AU2005337424B2 - Low loss electrode connection for inkjet printhead - Google Patents

Low loss electrode connection for inkjet printhead Download PDF

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Publication number
AU2005337424B2
AU2005337424B2 AU2005337424A AU2005337424A AU2005337424B2 AU 2005337424 B2 AU2005337424 B2 AU 2005337424B2 AU 2005337424 A AU2005337424 A AU 2005337424A AU 2005337424 A AU2005337424 A AU 2005337424A AU 2005337424 B2 AU2005337424 B2 AU 2005337424B2
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AU
Australia
Prior art keywords
ink
nozzles
chamber
optionally
inkjet printhead
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AU2005337424A1 (en
Inventor
Kia Silverbrook
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Memjet Technology Ltd
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Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd
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Priority to PCT/AU2005/001561 priority Critical patent/WO2007041744A1/en
Publication of AU2005337424A1 publication Critical patent/AU2005337424A1/en
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Assigned to ZAMTEC LIMITED reassignment ZAMTEC LIMITED Request for Assignment Assignors: SILVERBROOK RESEARCH PTY LTD
Assigned to MEMJET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED reassignment MEMJET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED Request to Amend Deed and Register Assignors: ZAMTEC LIMITED
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2/14016Structure of bubble jet print heads
    • B41J2/14088Structure of heating means
    • B41J2/14112Resistive element
    • B41J2/1412Shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2/14016Structure of bubble jet print heads
    • B41J2/14032Structure of the pressure chamber
    • B41J2/1404Geometrical characteristics
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1601Production of bubble jet print heads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1626Production of nozzles manufacturing processes etching
    • B41J2/1628Production of nozzles manufacturing processes etching dry etching
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1631Production of nozzles manufacturing processes photolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1637Production of nozzles manufacturing processes molding
    • B41J2/1639Production of nozzles manufacturing processes molding sacrificial molding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/164Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation
    • B41J2/1642Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation thin film formation by CVD [chemical vapor deposition]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/164Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation
    • B41J2/1645Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation thin film formation by spincoating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2002/14403Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads including a filter
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2002/14475Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads characterised by nozzle shapes or number of orifices per chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2202/00Embodiments of or processes related to ink-jet or thermal heads
    • B41J2202/01Embodiments of or processes related to ink-jet heads
    • B41J2202/11Embodiments of or processes related to ink-jet heads characterised by specific geometrical characteristics

Description

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 1 LOW LOSS ELECTRODE CONNECTION FOR INKJET PRINTIEAD Field of the Invention 5 The present invention relates to the field of inkjet printers and discloses an inkjet printing system using printheads manufactured with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. Cross References to Related Applications Various methods, systems and apparatus relating to the present invention are disclosed in the 10 following US Patents/ Patent Applications filed by the applicant or assignee of the present invention: 09/517539 6566858 09/112762 6331946 6246970 6442525 09/517384 09/505951 6374354 09/517608 09/505147 10/203564 6757832 6334190 6745331 09/517541 10/203559 10/203560 10/636263 10/636283 10/866608 10/902889 10/902833 10/940653 10/942858 10/727181 10/727162 10/727163 10/727245 10/727204 10/727233 10/727280 10/727157 10/727178 10/727210 10/727257 10/727238 10/727251 10/727159 10/727180 10/727179 10/727192 10/727274 10/727164 10/727161 10/727198 10/727158 10/754536 10/754938 10/727227 10/727160 10/934720 11/212,702 10/296522 6795215 10/296535 09/575109 10/296525 09/575110 09/607985 6398332 6394573 6622923 6747760 10/189459 10/884881 10/943941 10/949294 11/039866 11/123011 11/123010 11/144769 11/148237 10/922846 10/922845 10/854521 10/854522 10/854488 10/854487 10/854503 10/854504 10/854509 10/854510 10/854496 10/854497 10/854495 10/854498 10/854511 10/854512 10/854525 10/854526 10/854516 10/854508 10/854507 10/854515 10/854506 10/854505 10/854493 10/854494 10/854489 10/854490 10/854492 10/854491 10/854528 10/854523 10/854527 10/854524 10/854520 10/854514 10/854519 10/854513 10/854499 10/854501 10/854500 10/854502 10/854518 10/854517 10/934628 PLT046US 10/728804 10/728952 10/728806 10/728834 10/729790 10/728884 10/728970 10/728784 10/728783 10/728925 10/728842 10/728803 10/728780 10/728779 10/773189 10/773204 10/773198 10/773199 10/773190 10/773201 10/773191 10/773183 10/773195 10/773196 10/773186 10/773200 10/773185 10/773192 10/773197 10/773203 10/773187 10/773202 10/773188 10/773194 10/773193 10/773184 11/008118 11/060751 11/060805 11/188017 6623101 6406129 6505916 6457809 6550895 6457812 10/296434 6428133 6746105 10/407212 10/407207 10/683064 10/683041 6750901 6476863 6788336 11/097308 11/097309 11/097335 11/097299 11/097310 11/097213 11/210687 WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 2 11/097212 11/212637 10/760272 10/760273 10/760187 10/760182 10/760188 10/760218 10/760217 10/760216 10/760233 10/760246 10/760212 10/760243 10/760201 10/760185 10/760253 10/760255 10/760209 10/760208 10/760194 10/760238 10/760234 10/760235 10/760183 10/760189 10/760262 10/760232 10/760231 10/760200 10/60190 10/760191 10/760227 10/60207 10/760181 10/815625 10/815624 10/815628 10/913375 10/913373 10/913374 10/913372 10/913377 10/913378 10/913380 10/913379 10/913376 10/913381 10/986402 11/172816 11/172815 11/172814 11/003786 11/003354 11/003616 11/003418 11/003334 11/003600 11/003404 11/003419 11/003700 11/003601 11/003618 11/003615 11/003337 11/003698 11/003420 11/003682 11/003699 11/071473 11/003463 11/003701 11/003683 11/003614 11/003702 11/003684 11/003619 11/003617 10/760254 10/760210 10/760202 10/760197 10/760198 10/760249 10/760263 10/760196 10/760247 10/760223 10/760264 10/760244 10/760245 10/760222 10/760248 10/760236 10/760192 10/760203 10/760204 10/760205 10/760206 10/760267 10/760270 10/760259 10/760271 10/760275 10/60274 10/760268 10/760184 10/760195 10/60186 10/60261 10/760258 11/014764 11/014763 11/014748 11/014747 11/014761 11/014760 11/014757 11/014714 11/014713 11/014762 11/014724 11/014723 11/014756 11/014736 11/014759 11/014758 11/014725 11/014739 11/014738 11/014737 11/014726 11/14745 11/014712 11/014715 11/014751 11/014735 11/014734 11/014719 11/014750 11/014749 11/014746 11/014769 11/014729 11/014743 11/014733 11/014754 11/014755 11/014765 11/014766 11/014740 11/014720 11/014753 11/014752 11/014744 11/014741 11/014768 11/014767 11/014718 11/014717 11/014716 11/014732 11/014742 11/097268 11/097185 11/097184 09/575197 09/575195 09/575159 09/575132 09/575123 09/575148 09/575130 09/575165 09/575153 09/575118 09/575131 09/575116 09/575144 09/575139 09/575186 6681045 6728000 09/575145 09/575192 09/575181 09/575193 09/575156 09/575183 6789194 09/575150 6789191 6644642 6502614 6622999 6669385 6549935 09/575187 6727996 6591884 6439706 6760119 09/575198 6290349 6428155 6785016 09/575174 09/575163 6737591 09/575154 09/575129 09/575124 09/575188 09/575189 09/575162 09/575172 09/575170 09/575171 09/575161 The disclosures of these applications and patents are incorporated herein by reference. Background of the Invention WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 3 The present invention involves the ejection of ink drops by way of forming gas or vapor bubbles in a bubble forming liquid. This principle is generally described in US 3, 747,120 (Stemme). Each pixel in the printed image is derived ink drops ejected from one or more ink nozzles. In recent years, inkjet printing has become increasing popular primarily due to its 5 inexpensive and versatile nature. Many different aspects and techniques for inkjet printing are described in detail in the above cross referenced documents. Completely immersing the heater element in ink dramatically improves the printhead efficiency. Much less heat dissipates into the underlying wafer substrate so more of the input energy is used to 10 generate the bubble that ejects the ink. To immerse the heater, it needs to be spaced from the floor of the ink chamber and so the heater material is usually deposited on a layer of sacrificial material (SAC) that is subsequently removed by a release etch. The contacts at either end of the heater element are raised to the height of the 15 SAC layer by some type of permanent scaffolding structure. The contacts need vertical or inclined portions to establish an electrical connection between the electrode areas on the top metal layer of the CMOS drive circuitry and the heater element. However, heater material deposited on vertical or inclined surfaces is thinner than on horizontal surfaces. To avoid undesirable resistive losses from the thinner sections, the contact portion of the thermal actuator needs to be relatively large. 20 Larger contacts occupy a significant area of the wafer surface and limit the nozzle packing density. Summary of the Invention Accordingly, the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: 25 an array of ink chambers formed on a wafer substrate, each having a nozzle aperture and a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator having a heater element extending between two contacts such that the element is suspended in the chamber; and, drive circuitry lithographically deposited on the wafer substrate for generating drive signals, the drive circuitry providing electrodes for the contacts of each actuator; 30 wherein, the contacts and the heater element are coplanar such that the thermal actuator is an integral planar structure. A planar thermal actuator, with contacts directly deposited onto the CMOS electrodes and 35 suspended heater element, avoids hotspots caused by vertical or inclined surfaces so that the contacts can be much smaller structures without acceptable increases in resistive losses. Low WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 4 resistive losses preserves the efficient operation of a suspended heater element and the small contact size is convenient for close nozzle packing on the printhead. Preferably the heater elements are elongate strips of heater material. In a further preferred form the 5 electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry. In a particularly preferred form, the printhead further comprises a trench etched into the drive circuitry extending between the electrodes. In a first aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: 10 an array of ink chambers formed on a wafer substrate, each having a nozzle aperture and a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator having a heater element extending between two contacts such that the element is suspended in the chamber; and, drive circuitry lithographically deposited on the wafer substrate for generating drive signals, the drive circuitry providing electrodes for the contacts of each actuator; 15. wherein, the contacts and the heater element are coplanar such that the thermal actuator is an integral planar structure. A planar thermal actuator, with contacts directly deposited onto the CMOS electrodes and 20 suspended heater element, avoids hotspots caused by vertical or inclined surfaces so that the contacts can be much smaller structures without acceptable increases in resistive losses. Low resistive losses preserves the efficient operation of a suspended heater element and the small contact size is convenient for close nozzle packing on the printhead. 25 Optionally, the heater elements are elongate strips of heater material. Optionally, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. 30 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. 35 Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 5 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 5 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 10 Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in 15 fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. Optionally, the inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for 20 receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. Optionally, the inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through 25 each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface 30 tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long 35 sidewalls.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 6 Optionally, the inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. 5 Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of 10 static friction (known as 'stiction'). In a second aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers; a plurality of nozzles formed in each of the ink chambers respectively; 15 an actuator in each of the ink chambers respectively; and, drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators with drive signals; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 20 By giving the chamber multiple nozzles, each nozzle ejects drops of smaller volume, and having different misdirections. Several small drops misdirected in different directions are less detrimental to print quality than a single relatively large misdirected drop. Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between 25 two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is 30 configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, the width of the trench is at least twice that of the heater element. 35 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 7 Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. 5 Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. 10 Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow 15 ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets 20 defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. 25 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 30 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 35 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 8 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they 5 are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of 10 static friction (known as 'stiction'). In a third aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers; a nozzle formed in each chamber respectively; 15 an actuator in each ink chamber for ejecting ink through the nozzle; wherein, at least two adjacent chambers are separated by an ink permeable barrier configured to reduce fluidic crosstalk between the chambers; such that, at least one of the adjacent chambers refills with ink flowing through the ink permeable barrier from the other of the adjacent chambers. 20 The conduits for distributing ink to every ink chamber in the array can occupy a significant proportion of the wafer area. This can be a limiting factor for nozzle density on the printhead. By making some ink chambers part of the ink flow path to other ink chambers, while keeping each chamber sufficiently free of fluidic cross talk, reduces the amount of wafer area lost to ink supply 25 conduits. For the purpose of increasing nozzle density it is also advantageous to use elongate actuators. Thinner actuators allow the ink chamber to be thinner and therefore the entire unit cell of the printhead to be smaller in one dimension at least. Accordingly adjacent nozzles can be close 30 together and nozzle packing density increases. However with elongate actuators the bubble formed is likewise elongated. Hydraulic losses occur when an elongate bubble forces ink through a centrally disposed circular nozzle opening. To reduce the hydraulic losses two or more nozzle openings can be positioned along the length of the chamber above the elongate actuator. While this reduces the hydraulic losses involved in injecting ink there is a degree of fluidic crosstalk between 35 the ink ejection processes through each nozzle. By placing an ink permeable barrier between the nozzles to reduce the fluidic crosstalk, the chamber becomes two separate chambers.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 9 Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure, and each of the actuators extend through at least two adjacent ink chambers in the array, the actuator configured to 5 simultaneously eject ink from the adjacent ink chambers through their respective nozzles. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. 10 Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 15 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 20 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 25 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 30 Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 35 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 10 each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. 5 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 10 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 15 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the 20 opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the 25 nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). 30 In a fourth aspect the present invention provide an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers, each chamber having a plurality of actuators and nozzles, each of the actuators corresponding to at least one of the nozzles; and, drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators with drive signals; wherein, a single drive signal simultaneously actuates the plurality of the actuators within one of the 35 ink chambers to eject ink through the plurality of nozzles.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 11 By putting multiple actuators in a single chamber, and providing each actuator with a corresponding nozzle (or nozzles), each nozzle ejects drops of smaller volume, and having different misdirections. Smaller drops with differing misdirections are less likely to create any visible artefacts. A single actuator in the chamber could be used to eject ink from all the nozzles, however 5 there are hydraulic losses in the ink if the actuator is not aligned with the nozzle. Providing several actuators allows each actuator to align with all the nozzles to minimize hydraulic losses and thereby improve overall printhead efficiency. Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between 10 two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is 15 configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, 20 the actuators simultaneously eject ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater 25 element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 30 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 35 WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 12 Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in 5 fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for 10 receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming 15 feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface 20 tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long 25 sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they 30 are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. 35 Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction').

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 13 In a fifth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers, each having a nozzle and an actuator for ejecting ink through the nozzle; and, drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators of the array with drive signals; 5 wherein during use, each drive signal simultaneously activates a plurality of the actuators. By replacing a single relatively large chamber with two or more smaller chambers, such that the separate actuators are in the same driver circuit (either in series or parallel), each nozzle ejects 10 drops of smaller volume, and having different misdirections. Smaller drops with differing misdirections are less likely to create any visible artefacts. Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators and the plurality of actuators that simultaneously activate are part of the same drive circuit., each having a heater element extending between two 15 contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry,. Optionally, the plurality of actuators that simultaneously activate are connected in series. 20 Optionally, the thermal actuators each have a unitary planar structure and a heater element suspended in the ink chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuators simultaneously eject ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 25 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the heater elements are aligned elongate strips and the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to that of the heater elements. 30 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 35 Optionally, each of the drive circuits has a field effect transistor (FET), the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 14 Optionally, the drive voltage of the FET is 2.5 Volts. Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow 5 ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets 10 defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. 15 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 20 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 25 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the 30 opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the 35 nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 15 Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). In a sixth aspect the present invention provide an inkjet printhead comprising: 5 an array of nozzles and corresponding actuators for ejecting ink through the nozzles, the nozzles being arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear; wherein, the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Traditionally, the nozzle rows are arranged in pairs with the actuators for each row extending in 10 opposite directions. The rows are staggered with respect to eachother so that the printing resolution (dots per inch) is twice the nozzle pitch (nozzles per inch) along each row. By configuring the components of the unit cell (the repeating chamber, nozzle and actuator unit) such that the overall width of the unit is reduced, the same number of nozzles can be arranged into a single row instead of two staggered and opposing rows without sacrificing any print resolution (d.p.i.). One row of 15 drive circuitry simplifies the CMOS fabrication and connection to a print engine controller for receiving print data. Alternatively, the unit cell configuration used in the present invention can be arranged into opposing rows that are staggered with respect to eachother to effectively double the print resolution - in the case of the preferred embodiment, to 3200 d.p.i. 20 Optionally, the nozzle pitch is 1600 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical and the minor axes of each nozzle in the row are aligned. Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between 25 two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is 30 configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, 35 the actuators simultaneously eject ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 16 Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 5 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 10 Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 15 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. 20 Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, 25 the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, 30 the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. 35 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 17 to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. 5 Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface configured for use with a nozzle capper that engages the printhead when not in use, and when the capper disengages from the exterior surface, 10 residual ink between the capper and the exterior surface moves across the exterior surface because of a meniscus between the capper and the exterior surface; wherein, the exterior surface has gutter formations for retaining at least some of the residual ink pushed along the exterior surface by the meniscus. 15 In a seventh aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: a nozzle plate defining an array of nozzles; an actuator corresponding to each nozzle in the array for ejecting ink through the nozzle; wherein, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of 20 static friction. By reducing the co-efficient of static friction, there is less likelihood that paper dust or other contaminants will clog the nozzles in the nozzle plate. Static friction, or "stiction" as it has become known, allows dust particles to "stick" to nozzle plates and thereby clog nozzles. By patterning the 25 exterior of the nozzle plate with raised formations, dust particles can only contact the outer extremities of each formation. This reduces friction between the particles and the nozzle plate so that any particles that contact the plate are less likely to attach, and if they do attach, they are more likely to be removed by printhead maintenance cleaning cycles. 30 Optionally, the formations are columnar projections of equal length extending normal to the plane of the nozzle plate. Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by 35 the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 18 Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. 5 Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuators simultaneously eject ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 10 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 15 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal 20 actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and 25 the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 30 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. 35 Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 19 In further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 5 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 10 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the 15 opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the 20 nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. In an eighth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers, each having a nozzle and an actuator for ejecting ink through the nozzle; 25 a plurality of ink inlets in fluid communication with the ink chambers; and, at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 30 By introducing a priming feature into the plane of the inlet aperture, the surface tension in the ink meniscus can be redirected to pull the ink along the intend flow path rather than push it back into the inlet. Optionally, the array of ink chambers are defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate 35 and a wafer substrate, the ink inlets are apertures in the wafer substrate, and the priming feature is a column at least partially within the periphery of the ink inlet, and extending towards the nozzle plate.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 20 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators with drive signals, wherein the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical 5 connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is 10 configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, 15' the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater 20 element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 25 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 30 Optionally, one of the sidewalls of each chamber has an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 35 Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 21 Optionally,each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, 5 the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. 10 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in-an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. 15 Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of 20 static friction (known as 'stiction'). In a ninth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of elongate ink chambers, each having a nozzle, an actuator for ejecting ink through the nozzle and a sidewall opening allowing ink to refill the chamber; wherein, 25 the opening is in one of the long sides of the ink chamber. Configuring the ink chambers so that they have side inlets reduces the ink refill times. The inlets are wider and therefore refill flow rates are higher. 30 Optionally, the array of ink chambers are defied by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and a wafer substrate, and the actuators are thermal actuators, each having an elongate heater element extending between two contacts. In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising drive 35 circuitry for selectively providing the thermal actuators with drive signals such that their contacts form an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, wherein the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 22 Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. 5 Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 10 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 15 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 20 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 25 In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and the underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality 30 of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. 35 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 23 the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long 5 relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions 10 extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the 15 nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). 20 In a tenth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of ink chambers, each having a nozzle, an actuator for ejecting ink through the nozzle, an inlet opening allowing ink to refill the chamber and a filter structure at the inlet opening; wherein, the filter structure has rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction 25 through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Filtering the ink as it enters the chamber removes the contaminants and bubbles but it also retards ink flow into the chamber. The present invention uses a filter structure that has rows of 30 obstructions in the flow path. The rows are offset with respect to each other to induce turbulence. This has a minimal effect on the nozzle refill rate but the air bubbles or other contaminants are likely to be retained by the obstructions. Optionally, the filter structure has two rows of obstructions. 35 WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 24 Optionally, the array of ink chambers are defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and a wafer substrate, and the obstructions are columns extending between the wafer substrate and the nozzle plate. 5 Optionally, the actuators are thermal actuators, each having an elongate heater element extending between two contacts. In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising drive circuitry for selectively providing the thermal actuators with drive signals such that their contacts 10 form an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, wherein the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is 15 configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, 20 the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater 25 element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. 30 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. 35 WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 25 In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and the underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 5 In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. 10 Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 15 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. 20 Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. In an eleventh aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead for use with a nozzle capper that engages the printhead when not in use, the inkjet printhead comprising: 25 a nozzle plate defining an array of nozzles and having an exterior surface for engagement with the capper; such that, when the capper disengages from the exterior surface, residual ink between the capper and the exterior surface moves across the exterior surface because of a meniscus between the capper and the exterior surface; wherein, 30 the exterior surface has gutter formations for retaining at least some of the residual ink pushed along the exterior surface by the meniscus. Gutter formations running transverse to the direction that the capper is peeled away from the nozzle plate will remove and retain some of the ink in the meniscus. While the gutters do not collect all 35 the ink in the meniscus, they do significantly reduce the level of nozzle contamination of with different coloured ink.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 26 Optionally, the gutter formations are a series of square-edged corrugations etched into the exterior surface of the nozzle plate between nozzles that eject ink of different colours. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising drive circuitry for 5 selectively providing the actuators with drive signals wherein the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. 10 Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. 15 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. 20 Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. 25 Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. 30 Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. Optionally, the array of ink chambers is defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow 35 ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 27 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for 5 receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming 10 feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface 15 tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long 20 sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they 25 are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. 30 In a twelfth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: an array of nozzles, and corresponding actuators for ejecting ink through the nozzles; a plurality of ink inlet apertures in fluid communication with the nozzles, each of the ink inlet apertures having an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, 35 the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 28 By trapping the bubbles at the ink inlets and directing them to a small vent, they are effectively removed from the ink flow without any ink leakage. The trap can also double as an inlet priming feature (discussed below). 5 In a further aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead further comprising an array of ink chambers, each having at least one of the nozzles and at least one of the actuators, the chambers being defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; wherein, each of the ink inlet aperture are in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of 10 the ink chambers. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a plurality of ink conduits between the wafer substrate and the nozzle plate, wherein each of the ink inlet apertures are in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers via one of the ink 15 conduits. Optionally, each of the ink conduits are in fluid communication with at least two of the ink inlet apertures. 20 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators with drive signals wherein the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. 25 Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. 30 Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 35 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 29 Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. 5 Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned. Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. 10 Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. Optionally, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets. 15 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 20 Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long 25 relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse 30 to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. 35 In a thirteenth aspect the present invention provides an inkjet printhead comprising: WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 30 an array of ink chambers defined by sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and an underlying wafer substrate, each chamber having a nozzle in the nozzle plate plurality of nozzles, and an actuator for ejecting ink through the nozzle, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; 5 an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers; and, a plurality of ink inlets defined in said substrate; wherein, the ink conduit is in fluid communication with the plurality of ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. 10 Introducing an ink conduit that supplies several of the nozzles, and is in itself supplied by several ink inlets, reduces the chance that nozzles will be starved of ink by inlet clogging. If one inlet is clogged, the ink conduit will draw more ink from the other inlets in the wafer. 15 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising drive circuitry for selectively providing the actuators with drive signals wherein the actuators are thermal actuators, each having a heater element extending between two contacts, the contacts forming an electrical connection with respective electrodes provided by the drive circuitry, the thermal actuator being a unitary planar structure. 20 Optionally, the heater elements are formed from elongate strips of heater material, the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most metal layer of the drive circuitry, and the ink chamber is configured such that the heater element are suspended by the contacts in the chamber. 25 Optionally, a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. Optionally, each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber. 30 Optionally, each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. Optionally, the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 35 Optionally, the nozzles are elliptical. Optionally, the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are aligned.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 31 Optionally, the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. 5 Optionally, the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts. In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet 10 and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. Optionally, each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. 15 Optionally, the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. 20 In a further aspect there is provided an inkjet printhead further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. 25 Optionally, the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch. Optionally, the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). 30 The printhead according to the invention comprises a plurality of nozzles, as well as a chamber and one or more heater elements corresponding to each nozzle. The smallest repeating units of the printhead will have an ink supply inlet feeding ink to one or more chambers. The entire nozzle array is formed by repeating these individual units. Such an individual unit is referred to herein as 35 a "unit cell".

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 Also, the term "ink" is used to signify any ejectable liquid, and is not limited to conventional inks containing colored dyes. Examples of non-colored inks include fixatives, infra red absorber inks, functionalized chemicals, adhesives, biological fluids, medicaments, water and other solvents, and so on. The ink or ejectable liquid also need not necessarily be a strictly a liquid, 5 and may contain a suspension of solid particles. Brief Description of the Drawings Preferred embodiments of the present invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: 10 Figure 1 shows a partially fabricated unit cell of the MEMS nozzle array on a printhead according to the present invention, the unit cell being section along A-A of Figure 3; Figure 2 shows a perspective of the partially fabricated unit cell of Figure 1; 15 Figure 3 shows the mark associated with the etch of the heater element trench; Figure 4 is a sectioned view of the unit cell after the etch of the trench; 20 Figure 5 is a perspective view of the unit cell shown in Fig 4; Figure 6 is the mask associated with the deposition of sacrificial photoresist shown in Figure 7; Figure 7 shows the unit cell after the deposition of sacrificial photoresist trench, with partial 25 enlargements of the gaps between the edges of the sacrificial material and the side walls of the trench; Figure 8 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 7; 30 Figure 9 shows the unit cell following the reflow of the sacrificial photoresist to close the gaps along the side walls of the trench; Figure 10 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 9; 35 Figure 11 is a section view showing the deposition of the heater material layer; Figure 12 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 11; WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 33 Figure 13 is the mask associated with the metal etch of the heater material shown in Figure 14; Figure 14 is a section view showing the metal etch to shape the heater actuators; 5 Figure 15 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 14; Figure 16 is the mask associated with the etch shown in Fig 17; 10 Figure 17 shows the deposition of the photoresist layer and subsequent etch of the ink inlet to the passivation layer on top of the CMOS drive layers; Figure 18 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 17; 15 Figure 19 shows the oxide etch through the passivation and CMOS layers to the underlying silicon wafer; Figure 20 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 19; 20 Figure 21 is the deep anisotropic etch of the ink inlet into the silicon wafer; Figure 22 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 21; Figure 23 is the mask associated with the photoresist etch shown in Fig 24; 25 Figure 24 shows the photoresist etch to form openings for the chamber roof and side walls; Figure 25 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 24; 30 Figure 26 shows the deposition of the side wall and risk material; Figure 27 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig. 26; Figure 28 is the mask associated with the nozzle rim etch shown in Fig 29; 35 Figure 29 shows the etch of the roof layer to form the nozzle aperture rim; WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 34 Figure 30 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 29; Figure 31 is the mask associated with the nozzle aperture etch shown in Fig 32; 5 Figure 32 shows the etch of the roof material to form the elliptical nozzle apertures; Figure 33 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 32; Figure 34 shows the oxygen plasma release etch of the first and second sacrificial layers; 10 Figure 35 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 34; Figure 36 shows the unit cell after the release etch, as well as the opposing side of the wafer; 15 Figure 37 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 36; Figure 38 is the mask associated with the reverse etch shown in Fig. 39; Figure 39 shows the reverse etch of the ink supply channel into the wafer; 20 Figure 40 is a perspective of unit cell shown in Fig 39; Figure 41 shows the thinning of the wafer by backside etching; 25 Figure 42 is a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 41; Figure 43 is a partial perspective of the array of nozzles on the printhead according to the present invention; 30 Figure 44 shows the plan view of a unit cell; Figure 45 shows a perspective of the unit cell shown in Fig 44; Figure 46 is schematic plan view of two unit cells with the roof layer removed but certain roof 35 layer features shown in outline only; WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 35 Figure 47 is schematic plan view of two unit cells with the roof layer removed but the nozzle openings shown in outline only; Figure 48 is a partial schematic plan view of unit cells with ink inlet apertures in the sidewall of the 5 chambers; Figure 49 is schematic plan view of a unit cells with the roof layer removed but the nozzle openings shown in outline only; 10 Figure 50 is a partial plan view of the nozzle plate with stiction reducing formations and a particle of paper dust; Figure 51 is a partial plan view of the nozzle plate with residual ink gutters; 15 Figure 52 is a partial section view showing the deposition of SAC I photoresist in accordance with prior art techniques used to avoid stringers; Figure 53 is a partial section view showing the depositon of a layer of heater material onto the SACl photoresist scaffold deposited in Figure 52; and, 20 Figure 54 is a partial schematic plan view of a unit cell with multiple nozzles and actuators in each of the chambers. Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments 25 In the description than follows, corresponding reference numerals relate to corresponding parts. For convenience, the features indicated by each reference numeral are listed below. MNN MPN Series Parts List 30 1. Nozzle Unit Cell 2. Silicon Wafer 3. Topmost Aluminium Metal Layer in the CMOS metal layers 4. Passivation Layer 35 5. CVD Oxide Layer 6. Ink Inlet Opening in Topmost Aluminium Metal Layer 3. 7. Pit Opening in Topmost Aluminium Metal Layer 3.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 36 8. Pit 9. Electrodes 10. SAC1 Photoresist Layer 11. Heater Material (TiAIN) 5 12. Thermal Actuator 13. Photoresist Layer 14. Ink Inlet Opening Etched Through Photo Resist Layer 15. Ink Inlet Passage 16. SAC2 Photoresist Layer 10 17. Chamber Side Wall Openings 18. Front Channel Priming Feature 19. Barrier Formation at Ink Inlet 20. Chamber Roof Layer 21. Roof 15 22. Sidewalls 23. Ink Conduit 24. Nozzle Chambers 25. Elliptical Nozzle Rim 25(a) Inner Lip 20 25(b) Outer Lip 26. Nozzle Aperture 27. Ink Supply Channel 28. Contacts 29. Heater Element. 25 30. Bubble cage 32. bubble retention structure 34. ink permeable structure 36. bleed hole 38. ink chamber 30 40. dual row filter 42. paper dust 44. ink gutters 46. gap between SACl and trench sidewall 48. trench sidewall 35 50. raised lip of SAC1 around edge of trench 52. thinner inclined section of heater material 54. cold spot between series connected heater elements WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 37 56. nozzle plate 58. columnar projections 60. sidewall ink opening 62. ink refill opening 5 MEMS Manufacturing Process The MEMS manufacturing process builds up nozzle structures on a silicon wafer after the completion of CMOS processing. Figure 2 is a cutaway perspective view of a nozzle unit cell 100 10 after the completion of CMOS processing and before MEMS processing. During CMOS processing of the wafer, four metal layers are deposited onto a silicon wafer 2, with the metal layers being interspersed between interlayer dielectric (ILD) layers. The four metal layers are referred to as Ml, M2, M3 and M4 layers and are built up sequentially on the wafer during 15 CMOS processing. These CMOS layers provide all the drive circuitry and logic for operating the printhead. In the completed printhead, each heater element actuator is connected to the CMOS via a pair of electrodes defined in the outermost M4 layer. Hence, the M4 CMOS layer is the foundation for 20 subsequent MEMS processing of the wafer. The M4 layer also defines bonding pads along a longitudinal edge of each printhead integrated circuit. These bonding pads (not shown) allow the CMOS to be connected to a microprocessor via wire bonds extending from the bonding pads. Figures 1 and 2 show the aluminium M4 layer 3 having a passivation layer 4 deposited thereon. 25 (Only MEMS features of the M4 layer are shown in these Figures; the main CMOS features of the M4 layer are positioned outside the nozzle unit cell). The M4 layer 3 has a thickness of 1 micron and is itself deposited on a 2 micron layer of CVD oxide 5. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the M4 layer 3 has an ink inlet opening 6 and pit openings 7. These openings define the positions of the ink inlet and pits formed subsequently in the MEMS process. 30 Before MEMS processing of the unit cell 1 begins, bonding pads along a longitudinal edge of each printhead integrated circuit are defined by etching through the passivation layer 4. This etch reveals the M4 layer 3 at the bonding pad positions. The nozzle unit cell 1 is completely masked with photoresist for this step and, hence, is unaffected by the etch. 35 Turning to Figures 3 to 5, the first stage of MEMS processing etches a pit 8 through the passivation layer 4 and the CVD oxide layer 5. This etch is defined using a layer of photoresist (not shown) WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 38 exposed by the dark tone pit mask shown in Figure 3. The pit 8 has a depth of 2 microns, as measured from the top of the M4 layer 3. At the same time as etching the pit 8, electrodes 9 are defined on either side of the pit by partially revealing the M4 layer 3 through the passivation layer 4. In the completed nozzle, a heater element is suspended across the pit 8 between the electrodes 9. 5 In the next step (Figures 6 to 8), the pit 8 is filled with a first sacrificial layer ("SAC1") of photoresist 10. A 2 micron layer of high viscosity photoresist is first spun onto the wafer and then exposed using the dark tone mask shown in Figure 6. The SAC1 photoresist 10 forms a scaffold for subsequent deposition of the heater material across the electrodes 9 on either side of the pit 8. 10 Consequently, it is important the SAC1 photoresist 10 has a planar upper surface that is flush with the upper surface of the electrodes 9. At the same time, the SAC1 photoresist must completely fill the pit 8 to avoid 'stringers' of conductive heater material extending across the pit and shorting out the electrodes 9. 15 Typically, when filling trenches with photoresist, it is necessary to expose the photoresist outside the perimeter of the trench in order to ensure that photoresist fills against the walls of the trench and, therefore, avoid 'stringers' in subsequent deposition steps. However, this technique results in a raised (or spiked) rim of photoresist around the perimeter of the trench. This is undesirable because in a subsequent deposition step, material is deposited unevenly onto the raised rim - vertical or 20 angled surfaces on the rim will receive less deposited material than the horizontal planar surface of the photoresist filling the trench. The result is 'resistance hotspots' in regions where material is thinly deposited. As shown in Figure 7, the present process deliberately exposes the SAC1 photoresist 10 inside the 25 perimeter walls of the pit 8 (e.g. within 0.5 microns) using the mask shown in Figure 6. This ensures a planar upper surface of the SAC 1 photoresist 10 and avoids any spiked regions of photoresist around the perimeter rim of the pit 8. After exposure of the SAC1 photoresist 10, the photoresist is reflowed by heating. Reflowing the 30 photoresist allows it to flow to the walls of the pit 8, filling it exactly. Figures 9 and 10 show the SAC 1 photoresist 10 after reflow. The photoresist has a planar upper surface and meets flush with the upper surface of the M4 layer 3, which forms the electrodes 9. Following reflow, the SAC 1 photoresist 10 is U.V. cured and/or hardbaked to avoid any reflow during the subsequent deposition step of heater material. 35 Figures 11 and 12 show the unit cell after deposition of the 0.5 microns of heater material 11 onto the SAC1 photoresist 10. Due to the reflow process described above, the heater material 11 is WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 39 deposited evenly and in a planar layer over the electrodes 9 and the SACI photoresist 10. The heater material may be comprised of any suitable conductive material, such as TiAl, TiN, TiAIN, TiAlSiN etc. A typical heater material deposition process may involve sequential deposition of a 100 A seed layer of TiAl, a 2500 A layer of TiAlN, a further 100 A seed layer of TiAl and finally a 5 further 2500 A layer of TiAIN. Referring to Figures 13 to 15, in the next step, the layer of heater material 11 is etched to define the thermal actuator 12. Each actuator 12 has contacts 28 that establish an electrical connection to respective electrodes 9 on either side of the SACI photoresist 10. A heater element 29 spans 10 between its corresponding contacts 28. This etch is defined by a layer of photoresist (not shown) exposed using the dark tone mask shown in Figure 13. As shown in Figure 15, the heater element 12 is a linear beam spanning between the pair of electrodes 9. However, the heater element 12 may alternatively adopt other configurations, 15 such as those described in Applicant's US Patent No. 6,755,509, the content of which is herein incorporated by reference. For example, heater element 29 configurations having a central void may be advantageous for minimizing the deleterious effects of cavitation forces on the heater material when a bubble collapses during ink ejection. Other forms of cavitation protection may be adopted such as 'bubble venting' and the use of self passivating materials. These cavitation 20 management techniques are discussed in detail in US patent application (our docket MTC001US). In the next sequence of steps, an ink inlet for the nozzle is etched through the passivation layer 4, the oxide layer 5 and the silicon wafer 2. During CMOS processing, each of the metal layers had an ink inlet opening (see, for example, opening 6 in the M4 layer 3 in Figure 1) etched therethrough 25 in preparation for this ink inlet etch. These metal layers, together with the interspersed ILD layers, form a seal ring for the ink inlet, preventing ink from seeping into the CMOS layers. Referring to Figures 16 to 18, a relatively thick layer of photoresist 13 is spun onto the wafer and exposed using the dark tone mask shown in Figure 16. The thickness of photoresist 13 required 30 will depend on the selectivity of the deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) used to etch the ink inlet. With an ink inlet opening 14 defined in the photoresist 13, the wafer is ready for the subsequent etch steps. In the first etch step (Figures 19 and 20), the dielectric layers (passivation layer 4 and oxide layer 35 5) are etched through to the silicon wafer below. Any standard oxide etch (e.g. 02/C 4 Fs plasma) may be used.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 40 In the second etch step (Figures 21 and 22), an ink inlet 15 is etched through the silicon wafer 2 to a depth of 25 microns, using the same photoresist mask 13. Any standard anisotropic DRIE, such as the Bosch etch (see US Patent Nos. 6,501,893 and 6,284,148) may be used for this etch. Following etching of the ink inlet 15, the photoresist layer 13 is removed by plasma ashing. 5 In the next step, the ink inlet 15 is plugged with photoresist and a second sacrificial layer ("SAC2") of photoresist 16 is built up on top of the SACI photoresist 10 and passivation layer 4. The SAC2 photoresist 16 will serve as a scaffold for subsequent deposition of roof material, which forms a roof and sidewalls for each nozzle chamber. Referring to Figures 23 to 25, a ~ 6 micron layer of 10 high viscosity photoresist is spun onto the wafer and exposed using the dark tone mask shown in Figure 23. As shown in Figures 23 and 25, the mask exposes sidewall openings 17 in the SAC2 photoresist 16 corresponding to the positions of chamber sidewalls and sidewalls for an ink conduit. In addition, 15 openings 18 and 19 are exposed adjacent the plugged inlet 15 and nozzle chamber entrance respectively. These openings 18 and 19 will be filled with roof material in the subsequent roof deposition step and provide unique advantages in the present nozzle design. Specifically, the openings 18 filled with roof material act as priming features, which assist in drawing ink from the inlet 15 into each nozzle chamber. This is described in greater detail below. The openings 19 20 filled with roof material act as filter structures and fluidic cross talk barriers. These help prevent air bubbles from entering the nozzle chambers and diffuses pressure pulses generated by the thermal actuator 12. Referring to Figures 26 and 27, the next stage deposits 3 microns of roof material 20 onto the 25 SAC2 photoresist 16 by PECVD. The roof material 20 fills the openings 17, 18 and 19 in the SAC2 photoresist 16 to form nozzle chambers 24 having a roof 21 and sidewalls 22. An ink conduit 23 for supplying ink into each nozzle chamber is also formed during deposition of the roof material 20. In addition, any priming features and filter structures (not shown in Figures 26 and 27) are formed at the same time. The roofs 21, each corresponding to a respective nozzle chamber 30 24, span across adjacent nozzle chambers in a row to form a continuous nozzle plate. The roof material 20 may be comprised of any suitable material, such as silicon nitride, silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, aluminium nitride etc. Referring to Figures 28 to 30, the next stage defines an elliptical nozzle rim 25 in the roof 21 by 35 etching away 2 microns of roof material 20. This etch is defined using a layer of photoresist (not shown) exposed by the dark tone rim mask shown in Figure 28. The elliptical rim 25 comprises two coaxial rim lips 25a and 25b, positioned over their respective thermal actuator 12.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 41 Referring to Figures 31 to 33, the next stage defines an elliptical nozzle aperture 26 in the roof 21 by etching all the way through the remaining roof material 20, which is bounded by the rim 25. This etch is defined using a layer of photoresist (not shown) exposed by the dark tone roof mask 5 shown in Figure 31. The elliptical nozzle aperture 26 is positioned over the thermal actuator 12, as shown in Figure 33. With all the MEMS nozzle features now fully formed, the next stage removes the SAC1 and SAC2 photoresist layers 10 and 16 by 02 plasma ashing (Figures 34 to 35). After ashing, the thermal 10 actuator 12 is suspended in a single plane over the pit 8. The coplanar deposition of the contacts 28 and the heater element 29 provides an efficient electrical connection with the electrodes 9. Figures 36 and 37 show the entire thickness (150 microns) of the silicon wafer 2 after ashing the SAC1 and SAC2 photoresist layers 10 and 16. 15 Referring to Figures 38 to 40, once frontside MEMS processing of the wafer is completed, ink supply channels 27 are etched from the backside of the wafer to meet with the ink inlets 15 using a standard anisotropic DRIE. This backside etch is defined using a layer of photoresist (not shown) exposed by the dark tone mask shown in Figure 38. The ink supply channel 27 makes a fluidic 20 connection between the backside of the wafer and the ink inlets 15. Finally, and referring to Figures 41 and 42, the wafer is thinned 135 microns by backside etching. Figure 43 shows three adjacent rows of nozzles in a cutaway perspective view of a completed printhead integrated circuit. Each row of nozzles has a respective ink supply channel 27 extending 25 along its length and supplying ink to a plurality of ink inlets 15 in each row. The ink inlets, in turn, supply ink to the ink conduit 23 for each row, with each nozzle chamber receiving ink from a common ink conduit for that row. Features and Advantages of Particular Embodiments 30 Discussed below, under appropriate sub-headings, are certain specific features of embodiments of the invention, and the advantages of these features. The features are to be considered in relation to all of the drawings pertaining to the present invention unless the context specifically excludes certain drawings, and relates to those drawings specifically referred to. 35 Low Loss Electrodes WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 42 As shown in Figures 41 and 42, the heater element 29 is suspended within the chamber. This ensures that the heater element is immersed in ink when the chamber is primed. Completely immersing the heater element in ink dramatically improves the printhead efficiency. Much less heat dissipates into the underlying wafer substrate so more of the input energy is used to generate 5 the bubble that ejects the ink. To suspend the heater element, the contacts may be used to support the element at its raised position. Essentially, the contacts at either end of the heater element can have vertical or inclined sections to connect the respective electrodes on the CMOS drive to the element at an elevated 10 position. However, heater material deposited on vertical or inclined surfaces is thinner than on horizontal surfaces. To avoid undesirable resistive losses from the thinner sections, the contact portion of the thermal actuator needs to be relatively large. Larger contacts occupy a significant area of the wafer surface and limit the nozzle packing density. 15 To immerse the heater, the present invention etches a pit or trench 8 between the electrodes 9 to drop the level of the chamber floor. As discussed above, a layer of sacrificial photoresist (SAC) 10 (see Figure 9) is deposited in the trench to provide a scaffold for the heater element. However, depositing SAC 10 in the trench 8 and simply covering it with a layer of heater material, can lead to stringers forming in the gaps 46 between the SAC 10 and the sidewalls 48 of the trench 8 (as 20 previously described in relation to Figure 7). The gaps form because it is difficult to precisely match the mask with the sides of the trench 8. Usually, when the masked photoresist is exposed, the gaps 46 form between the sides of the pit and the SAC. When the heater material layer is deposited, it fills these gaps to form 'stringers' (as they are known). The stringers remain in the trench 8 after the metal etch (that shapes the heater element) and the release etch (to finally remove 25 the SAC). The stringers can short circuit the heater so that it fails to generate a bubble. Turning now to Figure 52 and 53, the 'traditional' technique for avoiding stringers is illustrated. By making the UV mask that exposes the SAC slightly bigger than the trench 8, the SAC 10 will be deposited over the side walls 48 so that no gaps form. Unfortunately, this produces a raised lip 50 30 around top of the trench. When the heater material layer 11 is deposited (see Figure 53), it is thinner on the vertical or inclined surfaces 52 of the lip 50. After the metal etch and release etch, these thin lip formations 52 remain and cause 'hotspots' because the localized thinning increases resistance. These hotspots affect the operation of the heater and typically reduce heater life. 35 As discussed above, the Applicant has found that reflowing the SAC 10 closes the gaps 46 so that the scaffold between the electrodes 9 is completely flat. This allows the entire thermal actuator 12 to be planar. The planar structure of the thermal actuator, with contacts directly deposited onto the WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 43 CMOS electrodes 9 and suspended heater element 29, avoids hotspots caused by vertical or inclined surfaces so that the contacts can be much smaller structures without acceptable increases in resistive losses. Low resistive losses preserves the efficient operation of a suspended heater element and the small contact size is convenient for close nozzle packing on the printhead. 5 Multiple Nozzles for each Chamber Referring to Figure 49, the unit cell shown has two separate ink chambers 38, each chamber having heater element 29 extending between respective pairs of contacts 28. Ink permeable structures 34 10 are positioned in the ink refill openings so that ink can enter the chambers, but upon actuation, the structures 34 provide enough hydraulic resistance to reduce any reverse flow or fluidic cross talk to an acceptable level. Ink is fed from the reverse side of the wafer through the ink inlet 15. Priming features 18 extend 15 into the inlet opening so that an ink meniscus does not pin itself to the peripheral edge of the opening and stop the ink flow. Ink from the inlet 15 fills the lateral ink conduit 23 which supplies both chambers 38 of the unit cell. Instead of a single nozzle per chamber, each chamber 38 has two nozzles 25. When the heater 20 element 29 actuates (forms a bubble), two drops of ink are ejected; one from each nozzle 25. Each individual drop of ink has less volume than the single drop ejected if the chamber had only one nozzle. By ejecting multiple drops from a single chamber simultaneously improves the print quality. 25 With every nozzle, there is a degree of misdirection in the ejected drop. Depending on the degree of misdirection, this can be detrimental to print quality. By giving the chamber multiple nozzles, each nozzle ejects drops of smaller volume, and having different misdirections. Several small drops misdirected in different directions are less detrimental to print quality than a single relatively large misdirected drop. The Applicant has found that the eye averages the misdirections of each 30 small drop and effectively 'sees' a dot from a single drop with a significantly less overall misdirection. A multi nozzle chamber can also eject drops more efficiently than a single nozzle chamber. The heater element 29 is an elongate suspended beam of TiAIN and the bubble it forms is likewise 35 elongated. The pressure pulse created by an elongate bubble will cause ink to eject through a centrally disposed nozzle. However, some of the energy from the pressure pulse is dissipated in WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 44 hydraulic losses associated with the mismatch between the geometry of the bubble and that of the nozzle. Spacing several nozzles 25 along the length of the heater element 29 reduces the geometric 5 discrepancy between the bubble shape and the nozzle configuration through which the ink ejects. This in turn reduces hydraulic resistance to ink ejection and thereby improves printhead efficiency. Ink Chamber Re-Filled Via Adjacent Ink Chamber 10 Referring to Figure 46, two opposing unit cells are shown. In this embodiment, unit cell has four ink chambers 38. The chambers are defined by the sidewalls 22 and the ink permeable structures 34. Each chamber has its own heater element 29. The heater elements 29 are arranged in pairs that are connected in series. Between each pair is 'cold spot' 54 with lower resistance and or greater heat sinking. This ensures that bubbles do not nucleate at the cold spots 54 and thus the 15 cold spots become the common contact between the outer contacts 28 for each heater element pair. The ink permeable structures 34 allow ink to refill the chambers 38 after drop ejection but baffle the pressure pulse from each heater element 29 to reduce the fluidic cross talk between adjacent chambers. It will be appreciated that this embodiment has many parallels with that shown in 20 Figure 49 discussed above. However, the present embodiment effectively divides the relatively long chambers of Figure 49 into two separate chambers. This further aligns the geometry of the bubble formed by the heater element 29 with the shape of the nozzle 25 to reduce hydraulic losses during drop ejection. This is achieved without reducing the nozzle density but it does add some complexity to the fabrication process. 25 The conduits (ink inlets 15 and supply conduits 23) for distributing ink to every ink chamber in the array can occupy a significant proportion of the wafer area. This can be a limiting factor for nozzle density on the printhead. By making some ink chambers part of the ink flow path to other ink chambers, while keeping each chamber sufficiently free of fluidic cross talk, reduces the amount of 30 wafer area lost to ink supply conduits. Ink Chamber with Multiple Actuators and Respective Nozzles Referring to Figure 54, the unit cell shown has two chambers 38; each chamber has two heater 35 elements 29 and two nozzles 25. The effective reduction in drop misdirection by using multiple nozzles per chamber is discussed above in relation to the embodiment shown in Figure 49. The additional benefits of dividing a single elongate chamber into separate chambers, each with their WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 45 own actuators, is described above with reference to the embodiment shown in Figure 46. The present embodiment uses multiple nozzles and multiple actuators in each chamber to achieve much of the advantages of the Figure 46 embodiment with a markedly less complicated design. With a simplified design, the overall dimensions of the unit cell are reduced thereby 5 permitting greater nozzle densities. In the embodiment shown, the footprint of the unit cell is 64pm long by 16gm wide. The ink permeable structure 34 is a single column at the ink refill opening to each chamber 38 instead of three spaced columns as with the Figure 46 embodiment. The single column has a cross 10 section profiled to be less resistive to refill flow, but more resistive to sudden back flow from the actuation pressure pulse. Both heater elements in each chamber can be deposited simultaneously, together with the contacts 28 and the cold spot feature 54. Both chambers 38 are supplied with ink from a common ink inlet 15 and supply conduit 23. These features also allow the footprint to be reduced and they are discussed in more detail below. The priming features 18 have been made 15 integral with one of the chamber sidewalls 22 and a wall ink conduit 23. The dual purpose nature of these features simplifies the fabrication and helps to keep the design compact. Multiple Chambers and Multiple Nozzles for each Drive Circuit 20 In Figure 54, the actuators are connected in series and therefore fire in unison from the same drive signal to simplify the CMOS drive circuitry. In the Figure 46 unit cell, actuators in adjacent nozzles are connected in series within the same drive circuit. Of course, the actuators in adjacent chambers could also be connected in parallel. In contrast, were the actuators in each chamber to be in separate circuits, the CMOS drive circuitry would be more complex and the dimensions of the 25 unit cell footprint would increase. In printhead designs where the drop misdirection is addressed by substituting multiple smaller drops, combining several actuators and their respective nozzles into a common drive circuit is an efficient implementation both in terms of printhead IC fabrication and nozzles density. 30 High Density Thermal Inkiet Printhead Reduction in the unit cell width enables the printhead to have nozzles patterns that previously would have required the nozzle density to be reduced. Of course, a lower nozzle density has a corresponding influence on printhead size and/or print quality. 35 Traditionally, the nozzle rows are arranged in pairs with the actuators for each row extending in opposite directions. The rows are staggered with respect to each other so that the printing WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 46 resolution (dots per inch) is twice the nozzle pitch (nozzles per inch) along each row. By configuring the components of the unit cell such that the overall width of the unit is reduced, the same number of nozzles can be arranged into a single row instead of two staggered and opposing rows without sacrificing any print resolution (d.p.i.). The embodiments shown in the 5 accompanying figures achieve a nozzle pitch of more than 1000 nozzles per inch in each linear row. At this nozzle pitch, the print resolution of the printhead is better than photographic (1600 dpi) when two opposing staggered rows are considered, and there is sufficient capacity for nozzle redundancy, dead nozzle compensation and so on which ensures the operation life of the printhead remains satisfactory. As discussed above, the embodiment shown in Figure 54 has a footprint that 10 is 16gm wide and therefore the nozzle pitch along one row is about 1600 nozzles per inch. Accordingly, two offset staggered rows yield a resolution of about 3200 d.p.i. With the realisation of the particular benefits associated with a narrower unit cell, the Applicant has focussed on identifying and combining a number of features to reduce the relevant dimensions of 15 structures in the printhead. For example, elliptical nozzles, shifting the ink inlet from the chamber, finer geometry logic and shorter drive FETs (field effect transistors) are features developed by the Applicant to derive some of the embodiments shown. Each contributing feature necessitated a departure from conventional wisdom in the field, such as reducing the FET drive voltage from the widely used traditional 5V to 2.5V in order to decrease transistor length. 20 Reduced Stiction Printhead Surface Static friction, or "stiction" as it has become known, allows dust particles to "stick" to nozzle plates and thereby clog nozzles. Figure 50 shows a portion of the nozzle plate 56. For clarity, the nozzle 25 apertures 26 and the nozzle rims 25 are also shown. The exterior surface of the nozzle plate is patterned with columnar projections 58 extending a short distance from the plate surface. The nozzle plate could also be patterned with other surface formations such as closely spaced ridges, corrugations or bumps. However, it is easy to create a suitable UV mask for the pattern columnar projections shown, and it is a simple matter to etch the columns into the exterior surface. 30 By reducing the co-efficient of static friction, there is less likelihood that paper dust or other contaminants will clog the nozzles in the nozzle plate. Patterning the exterior of the nozzle plate with raised formations limits the surface area that dust particles contact. If the particles can only contact the outer extremities of each formation, the friction between the particles and the nozzle 35 plate is minimal so attachment is much less likely. If the particles do attach, they are more likely to be removed by printhead maintenance cycles.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 47 Inlet Priming Feature Referring to Figure 47, two unit cells are shown extending in opposite directions to each other. The ink inlet passage 15 supplies ink to the four chambers 38 via the lateral ink conduit 23. Distributing ink through micron-scale conduits, such as the ink inlet 15, to individual MEMS 5 nozzles in an inkj et printhead is complicated by factors that do not arise in macro-scale flow. A meniscus can form and, depending on the geometry of the aperture, it can 'pin' itself to the lip of the aperture quite strongly. This can be useful in printheads, such as bleed holes that vent trapped air bubbles but retain the ink, but it can also be problematic if stops ink flow to some chambers. This will most likely occur when initially priming the printhead with ink. If the ink meniscus pins 10 at the ink inlet opening, the chambers supplied by that inlet will stay unprimed. To guard against this, two priming features 18 are formed so that they extend through the plane of the inlet aperture 15. The priming features 18 are columns extending from the interior of the nozzle plate (not shown) to the periphery of the inlet 15, A part of each column 18 is within the periphery so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet will form at the priming 15 features 18 so as to draw the ink out of the inlet. This 'unpins' the meniscus from that section of the periphery and the flow toward the ink chambers. The priming features 18 can take many forms, as long as they present a surface that extends transverse to the plane of the aperture. Furthermore, the priming feature can be an integral part of other nozzles features as shown in Figure 54. 20 Side Entry Ink Chamber Referring to Figure 48, several adjacent unit cells are shown. In this embodiment, the elongate heater elements 29 extend parallel to the ink distribution conduit 23. Accordingly, the elongate ink chambers 38 are likewise aligned with the ink conduit 23. Sidewall openings 60 connect the chambers 38 to the ink conduit 23. Configuring the ink chambers so that they have side inlets 25 reduces the ink refill times. The inlets are wider and therefore refill flow rates are higher. The sidewall openings 60 have ink permeable structures 34 to keep fluidic cross talk to an acceptable level. Inlet Filter for Ink Chamber Referring again to Figure 47, the ink refill opening to each chamber 38 has a filter structure 40 to 30 trap air bubbles or other contaminants. Air bubbles and solid contaminants in ink are detrimental to the MEMS nozzle structures. The solid contaminants can obvious clog the nozzle openings, while air bubbles, being highly compressible, can absorb the pressure pulse from the actuator if WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 48 they get trapped in the ink chamber. This effectively disables the ejection of ink from the affected nozzle. By providing a filter structure 40 in the form of rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction, the 5 contaminants are not likely to enter the chamber 38 while the ink refill flow rate is not overly retarded. The rows are offset with respect to each other and the induced turbulence has minimal effect on the nozzle refill rate but the air bubbles or other contaminants follow a relatively tortuous flow path which increases the chance of them being retained by the obstructions 40. The embodiment shown uses two rows of obstructions 40 in the form of columns extending 10 between the wafer substrate and the nozzle plate. Intercolour Surface Barriers in Multi Colour Inkjet Printhead Turning now to Figure 51, the exterior surface of the nozzle 56 is shown for a unit cell such as that shown in Figure 46 described above. The nozzle apertures 26 are positioned directly above the heater elements (not shown) and a series of square-edged ink gutters 44 are formed in the nozzle 15 plate 56 above the ink conduit 23 (see Figure 46). Inkjet printers often have maintenance stations that cap the printhead when it's not in use. To remove excess ink from the nozzle plate, the capper can be disengaged so that it peels off the exterior surface of the nozzle plate. This promotes the formation of a meniscus between the capper surface and the exterior of the nozzle plate. Using contact angle hysteresis, which relates to the 20 angle that the surface tension in the meniscus contacts the surface (for more detail, see the Applicant's co-pending USSN (our docket FND007US) incorporated herein by reference), the majority of ink wetting the exterior of the nozzle plate can be collected and drawn along by the meniscus between the capper and nozzle plate. The ink is conveniently deposited as a large bead at the point where the capper fully disengages from the nozzle plate. Unfortunately, some ink 25 remains on the nozzle plate. If the printhead is a multi-colour printhead, the residual ink left in or around a given nozzle aperture, may be a different colour than that ejected by the nozzle because the meniscus draws ink over the whole surface of the nozzle plate. The contamination of ink in one nozzle by ink from another nozzle can create visible artefacts in the print. Gutter formations 44 running transverse to the direction that the capper is peeled away from the 30 nozzle plate will remove and retain some of the ink in the meniscus. While the gutters do not collect all the ink in the meniscus, they do significantly reduce the level of nozzle contamination of with different coloured ink.

WO 2007/041744 PCT/AU2005/001561 49 Bubble Trap Air bubbles entrained in the ink are very bad for printhead operation. Air, or rather gas in general, is highly compressible and can absorb the pressure pulse from the actuator. If a trapped bubble simply compresses in response to the actuator, ink will not eject from the nozzle. Trapped bubbles 5 can be purged from the printhead with a forced flow of ink, but the purged ink needs blotting and the forced flow could well introduce fresh bubbles. The embodiment shown in Figure 46 has a bubble trap at the ink inlet 15. The trap is formed by a bubble retention structure 32 and a vent 36 formed in the roof layer. The bubble retention structure is a series of columns 32 spaced around the periphery of the inlet 15. As discussed above, the ink 10 priming features 18 have a dual purpose and conveniently form part of the bubble retaining structure. In use, the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere. By trapping the bubbles at the ink inlets and directing them to a small vent, they are effectively removed from the ink flow without any ink leakage. Multiple Ink Inlet Flow Paths 15 Supplying ink to the nozzles via conduits extending from one side of the wafer to the other allows more of the wafer area (on the ink ejection side) to have nozzles instead of complex ink distribution systems. However, deep etched, micron-scale holes through a wafer are prone to clogging from contaminants or air bubbles. This starves the nozzle(s) supplied by the affected inlet. 20 As best shown in Figure 48, printheads according to the present invention have at least two ink inlets 15 supplying each chamber 38 via an ink conduit 23 between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer. Introducing an ink conduit 23 that supplies several of the chambers 38, and is in itself supplied by 25 several ink inlets 15, reduces the chance that nozzles will be starved of ink by inlet clogging. If one inlet 15 is clogged, the ink conduit will draw more ink from the other inlets in the wafer. Although the invention is described above with reference to specific embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the invention may be embodied in many other forms.

Claims (20)

1. An inkjet printhead, comprising: an array of ink chambers formed on a wafer substrate, the ink chamber having side walls and a 5 roof defining an ink storage volume, the roof defining therethrough a nozzle aperture; electrical contacts provided in two opposing side walls of the ink chamber, the electrical contacts being provide outside of the ink storage volume; a thermal actuator provided in each ink chamber, the thermal actuator having a heater element extending between electrical contacts provided in opposing side walls such that the heater element is 10 suspended from the electrical contacts in the chamber; and, drive circuitry lithographically deposited on the wafer substrate for generating drive signals, the drive circuitry providing electrodes for the electrical contacts of each actuator, wherein, the contacts and the heater element are coplanar such that the thermal actuator is an integral planar structure. 15
2. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein the heater elements are elongate strips of heater material.
3. An inkjet printhead according to claim 2 wherein the electrodes are exposed areas of a top-most 20 metal layer of the drive circuitry.
4. An inkjet printhead according to claim 3 wherein a trench etched into the drive circuitry extends between the electrodes. 25
5. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein each of the ink chambers have a plurality of nozzles; wherein during use, the actuator simultaneously ejects ink through all the nozzles of the chamber.
6. An inkjet printhead according to claim 5 wherein each of the ink chambers have two nozzles. 30
7. An inkjet printhead according to claim 5 wherein the nozzles in each chamber are arranged in a line parallel to the length of the heater element with the central axes of the nozzles are regularly spaced along the heater element. 51
8. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein the nozzles are elliptical.
9. An inkjet printhead according to claim 8 wherein the major axes of the elliptical nozzles are 5 aligned.
10. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein the drive circuitry has a drive field effect transistor (FET) for each of the thermal actuators, the drive voltage of the drive FET being less than 5 Volts. 10
11. An inkjet printhead according to claim 10 wherein the drive voltage of the drive FET is 2.5 Volts.
12. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein the array of ink chambers is defined by 15 sidewalls extending between a nozzle plate and the underlying wafer substrate, one of the sidewalls of each chamber having an opening to allow ink to refill the chamber; an ink conduit between the nozzle plate and underlying wafer, the ink conduit being in fluid communication with the openings of a plurality of the ink chambers. 20
13. An inkjet printhead according to claim 12 further comprising a plurality of ink inlets defined in the wafer substrate; wherein, each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with at least one of the ink inlets for receiving ink to supply to the ink chambers. 25
14. An inkjet printhead according to claim 13 wherein each of the ink conduits is in fluid communication with two of the ink inlets.
15. An inkjet printhead according to claim 13 further comprising at least one priming feature extending through each of the ink inlets; such that, 30 the surface tension of an ink meniscus at the ink inlet acts to draw the ink out of the inlet and partially along the flow path toward the ink chambers. 35 MNNOO1 52
16. An inkjet printhead according to claim 13 wherein each of the ink inlets has an ink permeable trap and a vent sized so that the surface tension of an ink meniscus across the vent prevents ink leakage; wherein during use, 5 the ink permeable trap directs gas bubbles to the vent where they vent to atmosphere.
17. An inkjet printhead according to claim 13 wherein the ink chambers have an elongate shape such that two of the sidewalls are long relative to the others, and the opening for allowing ink to refill the chamber is in one of the long sidewalls. 10
18. An inkjet printhead according to claim 13 further comprising a filter structure at the opening of each ink chamber, the filter structure having rows of obstructions extending transverse to the flow direction through the opening, the obstructions in each row being spaced such that they are out of registration with the obstructions in an adjacent row with respect to the flow direction. 15
19. An inkjet printhead according to claim 1 wherein the nozzles are arranged in rows such that the nozzle centres are collinear and the nozzle pitch along each row is greater than 1000 nozzles per inch.
20 20. An inkjet printhead according to claim 12 wherein the nozzle plate has an exterior surface with formations for reducing its co-efficient of static friction (known as 'stiction'). MNNOO1
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