extraction mixture from the formation through the production well; and separating the extraction mixture to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and a turpentine liquid stream.
31. The method of claim 1, (i) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is anthracite or bituminous coal, said turpentine liquid comprises about 50-70 volume % of a terpineol and about 20-40 volume % of -terpineol; 63 (ii) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is lignite, brown coal, or any other low-rank coal, said turpentine liquid comprises about 70-90 volume % of a-terpineol and about 5-25 volume % of P-terpineol; (ii) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is oil shale, said turpentine liquid comprises about 70-90 volume % of a-terpineol and about 5-25 volume % of p-terpineol; (iv) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is oil (tar) sands, said turpentine liquid comprises about 40-60 volume % of a-terpineol, about 30-50 volume % of p-terpineol, and about 5 volume % of a- and/or p-pinene; (v) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is light or medium crude oil, said turpentine liquid comprises about 40-70 volume % of a-terpineol, about 30-40 volume % of p-terpineol, and about 10 volume % of a- and/or p-pinene; and (vi) wherein when said hydrocarbon containing material is heavy or extra heavy crude oil, said turpentine liquid comprises about 50-70 volume % of a-terpineol, about 20-35 volume % of p-terpineol, and about 10 volume % of a- and/or p pinene.
32. The method of claim 1, further comprising contacting said hydrocarbon-containing material with a turpentine-miscible solvent.
33. A method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon containing material into a turpentine liquid, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to any one of examples 1 to 22.
34. A method of extracting hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from a hydrocarbon containing material into a turpentine liquid, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to any one of Figures 1 to 4.
35. An apparatus for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from solid or semi-solid hydrocarbon containing materials into a turpentine liquid, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to examples 1 to 22.
36. An apparatus for recovering hydrocarbon-containing organic matter from solid or semi-solid hydrocarbon containing materials into a turpentine liquid, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figures 1 to 4. 64
AU2008301860A 2007-09-20 2008-09-17 Extraction of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing materials Ceased AU2008301860B2 (en)

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US12/174,139 US8272442B2 (en) 2007-09-20 2008-07-16 In situ extraction of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing materials
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