WO2021174726A1 - Nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy having high aluminum content and preparation method therefor - Google Patents

Nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy having high aluminum content and preparation method therefor Download PDF

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WO2021174726A1
WO2021174726A1 PCT/CN2020/098832 CN2020098832W WO2021174726A1 WO 2021174726 A1 WO2021174726 A1 WO 2021174726A1 CN 2020098832 W CN2020098832 W CN 2020098832W WO 2021174726 A1 WO2021174726 A1 WO 2021174726A1
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alloy
nickel
forging
temperature
controlled
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PCT/CN2020/098832
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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黄烁
张北江
张文云
秦鹤勇
赵光普
胥国华
陈石富
田强
段然
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北京钢研高纳科技股份有限公司
钢铁研究总院
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/056Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 10% but less than 20%
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making non-ferrous alloys
    • C22C1/02Making non-ferrous alloys by melting
    • C22C1/023Alloys based on nickel
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making non-ferrous alloys
    • C22C1/02Making non-ferrous alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making non-ferrous alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/057Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being less 10%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/10Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of nickel or cobalt or alloys based thereon

Definitions

  • the invention belongs to the field of alloy preparation, and specifically relates to a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method.
  • the service temperature of advanced gas turbine engines such as high-pressure compressor discs such as aero engines and gas turbines, and hot-end rotating roulette-type forgings such as turbine discs, has gradually increased, with a long-term service temperature of up to 850°C.
  • the alloy materials required for roulette forgings are required to have excellent strength and plasticity at room temperature to 850°C, high temperature permanent creep properties, and long-term structural stability, as well as good casting and forging process properties.
  • nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials used in domestic aero-engines is GH4169 alloy used below 650°C, and the highest use temperature is GH4720Li, GH4065A, GH4738 and other nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy roulette materials used below 750°C.
  • nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials such as GH4141 and GH4586 that can be used for a short time below 850°C, but they cannot meet the long-term use requirements above 850°C.
  • nickel-based superalloys As we all know, the most effective way to increase the operating temperature of nickel-based superalloys is to increase the degree of alloying and increase the content of the strengthening phase ⁇ 'phase. However, excessive alloying will cause the alloy’s metallurgical segregation tendency and thermal plasticity to deteriorate, so a new type of alloy has been developed. Nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials are quite difficult. In terms of composition design, it is necessary not only to improve the overall performance of alloying to meet the requirements, but also to combine the existing technical conditions to make it have a certain process performance to ensure manufacturability.
  • Nickel-based superalloys with a ⁇ 'phase content of 55-65% can only be produced by powder metallurgy or casting (including equiaxed casting, directional solidification and single crystal solidification) processes. These alloys are produced by casting-forging processes. Because of the high tendency of element segregation, the easy formation of metallurgical defects, and poor hot working (forging) plasticity, this type of alloy composition is not suitable for the preparation of nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials. In addition, although some nickel-based superalloys prepared by powder metallurgy or casting processes can be used at temperatures up to 850°C, their uniformity and compactness are not as good as forgings produced by casting-forging processes.
  • the casting-forging process is adopted to ensure the quality and reliability of the roulette forgings to the greatest extent, and at the same time, it can be industrialized with high efficiency and low cost.
  • the direct use of powder metallurgy or casting alloy components for casting-forging process production will face incompatibility problems, such as the control of the content of easily segregated elements Ti and Mo, the control of the content of easily oxidized elements Hf, and the high-cost addition of Ta. , And the addition of B, Zr, Ce and other beneficial trace elements at the grain boundary, etc., the element ratio must be optimized and adjusted according to the characteristics of the casting-forging process.
  • the present invention provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method thereof, which solves the problem that there is currently no high-performance wheel forging material that can be used for a long time at 850°C, especially with Excellent tensile strength, yield strength and longevity at 850°C.
  • the first aspect of the present invention provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content.
  • the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage.
  • the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy includes: C: 0.004 to 0.1%, W: 6.0 to 9.0%, Cr: 7.0 ⁇ 12.0%, Mo: 1.0 ⁇ 4.0%, Co: 14.0 ⁇ 17.5%, Ti: 0.8 ⁇ 2.5%, Al: 3.5 ⁇ 6.0%, Nb: 0.8 ⁇ 2.5%, Zr: 0.005 ⁇ 0.1%, Mg : 0.005 ⁇ 0.1%; Ce: 0.001 ⁇ 0.1%, B: 0.005 ⁇ 0.1%, Fe: 0.005 ⁇ 2.0%, the balance is Ni.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare wheel forgings for long-term use at 850°C.
  • the diameter of the wheel disk forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm.
  • the tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 800MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 650MPa.
  • the endurance life of °C/350MPa is more than 30h.
  • the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed superalloy includes: C: 0.01-0.08%, W: 6.5-8.0%, Cr: 7.5- 11.0%, Mo: 1.5 to 3.5%, Co: 14.5 to 17.5%, Ti: 1.0 to 2.0%, Al: 4.0 to 5.5%, Nb: 1.0 to 2.0%, Zr: 0.005 to 0.05%, Mg: 0.005 to 0.05 %; Ce: 0.001 to 0.05%, B: 0.005 to 0.05%, Fe: 0.01 to 1.5%, the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements, among the impurity elements, P ⁇ 0.015%, Mn ⁇ 0.5%, Si ⁇ 0.5%, S ⁇ 0.015%, O ⁇ 0.005%, N ⁇ 0.01%, Ag ⁇ 0.005%, Ca ⁇ 0.01%, Sn ⁇ 0.01%, Pb ⁇ 0.001%, Cu ⁇ 0.5%, Ta ⁇ 0.5%, V ⁇ 0.5%.
  • the inventors have confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare roulette forgings for long-term use at 850°C.
  • the diameter of the roulette forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm.
  • the tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 850MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 700MPa.
  • °C/350MPa endurance life is greater than 50h.
  • the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy includes: C: 0.01 ⁇ 0.06%, W: 6.5-75%, Cr: 8.0 ⁇ 10.0%, Mo: 2.0 to 3.2%, Co: 15.0 to 16.5%, Ti: 1.2 to 1.8%, Al: 4.5 to 5.2%, Nb: 1.2 to 1.8%, Zr: 0.005 to 0.03%, Mg: 0.005 to 0.03 %; Ce: 0.001 to 0.03%, B: 0.005 to 0.03%, Fe: 0.01 to 1.2%, and the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements.
  • the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare wheel forgings for long-term use at 850°C.
  • the diameter of the wheel disk forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm.
  • the tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 900MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 750MPa.
  • °C/350MPa endurance life is greater than 100h.
  • the nickel-based deformed superalloy uses ⁇ austenite as a matrix, and the mass percentage of the strengthening phase ⁇ ′ phase reaches 55-65%, and the strengthening The chemical composition of the phase is (Ni, Co) 3 (Al, Ti, Nb).
  • the inventors have confirmed through research that the high content of the strengthening phase ⁇ 'phase of the alloy prepared by this technical solution enables the alloy to have good tensile strength and durability at 850°C. At the same time, the addition of Nb element improves the ⁇ 'phase. stability.
  • the nickel-based deformed superalloy further includes a second phase, and the second phase includes: MC type carbide, M6C type carbide, M23C6 type carbide , MB2 type boride, M3B2 type boride.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can improve the durability of the alloy at 850°C.
  • the mass percentage of the ⁇ 'phase content is 55-65%, and the long-term aging is more than 5000h in the temperature range of 650-900°C , And the content of precipitated harmful phase ⁇ phase does not exceed 1%.
  • the inventors have confirmed through research that the high content of ⁇ 'phase in the alloy prepared by this technical solution ensures that the alloy has good mechanical properties in the temperature range of room temperature to 850°C, and at the same time, the harmful phase ⁇ phase is rarely precipitated during long-term aging. , To ensure that the alloy can be used for a long time at 850°C.
  • the second aspect of the present invention provides a method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content, which is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
  • Step 1 Use vacuum induction melting to smelt the metal raw material components described in any one of claims 1 to 5 into primary alloy ingots, and then refine them into secondary alloy ingots by electroslag remelting, and then refine by vacuum consumable remelting Is a tertiary alloy ingot to obtain an alloy ingot;
  • Step 2 After the alloy ingot obtained in Step 1 is subjected to high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing, it is heated and forged into a bar;
  • Step 3 The bar obtained in step 2 is formed by blanking and die forging to obtain alloy wheel forgings;
  • Step 4 After heat treatment of the alloy wheel forging obtained in Step 3, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging for long-term use at 850°C is obtained.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the existing high-temperature alloy smelting and forging equipment can be used to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 200mm to 1200mm of the patented alloy, and industrial production can be realized.
  • the vacuum induction smelting in step 1 includes treatment processes: evacuation, smelting period, refining and tapping; in the evacuation treatment process, the vacuum degree is 10 ⁇ 100Pa; In the treatment process of the smelting period, the temperature is controlled to be 1300°C-1650°C; in the refining treatment process, the temperature is controlled to be 1400°C to 1600°C, and the vacuum degree is 1-20 Pa; In the steel tapping treatment process, the temperature is controlled to 1420°C-1590°C, and it needs to be filled with 10000 ⁇ 50,000Pa argon protection. After the casting is finished, it is cooled for 0.5h ⁇ 3h and then demoulded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, a vacuum induction ingot of an alloy can be prepared, the alloy elements can be accurately controlled, and the steel ingot will not be hot-cracked, and can be used to prepare electrodes for remelting and refining.
  • the step 1 further includes: preparing the primary alloy ingot into an I electroslag remelting electrode, and the filling ratio of the I electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is
  • the steady-state melting rate is 1.0-6.0 kg/min
  • the cooling time after the completion of the secondary alloy ingot smelting (ie electroslag remelting) is 0.5h-6h, and then the Mold cooling.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that this technical solution can effectively reduce the inclusion content and the harmful impurity element S content in the alloy ingot after electroslag remelting the primary alloy ingot prepared by vacuum induction melting, and at the same time prepare electroslag with qualified composition.
  • the ingot is used to prepare the vacuum consumable remelting electrode, which can significantly improve the quality of the electrode, improve the process stability of the vacuum consumable remelting process, and can prepare the electrode of the vacuum consumable ingot with a diameter of 500 mm.
  • the step 1 further includes: preparing the secondary alloy ingot into an II electroslag remelting electrode, and the filling ratio of the II electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.75 ⁇ 0.95, melting rate 1.0 ⁇ 5.0kg/min, cooling time after tertiary alloy ingot smelting (ie vacuum consumable remelting) is 0.5h ⁇ 3h, and then demolding and cooling.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, through the above-mentioned vacuum consumable remelting, the metallurgical quality of the steel ingot can be significantly improved, and the compactness and thermoplasticity of the steel ingot can be improved.
  • step 1 if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500 mm, the treatment process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed to:
  • the alloy ingot is directly subjected to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain the alloy ingot.
  • the inventors have confirmed through research that through this technical solution, consumable ingots smaller than 500mm require a small electrode diameter, and the use of vacuum induction ingots to prepare electrodes can obtain good metallurgical quality, which not only shortens the process flow, but also effectively reduces costs.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes; the heating rate is controlled to be 15-60°C/h, and the heat preservation The temperature is 1150 to 1250°C, the heat preservation time is 24 to 72 hours, and the cooling rate is controlled to be 5 to 55°C/h.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, homogenized diffusion annealing can eliminate solidification stress, avoid hot cracking of steel ingots, and also eliminate low melting point phases, effectively reduce the degree of elemental dendritic segregation, and improve the thermoplasticity of steel ingots.
  • the step 2 further includes: the alloy ingot obtained in the step 1 is homogenized and annealed, heated to the forging temperature and kept at the temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging, and the heating rate before forging is controlled as follows: 15 ⁇ 60°C/h, the holding temperature is 1050°C ⁇ 1180°C, and the holding time is 2h ⁇ 8h.
  • the forging billeting process includes upsetting and drawing. The forging time of a single fire time exceeds 5 ⁇ 30min, and then it is returned to the furnace for 1 ⁇ 6h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to be 5-20 to obtain bars.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the steel ingot can be forged and billeted using a fast forging machine, the steel ingot does not crack, and the as-cast structure can be transformed into an equiaxed crystal structure.
  • the step 3 further includes: cutting the bar obtained in step 2 according to the weight of the roulette forging to obtain the cut bar; the weight of the cut bar is the roulette forging
  • the weight of the cut bar is 110-150%, the height-to-diameter ratio of the cut bar is controlled between 1.5-3.0, and the cut bar is heated to upset the billet, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 20-50 °C/h, the holding temperature is 1000°C-1150°C, the holding time is 2-8h, the upsetting deformation is 30-70%, and the disc blank is obtained.
  • the inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the bar upsetting process is stable, and there are no forging defects such as forging cracks, large and small heads, and wrinkles.
  • the disc blank is heated and then die forged, the heating rate before forging is controlled to be 20-50°C/h, the holding temperature is 950°C to 1150°C, and the holding time is 2-8h, the forging deformation is 30-70%, and the mold heating temperature is 300-1050°C.
  • the roulette forging can be formed by die forging without forging cracking, the filling effect is good, and the uniformity of the structure is good.
  • the wheel forging obtained in the step 3 is subjected to heat treatment by machining, and the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment, so
  • the solution treatment method is 1150 ⁇ 1220°C and the temperature is 2-10h
  • the intermediate aging treatment method is 1000 ⁇ 1150°C and the temperature is 2 ⁇ 10h.
  • the aging treatment method is 760°C ⁇ 920°C and the temperature is 8 ⁇ 32h.
  • This patent provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method.
  • a casting-forging process can be used to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 100 to 1200 mm at room temperature of 850°C. It has good mechanical properties and satisfactory service stability in the temperature range, which can fill the gap of domestic 850°C deformable disc materials.
  • Figure 1 is the thermodynamic equilibrium phase diagram of the invention alloy
  • Figure 2 is the isothermal transformation curve (TTT curve) of the ⁇ phase of the inventive alloy
  • Fig. 3 is a flow chart of the preparation process of the alloy wheel forging of the present invention.
  • the nickel-based deformed superalloy mentioned herein includes impurity elements, such as P, Mn, Si, S, O, N, Ag, Ca, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ta, V and so on.
  • the alloy composition design ideas of this patent are as follows.
  • the traditional Ni-Co-Cr component is used as the base element.
  • the strengthening phase ⁇ ′ phase content is increased To 55%-65%, to effectively improve the alloy's temperature-bearing capacity.
  • the appropriate addition of Nb to the alloy can improve the stability of the ⁇ 'phase, thereby improving the performance of the casting-forging process, reducing the addition of Cr can improve the long-term structural stability of the alloy at 850°C, and the high content of Al can make up for the decrease of the Cr element. Loss of surface stability caused by.
  • Ni element is a matrix element, because Ni has a stable austenite matrix without allotropic transformation, austenite has higher high temperature strength, and has higher chemical stability, and has excellent resistance at high temperatures. Oxidation and corrosion resistance.
  • Co element to Ni can not only play a solid solution strengthening effect, but also increase the solid solubility of Ni matrix components, reduce the stacking fault energy of the alloy, and improve high temperature performance; adding Cr element to Ni-Co, Cr Not only can it play a solid solution strengthening effect, but Cr can form a dense and automatically repairable Cr 2 O 3 oxide film on the surface of the alloy, so that the alloy has excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance.
  • excessive Cr content will cause Ni -The solid solubility of the Co-Cr matrix components is reduced, and harmful ⁇ phases are easily precipitated, which is not conducive to long-term service stability.
  • W and Mo are the most effective solid solution strengthening elements in Ni-based alloys.
  • a high content of Mo is not conducive to the hot corrosion resistance of the alloy and promotes the precipitation of ⁇ phase.
  • a high content of W will cause the density of the alloy to increase, but in order to increase at the same time
  • this patent adopts the design of high W and low Mo.
  • Al is the most effective element in the formation of precipitation strengthening phase ⁇ 'phase in Ni-based alloys, and Al element can form Al 2 O 3 oxide film, which can also improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of the alloy, but high content of Al element is not conducive to The forging and casting properties of the alloy.
  • the Al content in traditional nickel-based wrought superalloys generally does not exceed 4%.
  • the atomic number of Al is small, so the atomic percentage is high. If the Al content is increased to more than 4%, a higher content of ⁇ 'phase will be precipitated.
  • thermoplasticity of the steel ingot Conducive to the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot, it will cause the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot to be significantly reduced; on the other hand, the increase in Al content will increase the viscosity of the molten steel, expand the temperature range of the solid liquidus, and extend the solidification time of the molten steel. Formation of looseness, and more ⁇ 'phases will be precipitated to form greater structural stress, which will cause cracking of the steel ingot in severe cases, which is not conducive to casting performance.
  • this patent increases the Al element content and reduces the Cr element content, thereby improving the high-temperature long-term structural stability.
  • Ti is also an effective precipitation strengthening phase ⁇ 'phase forming element in Ni-based alloys, but Ti element has a greater tendency to solidify and segregate. High Ti alloys are prone to form Ti-rich channel segregation metallurgical defects. Ti is also a strong MC type carbide. Forming elements; in order to improve the stability and strengthening effect of the ⁇ 'phase, this patent adopts a high Al and low Ti design, and the Ti content is controlled by adjusting the Al/Ti ratio.
  • Nb is also an effective precipitation strengthening phase ⁇ ′ phase forming element in Ni-based alloys. Nb entering into the ⁇ ′ phase can stabilize the ⁇ ′ phase, which can effectively reduce the precipitation rate of the ⁇ ′ phase during the cooling process, but the Nb element The solidification segregation tends to be greater.
  • This patented alloy adopts a high ⁇ ′ phase design. In order to improve the stability of the ⁇ ′ phase and enhance the forging process performance, an appropriate amount of Nb element is added and controlled according to the total amount of Al+Ti+Nb.
  • C is an important element in nickel-based deformed superalloys.
  • C mainly forms carbides. According to the composition of alloy elements, it can form various types of carbides such as MC type, M 6 C type and M 23 C 6 type; the carbide is at 850 °C It can improve the durability of the alloy at a high temperature. For this reason, an appropriate amount of C element is added to the alloy of this patent.
  • Fe element is also a constituent element of ⁇ austenite, but too much Fe element addition will promote the precipitation of ⁇ phase, which is not conducive to the stability of high temperature and long-term structure.
  • too low Fe element content is detrimental to industrialized metallurgical production. This is because the high-temperature alloy smelting furnace of the factory usually produces some Fe-containing alloys. If the Fe requirement is too low, it is necessary to take measures such as washing the furnace or new furnace lining, which will not only affect the production efficiency, but may also cause the Fe element to exceed the standard and cause qualified The rate is reduced. For this reason, this patent comprehensively considers the ratio of each element, and at the same time assesses the maximum upper limit control of Fe element, so as to ensure industrial production while maximizing the high-temperature long-term structural stability of the alloy.
  • this patent appropriately increases the Co element content and reduces the Cr element content in order to improve the solid solubility and long-term stability of the matrix components.
  • the salient feature of this patent is to significantly increase the amount of Al element added.
  • increasing the precipitation of ⁇ 'phase improves the mechanical properties of the alloy, and on the other hand, it makes up for the degradation of oxidation and corrosion resistance after the content of Cr element is reduced.
  • adding appropriate amount of C element to form MC type, M 6 C type and M 23 C 6 type and other types of carbide strengthening, adding appropriate amount of B element to form MB 2 , M 3 B Type 2 boride improves high-temperature thermal strength.
  • adding appropriate amounts of Mg and Ce elements to improve the properties of grain boundaries can improve the thermoplasticity of alloy ingots and optimize the process performance of casting-forging.
  • Other elements such as P, Mn, Si, S, O, N, Ag, Ca, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ta, V, etc. are impurity elements, which are not conducive to the mechanical properties and process properties of the alloy, and are the lowest according to the smelting capacity. Content control.
  • electroslag remelting refining is used to remove inclusions and S elements and improve the metallurgical quality of alloy ingots.
  • the vacuum consumable remelting refining is used to further improve the metallurgical quality and obtain an alloy ingot with a certain degree of thermoplasticity.
  • Example 1 A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging (with a diameter of 200 mm) that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in the part of embodiment 1 in Table 1.
  • the smelting adopts a dual process (namely, vacuum induction melting and vacuum consumable remelting).
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot obtained by vacuum induction melting is 250mm, and the diameter of the alloy ingot obtained by vacuum consumable remelting is 305mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 50Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting period is controlled to 1550°C
  • the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1500°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 10Pa.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1490°C, and 10000Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 1.5 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare a consumable remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 1.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 1.5h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • the alloy ingot needs to undergo high temperature diffusion homogenization annealing treatment, including the process of heating, holding and cooling.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 55°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1200°C
  • the holding time is 30h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature for holding and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 55°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1140°C
  • the holding time is 3h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min-20min. After 20min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 1h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 12 to obtain the bar.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1150°C for 2h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1000°C for 3h
  • the aging treatment system is 800°C for 12h. .
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 2 A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 2 of Table 1.
  • the smelting adopts a double process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 370mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting is 460mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 70Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1580°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1550°C
  • the vacuum in the refining stage is 15Pa
  • the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1500°C, and 15000Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into a consumable remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 2.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled at 45°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1210°C
  • the holding time is 40h
  • the cooling rate is controlled at 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1160°C
  • the holding time is 4h.
  • the forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
  • the bar is cut according to 130% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1140°C.
  • the time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is die forged. Before forging, the heating rate is controlled to 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 50%, and the mold heating temperature is 950°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • the roulette forgings are machined and subjected to heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1160°C for 4 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 850°C for 24 hours. .
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 3 A 900mm diameter nickel-based wrought superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 3 of Table 1.
  • the smelting adopts a triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa
  • the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.83, the melting rate is 2.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1190°C
  • the holding time is 50h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1170°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
  • the bar is cut according to 120% of the weight of the roulette forging, and the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the billet is upset.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C.
  • the time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1180°C for 5h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4h
  • the aging treatment system is 910°C for 12h. .
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 4 A nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 1200mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 1200 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 4 of Table 1.
  • the smelting adopts a triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 440mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 580mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 660mm .
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa
  • the steel is tapped.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • the steel is filled with 25000Pa argon protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled at 15°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1180°C
  • the holding time is 70h
  • the cooling rate is controlled at 5°C/h.
  • After homogenization annealing after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 15°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1180°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 6 hours of heat preservation. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
  • the bar is cut according to 110% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1150°C.
  • the time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 50%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is die forged.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1100°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1160°C for 8h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100°C for 10h
  • the aging treatment system is 850°C for 32h. .
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Embodiment 5 A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging (with a diameter of 200 mm) that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in the part of embodiment 5 in Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts a dual process (namely, vacuum induction melting and vacuum consumable remelting), the diameter of the primary alloy ingot obtained by vacuum induction melting is 250 mm, and the diameter of the alloy ingot obtained by vacuum consumable remelting is 305 mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting period, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 10Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting period is controlled to 1300°C
  • the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1400°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 1Pa.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1420°C, and the steel is filled with 20000Pa argon protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 0.5h and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the primary alloy ingot is processed into a consumable remelting electrode after machining.
  • the filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.75, the melting rate is 1.0kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 0.5h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • Step 2 The alloy ingot needs to undergo high temperature diffusion homogenization annealing treatment, including the process of heating, holding and cooling.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 15°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1150°C
  • the holding time is 24h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 5°C/ h.
  • the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 15°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1050°C
  • the holding time is 2h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time is controlled between 1min and 5min. After 5min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 1h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 5 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the appropriate length of the bar according to 140% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 1.5.
  • the billet is upset, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 20°C/h.
  • the temperature is 1000°C
  • the holding time is 2h
  • the upsetting deformation is 30%
  • the disc blank is obtained.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 20°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 950°C
  • the holding time is 2h
  • the forging deformation is 30%
  • the mold heating temperature is 300°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1150°C for 2 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1000°C for 2 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 760. Incubate at °C for 8h.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 6 A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 6 of Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts a dual process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 370mm, and the diameter of the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 460mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 100Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1650°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1600°C
  • the vacuum in the refining stage is 20Pa.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1590°C, 50,000Pa is filled with argon protection when tapping, and after casting is finished, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demoulded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare a consumable remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.95, the melting rate is 6.0kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
  • Step 2 High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 60°C/h, the holding temperature is 1250°C, the holding time is 72h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 55°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingots are heated to the forging temperature for holding and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 60°C/h, the holding temperature is 1180°C, and the holding time is 8h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time is controlled within 1min-30min. After 30min, it is returned to the furnace for 6h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 20 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the bar according to 130% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 3.0.
  • the billet is upset, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 50°C/h, and the holding temperature is At 1140°C, the holding time is 8h, and the upsetting deformation is 70%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 50°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 8h, the forging deformation is 70%, and the mold heating temperature is 1050°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1220°C for 10 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1150°C for 10 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 920. Incubate at °C for 32h.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 7 A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy diameter wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 7 of Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa.
  • the tapping temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • 20,000 Pa argon protection is filled during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 2.5 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.75, and the melting rate is 1.0kg/min.
  • the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 1h, and then demolding and cooling. Obtain an alloy ingot.
  • Step 2 High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1190°C
  • the holding time is 50h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1170°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time is controlled between 1min and 15min. After 15min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 2h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the bar according to 140% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the billet is upset and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1110 °C, the holding time is 4h, the upsetting deformation is 40%, and the disc blank is obtained.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1120°C
  • the holding time is 4h
  • the forging deformation is 40%
  • the mold heating temperature is 650°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are processed by machining for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1180°C for 5 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 8 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 910 Incubate at °C for 20h.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 8 A 900mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 8 of Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa
  • the steel is tapped.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • the steel is filled with 25000Pa argon protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • Step 2 High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 20°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1180°C
  • the holding time is 70h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 5°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 15°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1180°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time is controlled within 1min-10min. After 10min, it is returned to the furnace for 2h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 10 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the bar according to 125% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1150 °C, holding time is 6h, upsetting deformation is 50%.
  • After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 40°C/h, the holding temperature is 1100°C, the holding time is 6h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are processed by machining for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1160°C for 8 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100°C for 7 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 850. Incubate at °C for 32h.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 9 A 900mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 9 of Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1600°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1500°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa
  • the steel is tapped.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.95, the melting rate is 5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
  • Step 2 High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1190°C
  • the holding time is 50h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1170°C
  • the holding time is 7h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min ⁇ 12min. After 12min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 3h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 17 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the bar according to 115% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.
  • the billet is upset, the heating rate before forging is controlled to 40°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120 °C, holding time is 7h, upsetting deformation is 60%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged to form.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1130°C, the holding time is 3h, the forging deformation is 60%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1200°C for 3 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 900 Incubate at °C for 25h.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 10 a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 10 in Table 1.
  • the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings includes the following steps:
  • Step 1 The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa
  • the steel is tapped.
  • the temperature is controlled at 1400°C
  • 30,000 Pa is filled with argon protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • Step 2 High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 15°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, the holding time is 70h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 10°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 30°C/h, the holding temperature is 1090°C, and the holding time is 5h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min-12min. After 12min, it is returned to the furnace for 3h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
  • Step 3 Cut the bar according to 145% of the weight of the roulette forging.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1150.
  • °C holding time is 4h, upsetting deformation is 50%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is die forged.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1100°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350°C.
  • the alloy roulette forging is obtained.
  • Step 4 The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1160°C for 8 hours
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100°C for 10 hours
  • the aging treatment system is 850. Incubate at °C for 30h.
  • a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time in this embodiment also includes impurity elements.
  • a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time in this embodiment also includes impurity elements.
  • the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
  • Example 11 A 600mm diameter nickel-based wrought superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 10 in Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy.
  • the metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, master alloys, etc.
  • the vacuum induction smelting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting and smelting period, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum degree of the evacuation stage is 70Pa
  • the temperature in the melting period is controlled to 1580°C
  • the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1550°C
  • the refining stage The vacuum degree is 5Pa
  • the tapping temperature is controlled to 1500°C
  • the tapping is filled with 15000Pa argon protection.
  • the filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 2.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled at 45°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1210°C
  • the holding time is 40h
  • the cooling rate is controlled at 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1160°C
  • the holding time is 4h.
  • the forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 10 to obtain the bar.
  • the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C.
  • the holding time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%.
  • the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C to obtain the wheel.
  • Disc forgings are controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C to obtain the wheel.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1180°C for 5h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4h
  • the aging treatment system is 910°C for 12h. .
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • Example 12 A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 5 of Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of the alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • Example 13 A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 6 of Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • Example 14 A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 7 of Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • Example 15 A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 8 of Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • Example 16 A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Example 9 of Table 1.
  • step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed
  • the steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements.
  • this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements.
  • a nickel-based deformed superalloy used above 850°C obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 has been tested and analyzed by the inventor and found that this type of nickel-based deformed superalloy is based on Ni-Co-Cr elements.
  • the nickel-based deformations obtained in other examples The technical effect of this part of
  • the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 has been aged for more than 5000 hours in the temperature range of 650 to 900 °C at room temperature, and the content of the precipitated harmful phase ⁇ phase does not exceed 1%.
  • Example 1 This part of the technical effect of the obtained nickel-based wrought superalloy is as shown in Figure 2. The part of the technical effect of the nickel-based wrought superalloy obtained in other embodiments is the same. In summary, it can be seen that the alloy obtained by the present invention can be used as 850 °C Long-term use of roulette material.
  • the ⁇ ′ phase after the element is more stable during the hot working process.
  • the precipitation speed of the ⁇ ′ phase during the forging and billeting process under the free forging condition is slow, which avoids the problem of the deterioration of the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot caused by the strain aging precipitation, so that the alloy has sufficient Thermoplastic, can realize free forging and billeting.
  • the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 adopts the smelting, forging blanking, forging forming and heat treatment processes provided by the present invention to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 100 to 1200 mm.
  • Industrial production can be realized with conventional equipment, and it has good casting-forging process performance.
  • the nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette material that can be used for a long time at a temperature of 850°C and above obtained in any one of the embodiments 1 to 16 of the present invention can be prepared through reasonable composition design and preparation methods.
  • the 100-1200mm roulette forgings have excellent tensile and durability properties at 850°C, good long-term structural stability, and the ability to be industrialized and mass-produced.
  • Comparative example 1 A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • This comparative example prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Table 1 and Comparative Example 1. Compared with Example 3, trace elements such as B, Zr, Ce, Mg, etc. The content is lower.
  • the smelting adopts a dual process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 440mm
  • the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy.
  • the metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, return materials, etc.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C
  • the vacuum in the refining stage is 4Pa
  • the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • 20,000 Pa argon protection is filled during tapping.
  • After casting, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into a consumable remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.85
  • the melting rate is 3.5kg/min
  • the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then demolding and cooling to obtain Alloy ingot.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1190°C
  • the holding time is 50h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1170°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
  • Cut bars of appropriate length according to the weight of the roulette forgings The height-to-diameter ratio of the bars is controlled to 2.5. After the bars are heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C to obtain the wheel. Disc forgings.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1180°C for 5h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4h
  • the aging treatment system is 910°C for 12h. .
  • Comparative Example 2 A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used for a long time at 850°C
  • a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm, which can be used for a long time at 850°C, is prepared in this comparative example.
  • the alloy composition is shown in Table 1 and Comparative Example 2. Compared with Example 3, the Mo content is increased and the adjustment is lower. The W content increases the Fe content.
  • the smelting adopts a double process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting.
  • the diameter of the primary alloy ingot of vacuum induction melting is 355mm
  • the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm
  • the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm.
  • Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy.
  • the metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, return materials, etc.
  • the vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping.
  • the vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa
  • the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C
  • the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C
  • the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa
  • the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C
  • 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping.
  • the primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the secondary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into an electroslag remelting electrode.
  • the filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.83, and the melting rate is 2.8kg/min.
  • the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then demolding and cooling. Obtain an alloy ingot.
  • the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes.
  • the heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1190°C
  • the holding time is 50h
  • the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h.
  • the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging.
  • the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h
  • the holding temperature is 1170°C
  • the holding time is 6h.
  • the forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
  • Cut bars of appropriate length according to the weight of the roulette forgings The height-to-diameter ratio of the bars is controlled to 2.5. After the bars are heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1120°C, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650°C to obtain the wheel. Disc forgings.
  • the roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment.
  • the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment.
  • the solution treatment system is 1180°C for 5h
  • the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4h
  • the aging treatment system is 910°C for 12h. .
  • the alloy wheel forgings prepared in this comparative example were tested for high temperature and long-term microstructure stability. After the samples were aged for 3000 hours at 850°C, it was found that more harmful ⁇ and ⁇ phases were precipitated. When the stability of the tissue is poor.
  • the test results show that the comparative patent CN110241331A alloy is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy.
  • the inventor found through experiments and comparisons that compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of Ti element is higher, the content of W element is lower, and alloy elements such as Hf and Ta are added.
  • Ti element is an element that is easy to segregate.
  • a high content of Ti element will increase the probability of formation of point deviation defects during the vacuum consumable remelting process;
  • Hf element is an element that is extremely easy to oxidize. During the casting process, it is easily oxidized into HfO2 particles, and mixing into the molten pool will adversely affect the purity of the steel ingot.
  • the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN110205523A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy.
  • the content of W element is low and the content of Mo element is high.
  • the high Mo content is not conducive to the thermal stability of the alloy at 850°C, and harmful ⁇ phase is easy to precipitate; the alloy also contains Hf element, which is not suitable for casting -Forging process production.
  • the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108441705A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting-forging process.
  • the content of W element is low, the content of Cr element is high, the solid solution strengthening effect is poor, the structure stability is not ideal, and it cannot meet the use requirement of 850°C; -Forging process production will have a greater risk of oxide inclusions.
  • the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108425037A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of Ti element is high. Ti element increases the risk of metallurgical defects, and adds expensive Ta element for strengthening. The goal of low-cost alloys.
  • the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108315599A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting-forging process.
  • the content of W element is low, and a large amount of Nb element and Fe element are added.
  • Nb element is an element with a very strong tendency to segregate. It is easy to precipitate harmful sigma phase when used under low temperature, so it cannot meet the requirements for use under high temperature conditions of 850°C.
  • the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN107760926A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting process.
  • the Co content is low, which is not conducive to the structural stability of the alloy and the forging process performance; in addition, no beneficial trace elements such as Mg, Zr, Ce, etc. are added to the grain boundary, which is not suitable for high temperature deformation with equiaxed grains. Improved alloy properties.

Abstract

Provided is a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy having a high aluminum content and a preparation method therefor. Conventional Ni-Co-Cr components as matrix elements, the contents of alloy elements, especially the Al content of a solid solution strengthening phase γ' phase forming element, are increased, and the content of a strengthening phase γ' phase is increased to 55%-65%, so as to effectively improve the temperature bearing capability of the alloy. The appropriate addition of element Nb to the alloy can improve the stability of the γ' phase, thereby improving the performance of a casting-forging process, the reduction of the addition of element Cr can improve the long-term structural stability of the alloy at 850°C, and a high content of element Al can make up for the loss of surface stability caused by the decrease of element Cr. In addition, a dual process or triple process is used for the preparation and processing of an alloy raw material. The obtained nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy solves the problem that there is no high-performance wheel forging material that can be used for a long time at 850℃, especially has excellent 850℃ tensile strength, yield strength and endurance life.

Description

一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金及制备方法Nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and preparation method thereof 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于合金制备领域,具体涉及一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金及制备方法。The invention belongs to the field of alloy preparation, and specifically relates to a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method.
背景技术Background technique
先进燃气涡轮式发动机,如航空发动机和燃气轮机等高压压气机盘和涡轮盘等热端转动轮盘类锻件的服役温度逐渐提高,长时服役温度最高达850℃。轮盘锻件所需合金材料要求在室温~850℃具有优异的强度和塑性、高温持久蠕变性能以及长时组织性能稳定性,同时还具备良好的铸锻工艺性能。The service temperature of advanced gas turbine engines, such as high-pressure compressor discs such as aero engines and gas turbines, and hot-end rotating roulette-type forgings such as turbine discs, has gradually increased, with a long-term service temperature of up to 850°C. The alloy materials required for roulette forgings are required to have excellent strength and plasticity at room temperature to 850°C, high temperature permanent creep properties, and long-term structural stability, as well as good casting and forging process properties.
目前,国内航空发动机用镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料用量最大的是650℃以下使用的GH4169合金,使用温度最高的是750℃以下使用的GH4720Li、GH4065A、GH4738等镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料,在850℃以下有可短时使用的GH4141、GH4586等镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料,但是无法满足850℃以上长时使用需求。At present, the largest amount of nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials used in domestic aero-engines is GH4169 alloy used below 650℃, and the highest use temperature is GH4720Li, GH4065A, GH4738 and other nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy roulette materials used below 750℃. There are nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials such as GH4141 and GH4586 that can be used for a short time below 850℃, but they cannot meet the long-term use requirements above 850℃.
众所周知,提高镍基高温合金使用温度最有效的途径是提高合金化程度,增加强化相γ′相的含量,但是合金化程度过高会造成合金的冶金偏析倾向大、热塑性变差,因而开发新型镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料存在较大的难度,在成分设计上不仅要提高合金化满足需求的综合性能,还要结合现有技术条件使其具有一定的工艺性能以保证可制造性。传统的γ′相含量达55~65%的镍基高温合金,只能采用粉末冶金或铸造(包括等轴铸造、定向凝固和单晶凝固)工艺生产,这些合金采用铸-锻工艺生产都面临着元素偏析倾向大、易形成冶金缺陷、热加工(锻造)塑性差等问题,因而该类合金成分不适合于镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料的制备。此外,虽然一些采用粉末冶金或铸造工艺制备的镍基高温合金的使用温度可达850℃,但是其组织均匀性和致密性不及采用铸-锻工艺生产的锻件。尤其是对于轮盘类的高温热端转动件,采用铸-锻工艺生产,能够最大程度上保证轮盘锻件的质量可靠性,同时还可以高效率、低成本的工业化生产。直接采用粉末冶金或铸造合金的成分进行铸-锻工艺生产,则面临着不适应问题,例如易偏析元素Ti和Mo元素含量的控制、易氧化元素Hf元素含量的控制,高成本的Ta 元素添加,以及B、Zr、Ce等晶界有益微量元素的添加等,必须针对铸-锻工艺特征进行元素配比的优化调整。As we all know, the most effective way to increase the operating temperature of nickel-based superalloys is to increase the degree of alloying and increase the content of the strengthening phase γ'phase. However, excessive alloying will cause the alloy’s metallurgical segregation tendency and thermal plasticity to deteriorate, so a new type of alloy has been developed. Nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials are quite difficult. In terms of composition design, it is necessary not only to improve the overall performance of alloying to meet the requirements, but also to combine the existing technical conditions to make it have a certain process performance to ensure manufacturability. Traditional nickel-based superalloys with a γ'phase content of 55-65% can only be produced by powder metallurgy or casting (including equiaxed casting, directional solidification and single crystal solidification) processes. These alloys are produced by casting-forging processes. Because of the high tendency of element segregation, the easy formation of metallurgical defects, and poor hot working (forging) plasticity, this type of alloy composition is not suitable for the preparation of nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials. In addition, although some nickel-based superalloys prepared by powder metallurgy or casting processes can be used at temperatures up to 850°C, their uniformity and compactness are not as good as forgings produced by casting-forging processes. Especially for the high-temperature hot-end rotating parts of the roulette type, the casting-forging process is adopted to ensure the quality and reliability of the roulette forgings to the greatest extent, and at the same time, it can be industrialized with high efficiency and low cost. The direct use of powder metallurgy or casting alloy components for casting-forging process production will face incompatibility problems, such as the control of the content of easily segregated elements Ti and Mo, the control of the content of easily oxidized elements Hf, and the high-cost addition of Ta. , And the addition of B, Zr, Ce and other beneficial trace elements at the grain boundary, etc., the element ratio must be optimized and adjusted according to the characteristics of the casting-forging process.
因此,有必要提供改进的技术方案以克服现有技术中存在的技术问题。Therefore, it is necessary to provide improved technical solutions to overcome the technical problems existing in the prior art.
发明内容Summary of the invention
为解决现有技术存在的问题,本发明提供一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金及制备方法,解决了目前尚无可在850℃长时可用的高性能轮盘锻件材料,特别是具有优异的850℃抗拉强度、屈服强度和持久寿命。In order to solve the problems existing in the prior art, the present invention provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method thereof, which solves the problem that there is currently no high-performance wheel forging material that can be used for a long time at 850°C, especially with Excellent tensile strength, yield strength and longevity at 850°C.
本发明第一方面提供一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.004~0.1%,W:6.0~9.0%,Cr:7.0~12.0%,Mo:1.0~4.0%,Co:14.0~17.5%,Ti:0.8~2.5%,Al:3.5~6.0%,Nb:0.8~2.5%,Zr:0.005~0.1%,Mg:0.005~0.1%;Ce:0.001~0.1%,B:0.005~0.1%,Fe:0.005~2.0%,余量为Ni。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金可用于制备850℃长时使用的轮盘锻件,轮盘锻件直径范围为200mm~1200mm,850℃抗拉强度大于800MPa、屈服强度大于650MPa,850℃/350MPa持久寿命大于30h。The first aspect of the present invention provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content. The composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage. The nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy includes: C: 0.004 to 0.1%, W: 6.0 to 9.0%, Cr: 7.0~12.0%, Mo: 1.0~4.0%, Co: 14.0~17.5%, Ti: 0.8~2.5%, Al: 3.5~6.0%, Nb: 0.8~2.5%, Zr: 0.005~0.1%, Mg : 0.005~0.1%; Ce: 0.001~0.1%, B: 0.005~0.1%, Fe: 0.005~2.0%, the balance is Ni. The inventor has confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare wheel forgings for long-term use at 850°C. The diameter of the wheel disk forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm. The tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 800MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 650MPa. The endurance life of ℃/350MPa is more than 30h.
进一步地,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.01~0.08%,W:6.5~8.0%,Cr:7.5~11.0%,Mo:1.5~3.5%,Co:14.5~17.5%,Ti:1.0~2.0%,Al:4.0~5.5%,Nb:1.0~2.0%,Zr:0.005~0.05%,Mg:0.005~0.05%;Ce:0.001~0.05%,B:0.005~0.05%,Fe:0.01~1.5%,余量为Ni;所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P≤0.015%、Mn≤0.5%、Si≤0.5%、S≤0.015%、O≤0.005%、N≤0.01%、Ag≤0.005%、Ca≤0.01%、Sn≤0.01%、Pb≤0.001%,Cu≤0.5%、Ta≤0.5%、V≤0.5%。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金可用于制备850℃长时使用的轮盘锻件,轮盘锻件直径范围为200mm~1200mm,850℃抗拉强度大于850MPa、屈服强度大于700MPa,850℃/350MPa持久寿命大于50h。Further, in the nickel-based deformed superalloy, the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed superalloy includes: C: 0.01-0.08%, W: 6.5-8.0%, Cr: 7.5- 11.0%, Mo: 1.5 to 3.5%, Co: 14.5 to 17.5%, Ti: 1.0 to 2.0%, Al: 4.0 to 5.5%, Nb: 1.0 to 2.0%, Zr: 0.005 to 0.05%, Mg: 0.005 to 0.05 %; Ce: 0.001 to 0.05%, B: 0.005 to 0.05%, Fe: 0.01 to 1.5%, the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements, among the impurity elements, P ≤0.015%, Mn≤0.5%, Si≤0.5%, S≤0.015%, O≤0.005%, N≤0.01%, Ag≤0.005%, Ca≤0.01%, Sn≤0.01%, Pb≤0.001%, Cu ≤0.5%, Ta≤0.5%, V≤0.5%. The inventors have confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare roulette forgings for long-term use at 850°C. The diameter of the roulette forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm. The tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 850MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 700MPa. ℃/350MPa endurance life is greater than 50h.
进一步地,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.01~0.06%,W:6.5~7.5%,Cr:8.0~10.0%,Mo:2.0~3.2%,Co:15.0~16.5%,Ti:1.2~1.8%,Al:4.5~5.2%,Nb:1.2~1.8%,Zr:0.005~0.03%,Mg:0.005~0.03%;Ce:0.001~0.03%,B:0.005~0.03%,Fe: 0.01~1.2%,余量为Ni;所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P≤0.010%、Mn≤0.15%、Si≤0.15%、S≤0.005%、O≤0.002%、N≤0.005%、Ag≤0.0005%、Ca≤0.005%、Sn≤0.005%、Pb≤0.0005%,Cu≤0.1%、Ta≤0.1%、V≤0.1%。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金可用于制备850℃长时使用的轮盘锻件,轮盘锻件直径范围为200mm~1200mm,850℃抗拉强度大于900MPa、屈服强度大于750MPa,850℃/350MPa持久寿命大于100h。Further, in the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy, the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy includes: C: 0.01~0.06%, W: 6.5-75%, Cr: 8.0~ 10.0%, Mo: 2.0 to 3.2%, Co: 15.0 to 16.5%, Ti: 1.2 to 1.8%, Al: 4.5 to 5.2%, Nb: 1.2 to 1.8%, Zr: 0.005 to 0.03%, Mg: 0.005 to 0.03 %; Ce: 0.001 to 0.03%, B: 0.005 to 0.03%, Fe: 0.01 to 1.2%, and the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P ≤0.010%, Mn≤0.15%, Si≤0.15%, S≤0.005%, O≤0.002%, N≤0.005%, Ag≤0.0005%, Ca≤0.005%, Sn≤0.005%, Pb≤0.0005%, Cu ≤0.1%, Ta≤0.1%, V≤0.1%. The inventor has confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can be used to prepare wheel forgings for long-term use at 850°C. The diameter of the wheel disk forgings ranges from 200mm to 1200mm. The tensile strength at 850°C is greater than 900MPa, and the yield strength is greater than 750MPa. ℃/350MPa endurance life is greater than 100h.
进一步地,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,所述的镍基变形高温合金以γ奥氏体为基体,强化相γ′相的质量百分含量达到55~65%,所述的强化相的化学组成为(Ni,Co) 3(Al,Ti,Nb)。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金,其高含量的强化相γ′相使合金在850℃下具有良好的拉伸强度和持久性能,同时添加Nb元素改性γ′相提高了稳定性。 Further, in the nickel-based deformed superalloy, the nickel-based deformed superalloy uses γ austenite as a matrix, and the mass percentage of the strengthening phase γ′ phase reaches 55-65%, and the strengthening The chemical composition of the phase is (Ni, Co) 3 (Al, Ti, Nb). The inventors have confirmed through research that the high content of the strengthening phase γ'phase of the alloy prepared by this technical solution enables the alloy to have good tensile strength and durability at 850°C. At the same time, the addition of Nb element improves the γ'phase. stability.
进一步地,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括第二相,所述的第二相包括:MC型碳化物、M6C型碳化物、M23C6型碳化物、MB2型硼化物、M3B2型硼化物。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金,可以改善合金850℃的持久性能。Further, in the nickel-based deformed superalloy, the nickel-based deformed superalloy further includes a second phase, and the second phase includes: MC type carbide, M6C type carbide, M23C6 type carbide , MB2 type boride, M3B2 type boride. The inventor has confirmed through research that the alloy prepared by this technical solution can improve the durability of the alloy at 850°C.
进一步地,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,γ′相含量的质量百分数为55~65%,在650~900℃温度范围内长期时效5000h以上,且析出有害相μ相的含量不超过1%。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案制备的合金,其高含量的γ′相保证了合金在室温~850℃温度范围内具有良好的力学性能,同时长时时效中很少析出有害相μ相,保证了合金在850℃可以长时使用。Further, in the nickel-based deformed superalloy, in the nickel-based deformed superalloy, the mass percentage of the γ'phase content is 55-65%, and the long-term aging is more than 5000h in the temperature range of 650-900℃ , And the content of precipitated harmful phase μ phase does not exceed 1%. The inventors have confirmed through research that the high content of γ'phase in the alloy prepared by this technical solution ensures that the alloy has good mechanical properties in the temperature range of room temperature to 850°C, and at the same time, the harmful phase μ phase is rarely precipitated during long-term aging. , To ensure that the alloy can be used for a long time at 850°C.
本发明第二方面提供一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:The second aspect of the present invention provides a method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content, which is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
步骤1:采用真空感应熔炼将权利要求1至5任一权项所述的金属原材料成分熔炼为一次合金锭,再经电渣重熔精炼为二次合金锭,再经真空自耗重熔精炼为三次合金锭,得到合金锭;Step 1: Use vacuum induction melting to smelt the metal raw material components described in any one of claims 1 to 5 into primary alloy ingots, and then refine them into secondary alloy ingots by electroslag remelting, and then refine by vacuum consumable remelting Is a tertiary alloy ingot to obtain an alloy ingot;
步骤2:将步骤1所得的合金锭经高温扩散均匀化退火后,再加热锻造开坯成棒材;Step 2: After the alloy ingot obtained in Step 1 is subjected to high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing, it is heated and forged into a bar;
步骤3:将步骤2所得的棒材经制坯和模锻成型,得到合金轮盘锻件;Step 3: The bar obtained in step 2 is formed by blanking and die forging to obtain alloy wheel forgings;
步骤4:将步骤3所得的合金轮盘锻件经热处理后,得到850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件。Step 4: After heat treatment of the alloy wheel forging obtained in Step 3, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging for long-term use at 850°C is obtained.
发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,可采用现有高温合金的冶炼和锻造设备可制备本专利合金直径200mm~1200mm的轮盘锻件,可以实现工业化生产。The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the existing high-temperature alloy smelting and forging equipment can be used to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 200mm to 1200mm of the patented alloy, and industrial production can be realized.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,步骤1中所述的真空感应熔炼包括的处理工艺为:抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢;在所述的抽空的处理工艺中,真空度为10~100Pa;在所述的熔炼期的处理工艺中,温度控制为1300℃-1650℃;在所述的精炼的处理工艺中,温度控制为1400℃~1600℃,真空度1~20Pa;在所述的出钢的处理工艺中,温度控制为1420℃-1590℃,且需充10000~50000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却0.5h~3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,可制备出合金的真空感应锭,合金元素可精确控制,且钢锭不会发生热裂,可用于制备重熔精炼的电极。Further, in the preparation method, the vacuum induction smelting in step 1 includes treatment processes: evacuation, smelting period, refining and tapping; in the evacuation treatment process, the vacuum degree is 10 ~100Pa; In the treatment process of the smelting period, the temperature is controlled to be 1300°C-1650°C; in the refining treatment process, the temperature is controlled to be 1400°C to 1600°C, and the vacuum degree is 1-20 Pa; In the steel tapping treatment process, the temperature is controlled to 1420°C-1590°C, and it needs to be filled with 10000~50,000Pa argon protection. After the casting is finished, it is cooled for 0.5h~3h and then demoulded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, a vacuum induction ingot of an alloy can be prepared, the alloy elements can be accurately controlled, and the steel ingot will not be hot-cracked, and can be used to prepare electrodes for remelting and refining.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,所述的步骤1还包括:将所述的一次合金锭制备成I电渣重熔电极,所述的I电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75~0.9;在所述的电渣重熔过程中,采用的电渣的组分配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=65~75%:10~20%:0.5~5%:10~20%:0.5~5%,稳态熔速为1.0~6.0kg/min,所述的二次合金锭熔炼(即电渣重熔)完成后的冷却时间为0.5h~6h,而后脱模冷却。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,将真空感应熔炼制备的一次合金锭电渣重熔后,可以有效降低合金锭中的夹杂物含量和有害杂质元素S含量,同时制备成分合格的电渣锭,用于制备真空自耗重熔电极,可以显著改善电极质量,提高真空自耗重熔过程的工艺稳定性,能够制备直径500mm真空自耗锭的电极。Further, in the preparation method, the step 1 further includes: preparing the primary alloy ingot into an I electroslag remelting electrode, and the filling ratio of the I electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is In the electroslag remelting process, the composition ratio of electroslag used is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 65 to 75%: 10 to 20%: 0.5 to 5%: 10-20%: 0.5-5%, the steady-state melting rate is 1.0-6.0 kg/min, the cooling time after the completion of the secondary alloy ingot smelting (ie electroslag remelting) is 0.5h-6h, and then the Mold cooling. The inventor has confirmed through research that this technical solution can effectively reduce the inclusion content and the harmful impurity element S content in the alloy ingot after electroslag remelting the primary alloy ingot prepared by vacuum induction melting, and at the same time prepare electroslag with qualified composition. The ingot is used to prepare the vacuum consumable remelting electrode, which can significantly improve the quality of the electrode, improve the process stability of the vacuum consumable remelting process, and can prepare the electrode of the vacuum consumable ingot with a diameter of 500 mm.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,所述的步骤1还包括:将所述的二次合金锭制备成II电渣重熔电极,II电渣重熔电极电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75~0.95,熔速1.0~5.0kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼(即真空自耗重熔)完成后的冷却时间为0.5h~3h,而后脱模冷却。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,通过上述真空自耗重熔,能够显著提升钢锭的冶金质量,提高钢锭的致密性和热塑性。Further, in the preparation method, the step 1 further includes: preparing the secondary alloy ingot into an II electroslag remelting electrode, and the filling ratio of the II electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.75~0.95, melting rate 1.0~5.0kg/min, cooling time after tertiary alloy ingot smelting (ie vacuum consumable remelting) is 0.5h~3h, and then demolding and cooling. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, through the above-mentioned vacuum consumable remelting, the metallurgical quality of the steel ingot can be significantly improved, and the compactness and thermoplasticity of the steel ingot can be improved.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,在步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,小于500mm的自耗锭所需电极直径小,采用真空感应锭制备电极可获得良好的冶金质量,不仅可以缩短工艺流程,还能有效降低成本。Further, in the preparation method, in step 1, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500 mm, the treatment process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed to: The alloy ingot is directly subjected to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain the alloy ingot. The inventors have confirmed through research that through this technical solution, consumable ingots smaller than 500mm require a small electrode diameter, and the use of vacuum induction ingots to prepare electrodes can obtain good metallurgical quality, which not only shortens the process flow, but also effectively reduces costs.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,在步骤2中,所述的高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程;所述的升温速度控制为15~60℃/h,所述的保温的温度为1150~1250℃,所述的保温的时间为24~72h,所述的冷却的速度控制为5~55℃/h。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,经均匀化扩散退火一方面可以消除凝固应力,避免钢锭热裂,还可消除低熔点相,有效降低元素枝晶偏析程度,提升钢锭的热塑性。Further, in the preparation method, in step 2, the high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes; the heating rate is controlled to be 15-60°C/h, and the heat preservation The temperature is 1150 to 1250°C, the heat preservation time is 24 to 72 hours, and the cooling rate is controlled to be 5 to 55°C/h. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, homogenized diffusion annealing can eliminate solidification stress, avoid hot cracking of steel ingots, and also eliminate low melting point phases, effectively reduce the degree of elemental dendritic segregation, and improve the thermoplasticity of steel ingots.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,所述的步骤2还包括:所述的步骤1所得的合金锭经均匀化退火后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为15~60℃/h,保温温度为1050℃~1180℃,保温时间为2h~8h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过5~30min后回炉保温1~6h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为5~20,得到棒材。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,钢锭可利用快锻机实现锻造开坯,钢锭不开裂,铸态组织可转变为等轴晶组织。Further, in the preparation method, the step 2 further includes: the alloy ingot obtained in the step 1 is homogenized and annealed, heated to the forging temperature and kept at the temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging, and the heating rate before forging is controlled as follows: 15~60℃/h, the holding temperature is 1050℃~1180℃, and the holding time is 2h~8h. The forging billeting process includes upsetting and drawing. The forging time of a single fire time exceeds 5~30min, and then it is returned to the furnace for 1~6h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to be 5-20 to obtain bars. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the steel ingot can be forged and billeted using a fast forging machine, the steel ingot does not crack, and the as-cast structure can be transformed into an equiaxed crystal structure.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,所述的步骤3还包括:根据轮盘锻件的重量切取步骤2所得的棒材,得到切取棒材;所述的切取棒材的重量为轮盘锻件的重量的110~150%,所述的切取棒材的高径比控制在1.5~3.0之间,所述的切取棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为20~50℃/h,保温温度为1000℃~1150℃,保温时间为2~8h,镦粗变形量为30~70%,得到盘坯。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,棒材镦粗过程稳定,不出现锻造裂纹、大小头和皱褶等锻造缺陷。Further, in the preparation method, the step 3 further includes: cutting the bar obtained in step 2 according to the weight of the roulette forging to obtain the cut bar; the weight of the cut bar is the roulette forging The weight of the cut bar is 110-150%, the height-to-diameter ratio of the cut bar is controlled between 1.5-3.0, and the cut bar is heated to upset the billet, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 20-50 ℃/h, the holding temperature is 1000°C-1150°C, the holding time is 2-8h, the upsetting deformation is 30-70%, and the disc blank is obtained. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the bar upsetting process is stable, and there are no forging defects such as forging cracks, large and small heads, and wrinkles.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,所述的盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为20~50℃/h,保温温度为950℃~1150℃,保温时间为2~8h,模锻变形量为30~70%,模具加热温度为300~1050℃。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,轮盘锻件可实现模锻成型,不发生锻造开裂,充型效果好,组 织均匀性良好。Further, in the preparation method, the disc blank is heated and then die forged, the heating rate before forging is controlled to be 20-50°C/h, the holding temperature is 950°C to 1150°C, and the holding time is 2-8h, the forging deformation is 30-70%, and the mold heating temperature is 300-1050°C. The inventor has confirmed through research that through this technical solution, the roulette forging can be formed by die forging without forging cracking, the filling effect is good, and the uniformity of the structure is good.
进一步地,在所述的制备方法中,在所述的步骤4中,将步骤3所得的轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,所述的热处理包括固溶处理、中间时效处理和时效处理,所述的固溶处理的方法为1150~1220℃保温2~10h,所述的中间时效处理的方法为1000~1150℃保温2~10h,所述的时效处理的方法为760℃~920℃保温8~32h。发明人经研究证实,通过该技术方案,轮盘锻件经热处理后,可获得均匀的显微组织和良好的力学性能,同时可有效降低锻件中的内应力。Further, in the preparation method, in the step 4, the wheel forging obtained in the step 3 is subjected to heat treatment by machining, and the heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment, so The solution treatment method is 1150~1220℃ and the temperature is 2-10h, the intermediate aging treatment method is 1000~1150℃ and the temperature is 2~10h. The aging treatment method is 760℃~920℃ and the temperature is 8 ~32h. The inventors have confirmed through research that through this technical solution, after heat treatment of the wheel disc forgings, uniform microstructure and good mechanical properties can be obtained, and at the same time, the internal stress in the forgings can be effectively reduced.
本发明创造的有益效果:The beneficial effects created by the present invention:
本专利提供了一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金及制备方法,采用本专利提供的合金成分和制备方法,可采用铸-锻工艺制备直径100~1200mm的轮盘锻件,在室温850℃温度范围内具有良好的力学性能和满意的服役稳定性,可填补国内850℃变形盘材料的空白。This patent provides a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content and a preparation method. Using the alloy composition and preparation method provided in this patent, a casting-forging process can be used to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 100 to 1200 mm at room temperature of 850°C. It has good mechanical properties and satisfactory service stability in the temperature range, which can fill the gap of domestic 850℃ deformable disc materials.
附图说明Description of the drawings
为了更清楚地说明本发明的技术方案,下面将对实施例中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍,应当理解,以下附图仅示出了本发明的某些实施例,因此不应被看作是对范围的限定,对于本领域普通技术人员来讲,在不付出创造性劳动的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其他相关的附图。In order to explain the technical solution of the present invention more clearly, the following will briefly introduce the drawings that need to be used in the embodiments. It should be understood that the following drawings only show certain embodiments of the present invention, and therefore should not be It is regarded as a limitation of the scope. For those of ordinary skill in the art, without creative work, other related drawings can be obtained from these drawings.
图1为发明合金的热力学平衡相图;Figure 1 is the thermodynamic equilibrium phase diagram of the invention alloy;
图2为发明合金的μ相的等温转变曲线(TTT曲线);Figure 2 is the isothermal transformation curve (TTT curve) of the μ phase of the inventive alloy;
图3为本发明合金轮盘锻件制备工艺流程图。Fig. 3 is a flow chart of the preparation process of the alloy wheel forging of the present invention.
具体实施方式Detailed ways
下列实施例中未注明具体条件的实验方法,通常按照国家标准测定。若没有相应的国家标准,则按照通用的国际标准、常规条件、或按照制造厂商所建议的条件进行。The experimental methods without specific conditions in the following examples are usually determined in accordance with national standards. If there is no corresponding national standard, it shall be carried out in accordance with general international standards, conventional conditions, or conditions recommended by the manufacturer.
可对本发明提到的特征或实施例提到的特征进行组合。本说明书所揭示的所有特征可与任何组合物形式并用,说明书中所揭示的各个特征,可以任何可提供相同、均等或相似目的的替代性特征取代。因此除有特别说明,所揭示的特征仅为均等或相似特征的一般性例子。The features mentioned in the present invention or the features mentioned in the embodiments can be combined. All the features disclosed in this specification can be used in combination with any composition form, and each feature disclosed in the specification can be replaced by any alternative feature that can provide the same, equal or similar purpose. Therefore, unless otherwise specified, the disclosed features are only general examples of equal or similar features.
在本发明中,如果没有特别的说明,本文所提到的所有技术特征以及优 选特征可以相互组合形成新的技术方案。In the present invention, if there is no special description, all the technical features and preferred features mentioned in this article can be combined with each other to form a new technical solution.
在本发明中,如果没有特别的说明,本文所提到的镍基变形高温合金包括杂质元素,诸如P、Mn、Si、S、O、N、Ag、Ca、Sn、Pb、Cu、Ta、V等。In the present invention, unless otherwise specified, the nickel-based deformed superalloy mentioned herein includes impurity elements, such as P, Mn, Si, S, O, N, Ag, Ca, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ta, V and so on.
为使本发明实现的技术手段、创作特征、达成目的与功效易于明白了解,下面结合具体实施方式,进一步阐述本发明,但本发明包括但不限于这些实施例。In order to make the technical means, creative features, objectives and effects of the present invention easy to understand, the following describes the present invention in conjunction with specific implementations, but the present invention includes but is not limited to these embodiments.
为了开发一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料,同时具有可控的成本,一方面不添加或少添加Ta、Re等贵金属或Co、稀土等战略储备元素,尽量使用传统镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料的常规元素;另一方面不仅保证合金在850℃具有满意的性能,同时还应考虑合金的铸-锻工艺性能,能够利用现有的冶炼和锻造设备,制备直径100~1200mm的轮盘锻件,实现批量化低成本的生产。In order to develop a nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette material that can be used for a long time at 850℃, and at the same time has a controllable cost, on the one hand, no or less precious metals such as Ta and Re or strategic reserve elements such as Co and rare earth should be added as much as possible. Use the conventional elements of traditional nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette materials; on the other hand, it not only ensures that the alloy has satisfactory performance at 850°C, but also considers the casting-forging process performance of the alloy, and can utilize existing smelting and forging equipment, The forgings of roulettes with a diameter of 100-1200mm are prepared to realize mass production and low-cost production.
本专利合金成分设计思路如下,以传统的Ni-Co-Cr组元为基体元素,通过提升合金元素含量,尤其是高固溶强化相γ′相形成元素Al含量,增加强化相γ′相含量至55%~65%,来有效提高合金的承温能力。合金中适量添加Nb元素可改善γ′相的稳定性,进而提高铸-锻工艺性能,减少Cr元素添加可改善合金在850℃的长时组织稳定性,高含量的Al元素可弥补Cr元素降低引起的表面稳定性损失。The alloy composition design ideas of this patent are as follows. The traditional Ni-Co-Cr component is used as the base element. By increasing the content of alloy elements, especially the high solid solution strengthening phase γ′ phase forming element Al content, the strengthening phase γ′ phase content is increased To 55%-65%, to effectively improve the alloy's temperature-bearing capacity. The appropriate addition of Nb to the alloy can improve the stability of the γ'phase, thereby improving the performance of the casting-forging process, reducing the addition of Cr can improve the long-term structural stability of the alloy at 850℃, and the high content of Al can make up for the decrease of the Cr element. Loss of surface stability caused by.
Ni元素为基体元素,是因为Ni具有稳定的奥氏体基体,没有同素异构转变,奥氏体具有更高的高温强度,且具有较高的化学稳定性,在高温下具有优良的抗氧化和抗腐蚀性能。Ni element is a matrix element, because Ni has a stable austenite matrix without allotropic transformation, austenite has higher high temperature strength, and has higher chemical stability, and has excellent resistance at high temperatures. Oxidation and corrosion resistance.
Ni中加入Co元素,Co不仅可以起到固溶强化作用,而且可以提高Ni基体组元的固溶度,还可以降低合金的层错能,提高高温性能;Ni-Co中加入Cr元素,Cr不仅可以起到固溶强化作用,而且Cr能够在合金表面形成致密且可自动修复的Cr 2O 3氧化膜,使合金具有优良的抗氧化和抗腐蚀性能,但是过高的Cr含量会造成Ni-Co-Cr基体组元的固溶度降低,易析出有害的μ相,不利于长时服役稳定性。 The addition of Co element to Ni can not only play a solid solution strengthening effect, but also increase the solid solubility of Ni matrix components, reduce the stacking fault energy of the alloy, and improve high temperature performance; adding Cr element to Ni-Co, Cr Not only can it play a solid solution strengthening effect, but Cr can form a dense and automatically repairable Cr 2 O 3 oxide film on the surface of the alloy, so that the alloy has excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance. However, excessive Cr content will cause Ni -The solid solubility of the Co-Cr matrix components is reduced, and harmful μ phases are easily precipitated, which is not conducive to long-term service stability.
W和Mo是Ni基合金中最有效的固溶强化元素,高含量的Mo不利于合金的抗热腐蚀性能且促进μ相析出,高含量的W会造成合金的密度增大,但是为了同时提升合金的承温能力与高温长时组织稳定性,本专利采取了高W低Mo 的设计。W and Mo are the most effective solid solution strengthening elements in Ni-based alloys. A high content of Mo is not conducive to the hot corrosion resistance of the alloy and promotes the precipitation of μ phase. A high content of W will cause the density of the alloy to increase, but in order to increase at the same time For the alloy's temperature-bearing capacity and high-temperature long-term structural stability, this patent adopts the design of high W and low Mo.
Al是Ni基合金中最有效的沉淀强化相γ′相的形成元素,且Al元素能够形成Al 2O 3氧化膜,也可提高合金抗氧化和抗腐蚀性能,但是高含量的Al元素不利于合金的锻造和铸造性能。传统的镍基变形高温合金中Al含量一般不超过4%,一方面Al的原子序数小,因而原子百分含量高,提高Al含量至4%以上,会析出较高含量的γ′相,不利于钢锭的热塑性,会造成钢锭的热塑性显著降低;另一方面Al含量增加会增大钢液的粘性,扩大固液相线的温度范围,延长了钢液凝固时间,钢锭在浇铸凝固过程中易形成疏松,还会析出较多的γ′相形成较大的组织应力,严重时会造成钢锭开裂,不利于铸造性能。本专利为了提高合金的高温力学性能和抗氧化性能,提高了Al元素含量,降低了Cr元素含量,进而改善了高温长时组织稳定性。 Al is the most effective element in the formation of precipitation strengthening phase γ'phase in Ni-based alloys, and Al element can form Al 2 O 3 oxide film, which can also improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of the alloy, but high content of Al element is not conducive to The forging and casting properties of the alloy. The Al content in traditional nickel-based wrought superalloys generally does not exceed 4%. On the one hand, the atomic number of Al is small, so the atomic percentage is high. If the Al content is increased to more than 4%, a higher content of γ'phase will be precipitated. Conducive to the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot, it will cause the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot to be significantly reduced; on the other hand, the increase in Al content will increase the viscosity of the molten steel, expand the temperature range of the solid liquidus, and extend the solidification time of the molten steel. Formation of looseness, and more γ'phases will be precipitated to form greater structural stress, which will cause cracking of the steel ingot in severe cases, which is not conducive to casting performance. In order to improve the high-temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the alloy, this patent increases the Al element content and reduces the Cr element content, thereby improving the high-temperature long-term structural stability.
Ti也是Ni基合金中有效的沉淀强化相γ′相的形成元素,但是Ti元素的凝固偏析倾向较大,高Ti合金容易形成富Ti的通道偏析型冶金缺陷,Ti还是MC型碳化物的强形成元素;为了提升γ′相的稳定性和强化效果,本专利采取高Al、低Ti的设计,通过调整Al/Ti比控制Ti含量。Ti is also an effective precipitation strengthening phase γ'phase forming element in Ni-based alloys, but Ti element has a greater tendency to solidify and segregate. High Ti alloys are prone to form Ti-rich channel segregation metallurgical defects. Ti is also a strong MC type carbide. Forming elements; in order to improve the stability and strengthening effect of the γ'phase, this patent adopts a high Al and low Ti design, and the Ti content is controlled by adjusting the Al/Ti ratio.
Nb也是Ni基合金中有效的沉淀强化相γ′相的形成元素,Nb进入γ′相能够起到稳定γ′相的作用,可有效降低冷却过程中γ′相的析出速度,但是Nb元素的凝固偏析倾向较大。本专利合金采取高γ′相设计,为了改善γ′相的稳定性,提升锻造工艺性能,适量加入Nb元素,并按Al+Ti+Nb的总量控制。Nb is also an effective precipitation strengthening phase γ′ phase forming element in Ni-based alloys. Nb entering into the γ′ phase can stabilize the γ′ phase, which can effectively reduce the precipitation rate of the γ′ phase during the cooling process, but the Nb element The solidification segregation tends to be greater. This patented alloy adopts a high γ′ phase design. In order to improve the stability of the γ′ phase and enhance the forging process performance, an appropriate amount of Nb element is added and controlled according to the total amount of Al+Ti+Nb.
C是镍基变形高温合金中重要的元素,C主要形成碳化物,根据合金元素组成可形成MC型、M 6C型和M 23C 6型等多种类型的碳化物;碳化物在850℃的高温下能够改善合金的持久性能,为此,本专利合金中加入了适量的C元素。 C is an important element in nickel-based deformed superalloys. C mainly forms carbides. According to the composition of alloy elements, it can form various types of carbides such as MC type, M 6 C type and M 23 C 6 type; the carbide is at 850 ℃ It can improve the durability of the alloy at a high temperature. For this reason, an appropriate amount of C element is added to the alloy of this patent.
Fe元素同时是γ奥氏体组成元素,但是过多的Fe元素添加会促进σ相的析出,不利于高温长时组织稳定性,然而过低的Fe元素含量对于工业化的冶金生产不利。这是因为工厂的高温合金冶炼炉通常会生产一些含Fe的合金,如果Fe要求过低,则需要采取洗炉或新炉衬等措施,不仅影响生产效率,还可能会造成Fe元素超标,造成合格率降低。为此,本专利综合考虑各元素的配比,同时考核Fe元素的最大上限控制,保证可工业化生产的同时,最大限度的提升合金的高温长时组织稳定性。Fe element is also a constituent element of γ austenite, but too much Fe element addition will promote the precipitation of σ phase, which is not conducive to the stability of high temperature and long-term structure. However, too low Fe element content is detrimental to industrialized metallurgical production. This is because the high-temperature alloy smelting furnace of the factory usually produces some Fe-containing alloys. If the Fe requirement is too low, it is necessary to take measures such as washing the furnace or new furnace lining, which will not only affect the production efficiency, but may also cause the Fe element to exceed the standard and cause qualified The rate is reduced. For this reason, this patent comprehensively considers the ratio of each element, and at the same time assesses the maximum upper limit control of Fe element, so as to ensure industrial production while maximizing the high-temperature long-term structural stability of the alloy.
本专利在合金成分设计上,为了提升基体组元的固溶度和长时稳定性,适当提高Co元素含量、降低Cr元素含量。本专利的显著特征在于显著提高Al元素添加量,一方面增加γ′相的析出量提高合金力学性能,另一方面弥补Cr元素含量降低后的抗氧化和抗腐蚀性能衰减。加入适量的Ti和Nb元素,形成更为稳定的(Ni,Co) 3(Al,Ti,Nb)型γ′相,与单纯高Al的Ni3Al型的γ′相相比,添加适量的Nb和Ti后γ′相更为稳定,可以有效解决提高Al含量后钢锭凝固过程中γ′相析出造成的组织应力问题,并且能够改善钢锭的锻造性能。为了增加固溶强化效果改善850℃高温拉伸性能,同时加入W和Mo元素,增大W/Mo比,降低过高Mo元素含量会引起的抗热腐蚀性能衰减和μ相析出倾向。为了提高合金在850℃条件下高温持久性能,加入适量的C元素形成MC型、M 6C型和M 23C 6型等多种类型的碳化物强化,加入适量的B元素形成MB 2、M 3B 2型硼化物提高高温热强性。为了进一步改善合金铸-锻的工艺性能,加入适量的Mg和Ce元素,改善晶界性能,可以提高合金铸锭的热塑性,优化铸-锻工艺性能。其它诸如P、Mn、Si、S、O、N、Ag、Ca、Sn、Pb、Cu、Ta、V等则为杂质元素,不利于合金的力学性能和工艺性能,按冶炼能力所及的最低含量控制。 In the alloy composition design, this patent appropriately increases the Co element content and reduces the Cr element content in order to improve the solid solubility and long-term stability of the matrix components. The salient feature of this patent is to significantly increase the amount of Al element added. On the one hand, increasing the precipitation of γ'phase improves the mechanical properties of the alloy, and on the other hand, it makes up for the degradation of oxidation and corrosion resistance after the content of Cr element is reduced. Add appropriate amount of Ti and Nb elements to form a more stable (Ni,Co) 3 (Al,Ti,Nb) type γ′ phase. Compared with the pure high Al Ni3Al type γ′ phase, add an appropriate amount of Nb and The γ'phase after Ti is more stable, which can effectively solve the problem of structural stress caused by the precipitation of γ'phase in the solidification process of the steel ingot after increasing the Al content, and can improve the forging performance of the steel ingot. In order to increase the solid solution strengthening effect and improve the high temperature tensile properties at 850°C, W and Mo elements are added at the same time to increase the W/Mo ratio and reduce the thermal corrosion resistance degradation and μ phase precipitation tendency caused by excessive Mo element content. In order to improve the high-temperature durability of the alloy at 850℃, adding appropriate amount of C element to form MC type, M 6 C type and M 23 C 6 type and other types of carbide strengthening, adding appropriate amount of B element to form MB 2 , M 3 B Type 2 boride improves high-temperature thermal strength. In order to further improve the process performance of alloy casting-forging, adding appropriate amounts of Mg and Ce elements to improve the properties of grain boundaries can improve the thermoplasticity of alloy ingots and optimize the process performance of casting-forging. Other elements such as P, Mn, Si, S, O, N, Ag, Ca, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ta, V, etc. are impurity elements, which are not conducive to the mechanical properties and process properties of the alloy, and are the lowest according to the smelting capacity. Content control.
为了提高铸锭的洁净度、均质性和致密性,在真空感应熔炼浇铸成分合格的一次合金锭后,采用电渣重熔精炼脱除夹杂物和S元素并提升合金锭的冶金质量,再采用真空自耗重熔精炼进一步提升冶金质量,获得具有一定热塑性的合金锭。In order to improve the cleanliness, homogeneity and compactness of ingots, after vacuum induction melting and casting of qualified primary alloy ingots, electroslag remelting refining is used to remove inclusions and S elements and improve the metallurgical quality of alloy ingots. The vacuum consumable remelting refining is used to further improve the metallurgical quality and obtain an alloy ingot with a certain degree of thermoplasticity.
以下是具体的实施例和对比例中的合金成分表和技术效果对比表。The following is the alloy composition table and technical effect comparison table in specific examples and comparative examples.
表1 实施例与对比例的合金成分(表中数值为百分比数值)Table 1 Alloy composition of Examples and Comparative Examples (the values in the table are percentage values)
 To CC WW CrCr MoMo CoCo TiTi AlAl NbNb ZrZr MgMg CeCe BB FeFe NiNi
实施例1Example 1 0.090.09 8.28.2 9.69.6 2.72.7 17.417.4 2.082.08 3.333.33 1.671.67 0.0550.055 0.0490.049 0.0580.058 0.0070.007 1.81.8 Remain
实施例2Example 2 0.020.02 8.78.7 11.211.2 3.03.0 14.714.7 1.191.19 5.875.87 2.022.02 0.0320.032 0.0070.007 0.0420.042 0.0280.028 0.0080.008 Remain
实施例3Example 3 0.0450.045 6.86.8 10.510.5 2.62.6 16.216.2 1.551.55 4.524.52 1.461.46 0.0170.017 0.0110.011 0.0050.005 0.0130.013 1.21.2 Remain
实施例4Example 4 0.010.01 7.87.8 8.48.4 2.32.3 14.114.1 0.840.84 4.814.81 2.232.23 0.0240.024 0.0170.017 0.030.03 0.0440.044 0.450.45 Remain
实施例5Example 5 0.0040.004 6.06.0 7.07.0 1.01.0 14.014.0 0.80.8 3.53.5 0.80.8 0.0050.005 0.0050.005 0.0010.001 0.0050.005 0.0050.005 Remain
实施例6Example 6 0.10.1 9.09.0 12.012.0 4.04.0 17.517.5 2.52.5 6.06.0 2.52.5 0.10.1 0.10.1 0.10.1 0.10.1 2.02.0 Remain
实施例7Example 7 0.080.08 6.56.5 7.57.5 1.51.5 14.514.5 1.01.0 4.04.0 1.01.0 0.0060.006 0.0060.006 0.0060.006 0.0060.006 0.010.01 Remain
实施例8Example 8 0.060.06 8.08.0 11.011.0 3.53.5 17.017.0 2.02.0 5.55.5 2.02.0 0.050.05 0.050.05 0.050.05 0.050.05 1.51.5 Remain
实施例9Example 9 0.030.03 7.57.5 8.08.0 2.02.0 15.015.0 1.21.2 4.54.5 1.21.2 0.030.03 0.030.03 0.030.03 0.030.03 0.020.02 Remain
实施例10Example 10 0.040.04 7.07.0 10.010.0 3.23.2 16.516.5 1.81.8 5.25.2 1.81.8 0.020.02 0.020.02 0.020.02 0.020.02 1.21.2 Remain
比较例1Comparative example 1 0.0450.045 6.86.8 10.510.5 2.62.6 16.216.2 1.551.55 4.524.52 1.461.46 0.0020.002 0.0010.001 0.0010.001 0.0030.003 1.21.2 Remain
比较例2Comparative example 2 0.0450.045 4.84.8 10.510.5 4.84.8 16.216.2 1.551.55 4.524.52 1.461.46 0.0170.017 0.0110.011 0.0050.005 0.0130.013 2.22.2 Remain
表2 实施例与对比例的工艺与理化测试结果对比Table 2 Comparison of process and physical and chemical test results between the embodiment and the comparative example
Figure PCTCN2020098832-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2020098832-appb-000001
实施例1、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件的制备方法Example 1. A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件(其直径为200mm),其合金成分见表1中实施例1的部分。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging (with a diameter of 200 mm) that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in the part of embodiment 1 in Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用双联工艺(即真空感应熔炼和真空自耗重熔),真空感应熔炼得到的一次合金锭的直径为250mm,真空自耗重熔得到的合金锭直径为305mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为50Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度10Pa,出钢温度控制为1490℃,出钢时充10000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却1.5h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,该自耗重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,熔速1.5kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为1.5h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a dual process (namely, vacuum induction melting and vacuum consumable remelting). The diameter of the primary alloy ingot obtained by vacuum induction melting is 250mm, and the diameter of the alloy ingot obtained by vacuum consumable remelting is 305mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 50Pa, the temperature in the smelting period is controlled to 1550°C, the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1500°C, and the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 10Pa. The temperature is controlled at 1490°C, and 10000Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 1.5 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare a consumable remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 1.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 1.5h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
合金锭需经高温扩散均匀化退火处理,包括升温,保温和冷却的过程,升温速度控制为55℃/h,保温温度为1200℃,保温时间为30h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造, 锻前加热升温速度控制为55℃/h,保温温度为1140℃,保温时间为3h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~20min,超过20min后回炉保温1h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为12,得到棒材。The alloy ingot needs to undergo high temperature diffusion homogenization annealing treatment, including the process of heating, holding and cooling. The heating rate is controlled to 55°C/h, the holding temperature is 1200°C, the holding time is 30h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature for holding and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 55℃/h, the holding temperature is 1140℃, and the holding time is 3h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min-20min. After 20min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 1h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 12 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量的150%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.0,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为50℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为2h,镦粗变形量为35%,得到盘坯。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为50℃/h,保温温度为1100℃,保温时间为2h,模锻变形量为55%,模具加热温度为1050℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。Cut the bar according to 150% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.0. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 50℃/h, and the holding temperature is 1120℃. The time is 2h, the upsetting deformation is 35%, and the disc blank is obtained. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged to form. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 50℃/h, the holding temperature is 1100℃, the holding time is 2h, the forging deformation is 55%, and the mold heating temperature is 1050℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1150℃保温2h,中间时效处理制度为1000℃保温3h,时效处理制度为800℃保温12h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1150℃ for 2h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1000℃ for 3h, and the aging treatment system is 800℃ for 12h. .
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例2、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径550mm轮盘锻件的制备方法Example 2. A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径550mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例2。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 2 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用双联工艺,真空感应熔炼+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为370mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为460mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为70Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1580℃,精炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼阶段真空度15Pa,出钢温度控制为1500℃,出钢时充15000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却2h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,该自耗重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,熔速2.5kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a double process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 370mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting is 460mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 70Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1580°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1550°C, the vacuum in the refining stage is 15Pa, and the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1500℃, and 15000Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After the casting is finished, it is cooled for 2 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into a consumable remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 2.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1210℃,保温时间为40h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1160℃,保温时间为4h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为8,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled at 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1210°C, the holding time is 40h, and the cooling rate is controlled at 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1160°C, and the holding time is 4h. The forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量的130%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1140℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为50%,模具加热温度为950℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。The bar is cut according to 130% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1140°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is die forged. Before forging, the heating rate is controlled to 45℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 50%, and the mold heating temperature is 950℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1160℃保温4h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为850℃保温24h。The roulette forgings are machined and subjected to heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1160℃ for 4 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 4 hours, and the aging treatment system is 850℃ for 24 hours. .
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例3、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件Example 3. A 900mm diameter nickel-based wrought superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例3。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 3 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为20Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度4Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机 加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=65%:15%:1%:15%:4%,稳态熔速为5.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.83,熔速2.8kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm. . Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C, and the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa, and the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C, and 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 65%: 15% : 1%: 15%: 4%, the steady-state melting rate is 5.0kg/min, the cooling time after the secondary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 2h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.83, the melting rate is 2.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1190℃,保温时间为50h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为15,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1190°C, the holding time is 50h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量的120%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为40%,模具加热温度为650℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。The bar is cut according to 120% of the weight of the roulette forging, and the height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1180℃保温5h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为910℃保温12h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1180℃ for 5h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 4h, and the aging treatment system is 910℃ for 12h. .
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例4、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径1200mm轮盘锻件Example 4. A nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 1200mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径1200mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例4。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 1200 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 4 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔 炼一次合金锭直径为440mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为580mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为660mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为30Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1580℃,精炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼阶段真空度5Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充25000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=68%:14%:2%:14%:2%,稳态熔速为6.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为6h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.87,熔速3.8kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为3h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 440mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 580mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 660mm . Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C, the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa, and the steel is tapped. The temperature is controlled at 1480℃, and the steel is filled with 25000Pa argon protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.75, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 68%: 14%: 2%: 14 %: 2%, the steady-state melting rate is 6.0kg/min, the cooling time after the secondary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 6h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1180℃,保温时间为70h,冷却速度控制为5℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1180℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温6h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为8,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled at 15°C/h, the holding temperature is 1180°C, the holding time is 70h, and the cooling rate is controlled at 5°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 15℃/h, the holding temperature is 1180℃, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 6 hours of heat preservation. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量的110%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1150℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为50%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1100℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为35%,模具加热温度为350℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。The bar is cut according to 110% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1150°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 50%. After the disc blank is heated, it is die forged. Before forging, the heating rate is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1100℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1160℃保温8h,中间时效处理制度为1100℃保温10h,时效处理制度为850℃保温32h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1160℃ for 8h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100℃ for 10h, and the aging treatment system is 850℃ for 32h. .
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例5、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件的制备方法Embodiment 5. A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件(其直径为200mm),其合金成分见表1中实施例5的部分。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging (with a diameter of 200 mm) that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in the part of embodiment 5 in Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用双联工艺(即真空感应熔炼和真空自耗重熔),真空感应熔炼得到的一次合金锭的直径为250mm,真空自耗重熔得到的合金锭直径为305mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为10Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1300℃,精炼期温度控制为1400℃,精炼阶段真空度1Pa,出钢温度控制为1420℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却0.5h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,该自耗重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75,熔速1.0kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为0.5h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts a dual process (namely, vacuum induction melting and vacuum consumable remelting), the diameter of the primary alloy ingot obtained by vacuum induction melting is 250 mm, and the diameter of the alloy ingot obtained by vacuum consumable remelting is 305 mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting period, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 10Pa, the temperature in the smelting period is controlled to 1300°C, the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1400°C, and the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 1Pa. The temperature is controlled at 1420°C, and the steel is filled with 20000Pa argon protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 0.5h and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is processed into a consumable remelting electrode after machining. The filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.75, the melting rate is 1.0kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 0.5h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
步骤2、合金锭需经高温扩散均匀化退火处理,包括升温,保温和冷却的过程,升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1150℃,保温时间为24h,冷却速度控制为5℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1050℃,保温时间为2h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~5min,超过5min后回炉保温1h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为5,得到棒材。 Step 2. The alloy ingot needs to undergo high temperature diffusion homogenization annealing treatment, including the process of heating, holding and cooling. The heating rate is controlled to 15°C/h, the holding temperature is 1150°C, the holding time is 24h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 5°C/ h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 15℃/h, the holding temperature is 1050℃, and the holding time is 2h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time is controlled between 1min and 5min. After 5min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 1h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 5 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的140%切取适当长度的棒材,棒材高径比控制为1.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为20℃/h,保温温度为1000℃,保温时间为2h,镦粗变形量为30%,得到盘坯。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为20℃/h,保温温度为950℃,保温时间为2h,模锻变形量为30%,模具加热温度为300℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the appropriate length of the bar according to 140% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 1.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 20℃/h. The temperature is 1000°C, the holding time is 2h, the upsetting deformation is 30%, and the disc blank is obtained. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 20℃/h, the holding temperature is 950℃, the holding time is 2h, the forging deformation is 30%, and the mold heating temperature is 300℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1150℃保温2h,中间时效处理制度为1000℃保温2h,时效处理制度为760℃保温8h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1150℃ for 2 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1000℃ for 2 hours, and the aging treatment system is 760. Incubate at ℃ for 8h.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例6、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径550mm轮盘锻件的制备方法Example 6. A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径550mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例6。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 550 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 6 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用双联工艺,真空感应熔炼+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为370mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为460mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为100Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1650℃,精炼期温度控制为1600℃,精炼阶段真空度20Pa,出钢温度控制为1590℃,出钢时充50000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,该自耗重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.95,熔速6.0kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为3h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts a dual process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 370mm, and the diameter of the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 460mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 100Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1650°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1600°C, and the vacuum in the refining stage is 20Pa. The temperature is controlled at 1590°C, 50,000Pa is filled with argon protection when tapping, and after casting is finished, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demoulded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare a consumable remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.95, the melting rate is 6.0kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
步骤2、合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为60℃/h,保温温度为1250℃,保温时间为72h,冷却速度控制为55℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为60℃/h,保温温度为1180℃,保温时间为8h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~30min,超过30min后回炉保温6h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为20,得到棒材。 Step 2. High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 60°C/h, the holding temperature is 1250°C, the holding time is 72h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 55°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingots are heated to the forging temperature for holding and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 60℃/h, the holding temperature is 1180℃, and the holding time is 8h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time is controlled within 1min-30min. After 30min, it is returned to the furnace for 6h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 20 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的130%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为3.0,该棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为50℃/h,保温温度为1140℃,保温时间为8h,镦粗变形量为70%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为50℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为8h,模锻变形量为70%,模具加热温度为1050℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the bar according to 130% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 3.0. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset, and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 50℃/h, and the holding temperature is At 1140℃, the holding time is 8h, and the upsetting deformation is 70%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 50℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 8h, the forging deformation is 70%, and the mold heating temperature is 1050℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效 处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1220℃保温10h,中间时效处理制度为1150℃保温10h,时效处理制度为920℃保温32h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1220℃ for 10 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1150℃ for 10 hours, and the aging treatment system is 920. Incubate at ℃ for 32h.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例7、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件Example 7. A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例7。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy diameter wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850° C. is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 7 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为20Pa,熔炼期熔炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度4Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却2.5h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.9,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=65%:10%:0.5%:10%:0.5%,稳态熔速为5.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为0.5h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75,熔速1.0kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为1h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C, and the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa. The tapping temperature is controlled at 1480°C, and 20,000 Pa argon protection is filled during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 2.5 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.9, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 65%: 10% : 0.5%: 10%: 0.5%, the steady state melting rate is 5.0kg/min, the cooling time after the secondary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 0.5h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.75, and the melting rate is 1.0kg/min. The cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 1h, and then demolding and cooling. Obtain an alloy ingot.
步骤2、合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1190℃,保温时间为50h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~15min,超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为15,得到棒材。 Step 2. High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1190°C, the holding time is 50h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the single-fire forging time is controlled between 1min and 15min. After 15min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 2h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的140%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1110℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%,得到盘坯。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为40%,模具加热温度为650℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the bar according to 140% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset and the heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, and the holding temperature is 1110 ℃, the holding time is 4h, the upsetting deformation is 40%, and the disc blank is obtained. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1180℃保温5h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温8h,时效处理制度为910℃保温20h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are processed by machining for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1180℃ for 5 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 8 hours, and the aging treatment system is 910 Incubate at ℃ for 20h.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例8、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件Example 8. A 900mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例8。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 8 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为30Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1580℃,精炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼阶段真空度5Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充25000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.9,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=75%:20%:5%:20%:5%,稳态熔速为4.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为6h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.87,熔速3.8kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为3h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C, the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa, and the steel is tapped. The temperature is controlled at 1480℃, and the steel is filled with 25000Pa argon protection during tapping. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.9, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 75%: 20% : 5%: 20%: 5%, the steady-state melting rate is 4.0kg/min, the cooling time after the secondary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 6h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
步骤2、合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为20℃/h,保温温度为1180℃,保温时间为70h,冷却速度控制为5℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1180℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~10min,超过10min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为10,得到棒材。 Step 2. High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 20°C/h, the holding temperature is 1180°C, the holding time is 70h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 5°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 15℃/h, the holding temperature is 1180℃, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time is controlled within 1min-10min. After 10min, it is returned to the furnace for 2h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 10 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的125%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1150℃,保温时间为6h,镦粗变形量为50%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为40℃/h,保温温度为1100℃,保温时间为6h,模锻变形量为35%,模具加热温度为350℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the bar according to 125% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, and the holding temperature is 1150 ℃, holding time is 6h, upsetting deformation is 50%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 40℃/h, the holding temperature is 1100℃, the holding time is 6h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1160℃保温8h,中间时效处理制度为1100℃保温7h,时效处理制度为850℃保温32h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are processed by machining for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1160℃ for 8 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100℃ for 7 hours, and the aging treatment system is 850. Incubate at ℃ for 32h.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例9、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件Example 9. A 900mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例9。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 9 of Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为20Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1600℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度4Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合 金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=70%:15%:1%:15%:4%,稳态熔速为6.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.95,熔速5kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为3h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1600°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1500°C, the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa, and the steel is tapped. The temperature is controlled at 1480°C, and 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.8, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 70%: 15%: 1%: 15 %: 4%, the steady-state melting rate is 6.0kg/min, the cooling time after the secondary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 2h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.95, the melting rate is 5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 3h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
步骤2、合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1190℃,保温时间为50h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为7h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~12min,超过12min后回炉保温3h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为17,得到棒材。 Step 2. High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, heat preservation and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1190°C, the holding time is 50h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, and the holding time is 7h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min~12min. After 12min, the temperature is returned to the furnace for 3h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 17 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的115%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为40℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为7h,镦粗变形量为60%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1130℃,保温时间为3h,模锻变形量为60%,模具加热温度为650℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the bar according to 115% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset, the heating rate before forging is controlled to 40℃/h, and the holding temperature is 1120 ℃, holding time is 7h, upsetting deformation is 60%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged to form. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 45℃/h, the holding temperature is 1130℃, the holding time is 3h, the forging deformation is 60%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1200℃保温3h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为900℃保温25h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1200°C for 3 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050°C for 4 hours, and the aging treatment system is 900 Incubate at ℃ for 25h.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900 mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或 镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例10、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 10, a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例10。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 10 in Table 1.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺,如图3所示,包括如下步骤:The preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, as shown in Figure 3, includes the following steps:
步骤1、冶炼采用三联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,进行真空感应熔炼。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为30Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1580℃,精炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼阶段真空度5Pa,出钢温度控制为1400℃,出钢时充30000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=68%:14%:2%:14%:2%,稳态熔速为5.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为6h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,该电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.87,熔速3.8kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。 Step 1. The smelting adopts the triple process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot The diameter is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: weighing raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy, and performing vacuum induction smelting. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 30Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled to 1580°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled to 1550°C, the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 5Pa, and the steel is tapped. The temperature is controlled at 1400°C, and 30,000 Pa is filled with argon protection during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.75, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 68%: 14%: 2%: 14 %: 2%, the steady-state melting rate is 5.0kg/min, the cooling time after the completion of the secondary alloy ingot smelting is 6h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electroslag remelting electrode to the mold is 0.87, the melting rate is 3.8kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, Then, it is demolded and cooled to obtain an alloy ingot.
步骤2、合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为15℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为70h,冷却速度控制为10℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为30℃/h,保温温度为1090℃,保温时间为5h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间控制在1min~12min,超过12min后回炉保温3h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为8,得到棒材。 Step 2. High-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 15°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, the holding time is 70h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 10°C/h. After homogenization annealing, after machining, the alloy ingot is heated to the forging temperature and kept warm and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 30°C/h, the holding temperature is 1090°C, and the holding time is 5h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing length, the forging time of a single fire is controlled within 1min-12min. After 12min, it is returned to the furnace for 3h. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 8 to obtain the bar.
步骤3、根据轮盘锻件重量的145%切取棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1150℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为50%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升 温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1100℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为35%,模具加热温度为350℃,即可得到合金轮盘锻件。 Step 3. Cut the bar according to 145% of the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, and the holding temperature is 1150. ℃, holding time is 4h, upsetting deformation is 50%. After the disc blank is heated, it is die forged. Before forging, the heating rate is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1100℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 35%, and the mold heating temperature is 350℃. The alloy roulette forging is obtained.
步骤4、轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1160℃保温8h,中间时效处理制度为1100℃保温10h,时效处理制度为850℃保温30h。Step 4. The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1160℃ for 8 hours, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1100℃ for 10 hours, and the aging treatment system is 850. Incubate at ℃ for 30h.
在本实施例中,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.010%、Mn=0.15%、Si=0.15%、S=0.005%、O=0.002%、N=0.005%、Ag=0.0005%、Ca=0.005%、Sn=0.005%、Pb=0.0005%,Cu=0.1%、Ta=0.1%、V=0.1%。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time in this embodiment also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.010%, Mn= 0.15%, Si = 0.15%, S = 0.005%, O = 0.002%, N = 0.005%, Ag = 0.0005%, Ca = 0.005%, Sn = 0.005%, Pb = 0.0005%, Cu = 0.1%, Ta = 0.1%, V=0.1%.
在本实施例中,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.010%、Mn=0.102%、Si=0.10%、S=0.001%、O=0.001%、N=0.00015%、Ag=0.0001%、Ca=0.0015%、Sn=0、Pb=0.0,Cu=0.01%、Ta=0.01%、V=0.02%。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time in this embodiment also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.010%, Mn= 0.102%, Si = 0.10%, S = 0.001%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.00015%, Ag = 0.0001%, Ca = 0.0015%, Sn = 0, Pb = 0.0, Cu = 0.01%, Ta = 0.01% , V=0.02%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式中,所述的原材料可选自金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金中的一种或几种。In some implementations of this embodiment, the raw material may be selected from metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, metallic boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, nickel-tungsten alloy, niobium One or more of nickel alloy, vanadium iron, carbon electrode, master alloy.
实施例11、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 11. A 600mm diameter nickel-based wrought superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例10。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 10 in Table 1.
与实施例10的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 10 is that: in step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用双联工艺,真空感应熔炼+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为430mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,金属原材料包括:金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、中间合金等。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、化料熔炼熔炼期 期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为70Pa,熔化期熔炼期温度控制为1580℃,精炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼阶段真空度5Pa,出钢温度控制为1500℃,出钢时充15000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却2h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,该自耗重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,熔速2.5kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a double process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting, the diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting is 430mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy. The metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, master alloys, etc. The vacuum induction smelting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting and smelting period, refining and tapping. The vacuum degree of the evacuation stage is 70Pa, the temperature in the melting period is controlled to 1580°C, the temperature in the refining period is controlled to 1550°C, and the refining stage The vacuum degree is 5Pa, the tapping temperature is controlled to 1500℃, and the tapping is filled with 15000Pa argon protection. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 2h and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into a consumable remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the consumable remelting electrode to the mold is 0.8, the melting rate is 2.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then After demolding and cooling, an alloy ingot is obtained.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1210℃,保温时间为40h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为45℃/h,保温温度为1160℃,保温时间为4h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为10,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled at 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1210°C, the holding time is 40h, and the cooling rate is controlled at 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 45°C/h, the holding temperature is 1160°C, and the holding time is 4h. The forging billeting process includes For upsetting and drawing, the single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 10 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量切120%重量的棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为40%,模具加热温度为650℃,得到轮盘锻件。Cut 120% by weight of the bar according to the weight of the roulette forging. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bar is controlled to 2.5. After the bar is heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The holding time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃ to obtain the wheel. Disc forgings.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1180℃保温5h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为910℃保温12h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1180℃ for 5h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 4h, and the aging treatment system is 910℃ for 12h. .
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例12、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮 盘锻件Example 12. A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例5。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 5 of Table 1.
与实施例5的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 5 is: in step 1 of the preparation process of the alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
其它实施工艺与实施例5相同。The other implementation process is the same as in Example 5.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例13、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 13. A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例6。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 6 of Table 1.
与实施例6的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 6 is that in step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
其它实施工艺与实施例6相同。The other implementation process is the same as in Example 6.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中, P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例14、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 14. A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例7。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 7 of Table 1.
与实施例7的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 7 is that: in step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
其它实施工艺与实施例7相同。The other implementation process is the same as in Example 7.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例15、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 15. A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used at 850°C for a long time
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例8。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared, and the alloy composition is shown in Example 8 of Table 1.
与实施例8的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 8 is that: in step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
其它实施工艺与实施例8相同。The other implementation process is the same as in Example 8.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、 Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例16、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件Example 16. A 600mm diameter nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1实施例9。In this embodiment, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600 mm that can be used at 850° C. for a long time is prepared. The alloy composition is shown in Example 9 of Table 1.
与实施例9的不同之处在于:在合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺的步骤1中,如果所述的一次合金锭为直径小于500mm的合金锭,对所述的一次合金锭的处理工艺将变更为:将所述的一次合金锭直接进行真空自耗重熔,得到合金锭。The difference from Example 9 is that in step 1 of the preparation process of alloy wheel forgings, if the primary alloy ingot is an alloy ingot with a diameter of less than 500mm, the processing process for the primary alloy ingot will be changed The steps are: directly subjecting the primary alloy ingot to vacuum consumable remelting to obtain an alloy ingot.
其它实施工艺与实施例9相同。The other implementation process is the same as in Example 9.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.015%、Mn=0.5%、Si=0.5%、S=0.015%、O=0.005%、N=0.01%、Ag=0.005%、Ca=0.01%、Sn=0.01%、Pb=0.001%,Cu=0.5%、Ta=0.5%、V=0.5%。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm that can be used at 850°C for a long time and also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P = 0.015% , Mn = 0.5%, Si = 0.5%, S = 0.015%, O = 0.005%, N = 0.01%, Ag = 0.005%, Ca = 0.01%, Sn = 0.01%, Pb = 0.001%, Cu = 0.5% , Ta = 0.5%, V = 0.5%.
在本实施例的一些实施方式,本实施例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径600mm轮盘锻件还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P=0.001%、Mn=0.1%、Si=0.2%、S=0.003%、O=0.001%、N=0.0021%、Ag=0.003%、Ca=0.0011%、Sn=0.001%、Pb=0,Cu=0、Ta=0、V=0。In some implementations of this embodiment, this embodiment prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 600mm, which can be used at 850°C for a long time, also includes impurity elements. Among the impurity elements, P=0.001% , Mn = 0.1%, Si = 0.2%, S = 0.003%, O = 0.001%, N = 0.0021%, Ag = 0.003%, Ca = 0.0011%, Sn = 0.001%, Pb = 0, Cu = 0, Ta =0, V=0.
实施例17、性能测定实验Embodiment 17, performance measurement experiment
从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的一种850℃以上使用的镍基变形高温合金,经发明人检测分析发现,该类镍基变形高温合金是以Ni-Co-Cr元素为基体组元,形成稳定的γ奥氏体基体,以共格析出的γ′相为主要强化相,添加了高含量的γ′相形成元素Al、Ti、Nb,γ′相的质量百分含量最高达达到55~65%,添加高含量的W、Mo元素进行固溶强化,同时添加加入适量的B、Zr、Ce、Mg进行微合金化以改善晶界性能,合金中析出MC型、M6C型和M23C6型碳化物,MB2、M3B2型硼化物等第二相进行复合强化,实施例1所得的镍基 变形高温合金的该部分技术效果如如图1所示,其它实施例所得的镍基变形高温合金的该部分技术效果雷同。A nickel-based deformed superalloy used above 850°C obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 has been tested and analyzed by the inventor and found that this type of nickel-based deformed superalloy is based on Ni-Co-Cr elements. Component, forming a stable γ-austenite matrix, with the coherent precipitated γ'phase as the main strengthening phase, adding high content of γ'phase to form elements Al, Ti, Nb, and the highest mass percentage of γ'phase Reaching 55-65%, adding high content of W and Mo elements for solid solution strengthening, while adding an appropriate amount of B, Zr, Ce, Mg for microalloying to improve grain boundary properties, MC type and M6C type are precipitated in the alloy With M23C6 type carbides, MB2, M3B2 type borides and other second phases for composite strengthening, this part of the technical effect of the nickel-based deformed superalloy obtained in Example 1 is shown in Figure 1. The nickel-based deformations obtained in other examples The technical effect of this part of the superalloy is the same.
参照GB/T228.2金属材料拉伸试验第2部分高温试验方法开展的检测。结果表明,在850℃条件下,从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的合金的拉伸抗拉强度可达850MPa以上,屈服强度可达700MPa以上。参照GB/T2039金属拉伸蠕变及持久试验方法进行检测,结果表明,从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的合金在350MPa下的持久寿命大于100h。Refer to GB/T228.2 Metallic Material Tensile Test Part 2 High Temperature Test Method to carry out the test. The results show that under the condition of 850°C, the tensile strength of the alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 can reach more than 850 MPa, and the yield strength can reach more than 700 MPa. According to GB/T2039 metal tensile creep and endurance test method, the results show that the alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16 has an endurance life of more than 100h under 350MPa.
从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的镍基变形高温合金,经在室温650~900℃温度范围内长期时效5000h以上,且析出有害相μ相的含量不超过1%,实施例1所得的镍基变形高温合金的该部分技术效果如如图2所示,其它实施例所得的镍基变形高温合金的该部分技术效果雷同,综上可看出,本发明得到的合金能够作为850℃长时使用的轮盘材料。The nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16, has been aged for more than 5000 hours in the temperature range of 650 to 900 ℃ at room temperature, and the content of the precipitated harmful phase μ phase does not exceed 1%. Example 1 This part of the technical effect of the obtained nickel-based wrought superalloy is as shown in Figure 2. The part of the technical effect of the nickel-based wrought superalloy obtained in other embodiments is the same. In summary, it can be seen that the alloy obtained by the present invention can be used as 850 ℃ Long-term use of roulette material.
从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的的镍基变形高温合金,其主要强化相γ′相的化学组成为(Ni,Co) 3(Al,Ti,Nb),含有一定量的Nb元素后γ′相在热加工过程中更为稳定,在自由锻造条件下锻造开坯过程中γ′相的析出速度慢,避免了应变时效析出造成的钢锭热塑性劣化的问题,使合金具备足够的热塑性,可实现自由锻造开坯。 The nickel-based deformed superalloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16, the chemical composition of the main strengthening phase γ'phase is (Ni, Co) 3 (Al, Ti, Nb), containing a certain amount of Nb The γ′ phase after the element is more stable during the hot working process. The precipitation speed of the γ′ phase during the forging and billeting process under the free forging condition is slow, which avoids the problem of the deterioration of the thermoplasticity of the steel ingot caused by the strain aging precipitation, so that the alloy has sufficient Thermoplastic, can realize free forging and billeting.
从实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的的镍基变形高温合金,采用本发明提供的冶炼、锻造开坯、锻造成型和热处理工艺可以制备处直径100~1200mm的轮盘锻件,采用现有常规设备可以实现工业化生产,具有良好的铸-锻工艺性能。The nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy obtained from any one of Examples 1 to 16, adopts the smelting, forging blanking, forging forming and heat treatment processes provided by the present invention to prepare wheel forgings with a diameter of 100 to 1200 mm. Industrial production can be realized with conventional equipment, and it has good casting-forging process performance.
综上所述,本发明实施例1至16中任一实施例得到的可在850℃及以上温度长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘材料,通过合理的成分设计和制备方法能够制备直径100~1200mm的轮盘锻件,在850℃条件下具有优异的拉伸和持久性能,且长时组织稳定性良好,而且具备可工业化批量生产的能力。In summary, the nickel-based deformed superalloy roulette material that can be used for a long time at a temperature of 850°C and above obtained in any one of the embodiments 1 to 16 of the present invention can be prepared through reasonable composition design and preparation methods. The 100-1200mm roulette forgings have excellent tensile and durability properties at 850°C, good long-term structural stability, and the ability to be industrialized and mass-produced.
对比例1、一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件Comparative example 1. A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used for a long time at 850℃
本对比例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1对比例1,与实施例3相比B、Zr、Ce、Mg等微量元素含量更低。This comparative example prepares a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used at 850℃ for a long time. The alloy composition is shown in Table 1 and Comparative Example 1. Compared with Example 3, trace elements such as B, Zr, Ce, Mg, etc. The content is lower.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用双联工艺,真空感应熔炼+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为440mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,金属原材料包括:金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、返回料等。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为20Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度4Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成自耗重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.85,熔速3.5kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a dual process, vacuum induction melting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot in vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 440mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy. The metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, return materials, etc. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C, the vacuum in the refining stage is 4Pa, and the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C, and 20,000 Pa argon protection is filled during tapping. After casting, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into a consumable remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.85, the melting rate is 3.5kg/min, and the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then demolding and cooling to obtain Alloy ingot.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1190℃,保温时间为50h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为15,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1190°C, the holding time is 50h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量切取适当长度的棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为40%,模具加热温度为650℃,得到轮盘锻件。Cut bars of appropriate length according to the weight of the roulette forgings. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bars is controlled to 2.5. After the bars are heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃ to obtain the wheel. Disc forgings.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1180℃保温5h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为910℃保温12h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1180℃ for 5h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 4h, and the aging treatment system is 910℃ for 12h. .
针对对比例1制备的合金棒材在低倍检查中,发现了黑斑冶金缺陷,且在锻造开坯过程中开裂明显,开裂倾向大于实施例3。For the alloy bar prepared in Comparative Example 1, black spot metallurgical defects were found in low-power inspection, and cracking was obvious during the forging and billeting process, and the cracking tendency was greater than that of Example 3.
对比例2 一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘 锻件Comparative Example 2 A nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm that can be used for a long time at 850°C
本对比例制备一种可在850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金直径900mm轮盘锻件,合金成分见表1对比例2,与实施例3相比,调高了Mo含量、调低了W含量,增加了Fe含量。In this comparative example, a nickel-based deformed superalloy wheel forging with a diameter of 900mm, which can be used for a long time at 850℃, is prepared in this comparative example. The alloy composition is shown in Table 1 and Comparative Example 2. Compared with Example 3, the Mo content is increased and the adjustment is lower. The W content increases the Fe content.
合金轮盘锻件的制备工艺如下:The preparation process of alloy roulette forgings is as follows:
冶炼采用双联工艺,真空感应熔炼+电渣重熔+真空自耗重熔,真空感应熔炼一次合金锭直径为355mm,电渣重熔合金锭直径为423mm,真空自耗重熔合金锭直径为508mm。真空感应熔炼包括以下步骤:按照合金的元素配比称取原材料,金属原材料包括:金属镍、金属铬或镍铬合金、金属钛、金属铝、金属钼、硼铁、金属钴、金属钨、镍钨合金、铌镍合金、钒铁、碳电极、返回料等。真空感应熔炼过程包括抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢等几个步骤,抽空阶段真空度为20Pa,熔炼期温度控制为1550℃,精炼期温度控制为1500℃,精炼阶段真空度4Pa,出钢温度控制为1480℃,出钢时充20000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。一次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.8,电渣配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=65%:15%:1%:15%:4%,稳态熔速为5.0kg/min,二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却。二次合金锭经机加工后制备成电渣重熔电极,电极与结晶器的充填比为0.83,熔速2.8kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为2h,而后脱模冷却,得到合金锭。The smelting adopts a double process, vacuum induction melting + electroslag remelting + vacuum consumable remelting. The diameter of the primary alloy ingot of vacuum induction melting is 355mm, the diameter of electroslag remelting alloy ingot is 423mm, and the diameter of vacuum consumable remelting alloy ingot is 508mm. Vacuum induction smelting includes the following steps: Weigh the raw materials according to the element ratio of the alloy. The metal raw materials include: metallic nickel, metallic chromium or nickel-chromium alloy, metallic titanium, metallic aluminum, metallic molybdenum, boron iron, metallic cobalt, metallic tungsten, and nickel Tungsten alloys, niobium-nickel alloys, ferrovanadium, carbon electrodes, return materials, etc. The vacuum induction melting process includes several steps such as evacuation, smelting, refining and tapping. The vacuum in the evacuation stage is 20Pa, the temperature in the smelting stage is controlled at 1550°C, the temperature in the refining stage is controlled at 1500°C, and the vacuum degree in the refining stage is 4Pa, and the tapping The temperature is controlled at 1480°C, and 20,000 Pa argon gas is filled for protection during tapping. After casting is completed, it is cooled for 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot. The primary alloy ingot is machined to prepare an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.8, and the electroslag ratio is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 65%: 15%: 1%: 15 %: 4%, the steady-state melting rate is 5.0kg/min, the cooling time after the completion of the secondary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then demolding and cooling. The secondary alloy ingot is machined and prepared into an electroslag remelting electrode. The filling ratio of the electrode to the mold is 0.83, and the melting rate is 2.8kg/min. The cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is 2h, and then demolding and cooling. Obtain an alloy ingot.
合金锭高温扩散均匀化退火包括升温,保温和冷却过程,升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1190℃,保温时间为50h,冷却速度控制为25℃/h。合金锭经均匀化退火后,经机加工后,加热至锻造温度保温后出炉锻造,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1170℃,保温时间为6h,锻造开坯过程包括镦粗和拔长,单火次锻造时间超过15min后回炉保温2h,每次锻造前合金锭表面均包覆石棉进行保温,控制总锻比为15,得到棒材。The high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing of alloy ingots includes heating, holding and cooling processes. The heating rate is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1190°C, the holding time is 50h, and the cooling rate is controlled to 25°C/h. After homogenization annealing, the alloy ingot is machined, heated to the forging temperature, and then out of the furnace for forging. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, the holding temperature is 1170°C, and the holding time is 6h. The forging billeting process includes Upsetting and drawing length, single-fire forging time exceeds 15 minutes, and then returning to the furnace for 2 hours. Before each forging, the surface of the alloy ingot is covered with asbestos for heat preservation, and the total forging ratio is controlled to 15 to obtain the bar.
根据轮盘锻件重量切取适当长度的棒材,棒材高径比控制为2.5,棒材经加热后镦粗制坯,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,镦粗变形量为40%。盘坯经加热后进行模锻成型,锻前加热升温速度控制为35℃/h,保温温度为1120℃,保温时间为4h,模锻变形量为40%,模 具加热温度为650℃,得到轮盘锻件。Cut bars of appropriate length according to the weight of the roulette forgings. The height-to-diameter ratio of the bars is controlled to 2.5. After the bars are heated, the billet is upset. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35°C/h, and the holding temperature is 1120°C. The time is 4h, and the upsetting deformation is 40%. After the disc blank is heated, it is forged and formed. The heating rate before forging is controlled to 35℃/h, the holding temperature is 1120℃, the holding time is 4h, the forging deformation is 40%, and the mold heating temperature is 650℃ to obtain the wheel. Disc forgings.
轮盘锻件经机加工进行热处理,热处理包括固溶处理,中间时效处理和时效处理,固溶处理制度为1180℃保温5h,中间时效处理制度为1050℃保温4h,时效处理制度为910℃保温12h。The roulette forgings are machined for heat treatment. The heat treatment includes solution treatment, intermediate aging treatment and aging treatment. The solution treatment system is 1180℃ for 5h, the intermediate aging treatment system is 1050℃ for 4h, and the aging treatment system is 910℃ for 12h. .
本对比例制备的合金轮盘锻件取试样进行高温长时组织稳定性测试,试样经850℃长时时效3000h后,发现析出了较多的有害相σ相、μ相析出,850℃长时组织稳定性较差。The alloy wheel forgings prepared in this comparative example were tested for high temperature and long-term microstructure stability. After the samples were aged for 3000 hours at 850℃, it was found that more harmful σ and μ phases were precipitated. When the stability of the tissue is poor.
对比例3和其它现有技术的对比分析Comparative analysis of comparative example 3 and other existing technologies
为研究现有技术是否对本发明的技术有促进作用,发明人进行了以下专利的技术工艺的试验:In order to study whether the existing technology has a promoting effect on the technology of the present invention, the inventor conducted the experiment of the following patented technology:
试验结果表明,对比专利CN110241331A合金同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用粉末冶金工艺制造。但发明人经试验对比发现,与本发明合金相比Ti元素含量高、W元素含量低,添加了Hf、Ta等合金元素。对于采用铸-锻工艺生产的变形高温合金,Ti元素是易偏析元素,高含量的Ti元素会增大真空自耗重熔过程中点偏缺陷的形成几率;Hf元素是极易氧化元素,在熔铸过程中极易氧化为HfO2颗粒,混入熔池中会对钢锭的纯净度造成不利影响。The test results show that the comparative patent CN110241331A alloy is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy. However, the inventor found through experiments and comparisons that compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of Ti element is higher, the content of W element is lower, and alloy elements such as Hf and Ta are added. For deformed superalloys produced by the casting-forging process, Ti element is an element that is easy to segregate. A high content of Ti element will increase the probability of formation of point deviation defects during the vacuum consumable remelting process; Hf element is an element that is extremely easy to oxidize. During the casting process, it is easily oxidized into HfO2 particles, and mixing into the molten pool will adversely affect the purity of the steel ingot.
同样地,对比试验结果表明,对比专利CN110205523A同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用粉末冶金工艺制造。与本发明合金相比W元素含量低、Mo元素含量高,Mo高后不利于合金在850℃的热稳定性,易析出有害的μ相;该合金同样加入了Hf元素,不适合于采用铸-锻工艺生产。Similarly, the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN110205523A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of W element is low and the content of Mo element is high. The high Mo content is not conducive to the thermal stability of the alloy at 850°C, and harmful μ phase is easy to precipitate; the alloy also contains Hf element, which is not suitable for casting -Forging process production.
同样地,对比试验结果表明,对比专利CN108441705A同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用铸-锻工艺制造。与本发明合金相比W元素含量低、Cr元素含量高,固溶强化效果差,组织稳定性不理想,无法满足850℃的使用需求;该合金中同样加入了少量的Hf元素,对于采用铸-锻工艺生产会有较大的氧化物夹杂风险。Similarly, the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108441705A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting-forging process. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of W element is low, the content of Cr element is high, the solid solution strengthening effect is poor, the structure stability is not ideal, and it cannot meet the use requirement of 850℃; -Forging process production will have a greater risk of oxide inclusions.
同样地,对比试验结果表明,对比专利CN108425037A同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用粉末冶金工艺 制造。与本发明合金相比,Ti元素含量高,Ti元素增大了冶金缺陷的形成风险,且加入了昂贵的Ta元素进行强化,无法达到本发明旨在开发一种可采用铸-锻工艺生产的低成本合金的目标。Similarly, the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108425037A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by powder metallurgy. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of Ti element is high. Ti element increases the risk of metallurgical defects, and adds expensive Ta element for strengthening. The goal of low-cost alloys.
同样地,对比试验结果表明,对比专利CN108315599A同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用铸-锻工艺制造。与本发明合金相比,W元素含量低,加入了大量的Nb元素和Fe元素,Nb元素是偏析倾向十分强的元素,含量过程容易形成黑斑缺陷,高含量的Fe元素会造成合金在高温下使用容易析出有害的σ相,因此无法满足850℃高温条件下的使用需求。Similarly, the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN108315599A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting-forging process. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the content of W element is low, and a large amount of Nb element and Fe element are added. Nb element is an element with a very strong tendency to segregate. It is easy to precipitate harmful sigma phase when used under low temperature, so it cannot meet the requirements for use under high temperature conditions of 850°C.
同样地,对比试验结果表明,对比专利CN107760926A同样为高合金化的镍基高温合金,其成分配比与本发明合金相似,该专利合金采用铸造工艺制造。与本发明合金相比,Co含量低,不利于合金的组织稳定性和锻造工艺性能;此外,不添加Mg、Zr、Ce等晶界有益微量元素,不适合于具有等轴晶粒的变形高温合金性能改善。Similarly, the comparative test results show that the comparative patent CN107760926A is also a highly alloyed nickel-based superalloy, and its composition ratio is similar to that of the alloy of the present invention, and the patented alloy is manufactured by a casting process. Compared with the alloy of the present invention, the Co content is low, which is not conducive to the structural stability of the alloy and the forging process performance; in addition, no beneficial trace elements such as Mg, Zr, Ce, etc. are added to the grain boundary, which is not suitable for high temperature deformation with equiaxed grains. Improved alloy properties.
以上所述,仅为本发明较佳的具体实施方式,但本发明的保护范围并不局限于此,任何熟悉本技术领域的技术人员在本发明揭露的技术范围内,可轻易想到的变化或替换,都应涵盖在本发明的保护范围内。The above are only the preferred specific embodiments of the present invention, but the protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto. Any person skilled in the art can easily think of changes or changes within the technical scope disclosed by the present invention. All replacements should be covered within the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.004~0.1%,W:6.0~9.0%,Cr:7.0~12.0%,Mo:1.0~4.0%,Co:14.0~17.5%,Ti:0.8~2.5%,Al:3.5~6.0%,Nb:0.8~2.5%,Zr:0.005~0.1%,Mg:0.005~0.1%;Ce:0.001~0.1%,B:0.005~0.1%,Fe:0.005~2.0%,余量为Ni。A nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content, characterized in that the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy includes: C: 0.004 to 0.1%, W: 6.0 to 9.0%, and Cr: 7.0 to 12.0%, Mo: 1.0 to 4.0%, Co: 14.0 to 17.5%, Ti: 0.8 to 2.5%, Al: 3.5 to 6.0%, Nb: 0.8 to 2.5%, Zr: 0.005 to 0.1%, Mg: 0.005 ~0.1%; Ce: 0.001~0.1%, B: 0.005~0.1%, Fe: 0.005~2.0%, and the balance is Ni.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.01~0.08%,W:6.5~8.0%,Cr:7.5~11.0%,Mo:1.5~3.5%,Co:14.5~17.5%,Ti:1.0~2.0%,Al:4.0~5.5%,Nb:1.0~2.0%,Zr:0.005~0.05%,Mg:0.005~0.05%;Ce:0.001~0.05%,B:0.005~0.05%,Fe:0.01~1.5%,余量为Ni;所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P≤0.015%、Mn≤0.5%、Si≤0.5%、S≤0.015%、O≤0.005%、N≤0.01%、Ag≤0.005%、Ca≤0.01%、Sn≤0.01%、Pb≤0.001%,Cu≤0.5%、Ta≤0.5%、V≤0.5%。The nickel-based deformed superalloy according to claim 1, wherein the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed superalloy includes: C: 0.01-0.08%, W: 6.5-8.0%, Cr :7.5~11.0%, Mo: 1.5~3.5%, Co: 14.5~17.5%, Ti: 1.0~2.0%, Al: 4.0~5.5%, Nb: 1.0~2.0%, Zr: 0.005~0.05%, Mg: 0.005~0.05%; Ce: 0.001~0.05%, B: 0.005~0.05%, Fe: 0.01~1.5%, the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements. Among them, P≤0.015%, Mn≤0.5%, Si≤0.5%, S≤0.015%, O≤0.005%, N≤0.01%, Ag≤0.005%, Ca≤0.01%, Sn≤0.01%, Pb≤0.001 %, Cu≤0.5%, Ta≤0.5%, V≤0.5%.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,成分配比以质量百分比计,所述的镍基变形高温合金包括:C:0.01~0.06%,W:6.5~7.5%,Cr:8.0~10.0%,Mo:2.0~3.2%,Co:15.0~16.5%,Ti:1.2~1.8%,Al:4.5~5.2%,Nb:1.2~1.8%,Zr:0.005~0.03%,Mg:0.005~0.03%;Ce:0.001~0.03%,B:0.005~0.03%,Fe:0.01~1.2%,余量为Ni;所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括杂质元素,在所述的杂质元素中,P≤0.010%、Mn≤0.15%、Si≤0.15%、S≤0.005%、O≤0.002%、N≤0.005%、Ag≤0.0005%、Ca≤0.005%、Sn≤0.005%、Pb≤0.0005%,Cu≤0.1%、Ta≤0.1%、V≤0.1%。The nickel-based deformed superalloy according to claim 1, wherein the composition ratio is calculated by mass percentage, and the nickel-based deformed superalloy includes: C: 0.01 to 0.06%, W: 6.5 to 7.5%, Cr :8.0~10.0%, Mo: 2.0~3.2%, Co: 15.0~16.5%, Ti: 1.2~1.8%, Al: 4.5~5.2%, Nb: 1.2~1.8%, Zr: 0.005~0.03%, Mg: 0.005~0.03%; Ce: 0.001~0.03%, B: 0.005~0.03%, Fe: 0.01~1.2%, the balance is Ni; the nickel-based deformed superalloy also includes impurity elements, in the impurity elements Among them, P≤0.010%, Mn≤0.15%, Si≤0.15%, S≤0.005%, O≤0.002%, N≤0.005%, Ag≤0.0005%, Ca≤0.005%, Sn≤0.005%, Pb≤0.0005 %, Cu≤0.1%, Ta≤0.1%, V≤0.1%.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,所述的镍基变形高温合金以γ奥氏体为基体,强化相γ′相的质量百分含量达到55~65%,所述的强化相的化学组成为(Ni,Co) 3(Al,Ti,Nb)。 The nickel-based wrought superalloy according to claim 1, wherein the nickel-based wrought superalloy uses γ austenite as a matrix, and the mass percentage of the strengthening phase γ'phase reaches 55-65%, so The chemical composition of the strengthening phase is (Ni, Co) 3 (Al, Ti, Nb).
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,所述的镍基变形高温合金还包括第二相,所述的第二相包括:MC型碳化物、M6C型碳化物、M23C6型碳化物、MB2型硼化物、M3B2型硼化物。The nickel-based deformed superalloy according to claim 1, wherein the nickel-based deformed superalloy further includes a second phase, and the second phase includes: MC type carbide, M6C type carbide, M23C6 Type carbide, MB2 type boride, M3B2 type boride.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的镍基变形高温合金,其特征在于,在所述的镍基变形高温合金中,γ′相含量的质量百分数为55~65%,在650~900℃温度范围内长期时 效5000h以上,且析出有害相μ相的含量不超过1%。The nickel-based wrought superalloy according to claim 1, characterized in that, in the nickel-based wrought superalloy, the mass percentage of the γ'phase content is 55-65%, and the temperature range is 650-900℃ for a long time. The aging is more than 5000h, and the content of the precipitated harmful phase μ phase does not exceed 1%.
  7. 一种高铝含量的镍基变形高温合金的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for preparing a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy with high aluminum content, which is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
    步骤1:采用真空感应熔炼将权利要求1至5任一权项所述的金属原材料成分熔炼为一次合金锭,再经电渣重熔精炼为二次合金锭,再经真空自耗重熔精炼为三次合金锭,得到合金锭;Step 1: Use vacuum induction melting to smelt the metal raw material components described in any one of claims 1 to 5 into primary alloy ingots, and then refine them into secondary alloy ingots by electroslag remelting, and then refine by vacuum consumable remelting Is a tertiary alloy ingot to obtain an alloy ingot;
    步骤2:将步骤1所得的合金锭经高温扩散均匀化退火后,再加热锻造开坯成棒材;Step 2: After the alloy ingot obtained in Step 1 is subjected to high-temperature diffusion homogenization annealing, it is heated and forged into a bar;
    步骤3:将步骤2所得的棒材经制坯和模锻成型,得到合金轮盘锻件;Step 3: The bar obtained in step 2 is formed by blanking and die forging to obtain alloy wheel forgings;
    步骤4:将步骤3所得的合金轮盘锻件经热处理后,得到850℃长时使用的镍基变形高温合金轮盘锻件。Step 4: After heat treatment of the alloy wheel forging obtained in Step 3, a nickel-based deformed high-temperature alloy wheel forging for long-term use at 850°C is obtained.
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤1中所述的真空感应熔炼包括的处理工艺为:抽空、熔炼期、精炼和出钢;The preparation method according to claim 7, wherein the vacuum induction smelting in step 1 includes treatment processes: evacuation, smelting period, refining and tapping;
    在所述的抽空的处理工艺中,真空度为10~100Pa;In the evacuated treatment process, the vacuum degree is 10-100 Pa;
    在所述的熔炼期的处理工艺中,温度控制为1300℃-1650℃;In the treatment process during the smelting period, the temperature is controlled at 1300°C-1650°C;
    在所述的精炼的处理工艺中,温度控制为1400℃~1600℃,真空度1~20Pa;In the refining process, the temperature is controlled to be 1400°C to 1600°C, and the vacuum degree is 1 to 20 Pa;
    在所述的出钢的处理工艺中,温度控制为1420℃-1590℃,且需充10000~50000Pa氩气保护,浇铸完成后冷却0.5h~3h后脱模冷却,得到一次合金锭。In the steel tapping treatment process, the temperature is controlled to 1420°C-1590°C, and argon protection is required to be filled with 10,000 to 50,000 Pa. After the casting is completed, it is cooled for 0.5 to 3 hours and then demolded and cooled to obtain a primary alloy ingot.
  9. 根据权利要求7所述的制备方法,其特征在于,所述的步骤1还包括:将所述的一次合金锭制备成I电渣重熔电极,所述的I电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75~0.9;在电渣重熔过程中,采用的电渣的组分配比为CaF2:CaO:MgO:Al2O3:TiO2=65~75%:10~20%:0.5~5%:10~20%:0.5~5%,稳态熔速为1.0~6.0kg/min,所述的二次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为0.5h~6h,而后脱模冷却。The preparation method according to claim 7, wherein the step 1 further comprises: preparing the primary alloy ingot into an I electroslag remelting electrode, the I electroslag remelting electrode and the crystallizer The filling ratio of slag is 0.75~0.9; in the process of electroslag remelting, the composition ratio of electroslag used is CaF2: CaO: MgO: Al2O3: TiO2 = 65 to 75%: 10 to 20%: 0.5 to 5%: 10-20%: 0.5-5%, the steady-state melting rate is 1.0-6.0 kg/min, the cooling time after the completion of the secondary alloy ingot smelting is 0.5h-6h, and then demolding and cooling.
  10. 根据权利要求7所述的制备方法,其特征在于,所述的步骤1还包括:将所述的二次合金锭制备成II电渣重熔电极,所述的II电渣重熔电极与结晶器的充填比为0.75~0.95,熔速1.0~5.0kg/min,三次合金锭熔炼完成后的冷却时间为0.5h~3h,而后脱模冷却。The preparation method according to claim 7, wherein the step 1 further comprises: preparing the secondary alloy ingot into an II electroslag remelting electrode, the II electroslag remelting electrode and crystallizing The filling ratio of the device is 0.75~0.95, the melting rate is 1.0~5.0kg/min, the cooling time after the tertiary alloy ingot smelting is completed is 0.5h~3h, and then demolding and cooling.
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