AU2005100981A4 - Aid for cutting or welding - Google Patents

Aid for cutting or welding Download PDF

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Publication number
AU2005100981A4
AU2005100981A4 AU2005100981A AU2005100981A AU2005100981A4 AU 2005100981 A4 AU2005100981 A4 AU 2005100981A4 AU 2005100981 A AU2005100981 A AU 2005100981A AU 2005100981 A AU2005100981 A AU 2005100981A AU 2005100981 A4 AU2005100981 A4 AU 2005100981A4
Authority
AU
Australia
Prior art keywords
workpiece
welding
cutting
luminescent
marker
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
AU2005100981A
Inventor
Dennis James O'connell
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
OCONNELL DENNIS JAMES
Original Assignee
OCONNELL DENNIS JAMES
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to AUPP9896 priority Critical
Priority to AU30119/00A priority patent/AU3011900A/en
Application filed by OCONNELL DENNIS JAMES filed Critical OCONNELL DENNIS JAMES
Priority to AU2005100981A priority patent/AU2005100981A4/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of AU2005100981A4 publication Critical patent/AU2005100981A4/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Ceased legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K31/00Processes relevant to this subclass, specially adapted for particular articles or purposes, but not covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K10/00Welding or cutting by means of a plasma
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/03Observing, e.g. monitoring, the workpiece
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/02Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by mechanical features, e.g. shape
    • B23K35/0211Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by mechanical features, e.g. shape for use in cutting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/12Automatic feeding or moving of electrodes or work for spot or seam welding or cutting
    • B23K9/127Means for tracking lines during arc welding or cutting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/32Accessories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material

Description

25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 05/15 0 0 AID FOR WELDING OR CUTTING Z This invention relates to products and methods for aiding welding or high temperah tare cutting operations.
CA-
Prior to welding or high temperature cutting operations, it is known to use chalk as a 5 marker for creating markings on a workpicce, such as the path which the weld or cut is to 00 follow. However the mask which the operator interposes to protect the eyesight includes a dark filter to substantially attenuate the very intense electromagnetic radiation from the In Swelding or cutting site. This can make it very difficult or impossible for the operator to see the chalk markings during the welding or cutting operation. As a result, the weld or cut is frequently inaccurate and sometimes it is necessary for the operation to be perfonned again to achieve the required standard of accuracy or neatness. Also, the difficulty of seeing the chalk markings often means that the operator stops the operation, removes the mask to inspect the progress of the operation before resuming. These interruptions can significantly increase the time taken for the welding or cutting operation.
It is an object of the present invention to provide products and methods which can enable a person carrying out a welding or high temperature cutting operation to see markings on a workpiece during the welding or cutting operation.
According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a workpiece marker for use in a welding or high temperature cutting operation, the marker including a luminescent material in a form or medium for application to a workpiece, the luminescent material having the property of enabling creation of markings on the workpiece which are visible during the welding or cutting operation through eyesight protecting means of the operator to thereby provide a visible aid for the welding or cutting operation.
Preferably the luminescent material emits radiation in the visible spectrum upon excitation during the welding or cutting operation. In particular, it is preferable that the welding 1 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 06/15 0 0 or cutting operation generates the exciting radiation which stimulates the luminescent mate-
O
Srial to emit the visible radiation.
l The products and methods of the present invention are particularly applicable to arc welding including stick welding, TIG welding and MIG welding or plasma cutting operations. It is possible that the principles of the invention may be applicable to other types of o welding or cutting operations but the radiation generated in other types of welding and cutting may not be as readily amenable to stimulating or exciting a luminescent material to emit o sufficient light in the visible part of the spectrum. In the preferred or expected principal field of use in which the welding or cutting operation includes generation of an electric arc, the radiation being emitted by the arc preferably constitutes the exciting radiation which impinges on the luminescent material to stimulate it to emit the visible radiation. For example, the luminescent material may be excited by ultraviolet radiation emitted by the electric are to emit the visible radiation.
The luminescent material may be a fluorescent material, or may be a phosphorescent material.
Preferably the luminescent material emits visible radiation in the middle or higher wavelengths of the visible spectrum, particularly in the yellow to orange to red regions of the visible spectrum. The luminescent material may for example emit light predominantly in the range of wavelengths from 580 nm to 660 nm, e.g. primarily at or around about 620 nm (orange-red). The yellow to orange to red region of the visible spectrum is preferred since it is found that these colours are more readily visible in or through the fume or smoke created during the welding or cutting operations than colours towards the blue-violet end of the spectrum.
Suitable luminescent materials can be chosen from organic and inorganic materials, and from liquid or solid formulations, having the required excitation and emission properties.
2 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 07/15 0 0 Organic dyes known as "daylight fluorescent pigments" can provide suitable markers. Rho- Z damine and fluorescein dyes may be suitable, although specific and optimum fluorescent l materials have not been identified at this stage of development. It is expected however that an ordinarily skilled chemist could readily identify suitable materials by reference to pub- 5 lished properties for luminescent materials or by routine empirical testing.
00 The workpiece marker preferably further includes a filler mixed with the luminescent material. The filler may be a solid material whereby the workpiece marker can be held by in o hand and manipulated by a user to apply the markings to the workpiece. Preferably, the filler itself creates a marking on the workpiece which is visible in daylight or other illumination conditions enabling human visibility of the markings formed by the filler. The filler may comprise chalk in a particulate form mixed with the luminescent material. In the case of a luminescent material in solid solution or suspended in a solid transparent material such as an organic resin, the chalk may be mixed in a proportion of 60% by weight with 40% by weight of the resin/luminescent material particles.
The workpiece marker may further include a binder which binds the luminescent material in a solid form which can be held and manipulated by a user to apply the markings to the workpiece. The binder may comprise a rcsin material which is substantially translucent to the visible radiation emitted by the luminescent material making the markings on the workpiece visible during the welding or cutting operation. A suitable resin binder may be a thermosetting or thennoplastic resin binder. Melamine sulphonamide formaldehyde resin may be suitable as a carrier or medium for the luminescent material and/or as a binder for the chalk and active material mixture.
According to a second aspect of the invention there is provided a welding or cutting aid system for aiding a welding or high temperature cutting operation, the system including: a workpiece marker which includes a luminescent material in a form or medium for application 3 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 08/15
O
O
to a workpiece, the luminescent material having the property of enabling creation of markings O on the workpiece which are visible during the welding or cutting operation through eyesight n protecting means of the operator, and a light filter to be interposed in use between the workpiece and the operator's eyes, the light filter being translucent to a band of frequencies which includes the frequency or frequencies of visible light emission of the luminescent material of 00 °the marker, the light filter substantially attenuating radiation at frequencies spaced from said
O
band of frequencies.
O The light filter preferably includes a panel of coloured light filter material to be inter- Cl1 posed in use between the workpicce and the eyes of the operator, the panel being arranged to be mounted by the eyesight protecting means through which the operator views the welding or cutting operation. In the case of a conventional eyesight protecting means which comprises a mask having a window through which the operator views the welding or cutting operation, the window is provided with a dark filter medium interposed in the light path to reduce the intensity of light from the welding or cutting operation reaching the operator's eyes, and is also provided with the light filter additionally interposed in the light path from the site of the welding or cutting operation to the operator's eyes. The dark filter may be the conventional dark glass which cuts out ultraviolet and infrared radiation and substantially attenuates visible radiation so as to protect the operator's eyes. The light filter can be also a panel, e.g. of the standard 180 mm by 50 mm size, to fit into the mountings provided by welder's masks for the dark filter. The light filter is desirably selected to pass light at frequencies or wavelengths which the dark filter also passes and also if desired to substantially attenuate UV and/or IR radiation. The frequencies that the light filter passes preferably match the visible emission frequencies of the luminescent material. For example for luminescent material emitting at a wavelength of about 620 nm, an orange-red light filter would be preferred.
4 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 09/15
O
O
The light filter may be a lighting gel of the kind used for projecting coloured light Z such as in theatre stage lighting, the lighting gel having a characteristic colour substantially t r matched to the colour of visible light emission of the luminescent material. For the suggested orange-red luminescent material emissions, an "Amber-rose No. 22" gel filter is suitable.
o 5 The light filter enhances the visibility of the markings on the workpiece by attenuat- O ing or cutting out other wavelengths and helping the operator's eyes be more sensitive to the 0 wavelength of the emissions from the luminescent material.
O According to a third aspect of the invention there is provided a method of aiding a welding or high temperature cutting operation being carried out on a workpiece, the method to including the steps of: applying to the workpiece a luminescent material so as to create markings on the workpiece at locations intended to guide or inform an operator monitoring or controlling the welding or cutting operation, the luminescent material having the property of emitting visible radiation, when excited during the welding or cutting operation, and conducting a welding or high temperature cutting operation on the workpiece while viewing the workpiece through an eyesight protector apparatus, the eyesight protector apparatus being translucent to a band of frequencies which includes the frequency or frequencies of visible light emission of the luminescent material, and controlling the welding or cutting operation in accordance with the visible markings of luminescent material on the workpiece.
The most common situation for application of the method of the invention would be where the visible markings applied to the workpiece define or at least include a welding or cutting path which the welding or cutting operation is to follow. However, other marks such as prompts for the nature or location of the welds and/or cuts can also be used- In the preferred method, the step of applying markings comprises the application of markings to the workpiece using a workpiece marker according to the first aspect of the invention.
COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-99901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 10/15 0 0 Likewise in the preferred method the steps of applying the markings and conducting o the welding or cutting operation comprises using an aid system according to the second asin pect of the invention by application of markings to the workpiece using the workpiece marker of the aid system and interposing the light filter in the light path during the welding or cutting operation.
00 It is to be understood that various alterations, modifications and/or additions may be 0 0 made to the features of the possible and preferred embodiment(s) of the invention as herein 0 described without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
6 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25

Claims (16)

  1. 3. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 2 wherein the welding or cutting opera- tion generates the exciting radiation which stimulates the luminescent material to emit the visible radiation.
  2. 4. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 3 wherein the welding or cutting opera- tion includes generation of an electric arc, the radiation being emitted by the arc constituting the exciting radiation which impinges on the luminescent material to stimulate it to emit the visible radiation. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 4 wherein the luminescent material is ex- cited by ultraviolet radiation emitted by the electric are to emit the visible radiation.
  3. 6. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the luminescent material is a fluorescent material.
  4. 7. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5 wherein the lumines- cent material is a phosphorescent material.
  5. 8. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the luminescent material emits visible radiation in the middle or higher wavelengths of the visible spectrum. 7 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 12/15 O O
  6. 9. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 8 wherein the luminescent material emits Z visible radiation in the yellow to orange to red regions of the visible spectrum. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of the preceding claims and further including a filler mixed with the luminescent material. 0 5
  7. 11. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 10 wherein the filler is a solid material O whereby the workpiece marker can be held by hand and manipulated by a user to apply the t markings to the workpiecc. O
  8. 12. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 10 or 11 wherein the filler itself creates a marking on the workpiece which is visible in daylight or other illumination conditions ena- bling human visibility of the markings formed by the filler.
  9. 13. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of claims 10 to 12 wherein the filler comprises chalk in a particulate form mixed with the luminescent material.
  10. 14. A workpiece marker as claimed in any one of the preceding claims and further including a binder which binds the luminescent material in a solid form which can be held and manipulated by a user to apply the markings to the workpiece. A workpiece marker as claimed in claim 14 wherein the binder comprises a resin material which is substantially translucent to the visible radiation emitted by the luminescent material making the markings on the workpiece visible during the welding or cutting opera- tion.
  11. 16. A welding or cutting aid system for aiding a welding or high temperature cutting operation, the system including: a workpiece marker which includes a luminescent material in a form or medium for application to a workpiece, the luminescent material having the property of enabling creation of markings on the workpiece which are visible during the welding or cutting operation through eyesight protecting means of the operator, and 8 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 13/15 O O a light filter to be interposed in use between the workpiece and the operator's eyes, Z the light filter being translucent to a band of frequencies which includes the frequency or fre- S quencies of visible light emission of the luminescent material of the marker, the light filter substantially attenuating radiation at frequencies spaced from said band of frequencies. S 5 17. A system as claimed in claim 16 wherein the light filter includes a panel of col- 0 oured. light filter material to be interposed in use between the workpiece and the eyes of the operator, the panel being arranged to be mounted by the eyesight protecting means through O which the operator views the welding or cutting operation.
  12. 18. A system as claimed in claim 17 wherein the eyesight protecting means con- prises a mask having a window through which the operator views the welding or cutting op- eration, the window being provided with a dark filter medium interposed in the light path to reduce the intensity of light from the welding or cutting operation reaching the operator's eyes, the light filter being additionally interposed in the light path from the site of the welding or cutting operation to the operator's eyes.
  13. 19. A system as claimed in claim 17 or 18 wherein the light filter is a lighting gel of the kind used for projecting coloured light such as in theatre stage lighting, the lighting gel having a characteristic colour substantially matched to the colour of visible light emission of the luminescent material. A system as claimed in any one of claims 16 to 19 wherein the marker consists of a workpiece marker as claimed in any one of claims 2 to
  14. 21. A method of aiding a welding or high temperature cutting operation being car- ried out on a workpiece, the method including the steps of: applying to the workpiece a luminescent material so as to create markings on the workpiece at locations intended to guide or inform an operator monitoring or controlling the 9 COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25 25/11/2005 19:21 61-3-98901337 PATENT ATTORNEY SERV PAGE 14/15 O O welding or cutting operation, the luminescent material having the property of emitting visible O Z radiation, when excited during the welding or cutting operation, and n conducting a welding or Aigh temperature cutting operation on the workpiece while viewing the workpiece through an eyesight protector apparatus, the eyesight protector appa- 00 5 Tatus being translucent to a band of frequencies which includes the frequency or frequencies 0 O of visible light emission of the luminescent material, and controlling the welding or cutting 0 operation in accordance with the visible markings of luminescent material on the workpiece. o 22. A method as claimed in claim 21 wherein the visible markings applied to the workpiece include a welding or cutting path which the welding or cutting operation is to fol- low-
  15. 23. A method as claimed in claim 21 or 22 wherein the step of applying markings comprises the application of markings to the workpiece using a workpiece marker as claimed in any one of claims 1 to
  16. 24. A method as claimed in claim 21 or 22 wherein the steps of applying the mark- ings and conducting the welding or cutting operation comprises using an aid system as claimed in any one of claims 16 to 20 by application of markings to the workpiece using the workpiece marker of the aid system and interposing the light filter in the light path during the welding or cutting operation. Dated this 25th day of November 2005 PATENT ATTORNEY SERVICES Attorneys for DENNIS JAMES O'CONNELL COMS ID No: SBMI-02053351 Received by IP Australia: Time 20:20 Date 2005-11-25
AU2005100981A 1999-04-22 2005-11-25 Aid for cutting or welding Ceased AU2005100981A4 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AUPP9896 1999-04-22
AU30119/00A AU3011900A (en) 1999-04-22 2000-04-26 Aid for welding or cutting
AU2005100981A AU2005100981A4 (en) 1999-04-22 2005-11-25 Aid for cutting or welding

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU2005100981A AU2005100981A4 (en) 1999-04-22 2005-11-25 Aid for cutting or welding

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
AU30119/00A Division AU3011900A (en) 1999-04-22 2000-04-26 Aid for welding or cutting

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
AU2005100981A4 true AU2005100981A4 (en) 2006-01-05

Family

ID=3718050

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
AU2005100981A Ceased AU2005100981A4 (en) 1999-04-22 2005-11-25 Aid for cutting or welding

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1294525A1 (en)
AU (1) AU2005100981A4 (en)
CA (1) CA2445544A1 (en)
NZ (1) NZ522758A (en)
WO (1) WO2001081037A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107248170A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-10-13 辽宁师范大学 Welding seam tracking method based on images match

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150030874A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2015-01-29 Lucas-Milhaupt, Inc. Luminescent Braze Preforms
GB2498726A (en) 2012-01-25 2013-07-31 3M Innovative Properties Co Automatic welding filter with tunable spectral transmission
GB2550193A (en) * 2016-05-12 2017-11-15 Rollem Ltd A material processing system

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0332434B2 (en) * 1982-10-14 1991-05-13 Marktec Corp
JP2581081B2 (en) * 1987-06-15 1997-02-12 株式会社ダイヘン Plasma arc processing method
WO1991015553A1 (en) * 1990-04-05 1991-10-17 William Grandmont Phosphorescent marking material
DE4035229A1 (en) * 1990-11-06 1992-05-07 Anton Schloegel Welding area marker - is a reflecting or fluorescent medium to give welder a better view of the workpiece through the tinted goggles or face mask
DE4214927A1 (en) * 1992-05-06 1993-11-11 Anton Schloegel Markers for high temperature applications
US5529615A (en) * 1994-06-15 1996-06-25 Playstation Inc. Marking material and method for suspending pigment particles

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107248170A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-10-13 辽宁师范大学 Welding seam tracking method based on images match

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2001081037A1 (en) 2001-11-01
EP1294525A1 (en) 2003-03-26
CA2445544A1 (en) 2001-11-01
NZ522758A (en) 2004-09-24

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