WO2022088608A1 - 电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法 - Google Patents

电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法 Download PDF

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WO2022088608A1
WO2022088608A1 PCT/CN2021/084986 CN2021084986W WO2022088608A1 WO 2022088608 A1 WO2022088608 A1 WO 2022088608A1 CN 2021084986 W CN2021084986 W CN 2021084986W WO 2022088608 A1 WO2022088608 A1 WO 2022088608A1
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power quality
unit
quality monitoring
resistor
monitoring terminal
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PCT/CN2021/084986
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English (en)
French (fr)
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郭敏
肖静
阮诗雅
姚知洋
陈卫东
韩帅
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广西电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院
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Publication of WO2022088608A1 publication Critical patent/WO2022088608A1/zh

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R19/00Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof
    • G01R19/25Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof using digital measurement techniques
    • G01R19/2506Arrangements for conditioning or analysing measured signals, e.g. for indicating peak values ; Details concerning sampling, digitizing or waveform capturing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F18/00Pattern recognition
    • G06F18/20Analysing
    • G06F18/23Clustering techniques

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  • the invention relates to the technical field of field testing of electric power instruments, in particular to a field online comparison detection device and detection method of a power quality monitoring terminal.
  • the operation management of the power quality monitoring terminal is one of the work contents of the power quality technical supervision. After the power quality monitoring terminal operates in a harsh electromagnetic environment for a long time, it is inevitable that the reliability and measurement accuracy of the terminal will decrease due to the aging and failure of components, and then a large amount of invalid and abnormal data will be generated. Therefore, it needs to be checked regularly. .
  • the detection methods of the power quality monitoring terminal include the standard source method and the comparison method, both of which are mainly carried out in the laboratory. It belongs to off-line detection, and is usually based on the standard source method in the laboratory.
  • the voltage loop of the power quality monitoring terminal is taken from the voltage transformer of the substation, and the current loop is connected to the current transformer of the substation in series. Periodic detection work is carried out on the running power quality monitoring terminal, and there is a secondary current (voltage) transformer. Danger of side open circuit (short circuit).
  • the second is to bring the standard source to the site, and then remove the power quality monitoring terminal for on-site off-line detection.
  • the standard source such as: FLUKE 6100 series
  • FLUKE 6100 series the standard source
  • the instrument is very precise and easy to damage, and sometimes It is necessary to carry several standard sources together to form a three-phase loop for testing.
  • some portable standard sources such as CMC series standard sources produced by Omicron
  • the accuracy of their output signals is low.
  • the generation of some high-order harmonic signals is not ideal, so it will inevitably affect the detection results of the monitoring terminal. Any of the above methods will inevitably require a great investment of human and material resources.
  • the purpose of the present invention is to provide an on-site online comparison detection device and detection method for a power quality monitoring terminal, which can solve the problems of high dismantling and regular inspection cost, low efficiency, and poor realization feasibility caused by offline laboratory detection in the prior art. question.
  • the present invention provides an on-site online comparison and detection device for a power quality monitoring terminal, including a signal conditioning unit, an A/D sampling unit, an ARM microprocessor unit, an FPGA unit, an external storage unit, a human-computer interaction unit, A multi-protocol communication unit, a high-precision time synchronization unit and a power management unit; the input end of the signal conditioning unit inputs a voltage signal, and the output end of the signal conditioning unit is connected to the input end of the A/D sampling unit; The output end is connected to the first input end of the FPGA unit, and the output end of the high-precision time synchronization unit is connected to the second input end of the FPGA unit; the FPGA unit combines the sampling data sent by the A/D sampling unit and the time data sent by the high-precision time synchronization unit It is sent to the ARM microprocessor unit; the ARM microprocessor unit performs data interaction with the external storage unit, the human-computer interaction unit, the multi-protocol communication unit and the
  • the signal conditioning unit includes a current-limiting resistor Ri, a sampling resistor Rs, a first operational amplifier, a capacitor C1 and two anti-aliasing filters; the voltage signal is input to one end of the current-limiting resistor Ri, and the current-limiting resistor Ri is The other end is connected to the inverting input terminal of the first operational amplifier, and the non-inverting input terminal of the first operational amplifier is grounded; the sampling resistor Rs is connected between the inverting input terminal and the output terminal of the first operational amplifier; the capacitor C1 is connected to the first operational amplifier. Between the output end of the operational amplifier and the ground, it plays a filtering role; the output end of the first operational amplifier is connected in series with two anti-aliasing filters and outputs a signal to the A/D sampling unit.
  • the anti-aliasing filter includes a resistor R1, a resistor R2, a resistor R3, a capacitor C2, a capacitor C3 and a second operational amplifier; one end of the resistor R1 is used as the input end of the anti-aliasing filter, and the resistor R1 and the resistor R2 is connected in series to the non-inverting input terminal of the second operational amplifier; the inverting input terminal of the second operational amplifier is connected in series with the resistor R3 and then grounded; the capacitor C2 is connected between the series node of the resistor R1 and the resistor R2 and the inverting input of the second operational amplifier between the terminals; the capacitor C3 is connected between the non-inverting input terminal of the second operational amplifier and the ground; the output terminal of the second operational amplifier is used as the output terminal of the anti-aliasing filter.
  • the A/D sampling unit includes resistor R4, resistor R5, resistor R6, resistor R7, resistor R8, resistor R9, resistor R10, resistor R11, capacitor C4, capacitor C5, capacitor C6, diode D1, diode D2 , dual voltage comparison chip, voltage controlled oscillator and frequency divider; one end of the resistor R4 is used as the input end of the A/D sampling unit; the other end of the resistor R4 is connected to one end of the resistor R5, one end of the capacitor C4 and the positive end of the dual voltage comparison chip Input terminal; the other end of the resistor R5 and the other end of the capacitor C4 are grounded; the anode of the diode D1 and the cathode of the diode D2 are grounded, and the cathode of the diode D1 and the anode of the diode D2 are connected to the positive input terminal of the dual voltage comparison chip; the resistor R6 is connected to the double voltage comparison chip.
  • the output terminal of the dual voltage comparison chip is connected to the input terminal of the voltage-controlled oscillator after passing through the resistor R7; the output terminal of the voltage-controlled oscillator is connected to the clock input terminal of the frequency divider. After dividing the frequency, the frequency divider feeds back to the input end of the phase detector of the voltage-controlled oscillator, and outputs a frequency multiplied signal from the output end after being processed by the voltage-controlled oscillator.
  • the high-precision time-synchronization unit comes from satellite timing, so that the on-site online comparison and detection device is time-synchronized with the power quality monitoring terminal.
  • the external storage unit is used for storing waveforms and storing comparison data.
  • the man-machine interaction unit adopts bluetooth communication, which is used for data input and result display of the on-site online comparison and detection device.
  • the present invention provides an on-site online comparison and detection method for a power quality monitoring terminal, comprising the following steps:
  • Step 1 Connect the detected power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device through Ethernet, set the parameters of the detection device, start the network accurate time synchronization between the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device, and carry out the verification of the consistency of the communication protocol;
  • Step 2 start the test, the real-time signal of the power grid is synchronously sent to the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device, and the real-time data of the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device are read and recorded every fixed period of time;
  • Step 3 Set the measured value of the power quality index of the detection device at the same time as ⁇ s , and the corresponding measured value of the power quality monitoring terminal as ⁇ X , calculate the corresponding fractal dimension, and calculate the fractal dimension of the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device. Calculate the number error to obtain the final threshold, and use the threshold to judge whether the corresponding measured value of the power quality monitoring terminal is qualified;
  • Step 4. Repeat step 3 until all inspection points are completed in the on-site comparison test, and the test is stopped.
  • step 3 includes:
  • Step 301 Grid division is performed on the box dimension algorithm by means of 2nd power grid division, and the box dimension is calculated;
  • Step 302 utilize the structure function method based on FCM algorithm to calculate the slope of the scale-free interval to obtain fractal dimension;
  • Step 303 using the W-M fractal function to calculate the fractal dimension error
  • Step 304 Set a final threshold according to the fractal dimension error, and use the threshold to judge whether the corresponding measured value of the power quality monitoring terminal is qualified.
  • the on-site online comparison detection device and detection method of the power quality monitoring terminal of the present invention greatly reduces the detection difficulty of the power quality monitoring terminal, improves the detection efficiency, and reduces manpower and material costs at the same time.
  • the periodic detection of the power quality online monitoring terminal can be effectively carried out, thereby ensuring the measurement accuracy of various power quality indicators, truly implementing the power quality technical supervision work, and escorting the safe, stable and economical operation of the power grid. .
  • Fig. 1 is the circuit block diagram of the on-site online comparison and detection device of the power quality monitoring terminal of the present invention
  • Fig. 2 is the circuit schematic diagram of the signal conditioning unit
  • Fig. 3 is the circuit schematic diagram of A/D sampling unit
  • Fig. 4 is the circuit schematic diagram of the power management unit
  • Figure 5 is a block diagram of on-site comparison and detection of the power quality monitoring device
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the data flow of the on-site comparison and detection of the power quality monitoring device.
  • the invention provides an on-site online comparison and detection device for the power quality monitoring terminal, which can perform on-site comparison and detection on the power quality monitoring terminal without disassembling and transporting the power quality monitoring terminal to the laboratory, and the detection can be completed on site .
  • the on-site online comparison and detection device of the power quality monitoring terminal includes a signal conditioning unit, an A/D sampling unit, an ARM microprocessor unit, an FPGA unit, an external storage unit, a human-computer interaction unit, and a multi-protocol communication unit. , High-precision timing unit and power management unit.
  • the input end of the signal conditioning unit inputs a voltage signal, and the output end of the signal conditioning unit is connected to the input end of the A/D sampling unit.
  • the output end of the A/D sampling unit is connected to the first input end of the FPGA unit, the output end of the high-precision time synchronization unit is connected to the second input end of the FPGA unit, and the FPGA unit compares the sampling data sent by the A/D sampling unit with the high-precision
  • the time data sent by the time unit is sent to the ARM microprocessor unit.
  • the ARM microprocessor unit performs data interaction with the external storage unit, the human-computer interaction unit, the multi-protocol communication unit and the high-precision time synchronization unit.
  • the power management unit is a power supply unit, which supplies power for a signal conditioning unit, an A/D sampling unit, an ARM microprocessor unit, an FPGA unit, an external storage unit, a human-computer interaction unit, a multi-protocol communication unit, and a high-precision time synchronization unit. .
  • each unit circuit The functions of each unit circuit are: the signal conditioning unit filters and conditions the input voltage signal to a suitable signal, and sends it to the A/D sampling unit for sampling.
  • the A/D sampling unit uses the zero-crossing detection and phase-locked loop circuit to realize the synchronous sampling of the three-phase voltage and current signals, and then obtains the sampling data and sends it to the FPGA unit.
  • the FPGA unit controls the satellite timing of the A/D sampling unit, and sends the sampling data and the time data sent by the high-precision timing unit to the ARM microprocessor.
  • the FPGA unit adopts the chip DS181 of XILINX Company, which performs data interaction with the A/D sampling unit through the serial bus; the chip performs data interaction with the ARM microprocessor unit through the PCIE bus.
  • the ARM microprocessor unit processes time data, sampling data, communication data, human-computer interaction data and storage data.
  • the ARM microprocessor unit includes a human-computer interaction component, a network time synchronization component, a data acquisition component, an accuracy calculation component and a detection report component.
  • the network time synchronization component obtains the high-precision time from the satellite timing in the FPGA unit, and uses this time as the clock source of the entire system, and sets it to the server mode.
  • the monitoring terminal working in the client mode requests the network through the high-precision time synchronization unit.
  • the time synchronization component performs time synchronization operation; the data acquisition component obtains the power quality monitoring index data of the monitoring terminal through the multi-protocol communication unit, and simultaneously obtains the power quality monitoring index data at the same time point and monitoring point through the internal bus, and combines the above two groups.
  • the data flow is transferred to the accuracy calculation component; the accuracy calculation component performs fractal dimension calculation on the obtained two sets of power quality monitoring data to judge whether the accuracy of the monitoring terminal meets the requirements; the detection report component outputs the monitoring terminal in the form of a report.
  • the accuracy result of the detection; the manual interaction component interacts with the other components mentioned above to perform data input, control startup and result display.
  • the ARM microprocessor unit adopts the Rockchip chip RK3399, with CPU and GPU.
  • the CPU adopts big.LITTLE large and small core architecture, dual Cortex-A72 large core + four Cortex-A53 small core structure, and has been greatly optimized for integer, floating point, memory, etc., in terms of overall performance, power consumption and core area. All are revolutionary.
  • the GPU adopts the quad-core ARM new generation of high-end graphics processor Mali-T860, integrates more bandwidth compression technologies, such as intelligent overlay, ASTC, local pixel storage, etc., and also supports more graphics and computing interfaces, and the overall performance is improved compared to the previous generation. 45%.
  • ARM microprocessor unit adopts embedded LINUX operating system.
  • the external storage unit is used to store waveforms and store comparison data, etc.
  • the external storage unit adopts an SD card, which is connected with the ARM microprocessor unit through SPI to perform operations such as data reading, storage, and deletion.
  • the human-computer interaction unit is used as the data input and result display of the detection device.
  • the human-computer interaction unit adopts bluetooth communication, and exchanges data with the ARM microprocessor unit through APP and application program, which saves the device screen, facilitates development, and provides the reliability of the device operation.
  • the human-computer interaction unit adopts the Bluetooth module HC-05, which is connected to the serial port of the ARM microprocessor unit, allowing the ARM microprocessor unit to communicate with other devices through the Bluetooth connection.
  • the Bluetooth module HC-05 itself Can operate in master and slave mode and can be used for a variety of applications.
  • the bluetooth module HC-05 supports the use of standard AT commands through the TX and RX pins.
  • any bluetooth device should be able to discover it and can connect to the device using a standard password. After the connection is established, the data passes through the bluetooth The module HC-05 transmits and converts it into a serial stream, which is then read by the ARM microprocessor connected to the Bluetooth module HC-05, and the way to send data from the ARM microprocessor is reversed.
  • the multi-protocol communication unit is a communication protocol compatible with devices of different manufacturers and models and the master station, and realizes the acquisition of on-site comparison and detection data.
  • the multi-protocol communication unit adopts the standard IEC61850 protocol and is compatible with other private protocols, so as to meet the data communication requirements of on-site online comparison and detection of different types of power quality monitoring devices of different manufacturers.
  • the high-precision time-synchronization unit is the clock source of the entire detection device. It maintains the same time for the time service from the satellite, and synchronizes the time of the power quality monitoring terminal through the network, so as to accurately carry out on-site comparison and detection services.
  • the high-precision timing unit includes a satellite timing circuit and an IEEE1588 circuit, wherein the satellite timing circuit adopts the u-blox module MAX-M8Q, supports GPS/Galileo/GLONASS/Beidou, and can simultaneously acquire and track different GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite) system, the time of the device is accurately authorized, the satellite timing circuit and the FPGA unit exchange data through the serial bus; the IEEE1588 circuit adopts the fourth-generation chip AR8031 of Qualcomm, which belongs to a single port, 10/100/1000Mbps Ethernet physical layer, supports IEEE 1588v2 and synchronous Ethernet timing, IEEE1588 circuit and ARM microprocessor unit realize data exchange through parallel bus, and SNTP is a pure software function, which realizes both hardware IEEE1588 and SNTP functions, which can meet the needs of different manufacturers. Time-synchronization request service for on-site online comparison and detection of different types of power quality monitoring devices.
  • GNSS Global Navigation Satellite
  • the power management unit is the power supply of the entire detection device, and is used for the power supply required for the work of each unit and module.
  • the design of the power management unit adopts a secondary power supply scheme, which uses DC-DC conversion to generate the required power supply voltages of 5V and 3.3V. Due to the large voltage drop at the power supply inlet and high power requirements, if a linear power supply is used, not only will the linear regulated power supply have a large heat loss during operation, but its working efficiency will also be very low. Therefore, each power supply adopts the conversion method of switching power supply.
  • the switching power supply is used to control the switching tube through the circuit for high-speed channel and cut-off.
  • the direct current is converted into high frequency alternating current and supplied to the transformer for transformation, thereby generating the required one or more sets of voltages.
  • the power consumption of the switching power supply is low, and the average working efficiency can reach more than 90%.
  • the 5V voltage is generated by the LM2576 of National Semiconductor.
  • the chip is a 3A current output step-down switching type integrated voltage stabilizer, which contains a fixed frequency oscillator and a reference voltage stabilizer, and has a complete protection circuit, including current limiting and thermal Judgment circuit, etc.
  • the circuit is shown in Figure 4.
  • 3.3V voltage Considering the large demand for 3.3V voltage in the design, such as signal conditioning unit, A/D sampling unit, ARM microprocessor unit, FPGA unit, external storage unit, human-computer interaction unit, and high-precision timing unit all require 3.3V voltage as the supply voltage. Therefore, the generation of the 3.3V voltage in the design adopts the ISL6443 chip of Intersil Company, which is a high-performance three-way output controller, each output can be as low as 0.8V, and the output voltage of the LM2576 is used as the input voltage of the ISL6443 to generate three-way output. 3.3V voltage.
  • the two pulse width modulated PWMs are synchronized 180° out of phase, reducing the rms value of the input current and Han wave voltage. At the same time, there are overcurrent protection and overheating protection, which prevents the DC-DC components from being damaged in the case of output overload/short circuit.
  • FIG. 2 a circuit schematic diagram of the signal conditioning unit is shown in FIG. 2 .
  • the voltage signal on the secondary side of the voltage transformer is changed and input to one end of the current limiting resistor Ri, the other end of the current limiting resistor Ri is connected to the inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier OP07, and the non-inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier OP07 is grounded.
  • the sampling resistor Rs is connected between the inverting input terminal and the output terminal of the operational amplifier OP07.
  • the capacitor C1 is connected between the output end of the operational amplifier OP07 and the ground, and plays a filtering role.
  • the output end of the operational amplifier OP07 is connected in series with two anti-aliasing filters and then outputs the signal to the A/D sampling unit.
  • the anti-aliasing filter includes resistor R1, resistor R2, resistor R3, capacitor C2, capacitor C3, and an operational amplifier AD706.
  • One end of the resistor R1 is used as the input end of the anti-aliasing filter, and the resistor R1 and the resistor R2 are connected in series to the non-inverting input end of the operational amplifier AD706.
  • the inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier AD706 is connected to the ground with the resistor R3 in series.
  • Capacitor C2 is connected between the series node of resistors R1 and R2 and the inverting input of the operational amplifier AD706.
  • Capacitor C3 is connected between the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier AD706 and ground.
  • the output of the operational amplifier AD706 is used as the output of the anti-aliasing filter.
  • the working principle of the signal conditioning unit is as follows: the voltage loop uses a precision resistor divider to convert the 57.74V voltage signal on the secondary side of the voltage transformer into a 0.05V voltage signal, and the current loop uses a high-precision clamp-type current sensor HIOKI 9694 to output the current on the secondary side of the PT. Signal 5A becomes a 0.05V voltage signal. Then, the 0.05V voltage signal of the above voltage loop and current loop is sent to the operational amplifier OP07 chip through the current limiting resistor Ri, and the following is established to increase the input impedance, reduce the output impedance and improve the load capacity.
  • the current limiting resistor Ri and the sampling resistor Rs are both 2.5k ⁇ .
  • a two-stage anti-aliasing filter is used to filter the signal output by the operational amplifier OP07.
  • the operational amplifier used in the anti-aliasing filter adopts AD706 chip.
  • the A/D sampling unit is as shown in FIG. 3 .
  • resistor R4 resistor R5, resistor R6, resistor R7, resistor R8, resistor R9, resistor R10, resistor R11, capacitor C4, capacitor C5, capacitor C6, diode D1, diode D2, dual voltage comparison chip LM393, voltage controlled oscillation divider CD4046 and divider CD4040.
  • One end of the resistor R4 is used as the input end of the A/D sampling unit.
  • the other end of the resistor R4 is connected to one end of the resistor R5, one end of the capacitor C4 and the positive input end of the dual voltage comparison chip LM393.
  • resistor R5 and the other end of capacitor C4 are connected to ground.
  • the anode of the diode D1 and the cathode of the diode D2 are grounded, and the cathode of the diode D1 and the anode of the diode D2 are connected to the positive input terminal of the dual voltage comparison chip LM393.
  • Resistor R6 is connected between the negative input terminal of the dual voltage comparison chip LM393 and the ground.
  • the output end of the dual voltage comparison chip LM393 is connected to the input end 14 of the voltage controlled oscillator CD4046 after passing through the resistor R7.
  • the output terminal 4 of the voltage-controlled oscillator CD4046 is connected to the clock input terminal 2 of the frequency divider CD4040, and is fed back to the phase detector input terminal 3 of the voltage-controlled oscillator CD4046 after being divided by the frequency divider. After being processed by the voltage-controlled oscillator CD4046 The multiplied frequency signal is output from the output terminal.
  • the A/D sampling unit adopts a high-precision 24-bit high-precision A/D sampling chip AD7768, which is far higher than the 16-bit A/D sampling accuracy of the current mainstream monitoring devices.
  • the synchronous sampling of phase voltage and current, the zero-crossing detection circuit adopts the dual voltage comparison chip LM393, and the phase-locked loop circuit adopts the chip CD4046.
  • the power frequency signal and the locked square wave of about 50Hz output by the frequency dividing circuit enter the phase detector for phase comparison.
  • the comparison result of the phase detector output contains the deviation voltage component, which is filtered by the loop filter to generate a control voltage, which is added to the input end of the voltage controlled oscillator; the oscillating output generated by the phase detector becomes a locked square wave after frequency division and re-enters the detector.
  • the phase end is compared with the power frequency signal.
  • the loop filter must output a deviation correction voltage to change the frequency of the voltage-controlled oscillator, so that the two signals are phase-locked in the standard position. Since the voltage-controlled oscillator chip is in the closed-loop system, after the two signals are locked, the oscillation frequency output by the voltage-controlled oscillator must be an integer multiple of the frequency of the power frequency signal.
  • the In input of Figure 3 is the A-phase voltage, which is first divided by resistors R4 and R5, and then compared with the LM393 signal, the output square wave is sent to the voltage-controlled oscillator CD4046, and the CD4046 is output to the clock input of the frequency divider CD4040. Then it is fed back to the input terminal of the phase detector of CD4046, and the phase is compared with the input signal to be multiplied. When the frequency phases of the two input terminals are the same (that is, phase locked), the output frequency of the VCO is the frequency multiplied.
  • the frequency tracking circuit is composed of a dedicated integrated phase-locking chip CD4046 and a frequency dividing chip CD4040 to realize the phase frequency multiplication of the power frequency signal, and the frequency dividing ratio is 1/4096.
  • the invention also provides a method for on-site online comparison and detection of the power quality monitoring terminal, which can perform on-site online comparison and detection on the accuracy of the power quality monitoring terminal under the condition of no disconnection and live power on site, and a block diagram of the on-site online comparison and detection As shown in Figure 5.
  • the on-site online comparison and detection method of the power quality monitoring terminal includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 Connect the detected power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device through Ethernet, set the parameters of the detection device, start the network accurate time synchronization, and carry out the verification of the consistency of the communication protocol.
  • the purpose of starting the network accurate time synchronization and the verification of the consistency of the communication protocol is to make the real-time signal of the power grid received by the detection device and the power quality monitoring terminal have a high degree of consistency.
  • the network time synchronization component of the ARM microprocessor unit obtains the high-precision time from the satellite timing in the FPGA unit, and uses this time as the clock source of the whole system, and sets it to the server mode.
  • the monitoring terminal working in the client mode passes the high-precision time.
  • the time synchronization unit requests a time synchronization operation from the network time synchronization component.
  • Step 2 Set the hour T to start the test, the real-time signal of the power grid is synchronously sent to the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device, and the real-time data of the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device are read and recorded every fixed period of time.
  • the fixed time period is set to 3s.
  • the specific numerical value of the fixed period should not be taken as a limitation of the present invention.
  • the high-precision measurement module of the detection device receives the real-time signal of the power grid, and sends the real-time signal to the host through the internal bus to calculate the relevant data.
  • the host computer simultaneously receives the data sent by the monitoring terminal.
  • Step 3 set the measured value of the power quality index of the detection device at the same time as ⁇ s , the corresponding measured value of the power quality monitoring terminal is ⁇ X , the accuracy calculation component of the ARM microprocessor unit calculates the corresponding fractal dimension, and calculates The fractal dimension error of the power quality monitoring terminal and the detection device is used to obtain the final measurement threshold.
  • the commonly used algorithm in fractal dimension calculation is the box dimension algorithm, but through the test results of the W-M fractal function, it is found that the error of the box dimension algorithm is larger when the fractal dimension is higher.
  • the fractal dimension is calculated by the structure function method, and the structure function method has a larger error when the fractal dimension is low.
  • the present invention combines the box dimension algorithm and the structure function method to set a more accurate threshold.
  • the implementation method of the box dimension algorithm is simple, and it is a commonly used fractal dimension calculation method.
  • Zi Yanyang et al. proposed a method for calculating the box dimension of discrete vibration signals in 2001, and extended the box dimension algorithm to one-dimensional signals. in the calculation of the fractal dimension.
  • the invention applies the box dimension algorithm to the fractal dimension calculation of the one-dimensional signal, and changes the grid division method of the traditional box dimension algorithm, and changes the integer grid division into the second power grid division.
  • the scatter plot obtained when the logarithm is taken as the base 2 presents a better distribution, and the obtained scatter plot is approximately a straight line.
  • a scale-free interval is a straight line segment on a logarithmic curve with an approximately constant slope.
  • the double logarithmic curve obtained by the structure function method cannot be fitted with a straight line, so the present invention uses the FCM algorithm to cluster the double logarithmic curve after the first difference, and the final clustering result is a scale-free interval.
  • the fractal dimension is obtained from the least squares fit. The following will introduce the box dimension algorithm for different mesh divisions, the structure function algorithm based on FCM, and the W-M fractal function commonly used as a fractal dimension test function.
  • calculating the corresponding fractal dimension includes the following steps:
  • Step 301 adopt the grid division method of the second power to perform grid division on the box dimension algorithm, and calculate the box dimension.
  • discrete signal Y is a closed set on the 2-dimensional Euclidean space R2.
  • N(2 ⁇ ) is the grid count of set Y.
  • the grid count N( 2k ) is:
  • N(2 k ) P(2 k )/(2 k )+1 (4)
  • the meanings of the two formulas are to calculate the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of each interval under the grid division of different sizes, and then obtain the grid number N (2 k ) through the difference value.
  • k is the horizontal axis
  • draw For a scatter plot use the least squares method to determine the slope of the line for the points in the plot:
  • the algorithm uses a new grid division method based on the traditional box dimension algorithm, which is simpler to calculate than the previous division method.
  • the box dimension has a larger error when the fractal dimension is higher, and the structure function method has a smaller error.
  • Step 302 using the structure function method based on the FCM algorithm to calculate the slope of the scale-free interval to obtain the fractal dimension.
  • the structure function method treats all points on the discrete signal curve as a time series with fractal characteristics.
  • the structure function s(t) of the discrete signal y(i) is:
  • t represents the interval number of data points; s(t) is a function of t; x is the abscissa on the curve; y(x) is the ordinate corresponding to the coordinate x; ⁇ [y(x+t) -y(x)] 2 > represents the arithmetic mean of variance; c is a constant and has no effect on the result.
  • the corresponding s(t) is calculated for several t, the scale-free interval of the double logarithmic curve lgt-lgs(t) is obtained, and the fractal dimension is obtained by calculating the slope of the scale-free interval.
  • the scale-free interval is a relatively straight line segment on the double logarithmic curve, and its slope is approximately constant. Therefore, the first-order difference of the structure function is performed, which is characterized by small fluctuations in the scale-free interval and fluctuations outside the scale-free interval. larger. According to this feature, the double logarithmic curve after the first-order difference can be clustered, and the FCM algorithm can be used for clustering.
  • FCM is a clustering algorithm based on objective function. It uses fuzzy theory to analyze and model the data, and constantly corrects the cluster center and classification matrix to meet the termination criteria, and obtains the uncertainty description of the data category, which is obtained according to the degree of membership.
  • the category of the data is an improved algorithm for K-means.
  • c is the number of cluster centers
  • n is the number of samples
  • m is the weighting index
  • a ij and d ij are the membership degree and Euclidean distance of the jth data point to the ith cluster center, respectively.
  • the discriminant method of gross error is to perform least squares fitting on the clustering results respectively, and the data set with larger fitting error is gross error.
  • the interval range obtained by one classification may not be accurate enough, so it is necessary to classify the retained data again to remove some noise points to obtain a more accurate scale-free interval.
  • the least squares fitting is performed on the clustering results respectively. Since the gross error has been removed, the fitting error of the second clustering results will not be too different. Simply using the fitting error as the criterion will inevitably cause some problems. Therefore, the interval with small fluctuation of scatter points and positive fitting slope in the fitting result is selected as the final scale-free interval.
  • the conversion relationship between the slope ⁇ , D and the slope ⁇ of the scale-free interval is:
  • Step 303 using the W-M fractal function to calculate the fractal dimension error.
  • the W-M fractal function is often used as a test function for fractal dimension algorithms.
  • the W-M fractal function is evolved from the Weierstrass function, which is continuous everywhere but non-derivative.
  • Weierstrass function was combined with fractal theory to obtain Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function, namely W-M fractal function.
  • Majumdar and Bhushan modified the W-M fractal function to make it a more suitable mathematical model for engineering surfaces, namely the M-B function.
  • the current W-M fractal function refers to the M-B function, and its expression is as follows.
  • Step 304 Set a final threshold according to the fractal dimension error, and use the threshold to judge whether the corresponding measured value of the power quality monitoring terminal is qualified.
  • the threshold is set according to the characteristics of the algorithm, and the final threshold result is obtained as a new index to measure the two curves.
  • the threshold result is obtained from the maximum relative error within the interval of the specified algorithm. Since the fractal dimension is calculated by the power quality monitoring terminal and the high-precision power quality measurement device, the final threshold is twice the relative error.
  • Step 4. Repeat step 3 until all inspection points are completed in the on-site comparison test, and the test is stopped.
  • the invention realizes a simple and easy-to-use fractal dimension-based on-site on-line comparison and detection method and device for power quality monitoring terminals.
  • a high-precision power quality test device By designing a high-precision power quality test device, the measurement accuracy and timing accuracy are higher than those of conventional power quality. monitor terminal.
  • Its communication protocol is compatible with the mainstream IEC61850 communication protocol and private protocol in the market.
  • An on-site online comparison and detection method for power quality monitoring terminals based on fractal dimension is innovatively invented, so as to realize plug-and-play on-site comparison and detection of monitoring terminals.
  • Reduce the difficulty of on-site comparison and detection of power quality online monitoring terminals improve power quality work efficiency, and effectively reduce manpower, material resources and time costs. Realize that the regular inspection work installed on the power quality monitoring terminal can be effectively carried out, and the power quality technical supervision work is truly implemented, and the safe, stable and economical operation of the power grid is escorted.
  • the terms “installed”, “connected”, “connected”, “fixed” and other terms should be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be a fixed connection or a detachable connection , or integrated; it can be a mechanical connection or an electrical connection or can communicate with each other; it can be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, it can be the internal connection of two components or the interaction relationship between the two components, unless otherwise expressly qualified.
  • installed installed
  • connected connected
  • fixed a detachable connection
  • it can be a mechanical connection or an electrical connection or can communicate with each other
  • it can be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, it can be the internal connection of two components or the interaction relationship between the two components, unless otherwise expressly qualified.
  • the specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood according to specific situations.

Abstract

一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法,其中方法包括将电能质量监测终端与检测装置通过以太网连接;设置整点时刻T启动测试,每3s读取并记录两装置的实时数据;设同一时刻高精度电能质量测量装置电能质量指标的测量值为χ s,电能质量监测终端相应的测量值为χ X,计算相应的分形维数,并计算两装置的分形维数误差;现场比对检测完成所有检验点可停止测试。本方法大大降低电能质量监测终端的检测难度,提高检测效率,同时减少人力和物力成本。使得电能质量在线监测终端的周期性检测工作能够有效开展,从而保证各项电能质量指标的测量准确度,为电网的安全、稳定、经济运行保驾护航。

Description

电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法 技术领域
本发明涉及电力仪器现场测试技术领域,特别是涉及电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法。
背景技术
电能质量监测终端的运行管理是电能质量技术监督的工作内容之一。电能质量监测终端在恶劣的电磁环境中长期运行后,难免会由于元器件的老化、失效而导致终端的可靠性、测量准确度下降,进而产生大量无效、异常数据,因此需要对其进行定期检测。
目前,电能质量监测终端的检测方法有标准源法和比对法两种,这两种方法均在实验室开展为主。属于离线检测,而且在实验室通常是基于标准源法来实现。
针对已投运的电能质量监测装置,若工程上仍采用实验室离线检测,存在以下问题:
1)电能质量监测终端的电压回路取自于变电站的电压互感器、电流回路串联于变电站的电流互感器,对运行的电能质量监测终端开展周期性检测工作,存在电流(电压)互感器二次侧开路(短路)的危险。
2)按照现有技术对其进行周期性检测,主要有以下两种实现方式:一是将电能质量监测终端拆下送到实验室,然后控制标准源输出指定参数的电能质量信号到电能质量监测终端,最后将电能质量监测终端的测量结果与标准信号进行比对,从而判断该终端的测量准确度是否合格。而该方式的缺点在于将电能质量监测终端来回拆装需要开多次工作票,加之运输麻烦、耗时,使得完成一次送检需要耗费较长的时间,工作效率十分低下,严重影响了监测终端的正常工作。二是将标准源携带到现场,然后将电能质量监测终端拆下来进行现场离线检测,该方式的缺点在于标准源(如:FLUKE 6100系列)通常体积大不宜携带,仪器十分精密容易损坏,有时还需要携带若干台标准源一起构成一个三相回路进行检测。虽然一些便携式标准源(如:Omicron公司生产的CMC系列标准源)方便易用,但是其输出信号的准确度较低。特别是对于一些高次谐波信号的产生并不理想,因此必然会影响监测终端的检测结果。上述任一方式都必然需要投入极大的人力和物力。
3)由于电能质量监测终端具有数量众多、安装分散的特点,采用实验室离线检测方案,实现可行性差,使得周期性检测工作难以有效开展。
综上所述,现有技术存在诸多不足,因此有必要对现有的电能质量监测终端的检测技术进行改进。
发明内容
本发明的目的是提供一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法,可以 解决现有技术中实验室离线检测带来的拆除定检成本高、效率低、实现可行性差等的问题。
本发明的目的是通过以下技术方案实现的:
第一方面,本发明提供一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,包括信号调理单元、A/D采样单元、ARM微处理器单元、FPGA单元、外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元、高精度对时单元和电源管理单元;所述的信号调理单元的输入端输入电压信号,信号调理单元的输出端连接A/D采样单元的输入端;A/D采样单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第一输入端,高精度对时单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第二输入端;FPGA单元将A/D采样单元发送的采样数据和高精度对时单元发送的时间数据送至ARM微处理器单元;ARM微处理器单元分别与外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元和高精度对时单元进行数据交互;所述的电源管理单元为供电单元。
进一步的,所述的信号调理单元包括限流电阻Ri、取样电阻Rs、第一运算放大器、电容C1和两个抗混叠滤波器;电压信号输入到限流电阻Ri的一端,限流电阻Ri的另一端连接第一运算放大器的反相输入端,第一运算放大器的同相输入端接地;取样电阻Rs连接在第一运算放大器的反相输入端和输出端之间;电容C1连接在第一运算放大器的输出端和地之间,起滤波作用;第一运算放大器的输出端串联两个抗混叠滤波器后输出信号给A/D采样单元。
进一步的,所述的抗混叠滤波器包括电阻R1、电阻R2、电阻R3、电容C2、电容C3和第二运算放大器;电阻R1的一端作为抗混叠滤波器的输入端,电阻R1与电阻R2串联后连接到第二运算放大器的同相输入端;第二运算放大器的反相输入端串联电阻R3后接地;电容C2连接在电阻R1和电阻R2的串联节点与第二运算放大器的反相输入端之间;电容C3连接在第二运算放大器的同相输入端和地之间;第二运算放大器的输出端作为抗混叠滤波器的输出端。
进一步的,所述的A/D采样单元包括电阻R4、电阻R5、电阻R6、电阻R7、电阻R8、电阻R9、电阻R10、电阻R11、电容C4、电容C5、电容C6、二极管D1、二极管D2、双电压比较芯片、压控振荡器和分频器;电阻R4的一端作为A/D采样单元的输入端;电阻R4的另一端连接电阻R5的一端、电容C4的一端和双电压比较芯片正输入端;电阻R5的另一端和电容C4的另一端接地;二极管D1的阳极和二极管D2的阴极接地,二极管D1的阴极和二极管D2的阳极连接双电压比较芯片正输入端;电阻R6连接在双电压比较芯片的负输入端和地之间;双电压比较芯片的输出端经过电阻R7后连接到压控振荡器的输入端;压控振荡器的输出端连接分频器的时钟输入端,经分频器分频后回馈到压控振荡器的鉴相器输入端,经压控振荡器处理后从输出端输出倍频信号。
进一步的,所述的高精度对时单元来自卫星的授时,使现场在线比对检测装置与电能质量监测终端进行时间同步。
进一步的,所述的外部存储单元用于存储波形和存储比对数据。
进一步的,所述的人机交互单元采用蓝牙通信,用于现场在线比对检测装置的数据输入和结果显示。
第二方面,本发明提供一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测方法,包括以下步骤:
步骤1、将被检测的电能质量监测终端与检测装置通过以太网连接,设置检测装置参数,启动电能质量监测终端与检测装置的网络精准对时,开展通信规约一致性的校验;
步骤2、启动测试,电网实时信号同步发送给电能质量监测终端和检测装置,每隔一固定时段读取并记录电能质量监测终端和检测装置的实时数据;
步骤3、设同一时刻检测装置的电能质量指标的测量值为χ s,电能质量监测终端相应的测量值为χ X,计算相应的分形维数,并计算电能质量监测终端和检测装置的分形维数误差,得到最终的阈值,使用阈值判断电能质量监测终端相应的测量值是否合格;
步骤4、重复步骤3直到现场比对检测完成所有检验点,停止测试。
进一步的,所述的步骤3包括:
步骤301、采用2次幂网格划分的方式对盒维数算法进行网格划分,计算盒维数;
步骤302、利用基于FCM算法的结构函数法计算无标度区间的斜率得到分形维数;
步骤303、利用W-M分形函数计算分形维数误差;
步骤304、根据分形维数误差设定最终的阈值,使用阈值判断电能质量监测终端相应的测量值是否合格。
本发明的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置和检测方法,大大降低电能质量监测终端的检测难度,提高检测效率,同时减少人力和物力成本。使得电能质量在线监测终端的周期性检测工作能够有效开展,从而保证各项电能质量指标的测量准确度,真正地将电能质量技术监督工作落到实处,为电网的安全、稳定、经济运行保驾护航。
附图说明
图1为本发明的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置的电路框图;
图2为信号调理单元的电路原理图;
图3为A/D采样单元的电路原理图;
图4为电源管理单元的电路原理图;
图5为电能质量监测装置现场比对检测框图;
图6为电能质量监测装置现场比对检测的数据流程示意图。
具体实施方式
下面结合附图对本公开实施例进行详细描述。
以下通过特定的具体实例说明本公开的实施方式,本领域技术人员可由本说明书所揭露的内容轻易地了解本公开的其他优点与功效。显然,所描述的实施例仅仅是本公开一部分实施例,而不是全部的实施例。本公开还可以通过另外不同的具体实施方式加以实施或应用,本说明书中的各项细节也可以基于不同观点与应用,在没有背离本公开的精神下进行各种修饰或改变。需说明的是,在不冲突的情况下,以下实施例及实施例中的特征可以相互组合。基于本公开中的实施例,本领域普通技术人员在没有作出创造性劳动前提下所获得的所有其他实施例,都属于本公开保护的范围。
实施例一
本发明提供了一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,可以对电能质量监测终端进行现场比对检测,无需对电能质量监测终端进行拆装并运输到实验室,现场即可完成检测。
如图1所示,电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置包括信号调理单元、A/D采样单元、ARM微处理器单元、FPGA单元、外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元、高精度对时单元和电源管理单元。信号调理单元的输入端输入电压信号,信号调理单元的输出端连接A/D采样单元的输入端。A/D采样单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第一输入端,高精度对时单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第二输入端,FPGA单元将A/D采样单元发送的采样数据和高精度对时单元发送的时间数据送至ARM微处理器单元。ARM微处理器单元分别与外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元、高精度对时单元进行数据交互。所述的电源管理单元为供电单元,为信号调理单元、A/D采样单元、ARM微处理器单元、FPGA单元、外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元、高精度对时单元供电。
各单元电路的作用为:信号调理单元是将输入的电压信号滤波、调理至合适信号,送至A/D采样单元进行采样。
A/D采样单元利用过零检测及锁相环电路实现三相电压、电流信号的同步采样后,得到采样数据发送给FPGA单元。
FPGA单元控制A/D采样单元的卫星授时,并将采样数据和高精度对时单元发送的时间数据送至ARM微处理器。本申请的实施例中,FPGA单元采用XILINX公司的芯片DS181,该芯片通过串行总线与A/D采样单元进行数据交互;该芯片通过PCIE总线与ARM微处理器单元进行数据交互。
ARM微处理器单元作为整个装置的核心,对时间数据、采样数据、通信数据、人机交互数据和存储数据进行处理。
优选地,ARM微处理器单元包括人机交互组件、网络对时组件、数据获取组件、准确度计算组件和检测报告组件。网络对时组件通过获取FPGA单元内来自卫星授时的高精度时间,并把该时间作为整个系统的时钟源,设置为服务器模式,工作于客户端模式的监测终端通过高精度对时单元请求与网络对时组件进行时间同步操作;数据获取组件通过多规约通信单元获取监测终端的电能质量监测指标数据,并同时通过内部总线获取同一时间点和监测点的电能质量监测指标数据,并将上述两组数据流转至准确度计算组件;准确度计算组件则对获得两组电能质量监测数据进行分形维数计算以判断监测终端的准确度是否满足要求;检测报告组件则是以报告形式输出监测终端现场在对检测的准确度结果;人工交互组件与上述其它组件进行交互,进行数据输入、控制启动和结果显示。
ARM微处理器单元采用瑞芯微Rockchip芯片RK3399,具备CPU和GPU。其中CPU采用big.LITTLE大小核架构,双Cortex-A72大核+四Cortex-A53小核结构,对整数、浮点、内存等作了大幅优化,在整体性能、功耗及核心面积三个方面都具革命性提升。GPU采用四核ARM新一代高端图像处理器Mali-T860,集成更多带宽压缩技术,如智能迭加、ASTC、本地像素存储等,还支持更多的图形和计算接口,总体性能比上一代提升45%。ARM微处理器单元采用嵌入式LINUX操作系统。
外部存储单元用于存储波形和存储比对数据等。本申请的实施例中,外部存储单元采用SD卡,通过SPI连接与ARM微处理器单元进行数据读取、存储及删除等操作。
人机交互单元作为检测装置的数据输入、结果显示等。人机交互单元采用蓝牙通信,通过APP和应用程序与ARM微处理器单元进行数据交换,省去装置屏幕,方便开发,提供装置工作的可靠性。本申请的实施例中,人机交互单元采用蓝牙模块HC-05,连接到ARM微处理器单元的串行端口,允许ARM微处理器单元通过蓝牙连接与其他设备通信,蓝牙模块HC-05本身可以在主模式和从模式下运行,并且可以用于各种应用。蓝牙模块HC-05通过TX和RX引脚,支持使用标准AT命令,蓝牙模块HC-05启动后,任何蓝牙设备都应该可以发现它,可以使用标准密码连接到设备,建立连接后,数据通过蓝牙模块HC-05传输并转换为串行流,然后由蓝牙模块HC-05连接的ARM微处理器读取该串行流,从ARM微处理器发送数据的方式相反。
多规约通信单元是兼容不同厂家、不同型号的装置与主站的通讯规约,实现现场比对检测数据的获取。本申请的实施例中,多规约通信单元采用标准IEC61850规约,并兼容其它私有规约,以满足不同厂家不同型号的电能质量监测装置的现场在线比对检测的数据通信要求。
高精度对时单元是整个检测装置的时钟源,对上来自卫星的授时,使装置保持统一时间,对下通过网络对电能质量监测终端进行时间同步,以便精确开展现场比对检测业务。本申请 的实施例中,高精度对时单元包括卫星授时电路和IEEE1588电路,其中卫星授时电路采用u-blox模块MAX-M8Q,支持GPS/Galileo/GLONASS/北斗,能够同时获取和跟踪不同的GNSS(全球导航卫星)系统,实现装置的时间得到精确授权,卫星授时电路与FPGA单元是通过串行总线进行数据交互;IEEE1588电路采用高通的第四代芯片AR8031,属于单端口,10/100/1000Mbps以太网物理层,支持IEEE 1588v2和同步以太网定时,IEEE1588电路与ARM微处理器单元是通过并行总线实现数据交换,而SNTP是属于纯软件功能,实现硬件IEEE1588和SNTP两功能,可以满足不同厂家不同型号的电能质量监测装置的现场在线比对检测的对时请求服务。
电源管理单元是整个检测装置的电源,供各单元、模块工作使用所需的电源。电源管理单元的设计采用二次电源方案,利用DC-DC变换产生需要的电源电压5V、3.3V。由于电源入口处电压降较大,功率要求较高,如果采用线性电源,不仅线性稳压电源在工作中会有很大的热量损失,其工作效率也会很低。因此,各电源都采用开关电源的变换方式。开关电源是用通过电路控制开关管进行高速的通道和截止。将直流电转化为高频率的交流电提供给变压器进行变压,从而生所需要的一组或多组电压。开关电源的功耗低,平均工作效率最高可达90%以上。5V电压的产生采用美国国家半导体公司的LM2576该芯片属于3A电流输出降压开关型集成稳压器,内含固定频率振荡器和基准稳压器,并具有完善的保护电路,包括电流限制及热判断电路等。电路如图4所示。
考虑到设计中对3.3V电压需求较大,如信号调理单元、A/D采样单元、ARM微处理器单元、FPGA单元、外部存储单元、人机交互单元、高精度对时单元均需3.3V电压作为电源电压。因此设计上3.3V电压的产生采用Intersil公司的ISL6443芯片,该芯片是高性能的三路输出控制器,每个输出可低至0.8V,以LM2576的输出电压作为ISL6443的输入电压,产生三路3.3V电压。两个脉冲宽度调制PWM成180°异相同步,减少了输入电流和汉波电压的有效值。同时还有过流保护和过热保护,避免了直流-直流元件在输出过载/短路情况下被损坏。
进一步的,在本申请的一种优选实施方式中,信号调理单元的电路原理图如图2所示。其中包括限流电阻Ri、取样电阻Rs、运算放大器OP07、电容C1和两个抗混叠滤波器。电压互感器二次侧的电压信号经变化后输入到限流电阻Ri的一端,限流电阻Ri的另一端连接运算放大器OP07的反相输入端,运算放大器OP07的同相输入端接地。取样电阻Rs连接在运算放大器OP07的反相输入端和输出端之间。电容C1连接在运算放大器OP07的输出端和地之间,起滤波作用。运算放大器OP07的输出端串联两个抗混叠滤波器后输出信号给A/D采样单元。
抗混叠滤波器包括电阻R1、电阻R2、电阻R3、电容C2、电容C3和运算放大器AD706。 电阻R1的一端作为抗混叠滤波器的输入端,电阻R1与电阻R2串联后连接到运算放大器AD706的同相输入端。运算放大器AD706的反相输入端串联电阻R3后接地。电容C2连接在电阻R1和电阻R2的串联节点与运算放大器AD706的反相输入端之间。电容C3连接在运算放大器AD706的同相输入端和地之间。运算放大器AD706的输出端作为抗混叠滤波器的输出端。
信号调理单元工作原理为:电压回路采用精密电阻分压将电压互感器二次侧57.74V电压信号变成0.05V电压信号,电流回路采用高精度钳式电流传感器HIOKI 9694将PT二次侧输出电流信号5A变成0.05V电压信号。再将上述电压回路和电流回路的0.05V电压信号经过限流电阻Ri后送入运算放大器OP07芯片,建立跟随以提高输入阻抗,降低输出阻抗提高带负载能力。限流电阻Ri和取样电阻Rs均为2.5kΩ。为防止高频信号在A/D采样过程中造成频谱混叠,采用两级抗混叠滤波器对运算放大器OP07输出的信号进行滤波。抗混叠滤波器所使用的运算放大器采用AD706芯片。
进一步的,在本申请的一种优选实施方式中,A/D采样单元如图3所示。其中包括电阻R4、电阻R5、电阻R6、电阻R7、电阻R8、电阻R9、电阻R10、电阻R11、电容C4、电容C5、电容C6、二极管D1、二极管D2、双电压比较芯片LM393、压控振荡器CD4046和分频器CD4040。电阻R4的一端作为A/D采样单元的输入端。电阻R4的另一端连接电阻R5的一端、电容C4的一端和双电压比较芯片LM393正输入端。电阻R5的另一端和电容C4的另一端接地。二极管D1的阳极和二极管D2的阴极接地,二极管D1的阴极和二极管D2的阳极连接双电压比较芯片LM393正输入端。电阻R6连接在双电压比较芯片LM393的负输入端和地之间。双电压比较芯片LM393的输出端经过电阻R7后连接到压控振荡器CD4046的输入端14。压控振荡器CD4046的输出端4连接分频器CD4040的时钟输入端2,经分频器分频后回馈到压控振荡器CD4046的鉴相器输入端3,经压控振荡器CD4046处理后从输出端输出倍频信号。
A/D采样单元采用高精度24位高精度A/D采样芯片AD7768,远远高于目前主流监测装置的16位A/D采样精度,同时设计过零检测及锁相环电路,以满足三相电压、电流的同步采样,过零检测电路采用双电压比较芯片LM393,锁相环电路采用芯片CD4046。
工频信号与分频电路输出的50Hz左右的锁定方波一同进入鉴相器进行相位比较。鉴相器输出的比较结果中包含偏差电压成份,经环路滤波器滤波,产生控制电压,加在压控振荡器输入端;其产生的振荡输出经分频后变为锁定方波重新进入鉴相端,与工频信号进行相位比较。当两个信号相位差偏离标准时,环路滤波器必须输出偏差校正电压使压控振荡器产生频率变化,以使两个信号相位锁定在标准位置。由于压控振荡器片于该闭环系统中,在两个信号被锁定后,其压控振荡器输出的振荡频率必然是工频信号频率的整数倍。
图3的In输入的为A相电压,先通过电阻R4和R5分压,经过LM393信号比较输出方波 送至压控振荡器CD4046,CD4046输出到分频器CD4040的时钟输入端,经分频后回馈到CD4046的鉴相器输入端,和待倍频的输入信号进行相位比较,得到的相位差经过低通滤波器产生一个控制电压调节压控振荡器的输出振荡频率,但鉴相器的两输入端频率相位一样时(即相位锁定),压控振荡器的输出频率即为倍频后的频率。
频率跟踪电路由专用集成锁相芯片CD4046和分频芯片CD4040组成,以实现工频信号的相倍频,分频比为1/4096。在工频信号恰好在50Hz的情况下,该电路的锁相倍频率为50×4096=204.8kHz,相当于一个工频周期内有4096个脉冲。
本发明还提供了一种电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测方法,可在现场免拆线、带电情况下对电能质量监测终端的准确度进行现场在线比对检测,现场在线比对检测框图如图5所示。具体地,电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测方法包括以下步骤:
步骤1、将被检测的电能质量监测终端与检测装置通过以太网连接,设置检测装置参数,启动网络精准对时,开展通信规约一致性的校验。
需要暂时断开电能质量监测终端与电能质量在线监测系统的连接网线,按图5连接电能质量监测终端和测量装置。
设置检测装置的IP地址、互感器变比、数据上传时间间隔和统计记录周期等参数。启动网络精准对时,开展通信规约一致性的校验的目的是为了使检测装置与电能质量监测终端接收到的电网实时信号具有高度的一致性。
ARM微处理器单元的网络对时组件通过获取FPGA单元内来自卫星授时的高精度时间,并把该时间作为整个系统的时钟源,设置为服务器模式,工作于客户端模式的监测终端通过高精度对时单元请求于网络对时组件进行时间同步操作。
步骤2、设置整点时刻T启动测试,电网实时信号同步发送给电能质量监测终端和检测装置,每隔一固定时段读取并记录电能质量监测终端和检测装置的实时数据。
在本发明的实施例中,固定时段设置为3s。固定时段的具体数值不应作为对本发明的限制。
检测装置的高精度测量模块接收电网实时信号,并通过内部总线将实时信号发送给主机进行相关数据的计算。主机同时接收监测终端发送的数据。
步骤3、设同一时刻检测装置的电能质量指标的测量值为χ s,电能质量监测终端相应的测量值为χ X,ARM微处理器单元的准确度计算组件计算相应的分形维数,并计算电能质量监测终端和检测装置的分形维数误差,得到最终的度量阈值。
在分形维数计算中常用的算法是盒维数算法,但是通过W-M分形函数的测试结果发现,在分形维数较高时盒维数算法的误差较大。用结构函数法来计算分形维数,而结构函数法在 分形维数较低时误差较大。本发明是将盒维数算法和结构函数法相结合来设定更为精确的阈值。
盒维数算法的实现方法简单,是常用的分形维数计算方法,訾艳阳等在2001年提出了一种对离散振动信号进行盒维数计算的方法,将盒维数算法推广到了一维信号的分形维数计算中。
本发明将盒维数算法应用到一维信号的分形维数计算中,并且改变了传统盒维数算法的网格划分方式,把整数网格划分变为2次幂网格划分,这样在以2为底取对数时得到的散点图呈现的分布更好,得到的散点图近似为一条直线。
自然界中随机存在的分形不像数学分形具有无穷尺度的自相似性,只在一定范围内存在,这个尺度范围就是无标度区间。无标度区间为双对数曲线上较直的一段线段,斜率近似为常数。
结构函数法得到的双对数曲线无法用直线拟合,因此本发明通过FCM算法对一次差分后的双对数曲线进行聚类,最终的聚类结果为无标度区间,对无标度区间最小二乘拟合得到分形维数。以下将分别介绍不同网格划分的盒维数算法和基于FCM的结构函数算法以及常用来作为分形维数测试函数的W-M分形函数。
进一步的,在本申请的一种有选实施方式中,计算相应的分形维数包括以下步骤:
步骤301、采用2次幂网格划分的方式对盒维数算法进行网格划分,计算盒维数。
离散信号
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000001
Y是2维欧式空间R2上的闭集。用足够细的边长为2 ε的正方形网格对R2进行划分。N(2 ε)是集合Y的网格计数。以网格2 ε为基准,逐步放大到2 k网格,其中k∈Z +,以N(2 k)为离散空间上的集合Y的网格计数。
在划分的过程中难免会遇到离散信号长度与网格大小不能整除的情况,将不能整除的部分全部舍去难免会影响计算精度,因此要对不能整除的部分进行处理,本文所用的处理方法为将不能整除的部分看作是一个新的网格来进行网格计数。
盒维数计算公式:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000002
即:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000003
具体的计算过程为
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000004
式中:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000005
k=0,1,L,M,M<N,N为采样点数。
网格计数N(2 k)为:
N(2 k)=P(2 k)/(2 k)+1     (4)
其中N(2 k)>1。两个公式的含义为在不同大小的网格划分下计算出每一段区间的最大值与最小值差值,再通过差值得到网格数N(2 k)。
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000006
即k为横轴,
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000007
为纵轴,画出
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000008
散点图,对于图中的点用最小二乘法确定直线的斜率:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000009
其中k1、k2为拟合区间的起点和终点,
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000010
为拟合斜率。盒维数D为:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000011
算法在传统盒维数算法的基础上使用了一种新的网格划分方法,较之前的划分方法计算更为简便。盒维数在分形维数较高时误差较大,结构函数法误差更小。
步骤302、利用基于FCM算法的结构函数法计算无标度区间的斜率得到分形维数。
结构函数法将离散信号曲线上的所有点看作具有分形特征的时间序列。离散信号y(i)的结构函数s(t)为:
s(t)=<[y(x+t)-y(x)] 2>=ct 4-2D       (7)
其中,t代表数据点的间隔个数;s(t)是t的函数;x为曲线上的横坐标;y(x)为坐标x上所对应的纵坐标;<[y(x+t)-y(x)] 2>表示差方的算术平均值;c为常数,对结果无影响。
针对若干个t计算出相应的s(t),得到双对数曲线lgt-lgs(t)的无标度区间,计算无标度区间的斜率得到分形维数。无标度区间是双对数曲线上比较直的一段线段,其斜率近似为常数,因此对结构函数进行一阶差分,特点为在无标度区间内波动微小,而在无标度区间外波动较大。可根据这个特点对一阶差分之后的双对数曲线进行聚类,选用FCM算法进行聚类。
FCM是基于目标函数的聚类算法,用模糊理论对数据进行分析和建模,不断修正聚类中 心和分类矩阵到符合终止准则,得到对数据类属的不确定性描述,根据隶属程度得出数据的类别,是对K-means的改进算法。
已知数据样本X={x 1,x 2,L,x n}的模糊分类矩阵A=[a ij] c×n和聚类中心C=[c 1,c 2,L,c c] T,FCM可以表述为:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000012
式中:c为聚类中心个数;n为样本个数;m为加权指数;a ij和d ij分别为第j个数据点对第i个聚类中心的隶属度和欧氏距离。
将一阶差分之后的结构函数分为两类,一类为数据中的粗大误差,要将其剔除。粗大误差的判别方法为对聚类结果分别进行最小二乘拟合,拟合误差更大的数据集为粗大误差。一次分类所得的区间范围可能不够准确,因此需要对保留下来的数据再次分类,去除部分杂点以求得更精确的无标度区间。对聚类结果分别进行最小二乘拟合,由于已经去除了粗大误差,第二次聚类结果在拟合误差上相差不会太大,单纯以拟合误差作为判别标准难免会产生一些问题,因此选择拟合结果中散点波动较小、拟合斜率为正的区间作为最终得到的无标度区间。无标度区间的斜率α,D与斜率α的转换关系为:
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000013
步骤303、利用W-M分形函数计算分形维数误差。
W-M分形函数常作为分形维数算法的测试函数。W-M分形函数由维尔斯特拉斯函数演变而成,该函数处处连续但又不可导。在曼德博创立了分形这一理论以后,维尔斯特拉斯函数与分形理论相结合,得到了Weierstrass-Mandelbrot分形函数,即W-M分形函数。随后Majumdar与Bhushan在W-M分形函数的基础上进行了修正,使其成为了更适合工程表面的数学模型,即M-B函数。目前所指的W-M分形函数就是指M-B函数,其表达式如下。
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000014
式中,Z(x)为曲线高度;x为曲线的位置坐标;G为特征尺度系数,取值范围在[0,1]之间;D为分形维数;λ n为曲线的空间频率,λ为大于1的常数,通常取λ=1.5;nL是与曲线的最低截止频率相对应的序数;n为频率指数,且n不需要取过大值,在实际应用中一般取10-100之间的值。
将W-M分形函数在不同分形维数下得到的数据结果代入2次幂网格划分的盒维数算法,得到的结果如表1所示。
表1盒维数算法误差
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000015
将W-M分形函数在不同分形维数下得到的数据结果代入结构函数法,得到的结果如表2所示。
表2结构函数法误差
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000016
步骤304、根据分形维数误差设定最终的阈值,使用阈值判断电能质量监测终端相应的测量值是否合格。
由表1和表2可以得出盒维数在分形维数较低时误差较低,在分形维数较高时误差较高,而结构函数法在分形维数较低时的误差较高,在分形维数较高时误差较低。因此将两种算法的计算结果相结合设定阈值,在不同的分形维数区间内采用不同的算法,最终设定的阈值结果如表3所示。
表3分形维数阈值
Figure PCTCN2021084986-appb-000017
根据算法特点设定阈值,得到最终的阈值结果作为度量两条曲线的新指标。阈值结果由指定算法的区间内相对误差最大值得出,由于是电能质量监测终端和高精度电能质量测量装置两个设备分别计算分形维数,因此最终的阈值为两倍的相对误差。
步骤4、重复步骤3直到现场比对检测完成所有检验点,停止测试。
综上所述,本实用新型具有以下有益效果:
本发明实现了一种简单易用的基于分形维数的电能质量监测终端现场在线比对检测方法及其装置,通过设计高精度电能质量测试装置使其测量精度、对时精度高于常规电能质量监测终端。其通讯规约兼容市面主流IEC61850通讯规约及私有规约。创新地发明了基于分形维数的电能质量监测终端现场在线比对检测方法,实现监测终端现场比对检测的即插即用。降低电能质量在线监测终端的现场比对检测难度,提高电能质量工作效率,同时有效减少人力、物力和时间成本。实现安装于电能质量监测终端的定期检测工作得以有效开展,真正地将电能质量技术监督工作落到实处,为电网的安全、稳定、经济运行保驾护航。
在本发明中,除非另有明确的规定和限定,术语“安装”、“相连”、“连接”、“固定”等术语应做广义理解,例如,可以是固定连接,也可以是可拆卸连接,或成一体;可以是机械连接,也可以是电连接或彼此可通讯;可以是直接相连,也可以通过中间媒介间接相连,可以是两个元件内部的连通或两个元件的相互作用关系,除非另有明确的限定。对于本领域的普通技术人员而言,可以根据具体情况理解上述术语在本发明中的具体含义。
以上仅为说明本发明的实施方式,并不用于限制本发明,对于本领域的技术人员来说,凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,不经过创造性劳动所作的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。

Claims (10)

  1. 电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,包括信号调理单元、A/D采样单元、ARM微处理器单元、FPGA单元、外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元、高精度对时单元和电源管理单元;所述的信号调理单元的输入端输入电压信号,信号调理单元的输出端连接A/D采样单元的输入端;A/D采样单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第一输入端,高精度对时单元的输出端连接FPGA单元的第二输入端;FPGA单元将A/D采样单元发送的采样数据和高精度对时单元发送的时间数据送至ARM微处理器单元;ARM微处理器单元分别与外部存储单元、人机交互单元、多规约通信单元和高精度对时单元进行数据交互;所述的电源管理单元为供电单元。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的信号调理单元包括限流电阻Ri、取样电阻Rs、第一运算放大器、电容C1和两个抗混叠滤波器;电压信号输入到限流电阻Ri的一端,限流电阻Ri的另一端连接第一运算放大器的反相输入端,第一运算放大器的同相输入端接地;取样电阻Rs连接在第一运算放大器的反相输入端和输出端之间;电容C1连接在第一运算放大器的输出端和地之间,起滤波作用;第一运算放大器的输出端串联两个抗混叠滤波器后输出信号给A/D采样单元。
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的抗混叠滤波器包括电阻R1、电阻R2、电阻R3、电容C2、电容C3和第二运算放大器;电阻R1的一端作为抗混叠滤波器的输入端,电阻R1与电阻R2串联后连接到第二运算放大器的同相输入端;第二运算放大器的反相输入端串联电阻R3后接地;电容C2连接在电阻R1和电阻R2的串联节点与第二运算放大器的反相输入端之间;电容C3连接在第二运算放大器的同相输入端和地之间;第二运算放大器的输出端作为抗混叠滤波器的输出端。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的A/D采样单元包括电阻R4、电阻R5、电阻R6、电阻R7、电阻R8、电阻R9、电阻R10、电阻R11、电容C4、电容C5、电容C6、二极管D1、二极管D2、双电压比较芯片、压控振荡器和分频器;电阻R4的一端作为A/D采样单元的输入端;电阻R4的另一端连接电阻R5的一端、电容C4的一端和双电压比较芯片正输入端;电阻R5的另一端和电容C4的另一端接地;二极管D1的阳 极和二极管D2的阴极接地,二极管D1的阴极和二极管D2的阳极连接双电压比较芯片正输入端;电阻R6连接在双电压比较芯片的负输入端和地之间;双电压比较芯片的输出端经过电阻R7后连接到压控振荡器的输入端;压控振荡器的输出端连接分频器的时钟输入端,经分频器分频后回馈到压控振荡器的鉴相器输入端,经压控振荡器处理后从输出端输出倍频信号。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的ARM微处理器单元包括人机交互组件、网络对时组件、数据获取组件、准确度计算组件和检测报告组件;所述的网络对时组件通过获取FPGA单元内来自卫星授时的高精度时间,并把该高精度时间作为整个系统的时钟源,设置为服务器模式;工作于客户端模式的电能质量监测终端通过高精度对时单元请求与网络对时组件进行时间同步操作;数据获取组件通过多规约通信单元获取电能质量监测终端的电能质量监测指标数据,并同时通过内部总线获取同一时间点和监测点的电能质量监测指标数据,并将上述两组电能质量监测指标数据流转至准确度计算组件;准确度计算组件则对获得两组电能质量监测指标数据进行分形维数计算以判断监测终端的准确度是否满足要求;检测报告组件以报告形式输出电能质量监测终端现场在线比对检测的准确度结果;人工交互组件与网络对时组件、数据获取组件、准确度计算组件和检测报告组件进行交互。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的高精度对时单元来自卫星的授时,使现场在线比对检测装置与电能质量监测终端进行时间同步。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的外部存储单元用于存储波形和存储比对数据。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置,其特征在于,所述的人机交互单元采用蓝牙通信,用于现场在线比对检测装置的数据输入和结果显示。
  9. 电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
    步骤1、将被检测的电能质量监测终端与检测装置通过以太网连接,设置检测装置参数,启动电能质量监测终端与检测装置的网络精准对时,开展通信规约 一致性的校验;
    步骤2、启动测试,电网实时信号同步发送给电能质量监测终端和检测装置,每隔一固定时段读取并记录电能质量监测终端和检测装置的实时数据;
    步骤3、设同一时刻检测装置的电能质量指标的测量值为χ s,电能质量监测终端相应的测量值为χ X,计算相应的分形维数,并计算电能质量监测终端和检测装置的分形维数误差,得到最终的阈值,使用阈值判断电能质量监测终端相应的测量值是否合格;
    步骤4、重复步骤3直到现场比对检测完成所有检验点,停止测试。
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测方法,其特征在于,所述的步骤3包括:
    步骤301、采用2次幂网格划分的方式对盒维数算法进行网格划分,计算盒维数;
    步骤302、利用基于FCM算法的结构函数法计算无标度区间的斜率得到分形维数;
    步骤303、利用W-M分形函数计算分形维数误差;
    步骤304、根据分形维数误差设定最终的阈值,使用阈值判断电能质量监测终端相应的测量值是否合格。
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CN110177091A (zh) * 2019-05-20 2019-08-27 广西电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 实现电能质量监测装置多业务的系统及方法
CN112269089A (zh) * 2020-10-29 2021-01-26 广西电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 电能质量监测终端的现场在线比对检测装置及检测方法

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CN117216469A (zh) * 2023-09-03 2023-12-12 国网江苏省电力有限公司信息通信分公司 一种电力系统实时监测与预测的大数据处理方法及系统
CN117216469B (zh) * 2023-09-03 2024-03-15 国网江苏省电力有限公司信息通信分公司 一种电力系统实时监测与预测的大数据处理方法及系统

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