WO2021042810A1 - Asset settlement method and apparatus employing blockchain, and electronic device - Google Patents

Asset settlement method and apparatus employing blockchain, and electronic device Download PDF

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WO2021042810A1
WO2021042810A1 PCT/CN2020/096632 CN2020096632W WO2021042810A1 WO 2021042810 A1 WO2021042810 A1 WO 2021042810A1 CN 2020096632 W CN2020096632 W CN 2020096632W WO 2021042810 A1 WO2021042810 A1 WO 2021042810A1
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asset
securitized
blockchain
settlement
assets
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PCT/CN2020/096632
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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周徽
祁鹏涛
陆旭明
陈锐发
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创新先进技术有限公司
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Publication of WO2021042810A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021042810A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q40/00Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
    • G06Q40/02Banking, e.g. interest calculation, credit approval, mortgages, home banking or on-line banking
    • G06Q40/025Credit processing or loan processing, e.g. risk analysis for mortgages
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/90Details of database functions independent of the retrieved data types
    • G06F16/901Indexing; Data structures therefor; Storage structures
    • G06F16/9027Trees
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q40/00Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
    • G06Q40/04Exchange, e.g. stocks, commodities, derivatives or currency exchange

Abstract

An asset settlement method and apparatus employing a blockchain, and an electronic device, which are applicable to a node device in the blockchain. The method comprises: receiving an early settlement transaction for a securitized asset, said early settlement transaction being periodically sent by a client during the duration of the securitized asset, wherein the securitized asset is an asset issued on the blockchain using an underlying asset pool as a value support, the underlying asset pool being created on the basis of underlying assets deposited in the blockchain (502); in response to the early settlement transaction, calling early settlement confirmation logic in a smart contract deployed on the blockchain, and determining whether or not an asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool has reached a preset threshold (504); and if the asset default rate has reached the threshold, further calling early settlement logic in the smart contract, performing early settlement processing on the securitized asset, and configuring the status of the securitized asset as invalid upon completion of the settlement (506).

Description

基于区块链的资产清偿方法及装置、电子设备Block chain-based asset settlement method and device, and electronic equipment 技术领域Technical field
本说明书一个或多个实施例涉及区块链技术领域,尤其涉及一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法及装置、电子设备。One or more embodiments of this specification relate to the field of blockchain technology, in particular to a blockchain-based asset settlement method and device, and electronic equipment.
背景技术Background technique
区块链技术,也被称之为分布式账本技术,是一种由若干台计算设备共同参与“记账”,共同维护一份完整的分布式数据库的新兴技术。由于区块链技术具有去中心化、公开透明、每台计算设备可以参与数据库记录、并且各计算设备之间可以快速的进行数据同步的特性,使得区块链技术已在众多的领域中广泛的进行应用。Blockchain technology, also known as distributed ledger technology, is an emerging technology in which several computing devices participate in "bookkeeping" and jointly maintain a complete distributed database. Because the blockchain technology has the characteristics of decentralization, openness and transparency, each computing device can participate in database records, and the rapid data synchronization between computing devices, the blockchain technology has been widely used in many fields. To apply.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本说明书提出一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法,所述方法应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述方法包括:This specification proposes a blockchain-based asset settlement method, which is applied to node devices in the blockchain, and the method includes:
接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;Receive the advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein, the securitized asset is the basis to be created based on the basic asset deposited in the blockchain The asset pool serves as the value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;In response to the advance settlement transaction, call the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold;
如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the asset default rate reaches the threshold, the prepayment logic in the smart contract is further invoked, the securitized asset is processed in advance, and after the repayment is over, the securitized asset is set to an invalid state .
可选地,所述对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,包括:Optionally, the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets includes:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账,包括:Optionally, the transferring money to the investor of the securitized asset based on the result of the clearing includes:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时, 基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for deposit, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。Optionally, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
可选地,所述在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态,包括:Optionally, the setting the securitized asset to an invalid state after the settlement ends includes:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
可选地,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。Optionally, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
本说明书还提出一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法,所述方法应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述方法包括:This specification also proposes a blockchain-based asset settlement method, which is applied to node devices in the blockchain, and the method includes:
接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;When the receiving client determines that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold, it triggers an early settlement transaction for securitized assets; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The asset pool created by the basic assets of the; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。In response to the pre-payment transaction, call the pre-payment logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain, perform pre-payment processing on the securitized asset, and set the securitized asset after the completion of the repayment Is invalid.
可选地,所述对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,包括:Optionally, the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets includes:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账,包括:Optionally, the transferring money to the investor of the securitized asset based on the result of the clearing includes:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。Optionally, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
可选地,所述在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态,包括:Optionally, the setting the securitized asset to an invalid state after the settlement ends includes:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
可选地,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。Optionally, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
本说明书还提出一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置,所述装置应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述装置包括:This specification also proposes a block chain-based asset settlement device, which is applied to the node equipment in the block chain, and the device includes:
接收模块,接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module receives the advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein, the securitized asset is a basic asset that will be based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The created basic asset pool serves as value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
确认模块,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;The confirmation module, in response to the advance settlement transaction, invokes the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold;
清偿模块,如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。The settlement module, if the asset default rate reaches the threshold, further invoke the early settlement logic in the smart contract to perform the pre-payment process on the securitized asset, and set the securitized asset after the settlement is over Is invalid.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。Optionally, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
可选地,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。Optionally, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
本说明书还提出一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置,所述装置应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述装置包括:This specification also proposes a block chain-based asset settlement device, which is applied to the node equipment in the block chain, and the device includes:
接收模块,接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module receives the pre-payment transaction for securitization assets triggered by the client when determining that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the blockchain An asset pool created by the basic assets of China Deposit Certificate; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
清偿模块,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。The settlement module, in response to the advance settlement transaction, invokes the advance settlement logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain, performs an early settlement process on the securitized assets, and after the settlement ends, transfers the securities The asset is set to invalid state.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
可选地,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。Optionally, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
可选地,所述清偿模块:Optionally, the settlement module:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的 转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
可选地,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。Optionally, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
本说明书还提出一种电子设备,包括:This specification also proposes an electronic device, including:
处理器;processor;
用于存储处理器可执行指令的存储器;A memory for storing processor executable instructions;
其中,所述处理器通过运行所述可执行指令以实现上述方法的步骤。Wherein, the processor implements the steps of the foregoing method by running the executable instruction.
本说明书还提出一种计算机可读存储介质,其上存储有计算机指令,其特征在于,该指令被处理器执行时实现上述方法的步骤。This specification also proposes a computer-readable storage medium on which computer instructions are stored, characterized in that, when the instructions are executed by a processor, the steps of the above-mentioned method are implemented.
在上述技术方案中,可以由客户端周期性发送针对管理方发行在区块链上发行的证券化资产的提前清偿交易,以由该区块链中的节点设备响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约,在确定作为该证券化资产的价值支撑的资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,对该证券化进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,可以由客户端在确定作为管理方发行在区块链上发行的证券化资产的价值支撑的资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发针对该证券化资产的提前清偿交易,以由该区块链中的节点设备响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约对该证券化进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态。采用这样的方式,即可实现对管理方在区块链上发行的证券化资产的提前清偿处理,从而可以使管理方在资产池中的基础资产出现违约情况时及时止损。In the above technical solution, the client can periodically send the advance settlement transaction for the securitized assets issued by the management party on the blockchain, so that the node device in the blockchain can call in response to the advance settlement transaction. The smart contract deployed on the blockchain, when it is determined that the asset default rate of the underlying asset in the asset pool supported by the value of the securitization asset reaches the preset threshold, the securitization will be settled in advance, and the securitization will be settled in advance After the end, the securitized asset is set to an invalid state; or, the client can determine that the asset default rate of the underlying asset in the asset pool supported by the value of the securitized asset issued on the blockchain as the management party reaches When the threshold is preset, an early settlement transaction for the securitized asset is triggered, and the node device in the blockchain responds to the early settlement transaction and invokes the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to advance the securitization The settlement process, and after the settlement is completed, the securitized asset is set to an invalid state. In this way, the advance settlement of the securitized assets issued by the management party on the blockchain can be realized, so that the management party can stop losses in time when the underlying assets in the asset pool default.
附图说明Description of the drawings
图1是本说明书示出的一种智能合约的创建流程的示意图;Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a smart contract creation process shown in this specification;
图2是本说明书示出的一种智能合约的调用流程的示意图;Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a call flow of a smart contract shown in this specification;
图3是本说明书示出的一种智能合约的创建和调用流程的示意图;Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the creation and invocation process of a smart contract shown in this specification;
图4是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产证券化系统的示意图;Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a blockchain-based asset securitization system shown in an exemplary embodiment of this specification;
图5是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法的流程图;Fig. 5 is a flowchart of a blockchain-based asset settlement method shown in an exemplary embodiment of this specification;
图6是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的另一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法的流程图;Fig. 6 is a flowchart of another blockchain-based asset settlement method shown in an exemplary embodiment of the present specification;
图7是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种电子设备的结构示意图;FIG. 7 is a schematic structural diagram of an electronic device shown in an exemplary embodiment of this specification;
图8是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置的框图;Fig. 8 is a block diagram of a block chain-based asset clearing device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present specification;
图9是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的另一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置的框图。Fig. 9 is a block diagram showing another block chain-based asset clearing device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present specification.
具体实施方式detailed description
这里将详细地对示例性实施例进行说明,其示例表示在附图中。下面的描述涉及附图时,除非另有表示,不同附图中的相同数字表示相同或相似的要素。以下示例性实施例中所描述的实施方式并不代表与本说明书一个或多个实施例相一致的所有实施方式。相反,它们仅是与如所附权利要求书中所详述的、本说明书一个或多个实施例的一些方面相一致的装置和方法的例子。The exemplary embodiments will be described in detail here, and examples thereof are shown in the accompanying drawings. When the following description refers to the drawings, unless otherwise indicated, the same numbers in different drawings indicate the same or similar elements. The implementation manners described in the following exemplary embodiments do not represent all implementation manners consistent with one or more embodiments of this specification. Rather, they are merely examples of devices and methods consistent with some aspects of one or more embodiments of this specification as detailed in the appended claims.
需要说明的是:在其他实施例中并不一定按照本说明书示出和描述的顺序来执行相应方法的步骤。在一些其他实施例中,其方法所包括的步骤可以比本说明书所描述的更多或更少。此外,本说明书中所描述的单个步骤,在其他实施例中可能被分解为多个步骤进行描述;而本说明书中所描述的多个步骤,在其他实施例中也可能被合并为单个步骤进行描述。It should be noted that in other embodiments, the steps of the corresponding method are not necessarily executed in the order shown and described in this specification. In some other embodiments, the method may include more or fewer steps than described in this specification. In addition, a single step described in this specification may be decomposed into multiple steps for description in other embodiments; and multiple steps described in this specification may also be combined into a single step in other embodiments. description.
区块链一般被划分为三种类型:公有链(Public Blockchain),私有链(Private Blockchain)和联盟链(Consortium Blockchain)。此外,还可以有上述多种类型的结合,比如私有链+联盟链、联盟链+公有链等。Block chains are generally divided into three types: Public Blockchain, Private Blockchain and Consortium Blockchain. In addition, there can also be a combination of the above types, such as private chain + consortium chain, consortium chain + public chain, and so on.
其中,去中心化程度最高的是公有链。公有链以比特币、以太坊为代表,加入公有链的参与者(也可称为区块链中的节点)可以读取链上的数据记录、参与交易、以及竞争新区块的记账权等。而且,各节点可自由加入或者退出网络,并进行相关操作。Among them, the most decentralized one is the public chain. The public chain is represented by Bitcoin and Ethereum. Participants who join the public chain (also called nodes in the blockchain) can read the data records on the chain, participate in transactions, and compete for the accounting rights of new blocks, etc. . Moreover, each node can freely join or exit the network, and perform related operations.
私有链则相反,该网络的写入权限由某个组织或者机构控制,数据读取权限受组织规定。简单来说,私有链可以为一个弱中心化系统,其对节点具有严格限制且节点数量较少。这种类型的区块链更适合于特定机构内部使用。The private chain is the opposite. The write permission of the network is controlled by an organization or institution, and the data read permission is regulated by the organization. In simple terms, a private chain can be a weakly centralized system with strict restrictions on nodes and a small number of nodes. This type of blockchain is more suitable for internal use by specific institutions.
联盟链则是介于公有链以及私有链之间的区块链,可实现“部分去中心化”。联盟 链中各个节点通常有与之相对应的实体机构或者组织;节点通过授权加入网络并组成利益相关联盟,共同维护区块链运行。Consortium chain is a block chain between public chain and private chain, which can realize "partial decentralization". Each node in the alliance chain usually has a corresponding entity or organization; nodes are authorized to join the network and form a stakeholder alliance to jointly maintain the operation of the blockchain.
基于区块链的基本特性,区块链通常是由若干个区块构成。在这些区块中分别记录有与该区块的创建时刻对应的时间戳,所有的区块严格按照区块中记录的时间戳,构成一条在时间上有序的数据链条。Based on the basic characteristics of the blockchain, the blockchain is usually composed of several blocks. A time stamp corresponding to the creation time of the block is recorded in these blocks, and all the blocks strictly follow the time stamp recorded in the block to form a time-ordered data chain.
对于物理世界产生的真实数据,可以将其构建成区块链所支持的标准的交易(transaction)格式,然后发布至区块链,由区块链中的节点设备对收到的交易进行共识处理,并在达成共识后,由区块链中作为记账节点的节点设备,将这笔交易打包进区块,在区块链中进行持久化存证。For the real data generated in the physical world, it can be constructed into a standard transaction format supported by the blockchain, and then published to the blockchain, and the node devices in the blockchain will perform consensus processing on the received transactions , And after reaching a consensus, the node device as the bookkeeping node in the block chain will package the transaction into the block and carry out persistent storage in the block chain.
其中,区块链中支持的共识算法可以包括:Among them, the consensus algorithms supported in the blockchain can include:
第一类共识算法,即节点设备需要争夺每一轮的记账周期的记账权的共识算法;例如,工作量证明(Proof of Work,POW)、股权证明(Proof of Stake,POS)、委任权益证明(Delegated Proof of Stake,DPOS)等共识算法;The first type of consensus algorithm, that is, the consensus algorithm that node devices need to compete for the accounting right of each round of accounting cycle; for example, Proof of Work (POW), Proof of Stake (POS), appointment Consensus algorithms such as Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS);
第二类共识算法,即预先为每一轮记账周期选举记账节点(不需要争夺记账权)的共识算法;例如,实用拜占庭容错(Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance,PBFT)等共识算法。The second type of consensus algorithm is a consensus algorithm that pre-selects accounting nodes for each round of accounting cycles (without competing for accounting rights); for example, practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) and other consensus algorithms.
在采用第一类共识算法的区块链网络中,争夺记账权的节点设备,都可以在接收到交易后执行该笔交易。争夺记账权的节点设备中可能有一个节点设备在本轮争夺记账权的过程中胜出,成为记账节点。记账节点可以将收到的交易与其它交易一起打包以生成最新区块,并将生成的最新区块或者该最新区块的区块头发送至其它节点设备进行共识。In the blockchain network using the first type of consensus algorithm, all node devices that compete for the right to bookkeeping can execute the transaction after receiving the transaction. Among the node devices competing for the right to bookkeeping, one node device may win this round of contention for the right to bookkeeping and become the bookkeeping node. The accounting node can package the received transaction with other transactions to generate the latest block, and send the generated latest block or the block header of the latest block to other node devices for consensus.
在采用第二类共识算法的区块链网络中,具有记账权的节点设备在本轮记账前已经商定好。因此,节点设备在接收到交易后,如果自身不是本轮的记账节点,则可以将该交易发送至记账节点。对于本轮的记账节点,在将该交易与其它交易一起打包以生成最新区块的过程中或者之前,可以执行该交易。记账节点在生成最新区块后,可以将该最新区块或者该最新区块的区块头发送至其它节点设备进行共识。In the blockchain network using the second type of consensus algorithm, the node device with the right to book accounts has been agreed before this round of bookkeeping. Therefore, after the node device receives the transaction, if it is not the accounting node of this round, it can send the transaction to the accounting node. For this round of accounting nodes, the transaction can be executed during or before the process of packaging the transaction with other transactions to generate the latest block. After the accounting node generates the latest block, it can send the latest block or the block header of the latest block to other node devices for consensus.
如上所述,无论区块链采用以上示出的哪种共识算法,本轮的记账节点都可以将接收到的交易打包以生成最新区块,并将生成的最新区块或者该最新区块的区块头发送至其它节点设备进行共识验证。如果其它节点设备接收到最新区块或者该最新区块的区块头后,经验证没有问题,可以将该最新区块追加到原有的区块链末尾,从而完成区块链 的记账过程。其它节点验证记账节点发来的新的区块或区块头的过程中,也可以执行该区块中的包含的交易。As mentioned above, no matter which consensus algorithm shown above is adopted by the blockchain, the accounting node of this round can package the received transaction to generate the latest block, and the generated latest block or the latest block The header of the block is sent to other node devices for consensus verification. If other node devices receive the latest block or the block header of the latest block, and there is no problem after verification, the latest block can be appended to the end of the original blockchain to complete the accounting process of the blockchain. In the process of other nodes verifying the new block or block header sent by the accounting node, the transactions contained in the block can also be executed.
在区块链领域,有一个重要的概念就是账户(Account);以以太坊为例,以太坊通常将账户划分为外部账户和合约账户两类;外部账户就是由用户直接控制的账户,也称之为用户账户;而合约账户则是由用户通过外部账户创建的,包含合约代码的账户(即智能合约)。当然,对于一些基于以太坊的架构而衍生出的区块链项目(比如蚂蚁区块链),还可以对区块链支持的账户类型,进行进一步的扩展,在本说明书中不进行特别限定。In the field of blockchain, an important concept is Account; taking Ethereum as an example, Ethereum usually divides accounts into external accounts and contract accounts; external accounts are accounts directly controlled by users, also called It is a user account; while a contract account is an account created by a user through an external account and contains the contract code (ie smart contract). Of course, for some blockchain projects derived from the Ethereum architecture (such as the Ant blockchain), the account types supported by the blockchain can also be further extended, which is not particularly limited in this specification.
对于区块链中的账户而言,通常会通过一个结构体,来维护账户的账户状态。当区块中的交易被执行后,区块链中与该交易相关的账户的状态通常也会发生变化。For accounts in the blockchain, a structure is usually used to maintain the account status of the account. When the transaction in the block is executed, the state of the account related to the transaction in the blockchain usually changes.
以以太坊为例,账户的结构体通常包括Balance,Nonce,Code和Storage等字段。其中:Taking Ethereum as an example, the structure of an account usually includes fields such as Balance, Nonce, Code, and Storage. among them:
Balance字段,用于维护账户目前的账户余额;The Balance field is used to maintain the current account balance of the account;
Nonce字段,用于维护该账户的交易次数;它是用于保障每笔交易能且只能被处理一次的计数器,有效避免重放攻击;The Nonce field is used to maintain the number of transactions in the account; it is a counter used to ensure that each transaction can be processed and can only be processed once, effectively avoiding replay attacks;
Code字段,用于维护该账户的合约代码;在实际应用中,Code字段中通常仅维护合约代码的hash值;因而,Code字段通常也称之为Codehash字段。The Code field is used to maintain the contract code of the account; in actual applications, the Code field usually only maintains the hash value of the contract code; therefore, the Code field is usually also called the Codehash field.
Storage字段,用于维护该账户的存储内容(默认字段值为空);对于合约账户而言,通常会分配一个独立的存储空间,用以存储该合约账户的存储内容;该独立的存储空间通常称之为该合约账户的账户存储。合约账户的存储内容通常会构建成MPT(Merkle Patricia Trie)树的数据结构存储在上述独立的存储空间之中;其中,基于合约账户的存储内容构建成的MPT树,通常也称之为Storage树。而Storage字段通常仅维护该Storage树的根节点;因此,Storage字段通常也称之为StorageRoot字段。The Storage field is used to maintain the storage content of the account (the default field value is empty); for contract accounts, an independent storage space is usually allocated to store the storage content of the contract account; the independent storage space is usually Call it the account storage of the contract account. The storage content of the contract account is usually constructed as an MPT (Merkle Patricia Trie) tree and the data structure is stored in the above independent storage space; among them, the MPT tree constructed based on the storage content of the contract account is usually also called the Storage tree . The Storage field usually only maintains the root node of the Storage tree; therefore, the Storage field is usually also called the StorageRoot field.
其中,对于外部账户而言,以上示出的Code字段和Storage字段的字段值均为空值。Among them, for the external account, the field values of the Code field and the Storage field shown above are all null values.
对于大多数区块链项目,通常都会使用Merkle树;或者,基于Merkle树的数据结构,来存储和维护数据。以以太坊为例,以太坊使用了MPT树(一种Merkle树变种),作为数据组织形式,用来组织和管理账户状态、交易信息等重要数据。For most blockchain projects, Merkle trees are usually used; or, based on the data structure of Merkle trees, to store and maintain data. Take Ethereum as an example. Ethereum uses the MPT tree (a variant of Merkle tree) as a form of data organization to organize and manage important data such as account status and transaction information.
以太坊针对区块链中需要存储和维护的数据,设计了三颗MPT树,分别是MPT状 态树、MPT交易树和MPT收据树。其中,除了以上三颗MPT树以外,实际上还存在一颗基于合约账户的存储内容构建的Storage树。Ethereum has designed three MPT trees for the data that needs to be stored and maintained in the blockchain, namely the MPT state tree, the MPT transaction tree and the MPT receipt tree. Among them, in addition to the above three MPT trees, there is actually a Storage tree based on the storage content of the contract account.
MPT状态树,是由区块链中所有账户的账户状态(state)数据组织成的MPT树;MPT交易树,是由区块链中的交易(transaction)数据组织成的MPT树;MPT收据树,是区块中的交易在执行完毕后生成的与每笔交易对应的交易(receipt)收据组织成的MPT树。以上示出的MPT状态树、MPT交易树和MPT收据树的根节点的hash值,最终都会被添加至对应区块的区块头中。MPT state tree is an MPT tree organized by the account state data of all accounts in the blockchain; MPT transaction tree is an MPT tree organized by transaction data in the blockchain; MPT receipt tree , Is the MPT tree organized by the receipt of each transaction generated after the transactions in the block are executed. The hash values of the root nodes of the MPT state tree, MPT transaction tree, and MPT receipt tree shown above will all be added to the block header of the corresponding block eventually.
其中,MPT交易树和MPT收据树均与区块相对应,即每一个区块都有自己的MPT交易树和MPT收据树。而MPT状态树是一个全局的MPT树,并不与某一个特定的区块相对应,而是涵盖了区块链中所有账户的账户状态数据。Among them, the MPT transaction tree and the MPT receipt tree correspond to the blocks, that is, each block has its own MPT transaction tree and MPT receipt tree. The MPT state tree is a global MPT tree, which does not correspond to a specific block, but covers the account state data of all accounts in the blockchain.
需要说明的是,区块链每产生一个最新区块,则在该最新区块中的交易被执行之后,区块链中这些被执行交易的相关账户(可以是外部账户也可以是合约账户)的账户状态,通常也会随之发生变化;It should be noted that each time the blockchain generates a newest block, after the transaction in the latest block is executed, the relevant account of the executed transaction in the blockchain (can be an external account or a contract account) The account status of, usually will also change accordingly;
例如,当区块中的一笔“转账交易”执行完毕后,与该“转账交易”相关的转出方账户和转入方账户的余额(即这些账户的Balance字段的字段值),通常也会随之发生变化。For example, when a "transfer transaction" in the block is executed, the balances of the transferor account and transferee account related to the "transfer transaction" (that is, the field value of the Balance field of these accounts) are usually also Will change accordingly.
而节点设备在区块链产生的最新区块中的交易执行完毕后,由于当前区块链中的账户状态发生了变化,因此节点设备需要根据区块链中所有账户当前的账户状态数据,来构建MPT状态树,用于维护区块链中所有账户的最新状态。After the transaction of the node device in the latest block generated by the blockchain is completed, because the account status in the current blockchain has changed, the node device needs to use the current account status data of all accounts in the blockchain to Construct the MPT state tree to maintain the latest state of all accounts in the blockchain.
也即,每当区块链中产生一个最新区块,并且该最新区块中的交易执行完毕后,导致区块链中的账户状态发生变化,节点设备都需要基于区块链中所有账户最新的账户状态数据,重新构建一颗MPT状态树。换句话说,区块链中每一个区块,都有一个与之对应的MPT状态树;该MPT状态树,维护了在该区块中的交易在执行完毕后,区块链中所有账户最新的账户状态。That is, whenever a latest block is generated in the blockchain and the transaction in the latest block is executed, the account status in the blockchain changes, and the node device needs to be based on the latest account of all accounts in the blockchain. Reconstruct an MPT state tree based on the account status data of. In other words, each block in the blockchain has a corresponding MPT state tree; the MPT state tree maintains that after the transactions in the block are executed, all accounts in the blockchain are up to date The status of the account.
在实际应用中,不论是公有链、私有链还是联盟链,都可能提供智能合约(Smart contract)的功能。区块链上的智能合约是在区块链上可以被交易触发执行的合约。智能合约可以通过代码的形式定义。In practical applications, whether it is a public chain, a private chain or a consortium chain, it is possible to provide the function of a smart contract (Smart contract). Smart contracts on the blockchain are contracts that can be triggered and executed by transactions on the blockchain. Smart contracts can be defined in the form of codes.
以以太坊为例,支持用户在以太坊网络中创建并调用一些复杂的逻辑。以太坊作为一个可编程区块链,其核心是以太坊虚拟机(EVM),每个以太坊节点都可以运行 EVM。EVM是一个图灵完备的虚拟机,通过它可以实现各种复杂的逻辑。用户在以太坊中发布和调用智能合约就是在EVM上运行的。实际上,EVM直接运行的是虚拟机代码(虚拟机字节码,下简称“字节码”),所以部署在区块链上的智能合约可以是字节码。Taking Ethereum as an example, it supports users to create and call some complex logic in the Ethereum network. Ethereum is a programmable blockchain, and its core is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), and each Ethereum node can run the EVM. EVM is a Turing complete virtual machine, through which various complex logic can be realized. Users who publish and call smart contracts in Ethereum run on the EVM. In fact, the EVM directly runs virtual machine code (virtual machine bytecode, hereinafter referred to as "bytecode"), so the smart contract deployed on the blockchain can be bytecode.
如图1所示,Bob将一笔包含创建智能合约信息的交易(Transaction)发送到以太坊网络后,各节点均可以在EVM中执行这笔交易。其中,图1中交易的From字段用于记录发起创建智能合约的账户的地址,交易的Data字段的字段值保存的合约代码可以是字节码,交易的To字段的字段值为一个null(空)的账户。当节点间通过共识机制达成一致后,这个智能合约成功创建,后续用户可以调用这个智能合约。As shown in Figure 1, after Bob sends a transaction that contains information to create a smart contract to the Ethereum network, each node can execute the transaction in the EVM. Among them, the From field of the transaction in Figure 1 is used to record the address of the account that initiated the creation of the smart contract, the field value of the Data field of the transaction can be stored as a bytecode, and the field value of the To field of the transaction is a null (empty )’S account. After the nodes reach an agreement through the consensus mechanism, the smart contract is successfully created, and subsequent users can call the smart contract.
智能合约创建后,区块链上出现一个与该智能合约对应的合约账户,并拥有一个特定的地址;比如,图1中各节点中的“0x68e12cf284…”就代表了创建的这个合约账户的地址;合约代码(Code)和账户存储(Storage)将保存在该合约账户的账户存储中。智能合约的行为由合约代码控制,而智能合约的账户存储则保存了合约的状态。换句话说,智能合约使得区块链上产生包含合约代码和账户存储的虚拟账户。After the smart contract is created, a contract account corresponding to the smart contract appears on the blockchain and has a specific address; for example, "0x68e12cf284..." in each node in Figure 1 represents the address of the created contract account ; Contract code (Code) and account storage (Storage) will be stored in the account storage of the contract account. The behavior of the smart contract is controlled by the contract code, and the account storage of the smart contract saves the state of the contract. In other words, smart contracts enable virtual accounts containing contract codes and account storage to be generated on the blockchain.
前述提到,包含创建智能合约的交易的Data字段保存的可以是该智能合约的字节码。字节码由一连串的字节组成,每一字节可以标识一个操作。基于开发效率、可读性等多方面考虑,开发者可以不直接书写字节码,而是选择一门高级语言编写智能合约代码。例如,高级语言可以采用诸如Solidity、Serpent、LLL语言等。对于采用高级语言编写的智能合约代码,可以经过编译器编译,生成可以部署到区块链上的字节码。As mentioned above, the Data field containing the transaction that creates the smart contract can store the bytecode of the smart contract. The bytecode consists of a series of bytes, and each byte can identify an operation. Based on many considerations such as development efficiency and readability, developers can choose a high-level language to write smart contract code instead of directly writing bytecode. For example, high-level languages such as Solidity, Serpent, and LLL languages can be used. For smart contract code written in a high-level language, it can be compiled by a compiler to generate bytecode that can be deployed on the blockchain.
以Solidity语言为例,用其编写的合约代码与面向对象编程语言中的类(Class)很相似,在一个合约中可以声明多种成员,包括状态变量、函数、函数修改器、事件等。状态变量是永久存储在智能合约的账户存储(Storage)字段中的值,用于保存合约的状态。Taking the Solidity language as an example, the contract code written with it is very similar to the class in the object-oriented programming language. A variety of members can be declared in a contract, including state variables, functions, function modifiers, and events. The state variable is a value permanently stored in the account storage (Storage) field of the smart contract, and is used to save the state of the contract.
如图2所示,仍以以太坊为例,Bob将一笔包含调用智能合约信息的交易发送到以太坊网络后,各节点均可以在EVM中执行这笔交易。其中,图中4中交易的From字段用于记录发起调用智能合约的账户的地址,To字段用于记录被调用的智能合约的地址,交易的Data字段用于记录调用智能合约的方法和参数。调用智能合约后,合约账户的账户状态可能改变。后续,某个客户端可以通过接入的区块链节点(例如图2中的节点1)查看合约账户的账户状态。As shown in Figure 2, still taking Ethereum as an example, after Bob sends a transaction containing information about invoking the smart contract to the Ethereum network, each node can execute the transaction in the EVM. Among them, the From field of the transaction in Figure 4 is used to record the address of the account that initiated the call of the smart contract, the To field is used to record the address of the smart contract being called, and the Data field of the transaction is used to record the method and parameters of calling the smart contract. After calling the smart contract, the account status of the contract account may change. Later, a certain client can view the account status of the contract account through the connected blockchain node (for example, node 1 in Figure 2).
智能合约可以以规定的方式在区块链网络中每个节点独立的执行,所有执行记录和数据都保存在区块链上,所以当这样的交易执行完毕后,区块链上就保存了无法篡改、不会丢失的交易凭证。Smart contracts can be executed independently on each node in the blockchain network in a prescribed manner. All execution records and data are stored on the blockchain, so when such transactions are executed, the blockchain cannot be saved. Falsified, non-lost transaction certificate.
创建智能合约和调用智能合约的示意图如图3所示。以太坊中要创建一个智能合约,需要经过编写智能合约、变成字节码、部署到区块链等过程。以太坊中调用智能合约,是发起一笔指向智能合约地址的交易,各个节点的EVM可以分别执行该交易,将智能合约代码分布式的运行在以太坊网络中每个节点的虚拟机中。The schematic diagram of creating a smart contract and invoking a smart contract is shown in Figure 3. To create a smart contract in Ethereum, you need to go through the process of writing a smart contract, turning it into bytecode, and deploying it to the blockchain. Invoking a smart contract in Ethereum is to initiate a transaction pointing to a smart contract address. The EVM of each node can execute the transaction separately, and the smart contract code can be distributed in the virtual machine of each node in the Ethereum network.
以以太坊代表的传统的区块链项目,为了在区块链上实现“价值转移”,通常都支持将现实世界的货币转换为能够在链上流通的虚拟代币。Traditional blockchain projects represented by Ethereum usually support the conversion of real-world currencies into virtual tokens that can be circulated on the chain in order to achieve "value transfer" on the blockchain.
而在区块链领域,对于一些基于以太坊的架构而衍生出的区块链项目(比如蚂蚁区块链),通常不再支持将现实世界的货币转换为能够在链上流通的虚拟代币的功能;取而代之的是,在这些区块链项目中,可以将现实世界中的一些非货币属性的实体资产,转化成为能够在区块链上流通的虚拟资产。In the blockchain field, some blockchain projects derived from the Ethereum architecture (such as the Ant blockchain) usually no longer support the conversion of real-world currencies into virtual tokens that can be circulated on the chain. Instead, in these blockchain projects, some non-monetary physical assets in the real world can be transformed into virtual assets that can be circulated on the blockchain.
其中,需要说明的是,将现实世界中的非货币属性的实体资产转化为区块链上的虚拟资产,通常是指将该实体资产与区块链上的虚拟资产进行“锚定”,作为这些虚拟资产的价值支撑,进而在区块链上产生与实体资产的价值匹配,且能够在区块链上的区块链账户之间进行流通的虚拟资产的过程。Among them, it needs to be explained that the conversion of physical assets with non-monetary attributes in the real world into virtual assets on the blockchain usually refers to "anchoring" the physical assets with virtual assets on the blockchain, as The value support of these virtual assets, in turn, produces a process of virtual assets that match the value of physical assets on the blockchain and can circulate between blockchain accounts on the blockchain.
在实现时,可以对区块链支持的账户类型进行扩展,在区块链支持的账户类型的基础上,再扩展出一种资产账户(也称之为资产对象);比如,可以在以太坊支持的外部账户、合约账户的基础上,再扩展出一种资产账户;扩展出的该资产账户,即为可以将现实世界中的非货币属性的实体资产作为价值支撑,且可以在区块链账户之间流通的虚拟资产。In the implementation, the account types supported by the blockchain can be expanded. On the basis of the account types supported by the blockchain, an asset account (also called an asset object) can be expanded; for example, it can be used in Ethereum On the basis of the supported external accounts and contract accounts, an asset account is expanded; the expanded asset account means that non-monetary physical assets in the real world can be used as value support, and can be used in the blockchain Virtual assets circulating between accounts.
对于接入这类区块链的用户而言,除了可以在区块链上完成用户账户、智能合约的创建以外,在区块链上创建一笔与现实世界的非货币属性的实体资产价值匹配的虚拟资产,在区块链上进行流通;For users accessing this type of blockchain, in addition to completing the creation of user accounts and smart contracts on the blockchain, a value matching the real-world non-monetary physical assets can be created on the blockchain. Of virtual assets, circulate on the blockchain;
例如,用户可以将持有的房产、股票、贷款合同、票据、应收账款等非货币属性的实体资产,转换为价值匹配的虚拟资产在区块链上流通。For example, users can convert non-monetary physical assets such as real estate, stocks, loan contracts, bills, accounts receivable, etc., into virtual assets with matching value to circulate on the blockchain.
其中,对于上述资产账户而言,具体也可以通过一个结构体,来维护账户的账户状态。上述资产账户的结构体所包含的内容,可以与以太坊相同,当然也可以基于实 际的需求进行设计;Among them, for the above asset account, a structure can also be used to maintain the account status of the account. The content contained in the structure of the above asset account can be the same as that of Ethereum, of course, it can also be designed based on actual needs;
在一种实现方式中,以上述资产账户的结构体所包含的内容与以太坊相同为例,上述资产账户的结构体也可以包括以上描述的Balance,Nonce,Code和Storage等字段。In an implementation manner, taking the content contained in the structure of the asset account is the same as that of Ethereum as an example, the structure of the asset account may also include the fields of Balance, Nonce, Code, and Storage described above.
需要说明的是,在以太坊中,Balance字段通常用于维护账户目前的账户余额;而对于基于以太坊的架构而衍生出的区块链项目而言,由于其可能并不支持将现实世界的货币转换为能够在链上流通的虚拟代币,因此在这类区块链中,可以对Balance字段的含义进行扩展,不再表示账户的“余额”,而是用于维护账户持有的“虚拟资产”对应的资产账户的地址信息。其中,在实际应用中,Balance字段中可以维护多笔“虚拟资产”对应的资产账户的地址信息。It should be noted that in Ethereum, the Balance field is usually used to maintain the current account balance of the account; and for blockchain projects derived from the Ethereum architecture, it may not support real-world Currency is converted into virtual tokens that can be circulated on the chain. Therefore, in this type of blockchain, the meaning of the Balance field can be expanded. It no longer represents the "balance" of the account, but is used to maintain the "balance" of the account. The address information of the asset account corresponding to the “virtual asset”. Among them, in practical applications, the Balance field can maintain address information of asset accounts corresponding to multiple “virtual assets”.
在这种情况下,以上示出的外部账户、合约账户和资产账户,均可以通过在Balance字段中添加需要持有的“虚拟资产”对应的资产账户的地址信息,来持有这笔虚拟资产。即除了外部账户和合约账户以外,资产账户本身也可以持有虚拟资产。In this case, the external accounts, contract accounts and asset accounts shown above can all be held by adding the address information of the asset account corresponding to the "virtual asset" that needs to be held in the Balance field to hold this virtual asset . That is, in addition to external accounts and contract accounts, the asset account itself can also hold virtual assets.
对于资产账户而言,Nonce,Code字段的字段值可以为空值(也可以不为空);而Storage字段的字段值可以不再是空值;Storage字段可以用于维护与该资产账户对应的“虚拟资产”的资产状态。其中,在Storage字段中维护与该资产账户对应的“虚拟资产”的资产状态的具体方式,可以基于需求灵活的进行设计,不再赘述。For asset accounts, the field value of the Nonce and Code fields can be empty (or not empty); the field value of the Storage field can no longer be empty; the Storage field can be used to maintain the corresponding asset account The asset status of the "virtual asset". Among them, the specific method of maintaining the asset status of the "virtual asset" corresponding to the asset account in the Storage field can be flexibly designed based on requirements, and will not be repeated.
在基于以太坊的架构而衍生出的区块链项目中,用户可以通过以下示出的实现方式,在区块链上创建一笔与现实世界的非货币属性的实体资产价值匹配的虚拟资产:In the blockchain project derived from the architecture of Ethereum, users can create a virtual asset on the blockchain that matches the value of the real-world non-monetary physical asset through the implementation shown below:
在一种实现方式中,可以对区块链支持的交易类型进行扩展,扩展出一种用于创建虚拟资产的交易;比如,以太坊支持的交易类型通常包括普通的转账交易、创建智能合约的交易和调用智能合约的交易,则可以在以上三种类型的交易的基础上,再扩展出一种用于创建虚拟资产的交易。In one implementation, the transaction types supported by the blockchain can be extended to expand a transaction for creating virtual assets; for example, the transaction types supported by Ethereum usually include ordinary transfer transactions and smart contract creation. For transactions and transactions that call smart contracts, on the basis of the above three types of transactions, a transaction for creating virtual assets can be expanded.
在这种情况下,用户可以通过客户端向区块链网络中发布一笔用于创建虚拟资产的交易,由区块链中的节点设备在本地的EVM中执行这笔交易,来为该用户创建虚拟资产。当各节点设备通过共识机制达成一致后,这笔虚拟资产成功创建,区块链上出现一个与这笔虚拟资产对应的资产账户,并拥有一个特定的地址。In this case, the user can publish a transaction for creating virtual assets to the blockchain network through the client, and the node device in the blockchain executes the transaction in the local EVM to provide the user with Create virtual assets. After each node device reaches an agreement through the consensus mechanism, the virtual asset is successfully created, and an asset account corresponding to the virtual asset appears on the blockchain and has a specific address.
在另一种实现方式中,也可以在区块链上部署用于创建虚拟资产的智能合约;其中,部署用于创建虚拟资产的智能合约的过程不再赘述。In another implementation manner, a smart contract for creating virtual assets can also be deployed on the blockchain; wherein, the process of deploying a smart contract for creating virtual assets will not be repeated.
在这种情况下,用户可以通过客户端向区块链网络中发布一笔用于调用该智能 合约的交易,由区块链中的节点设备在本地的EVM中执行这笔交易,并在EVM中运行智能合约相关的合约代码,来为该用户创建虚拟资产。当各节点设备通过共识机制达成一致后,这笔虚拟资产成功创建,区块链上出现一个与这笔虚拟资产对应的资产账户,并拥有一个特定的地址。In this case, the user can publish a transaction for invoking the smart contract to the blockchain network through the client, and the node device in the blockchain will execute the transaction in the local EVM, and the transaction will be executed in the EVM. Run the contract code related to the smart contract to create virtual assets for the user. After each node device reaches an agreement through the consensus mechanism, the virtual asset is successfully created, and an asset account corresponding to the virtual asset appears on the blockchain and has a specific address.
当然,对于一些基于以太坊的架构而衍生出的区块链项目,如果其也支持将现实世界的货币转换为能够在链上流通的虚拟代币的功能,那么仍然可以将现实世界中的一些非货币属性的实体资产,转化成为能够在区块链上流通的虚拟代币的形式,在区块链上流通,在本说明书中不再赘述。Of course, for some blockchain projects derived from the architecture of Ethereum, if they also support the function of converting real-world currencies into virtual tokens that can be circulated on the chain, they can still convert some of the real-world currencies. The physical assets of non-monetary attributes are transformed into the form of virtual tokens that can be circulated on the blockchain and circulated on the blockchain, which will not be repeated in this manual.
在跨链场景下,多个区块链可以通过跨链中继实现跨链对接。In the cross-chain scenario, multiple blockchains can achieve cross-chain docking through cross-chain relays.
其中,跨链中继,可以通过桥接接口与多个区块链分别进行对接,并基于实现的数据搬运逻辑,完成该多个区块链之间的跨链数据同步。Among them, the cross-chain relay can be connected to multiple blockchains through the bridge interface, and based on the implemented data handling logic, the cross-chain data synchronization between the multiple blockchains can be completed.
在实现上述跨链中继时所采用的跨链技术,在本说明书中不进行特别限定;例如,在实际应用中,可以通过侧链技术、公证人技术等跨链机制,将多个区块链连接起来。The cross-chain technology used in the implementation of the above-mentioned cross-chain relay is not particularly limited in this specification; for example, in practical applications, multiple blocks can be combined through cross-chain mechanisms such as side-chain technology and notary technology. The chains are connected.
当多个区块链通过跨链中继实现对接之后,区块链之间就可以去读取并认证其它区块链上的数据,也可以通过跨链中继去调用其它区块链上部署的智能合约。When multiple blockchains are connected through cross-chain relays, the blockchains can read and authenticate data on other blockchains, and they can also call deployments on other blockchains through cross-chain relays. Smart contract.
区块链上部署的智能合约,除了可以使用区块链上存证的数据以外,也可以通过Oracle预言机,来引用链外的数据实体上的数据,进而实现智能合约与真实世界的数据实体之间的数据交互。链外的数据实体,可以包括诸如部署在链外的中心化的服务器或者数据中心,等等。The smart contract deployed on the blockchain can not only use the data stored on the blockchain, but also use the Oracle oracle to refer to the data on the data entity outside the chain to realize the smart contract and the real-world data entity Data exchange between. Data entities outside the chain may include centralized servers or data centers deployed outside the chain, and so on.
其中,与跨链中继不同的是,Oracle预言机的功能并不是将一个区块链上的数据同步到另一个区块链上,而是将链外的数据实体上的数据同步到区块链上;Among them, unlike cross-chain relay, the function of Oracle Oracle is not to synchronize data on one blockchain to another blockchain, but to synchronize data on data entities outside the chain to blocks. On the chain
也即,跨链中继用于连接两个区块链,而Oracle预言机用于连接区块链与链外的数据实体,实现区块链与真实世界的数据交互。That is, the cross-chain relay is used to connect two blockchains, and the Oracle oracle is used to connect the blockchain with data entities outside the chain to realize the data interaction between the blockchain and the real world.
请参考图4,图4是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产证券化系统的示意图。Please refer to FIG. 4, which is a schematic diagram of a blockchain-based asset securitization system according to an exemplary embodiment of this specification.
资产证券化是指以基础资产未来所产生的现金流为偿付支持,通过结构化设计进行信用增级,在此基础上发行资产支持证券(Asset-Backed Securities,ABS)的过程; 它是以特定资产组合或特定现金流为偿付支持,发行可交易证券的一种融资形式。Asset securitization refers to the process of using the cash flow generated by the underlying assets as the repayment support, through the structured design for credit enhancement, and the issuance of asset-backed securities (Asset-Backed Securities, ABS) on this basis; Asset portfolio or specific cash flow is a form of financing to support the issuance of tradable securities.
概括来说,一次完整的证券化融资的基本流程通常包括:发起方(即原始权益人)可以将可证券化的基础资产出售给管理方,或者可以由管理方主动购买可证券化的基础资产;然后管理方可以将这些基础资产汇集成基础资产池(Assets Pool),再以该基础资产池所产生的现金流为偿付支持,在金融市场上发行有价证券融资;最后可以利用该基础资产池所产生的现金流,来清偿所发行的有价证券。In a nutshell, the basic process of a complete securitization financing usually includes: the initiator (that is, the original equity holder) can sell the securitable basic assets to the manager, or the manager can actively purchase the securitable basic assets ; Then the management party can integrate these basic assets into the basic asset pool (Assets Pool), and then use the cash flow generated by the basic asset pool as the reimbursement support to issue securities in the financial market for financing; finally, the basic asset can be used The cash flow generated by the pool is used to pay off the securities issued.
其中,管理方可以是特殊目的机构(Special Purpose Vehicle,SPV)。Among them, the management party may be a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV).
在如图4所示的基于区块链的资产证券化系统中,原始权益人可以将其持有的基础资产发布至该区块链中进行存证,管理方可以从原始权益人处购买这些基础资产,并将在该区块链中存证的这些基础资产汇集成基础资产池,即基于这些基础资产创建基础资产池。In the block chain-based asset securitization system shown in Figure 4, the original stakeholders can publish their basic assets to the blockchain for evidence, and the management party can purchase these from the original stakeholders. Basic assets, and these basic assets deposited in the blockchain are integrated into a basic asset pool, that is, a basic asset pool is created based on these basic assets.
具体地,管理方可以通过调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约,来实现基于这些基础资产创建基础资产池。在这种情况下,该基础资产池可以是由该智能合约生成的由若干被筛选出来的基础资产的标识构成的集合。该集合可以存储在与该智能合约对应的合约账户的账户存储空间(例如:Storage字段)中,也可以存储在管理方的区块链账户的账户存储空间中。Specifically, the manager can create a basic asset pool based on these basic assets by invoking the smart contract deployed on the blockchain. In this case, the basic asset pool may be a collection of selected basic asset identifiers generated by the smart contract. The set can be stored in the account storage space (for example: Storage field) of the contract account corresponding to the smart contract, or can be stored in the account storage space of the blockchain account of the manager.
后续,管理方可以将该基础资产池作为价值支撑在该区块链上发行证券化资产,即将该基础资产池未来所产生的现金流作为偿付支持发行证券化资产。Subsequently, the manager can use the basic asset pool as value support to issue securitized assets on the blockchain, that is, the future cash flow generated by the underlying asset pool will be used as payment support to issue securitized assets.
其中,该基础资产可以是基础债务资产(例如:应收账款);该证券化资产可以是ABS(例如:债券或基金);管理方将该基础资产池作为价值支撑在该区块链上发行证券化资产的过程,可以参考前述的在区块链上创建虚拟资产的过程,本说明书在此不再赘述。Among them, the basic asset can be a basic debt asset (for example: accounts receivable); the securitized asset can be ABS (for example: bonds or funds); the management party uses the basic asset pool as value support on the blockchain The process of issuing securitized assets can refer to the aforementioned process of creating virtual assets on the blockchain, which will not be repeated here in this manual.
投资人可以通过向管理方支付一定金额的资金,来购买该证券化资产。管理方可以利用投资人支付的资金进行再次投资,以获得相应的现金流,该现金流即可视为该基础资产池所产生的现金流。另一方面,管理方可以利用该现金流来进行清偿处理,即按照与投资人预先约定好的费率,从该现金流中向投资人支付一定金额的资金,作为购买该证券化资产所获得的收益。Investors can purchase the securitized assets by paying a certain amount of funds to the management party. The management party can use the funds paid by the investors to invest again to obtain the corresponding cash flow, which can be regarded as the cash flow generated by the basic asset pool. On the other hand, the management party can use the cash flow for settlement processing, that is, pay a certain amount of funds from the cash flow to the investor according to the pre-arranged rate with the investor, as the acquisition of the securitized asset Income.
举例来说,假设投资人购买管理方发行的证券化资产所支付的资金的金额为10000元,管理方与投资人针对该证券化资产约定好的费率为3.65%(年化收益率), 则管理方可以每天向投资人支付1元,作为投资人购买该证券化资产所获得的收益。For example, suppose that the amount of funds paid by the investor to purchase the securitized assets issued by the management party is 10,000 yuan, and the management party and the investor have agreed on the rate of 3.65% (annualized rate of return) for the securitized assets. Then the management party can pay the investor 1 yuan a day as the return from the investor's purchase of the securitized asset.
请参考图5,图5是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法的流程图。该基于区块链的资产清偿方法可以应用于图4所示的基于区块链的资产证券化系统中作为节点设备加入至该区块链的电子设备;其中,该电子设备可以是服务器、计算机、手机、平板设备、笔记本电脑、掌上电脑(PDAs,Personal Digital Assistants)等,本说明书对此不作限制。该基于区块链的资产清偿方法可以包括以下步骤:Please refer to FIG. 5, which is a flowchart of a blockchain-based asset settlement method shown in an exemplary embodiment of this specification. The blockchain-based asset settlement method can be applied to the electronic equipment added to the blockchain as a node device in the blockchain-based asset securitization system shown in Figure 4; wherein, the electronic equipment can be a server, a computer , Mobile phones, tablet devices, notebook computers, handheld computers (PDAs, Personal Digital Assistants), etc., this manual does not limit this. The blockchain-based asset settlement method can include the following steps:
步骤502,接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;Step 502: Receive an early settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein the securitized asset is a basic asset that will be based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The created basic asset pool serves as value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
步骤504,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;Step 504: In response to the advance settlement transaction, call the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold;
步骤506,如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。Step 506: If the asset default rate reaches the threshold, further call the early settlement logic in the smart contract to perform an early settlement process on the securitized asset, and after the settlement is over, set the securitized asset Is invalid.
在实际应用中,如果上述基础资产池中的基础资产出现违约情况,例如:该资金池中作为基础资产的应收账款逾期仍未收款入账,在这种情况下,为了及时止损,管理方可以进行提前清偿。In practical applications, if the underlying assets in the above-mentioned basic asset pool are in default, for example, the accounts receivable as the basic asset in the fund pool are overdue and have not been collected. In this case, in order to stop the loss in time, The management party can perform early settlement.
在本实施例中,可以由客户端在管理方以该基础资产池为价值支撑,在上述区块链上发行的证券化资产的存续期内,周期性构建针对该证券化资产的提前清偿交易,并将该提前清偿交易发布至该区块链进行存证。In this embodiment, the client can use the basic asset pool as the value support on the management side to periodically construct an advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset during the duration of the securitized asset issued on the above-mentioned blockchain. , And publish the advance settlement transaction to the blockchain for deposit.
其中,该客户端可以是管理方所使用的客户端,即运行在管理方所使用的电子设备上的客户端;或者,该客户端也可以是投资人等其他相关方所使用的客户端,本说明书对此不作限制。Among them, the client can be a client used by the manager, that is, a client running on an electronic device used by the manager; or, the client can also be a client used by other related parties such as investors. This manual does not restrict this.
参考前述的在区块链中持久化存证数据的过程,该区块链中的节点设备可以接收到该提前清偿交易,并对该提前清偿交易进行共识处理。在达成共识之后,该区块链中的节点设备可以将该提前清偿交易打包进区块,在该区块链中进行持久化存证。With reference to the aforementioned process of persisting the evidence data in the blockchain, the node device in the blockchain can receive the advance settlement transaction and perform consensus processing on the advance settlement transaction. After reaching a consensus, the node device in the blockchain can package the advance settlement transaction into a block, and perform persistent storage in the blockchain.
对于打包进区块的该提前清偿交易,该区块链中的节点设备可以执行该提前清偿交易,即可以响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约中声明的提前清偿确认逻辑,对该证券化资产进行提前清偿确认。For the advance settlement transaction packaged in the block, the node device in the blockchain can execute the advance settlement transaction, that is, in response to the advance settlement transaction, call the advance statement declared in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain The logic of settlement confirmation is to confirm the settlement of the securitized asset in advance.
其中,该提前清偿确认逻辑具体可以是声明在该智能合约中的,与对证券化资产进行提前清偿确认的执行逻辑相关的程序代码(例如:一些可供调用的程序方法或者函数);创建和调用该智能合约的流程可以参考前述智能合约的创建和调用流程,本说明书在此不再赘述。Among them, the early settlement confirmation logic can specifically be the program code (for example: some callable program methods or functions) declared in the smart contract and related to the execution logic of the advance settlement confirmation of the securitized assets; create and The process of invoking the smart contract can refer to the foregoing creation and invoking process of the smart contract, which will not be repeated in this specification.
在实际应用中,可以通过确定该基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值,来实现对该证券化资产的提前清偿确认。In practical applications, it is possible to realize the advance settlement confirmation of the securitized assets by determining whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold.
其中,该阈值可以由技术人员预先设置,也可以是默认的缺省值,本说明书对此不作限制。Wherein, the threshold value can be preset by a technician, or it can be a default default value, which is not limited in this specification.
对于该基础资产池中的某一基础资产而言,如果该基础资产出现违约情况,则可以由客户端基于该基础资产的违约数据,构建与该基础资产对应的违约交易,并将该违约交易发布至该区块链进行存证。For an underlying asset in the underlying asset pool, if the underlying asset is in default, the client can construct a default transaction corresponding to the underlying asset based on the default data of the underlying asset, and combine the default transaction Publish to the blockchain for storage.
其中,该违约数据可以包括该基础资产的标识、违约原因、违约日期等数据;将该违约交易发布至该区块链进行存证的过程可以参考前述的在区块链中持久化存证数据的过程,本说明书在此不再赘述。Among them, the default data can include the identification of the underlying asset, the reason for default, the date of default, and other data; the process of publishing the default transaction to the blockchain for certification can refer to the aforementioned persistent certification data in the blockchain. The process, this manual will not repeat it here.
举例来说,假设该基础资产池中某一作为基础资产的应收账款的最晚收款日期为2019年8月20日,如果在2019年8月21日仍未收到该应收账款,则可以确定该应收账款出现违约情况。此时,可以由客户端基于该应收账款的标识、违约原因(逾期未收款入账)、违约日期(2019年8月21日)等数据,构建与该应收账款对应的违约交易,并将该违约交易发布至该区块链进行存证。For example, suppose that the latest collection date of an account receivable as an underlying asset in the underlying asset pool is August 20, 2019. If the account receivable is still not received on August 21, 2019 Payment, it can be determined that the account receivable has defaulted. At this point, the client can construct a default transaction corresponding to the account receivable based on the identification of the account receivable, the reason for default (the account is overdue and uncollected), the date of default (August 21, 2019), etc. , And publish the default transaction to the blockchain for evidence.
在这种情况下,可以通过在该区块链中查找与某一基础资产对应的违约数据,来确定该基础资产是否出现违约情况,例如:可以基于该基础资产的标识,在该区块链中查找与该标识对应的违约数据,并基于查找结果确定该基础资产是否出现违约情况。也即,如果在该区块链中查找到与该基础资产对应的违约数据,则可以确定该基础资产出现违约情况;相应地,如果在该区块链中未查找到与该基础资产对应的违约数据,则可以确定该基础资产未出现违约情况。In this case, you can find the default data corresponding to a certain basic asset in the blockchain to determine whether the basic asset is in default. For example, it can be based on the identity of the basic asset. Search for the default data corresponding to the identifier, and determine whether the underlying asset is in default based on the search result. That is, if the default data corresponding to the underlying asset is found in the blockchain, it can be determined that the underlying asset is in default; accordingly, if the underlying asset is not found in the blockchain Default data, it can be determined that the underlying asset is not in default.
在实际应用中,也可以在与该智能合约对应的合约账户的账户存储空间,或者管理方的区块链账户的账户存储空间中,存储该资产池中的各个基础资产的违约状态,例如:存储该资产池中的各个基础资产的标识与违约状态的对应关系。需要说明的是,该违约状态初始为未违约。在接收到与该基础资产对应的违约交易时,可以将该违约状 态更新为已违约。In practical applications, the default status of each basic asset in the asset pool can also be stored in the account storage space of the contract account corresponding to the smart contract, or the account storage space of the manager's blockchain account, for example: The corresponding relationship between the identifier of each basic asset in the asset pool and the default status is stored. It should be noted that the default status is initially non-default. When a default transaction corresponding to the underlying asset is received, the default status can be updated to defaulted.
在这种情况下,可以通过查询与某一基础资产对应的违约状态,来确定该基础资产是否出现违约情况。也即,如果与该基础资产对应的违约状态为已违约,则可以确定该基础资产出现违约情况;相应地,如果与该基础资产对应的违约状态为未违约,则可以确定该基础资产未出现违约情况。In this case, you can determine whether the underlying asset is in default by querying the default status corresponding to a certain underlying asset. That is, if the default status corresponding to the underlying asset is in default, it can be determined that the underlying asset has a default situation; accordingly, if the default status corresponding to the underlying asset is not in default, it can be determined that the underlying asset has not occurred Breach of contract.
对于该基础资产池而言,该基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率可以是该基础资产池中出现违约情况的基础资产占全部基础资产的比例,即资产违约率=出现违约情况的基础资产÷全部资产。如果该资产违约率达到该阈值,则可以认为需要对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理;相应地,如果该资产违约率未达到该阈值,则可以认为不需要对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理。For the underlying asset pool, the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool can be the ratio of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool that have defaulted to the total underlying assets, that is, the asset default rate = the basis for the default Assets ÷ all assets. If the default rate of the asset reaches the threshold, it can be considered that the securitized asset needs to be paid in advance; accordingly, if the default rate of the asset does not reach the threshold, it can be considered that the securitized asset does not need to be paid in advance. .
举例来说,假设该阈值为10%,该基础资产池包括20笔基础资产;进一步假设这些基础资产中的2笔基础资产出现违约情况,则由于该基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率=2÷20×100%=10%,已经达到该阈值,因此可以认为需要对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理。For example, suppose the threshold is 10%, and the basic asset pool includes 20 basic assets; further assuming that 2 basic assets in these basic assets are in default, then due to the asset default rate of the basic assets in the basic asset pool =2÷20×100%=10%, the threshold has been reached, so it can be considered that the securitization asset needs to be paid off in advance.
在确定了需要对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理之后,该区块链中的节点设备可以进一步调用上述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态。After determining that the securitized asset needs to be repaid in advance, the node device in the blockchain can further call the early repayment logic in the smart contract to perform the pre-paid repayment process on the securitized asset, and after the end of the repayment , Set the securitized asset to an invalid state.
其中,该提前清偿逻辑具体可以是声明在该智能合约中的,与对证券化资产进行提前清偿处理的执行逻辑相关的程序代码(例如:一些可供调用的程序方法或者函数)。Wherein, the pre-payment logic may specifically be program code (for example, some callable program methods or functions) related to the execution logic of the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets declared in the smart contract.
需要说明的是,以上描述的用于对证券化资产进行提前清偿确认的智能合约,和用于对证券化资产进行提前清偿处理的智能合约,可以整合为一个智能合约在该区块链上进行部署,也可以作为两个不同的智能合约在该区块链上进行部署,本说明书对此不作限定。It should be noted that the smart contract described above for pre-repayment confirmation of securitized assets and the smart contract used for pre-payment processing of securitized assets can be integrated into a smart contract to be executed on the blockchain Deployment can also be used as two different smart contracts to be deployed on the blockchain, which is not limited in this manual.
在示出的一种实施方式中,可以先基于预设费率对上述证券化资产进行清分处理,再基于清分结果向该证券化资产的投资人进行转账,以实现对该证券化资产的提前清偿处理。In the illustrated embodiment, the above-mentioned securitized assets may be sorted based on a preset fee rate, and then based on the sorting result, the funds are transferred to the investors of the securitized assets to realize the securitized assets. The early settlement process.
也即,可以先基于与该证券化资产的各个投资人预先约定好的费率计算管理方需要向该投资人转账的金额,再基于该金额向该投资人进行转账。That is, it is possible to first calculate the amount that the management party needs to transfer to the investor based on the pre-arranged rate with each investor of the securitized asset, and then transfer to the investor based on the amount.
具体地,针对某一投资人,该区块链中的节点设备可以按照管理方与该投资人 预先约定好的费率,以及该投资人购买的证券化资产的剩余到期时长,计算该投资人的剩余收益,进而可以计算该剩余收益与该投资人购买该证券化资产所支付的资金的金额总和。此时,计算得到的该金额总和即为管理方需要向该投资人转账的金额。Specifically, for a certain investor, the node device in the blockchain can calculate the investment according to the pre-arranged fee rate between the manager and the investor, and the remaining maturity time of the securitized assets purchased by the investor The person’s residual income can then be calculated as the sum of the residual income and the amount of funds paid by the investor to purchase the securitized asset. At this time, the calculated sum of the amount is the amount that the manager needs to transfer to the investor.
举例来说,假设某一投资人于2019年8月10日购买了该证券化资产,到期时长为1年(即该投资人购买的证券化资产将于2020年8月9日到期),且该投资人购买该证券化资产所支付的资金的金额为10000元;进一步假设管理方与某一投资人针对该证券化资产约定好的费率为3.65%(年化收益率)。如果于2019年8月30日确定需要对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,则该区块链中的节点设备可以确定该投资人购买的证券化资产的剩余到期时长为345天,因此可以计算该投资人的剩余收益的金额=1元/天×345天=345元,进而可以计算管理方需要向该投资人转账的金额=10000元+345元=10345元。For example, suppose an investor purchased the securitized asset on August 10, 2019, and the maturity period is 1 year (that is, the securitized asset purchased by the investor will expire on August 9, 2020) , And the amount of funds paid by the investor to purchase the securitized asset is 10,000 yuan; further assume that the manager and an investor have agreed on a rate of 3.65% (annualized rate of return) for the securitized asset. If it is determined on August 30, 2019 that the securitized asset needs to be paid in advance, the node device in the blockchain can determine that the remaining maturity of the securitized asset purchased by the investor is 345 days, so it can Calculate the amount of the investor’s residual income=1 yuan/day×345 days=345 yuan, and then calculate the amount that the manager needs to transfer to the investor=10,000 yuan+345 yuan=10345 yuan.
后续,该区块链中的节点设备可以基于计算得到的管理方需要向该投资人转账的金额,向该投资人进行转账。Subsequently, the node device in the blockchain can transfer money to the investor based on the calculated amount that the manager needs to transfer to the investor.
在示出的一种实施方式中,上述区块链中的节点设备可以将上述清分结果发布至该区块链进行存证;银行系统可以对该区块链中存证的数据进行监听,从而可以监听到该清分结果。银行系统在监听到该清分结果时,可以基于该清分结果中的金额,从上述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向该证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账,即将管理方需要向该投资人转账的金额,从管理方的投资账户向投资人的投资账户进行转账。In the illustrated embodiment, the node device in the above-mentioned blockchain can publish the above-mentioned sorting result to the blockchain for deposit; the banking system can monitor the data deposited in the blockchain, In this way, the sorting result can be monitored. When the banking system monitors the result of the settlement, it can transfer funds from the investment account of the manager of the aforementioned securitized asset to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset based on the amount in the result of the settlement. The amount that needs to be transferred to the investor is transferred from the investment account of the management party to the investment account of the investor.
在实际应用中,该投资账户可以是管理方或投资人在银行系统所属的托管银行开通的托管账户。In practical applications, the investment account may be a custody account opened by the manager or investor in the custodian bank to which the banking system belongs.
在示出的一种实施方式中,银行系统在完成从管理方的投资账户向投资人的投资账户的转账之后,可以根据与上述智能合约对应的合约账户在上述区块链中的地址,向上述智能合约提交与投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录。In the illustrated embodiment, after the banking system completes the transfer from the manager’s investment account to the investor’s investment account, the bank system can send a payment to the above-mentioned blockchain according to the address of the contract account corresponding to the above-mentioned smart contract in the above-mentioned blockchain. The above-mentioned smart contract submits the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor.
该智能合约在接收到该转账记录时,可以在与该智能合约对应的合约账户的账户存储空间中,将上述证券化资产设置为无效状态,即后续该证券化资产无法再在金融市场上流通。When the smart contract receives the transfer record, it can set the aforementioned securitized asset to an invalid state in the account storage space of the contract account corresponding to the smart contract, that is, the subsequent securitized asset can no longer be circulated in the financial market .
或者,该智能合约在接收到该转账记录时,可以生成与该证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,并将该清偿结束事件发布至该区块链进行存证;该证券化资产的管理方可 以对该区块链中存证的数据进行监听,从而可以监听到该清偿结束事件。管理方在监听到该清偿结束事件时,可以将其维护的该证券化资产设置为无效状态,即后续该证券化资产无法再在金融市场上流通。Or, when the smart contract receives the transfer record, it can generate a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset, and publish the settlement end event to the blockchain for deposit; the management party of the securitized asset can The data stored in the blockchain is monitored, so that the settlement end event can be monitored. When the management party monitors the end of the repayment event, it can set the securitized asset maintained by it to an invalid state, that is, the securitized asset can no longer be circulated in the financial market.
在上述技术方案中,可以由客户端周期性发送针对管理方发行在区块链上发行的证券化资产的提前清偿交易,以由该区块链中的节点设备响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约,在确定作为该证券化资产的价值支撑的资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,对该证券化进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态。采用这样的方式,即可实现对管理方在区块链上发行的证券化资产的提前清偿处理,从而可以使管理方在资产池中的基础资产出现违约情况时及时止损。In the above technical solution, the client can periodically send the advance settlement transaction for the securitized assets issued by the management party on the blockchain, so that the node device in the blockchain can call in response to the advance settlement transaction. The smart contract deployed on the blockchain, when it is determined that the asset default rate of the underlying asset in the asset pool supported by the value of the securitization asset reaches a preset threshold, the securitization will be settled in advance, and the securitization will be settled in advance. After the end, set the securitized asset to an invalid state. In this way, the advance settlement of the securitized assets issued by the management party on the blockchain can be realized, so that the management party can stop losses in time when the underlying assets in the asset pool default.
请参考图6,图6是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的另一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法的流程图。该基于区块链的资产清偿方法可以应用于图4所示的基于区块链的资产证券化系统中作为节点设备加入至该区块链的电子设备;其中,该电子设备可以是服务器、计算机、手机、平板设备、笔记本电脑、掌上电脑(PDAs,Personal Digital Assistants)等,本说明书对此不作限制。该基于区块链的资产清偿方法可以包括以下步骤:Please refer to FIG. 6, which is a flowchart of another blockchain-based asset settlement method shown in an exemplary embodiment of this specification. The blockchain-based asset settlement method can be applied to the electronic equipment added to the blockchain as a node device in the blockchain-based asset securitization system shown in Figure 4; wherein, the electronic equipment can be a server, a computer , Mobile phones, tablet devices, notebook computers, handheld computers (PDAs, Personal Digital Assistants), etc., this manual does not limit this. The blockchain-based asset settlement method can include the following steps:
步骤602,接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;Step 602: Receive an early settlement transaction for securitized assets triggered by the client when determining that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the blockchain An asset pool created by the basic assets of China Deposit Certificate; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
步骤604,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。Step 604: In response to the pre-payment transaction, call the pre-payment logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to perform pre-payment processing on the securitized assets, and after the completion of the settlement, transfer the securities The chemical asset is set to an invalid state.
在本实施例中,客户端可以实时监控上述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值。In this embodiment, the client terminal can monitor in real time whether the asset default rate of the basic assets in the above-mentioned basic asset pool reaches a preset threshold.
如果该基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到该阈值,则可以由客户端构建针对上述证券化资产的提前清偿交易,并将该提前清偿交易发布至该区块链进行存证。If the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches the threshold, the client can construct an early settlement transaction for the aforementioned securitized assets, and publish the early settlement transaction to the blockchain for deposit certification.
其中,该客户端可以是管理方所使用的客户端,即运行在管理方所使用的电子设备上的客户端;或者,该客户端也可以是投资人等其他相关方所使用的客户端,本说明书对此不作限制。Among them, the client can be a client used by the manager, that is, a client running on an electronic device used by the manager; or, the client can also be a client used by other related parties such as investors. This manual does not restrict this.
参考前述的在区块链中持久化存证数据的过程,该区块链中的节点设备可以接收到该提前清偿交易,并对该提前清偿交易进行共识处理。在达成共识之后,该区块链中的节点设备可以将该提前清偿交易打包进区块,在该区块链中进行持久化存证。With reference to the aforementioned process of persisting the evidence data in the blockchain, the node device in the blockchain can receive the advance settlement transaction and perform consensus processing on the advance settlement transaction. After reaching a consensus, the node device in the blockchain can package the advance settlement transaction into a block, and perform persistent storage in the blockchain.
对于打包进区块的该提前清偿交易,该区块链中的节点设备可以执行该提前清偿交易,即可以响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对该证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态。For the advance settlement transaction packaged in the block, the node device in the blockchain can execute the advance settlement transaction, that is, in response to the advance settlement transaction, call the advance settlement in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain Logically, the securitized asset is paid off in advance, and after the repayment is completed, the securitized asset is set to an invalid state.
其中,该提前清偿逻辑具体可以是声明在该智能合约中的,与对证券化资产进行提前清偿处理的执行逻辑相关的程序代码(例如:一些可供调用的程序方法或者函数);创建和调用该智能合约的流程可以参考前述智能合约的创建和调用流程,本说明书在此不再赘述。Among them, the pre-payment logic may specifically be the program code (for example: some callable program methods or functions) declared in the smart contract and related to the execution logic of the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets; create and call The process of the smart contract can refer to the process of creating and invoking the aforementioned smart contract, which will not be repeated in this specification.
本实施例中各个步骤的具体实现方法可以参考图5所示的实施例,本说明书在此不再赘述。For the specific implementation method of each step in this embodiment, reference may be made to the embodiment shown in FIG. 5, which will not be repeated in this specification.
在上述技术方案中,可以由客户端在确定作为管理方发行在区块链上发行的证券化资产的价值支撑的资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发针对该证券化资产的提前清偿交易,以由该区块链中的节点设备响应于该提前清偿交易,调用部署在该区块链上的智能合约对该证券化进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将该证券化资产设置为无效状态。采用这样的方式,即可实现对管理方在区块链上发行的证券化资产的提前清偿处理,从而可以使管理方在资产池中的基础资产出现违约情况时及时止损。In the above technical solution, the client can trigger the security against the security when it determines that the asset default rate of the underlying asset in the asset pool supported by the value of the securitized asset issued on the blockchain as the manager reaches the preset threshold. For the advance settlement transaction of chemical assets, the node device in the blockchain responds to the advance settlement transaction and invokes the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to perform the advance settlement processing of the securitization, and after the settlement ends, Set the securitized asset to an invalid state. In this way, the advance settlement of the securitized assets issued by the management party on the blockchain can be realized, so that the management party can stop losses in time when the underlying assets in the asset pool default.
与前述基于区块链的资产清偿方法的实施例相对应,本说明书还提供了基于区块链的资产清偿装置的实施例。Corresponding to the foregoing embodiment of the blockchain-based asset settlement method, this specification also provides an embodiment of the blockchain-based asset settlement device.
本说明书基于区块链的资产清偿装置的实施例可以应用在电子设备上。装置实施例可以通过软件实现,也可以通过硬件或者软硬件结合的方式实现。以软件实现为例,作为一个逻辑意义上的装置,是通过其所在电子设备的处理器将非易失性存储器中对应的计算机程序指令读取到内存中运行形成的。从硬件层面而言,如图7所示,为本说明书基于区块链的资产清偿装置所在电子设备的一种硬件结构图,除了图7所示的处理器、内存、网络接口、以及非易失性存储器之外,实施例中装置所在的电子设备通常根据该基于区块链的资产清偿的实际功能,还可以包括其他硬件,对此不再赘述。The embodiments of this specification based on the blockchain-based asset settlement device can be applied to electronic equipment. The device embodiments can be implemented by software, or can be implemented by hardware or a combination of software and hardware. Taking software implementation as an example, as a logical device, it is formed by reading the corresponding computer program instructions in the non-volatile memory into the memory through the processor of the electronic device where it is located. From a hardware perspective, as shown in Figure 7, it is a hardware structure diagram of the electronic equipment where the blockchain-based asset settlement device of this specification is located, except for the processor, memory, network interface, and non-transitory In addition to the lossy memory, the electronic device in which the device is located in the embodiment usually depends on the actual function of the blockchain-based asset settlement, and may also include other hardware, which will not be repeated here.
请参考图8,图8是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置的框图。该基于区块链的资产清偿装置80可以应用于图7所示的电子设备,该电子设备可以作为节点设备加入至该区块链;该基于区块链的资产清偿装置80可以包括:Please refer to FIG. 8, which is a block diagram of a block chain-based asset clearing device according to an exemplary embodiment of this specification. The block chain-based asset clearing device 80 can be applied to the electronic device shown in FIG. 7, and the electronic device can be added to the block chain as a node device; the block chain-based asset clearing device 80 can include:
接收模块801,接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module 801, which receives the advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein, the securitized asset is a basis that will be based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The basic asset pool created by the asset serves as the value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
确认模块802,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;The confirmation module 802, in response to the advance settlement transaction, invokes the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold ;
清偿模块803,如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。The liquidation module 803, if the asset default rate reaches the threshold, further invoke the early liquidation logic in the smart contract to perform an early liquidation process on the securitized asset, and after the liquidation is over, the securitized asset Set to an invalid state.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块803:In this embodiment, the settlement module 803:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块803:In this embodiment, the settlement module 803:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
在本实施例中,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。In this embodiment, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块803:In this embodiment, the settlement module 803:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
在本实施例中,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。In this embodiment, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
请参考图9,图9是本说明书一示例性实施例示出的另一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置的框图。该基于区块链的资产清偿装置90可以应用于图7所示的电子设备,该电子设备可以作为节点设备加入至该区块链;该基于区块链的资产清偿装置90可以包括:Please refer to FIG. 9, which is a block diagram of another block chain-based asset clearing device according to an exemplary embodiment of this specification. The block chain-based asset clearing device 90 can be applied to the electronic equipment shown in FIG. 7, and the electronic device can be added to the block chain as a node device; the block chain-based asset clearing device 90 can include:
接收模块901,接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module 901 is configured to receive an early settlement transaction for securitized assets triggered by the client when determining that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the block An asset pool created by the basic assets of the certificate in the chain; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
清偿模块902,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。The settlement module 902, in response to the pre-payment transaction, invokes the pre-payment logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain, performs pre-payment processing on the securitized assets, and after the completion of the settlement, transfers the The securitized asset is set to an invalid state.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块902:In this embodiment, the settlement module 902:
基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块902:In this embodiment, the settlement module 902:
将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
在本实施例中,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。In this embodiment, the investment account is a custodial account opened at a custodial bank.
在本实施例中,所述清偿模块902:In this embodiment, the settlement module 902:
确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
在本实施例中,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。In this embodiment, the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
上述装置中各个模块的功能和作用的实现过程具体详见上述方法中对应步骤的实现过程,在此不再赘述。For the implementation process of the functions and roles of each module in the above-mentioned device, please refer to the implementation process of the corresponding steps in the above-mentioned method for details, which will not be repeated here.
对于装置实施例而言,由于其基本对应于方法实施例,所以相关之处参见方法实施例的部分说明即可。以上所描述的装置实施例仅仅是示意性的,其中所述作为分离部件说明的模块可以是或者也可以不是物理上分开的,作为模块显示的部件可以是或者也可以不是物理模块,即可以位于一个地方,或者也可以分布到多个网络模块上。可以根据实际的需要选择其中的部分或者全部模块来实现本说明书方案的目的。本领域普通技术人员在不付出创造性劳动的情况下,即可以理解并实施。For the device embodiment, since it basically corresponds to the method embodiment, the relevant part can refer to the part of the description of the method embodiment. The device embodiments described above are merely illustrative, and the modules described as separate components may or may not be physically separated, and the components displayed as modules may or may not be physical modules, that is, they may be located in One place, or it can be distributed to multiple network modules. Some or all of the modules can be selected according to actual needs to achieve the purpose of the solution in this specification. Those of ordinary skill in the art can understand and implement it without creative work.
上述实施例阐明的系统、装置、模块或单元,具体可以由计算机芯片或实体实现,或者由具有某种功能的产品来实现。一种典型的实现设备为计算机,计算机的具体形式可以是个人计算机、膝上型计算机、蜂窝电话、相机电话、智能电话、个人数字助理、媒体播放器、导航设备、电子邮件收发设备、游戏控制台、平板计算机、可穿戴设备或者这些设备中的任意几种设备的组合。The systems, devices, modules, or units explained in the above embodiments may be implemented by computer chips or entities, or implemented by products with certain functions. A typical implementation device is a computer. The specific form of the computer can be a personal computer, a laptop computer, a cellular phone, a camera phone, a smart phone, a personal digital assistant, a media player, a navigation device, an email receiving and sending device, and a game control A console, a tablet computer, a wearable device, or a combination of any of these devices.
在一个典型的配置中,计算机包括一个或多个处理器(CPU)、输入/输出接口、网络接口和内存。In a typical configuration, the computer includes one or more processors (CPU), input/output interfaces, network interfaces, and memory.
内存可能包括计算机可读介质中的非永久性存储器,随机存取存储器(RAM)和/或非易失性内存等形式,如只读存储器(ROM)或闪存(flash RAM)。内存是计算机可读介质的示例。The memory may include non-permanent memory in a computer readable medium, random access memory (RAM) and/or non-volatile memory, such as read-only memory (ROM) or flash memory (flash RAM). Memory is an example of computer readable media.
计算机可读介质包括永久性和非永久性、可移动和非可移动媒体可以由任何方法或技术来实现信息存储。信息可以是计算机可读指令、数据结构、程序的模块或其他数据。计算机的存储介质的例子包括,但不限于相变内存(PRAM)、静态随机存取存储器(SRAM)、动态随机存取存储器(DRAM)、其他类型的随机存取存储器(RAM)、只读存储器(ROM)、电可擦除可编程只读存储器(EEPROM)、快闪记忆体或其他内存技术、只读光盘只读存储器(CD-ROM)、数字多功能光盘(DVD)或其他光学存储、磁盒式磁带、磁盘存储、量子存储器、基于石墨烯的存储介质或其他磁性存储设备或任何其他非传输介质,可用于存储可以被计算设备访问的信息。按照本文中的界定,计算机可读介质不包括暂存电脑可读媒体(transitory media),如调制的数据信号和载波。Computer-readable media include permanent and non-permanent, removable and non-removable media, and information storage can be realized by any method or technology. The information can be computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or other data. Examples of computer storage media include, but are not limited to, phase change memory (PRAM), static random access memory (SRAM), dynamic random access memory (DRAM), other types of random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disc (DVD) or other optical storage, Magnetic cassettes, disk storage, quantum memory, graphene-based storage media or other magnetic storage devices or any other non-transmission media can be used to store information that can be accessed by computing devices. According to the definition in this article, computer-readable media does not include transitory media, such as modulated data signals and carrier waves.
还需要说明的是,术语“包括”、“包含”或者其任何其他变体意在涵盖非排他性的包含,从而使得包括一系列要素的过程、方法、商品或者设备不仅包括那些要素,而且还包括没有明确列出的其他要素,或者是还包括为这种过程、方法、商品或者设备所固有的要素。在没有更多限制的情况下,由语句“包括一个……”限定的要素,并不排除在包括所述要素的过程、方法、商品或者设备中还存在另外的相同要素。It should also be noted that the terms "include", "include" or any other variants thereof are intended to cover non-exclusive inclusion, so that a process, method, commodity or equipment including a series of elements not only includes those elements, but also includes Other elements that are not explicitly listed, or they also include elements inherent to such processes, methods, commodities, or equipment. If there are no more restrictions, the element defined by the sentence "including a..." does not exclude the existence of other identical elements in the process, method, commodity, or equipment that includes the element.
上述对本说明书特定实施例进行了描述。其它实施例在所附权利要求书的范围内。在一些情况下,在权利要求书中记载的动作或步骤可以按照不同于实施例中的顺序来执行并且仍然可以实现期望的结果。另外,在附图中描绘的过程不一定要求示出的特定顺序或者连续顺序才能实现期望的结果。在某些实施方式中,多任务处理和并行处理也是可以的或者可能是有利的。The foregoing describes specific embodiments of this specification. Other embodiments are within the scope of the appended claims. In some cases, the actions or steps described in the claims may be performed in a different order than in the embodiments and still achieve desired results. In addition, the processes depicted in the drawings do not necessarily require the specific order or sequential order shown in order to achieve the desired results. In some embodiments, multitasking and parallel processing are also possible or may be advantageous.
在本说明书一个或多个实施例使用的术语是仅仅出于描述特定实施例的目的,而非旨在限制本说明书一个或多个实施例。在本说明书一个或多个实施例和所附权利要求书中所使用的单数形式的“一种”、“所述”和“该”也旨在包括多数形式,除非上下文清楚地表示其他含义。还应当理解,本文中使用的术语“和/或”是指并包含一个或多个相关联的列出项目的任何或所有可能组合。The terms used in one or more embodiments of this specification are only for the purpose of describing specific embodiments, and are not intended to limit one or more embodiments of this specification. The singular forms "a", "said" and "the" used in one or more embodiments of this specification and the appended claims are also intended to include plural forms, unless the context clearly indicates other meanings. It should also be understood that the term "and/or" as used herein refers to and includes any or all possible combinations of one or more associated listed items.
应当理解,尽管在本说明书一个或多个实施例可能采用术语第一、第二、第三等来描述各种信息,但这些信息不应限于这些术语。这些术语仅用来将同一类型的信息彼此区分开。例如,在不脱离本说明书一个或多个实施例范围的情况下,第一信息也可以被称为第二信息,类似地,第二信息也可以被称为第一信息。取决于语境,如在此所使用的词语“如果”可以被解释成为“在……时”或“当……时”或“响应于确定”。It should be understood that although the terms first, second, third, etc. may be used to describe various information in one or more embodiments of this specification, the information should not be limited to these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish the same type of information from each other. For example, without departing from the scope of one or more embodiments of this specification, the first information may also be referred to as second information, and similarly, the second information may also be referred to as first information. Depending on the context, the word "if" as used herein can be interpreted as "when" or "when" or "in response to determination".
以上所述仅为本说明书一个或多个实施例的较佳实施例而已,并不用以限制本说明书一个或多个实施例,凡在本说明书一个或多个实施例的精神和原则之内,所做的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本说明书一个或多个实施例保护的范围之内。The foregoing descriptions are only preferred embodiments of one or more embodiments of this specification, and are not intended to limit one or more embodiments of this specification. All within the spirit and principle of one or more embodiments of this specification, Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement, etc. made should be included in the protection scope of one or more embodiments of this specification.

Claims (28)

  1. 一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法,所述方法应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述方法包括:A blockchain-based asset settlement method, the method is applied to node devices in the blockchain, and the method includes:
    接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;Receive the advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein, the securitized asset is the basis to be created based on the basic asset deposited in the blockchain The asset pool serves as the value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
    响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;In response to the advance settlement transaction, call the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold;
    如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the asset default rate reaches the threshold, the prepayment logic in the smart contract is further invoked, the securitized asset is processed in advance, and after the repayment is over, the securitized asset is set to an invalid state .
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,所述对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,包括:The method according to claim 1, wherein the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets includes:
    基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
    基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的方法,所述基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账,包括:The method according to claim 2, wherein the transferring money to the investor of the securitized asset based on the result of the sorting comprises:
    将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的方法,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。The method according to claim 3, wherein the investment account is a custodial account opened in a custodial bank.
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,所述在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态,包括:The method according to claim 1, wherein the setting the securitized asset to an invalid state after the end of repayment includes:
    确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。The method according to claim 1, wherein the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; and the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
  7. 一种基于区块链的资产清偿方法,所述方法应用于所述区块链中的节点设备, 所述方法包括:A blockchain-based asset settlement method, the method is applied to node devices in the blockchain, and the method includes:
    接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;When the receiving client determines that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold, it triggers an early settlement transaction for securitized assets; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The asset pool created by the basic assets of the; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
    响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。In response to the pre-payment transaction, call the pre-payment logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain, perform pre-payment processing on the securitized asset, and set the securitized asset after the completion of the repayment Is invalid.
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的方法,所述对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,包括:The method according to claim 7, wherein the pre-payment processing of the securitized assets includes:
    基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
    基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的方法,所述基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账,包括:The method according to claim 8, wherein the transferring money to the investor of the securitized asset based on the result of the sorting comprises:
    将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的方法,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。The method according to claim 9, wherein the investment account is a custodial account opened in a custodial bank.
  11. 根据权利要求7所述的方法,所述在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态,包括:The method according to claim 7, wherein the setting the securitized asset to an invalid state after the end of the repayment includes:
    确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
  12. 根据权利要求7所述的方法,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。The method according to claim 7, wherein the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; and the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
  13. 一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置,所述装置应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述装置包括:A block chain-based asset clearing device, the device is applied to the node equipment in the block chain, and the device includes:
    接收模块,接收客户端在证券化资产的存续期内周期性发送的针对所述证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述证券化资产为将基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的 基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module receives the advance settlement transaction for the securitized asset periodically sent by the client during the duration of the securitized asset; wherein, the securitized asset is a basic asset that will be based on the deposit certificate in the blockchain The created basic asset pool serves as value support for the assets issued on the blockchain;
    确认模块,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿确认逻辑,确定所述基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率是否达到预设阈值;The confirmation module, in response to the advance settlement transaction, invokes the advance settlement confirmation logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain to determine whether the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold;
    清偿模块,如果所述资产违约率达到所述阈值,进一步调用所述智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。The settlement module, if the asset default rate reaches the threshold, further invoke the early settlement logic in the smart contract to perform the pre-payment process on the securitized asset, and set the securitized asset after the settlement is over Is invalid.
  14. 根据权利要求13所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 13, the repayment module:
    基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
    基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
  15. 根据权利要求14所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 14, the repayment module:
    将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
  16. 根据权利要求15所述的装置,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。The device according to claim 15, wherein the investment account is an escrow account opened in a custodial bank.
  17. 根据权利要求13所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 13, the repayment module:
    确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
  18. 根据权利要求13所述的装置,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。The device according to claim 13, wherein the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; and the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
  19. 一种基于区块链的资产清偿装置,所述装置应用于所述区块链中的节点设备,所述装置包括:A block chain-based asset clearing device, the device is applied to the node equipment in the block chain, and the device includes:
    接收模块,接收客户端在确定基础资产池中的基础资产的资产违约率达到预设阈值时,触发的针对证券化资产的提前清偿交易;其中,所述基础资产池为基于所述区块链中存证的基础资产创建的资产池;所述证券化资产为将所述基础资产池作为价值支撑在所述区块链上所发行的资产;The receiving module receives the pre-payment transaction for securitization assets triggered by the client when determining that the asset default rate of the underlying assets in the underlying asset pool reaches a preset threshold; wherein, the underlying asset pool is based on the blockchain An asset pool created by the basic assets of China Deposit Certificate; the securitized assets are assets issued on the blockchain using the basic asset pool as value support;
    清偿模块,响应于所述提前清偿交易,调用部署在所述区块链上的智能合约中的提前清偿逻辑,对所述证券化资产进行提前清偿处理,并在清偿结束之后,将所述证券化 资产设置为无效状态。The settlement module, in response to the advance settlement transaction, invokes the advance settlement logic in the smart contract deployed on the blockchain, performs an early settlement process on the securitized assets, and after the settlement ends, transfers the securities The chemical asset is set to an invalid state.
  20. 根据权利要求19所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 19, the repayment module:
    基于预设费率对所述证券化资产进行清分处理;Perform sorting processing on the securitized assets based on a preset fee rate;
    基于清分结果向所述证券化资产的投资人进行转账。Based on the result of the clearing, transfer to the investor of the securitized asset.
  21. 根据权利要求20所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 20, the repayment module:
    将清分结果发布至所述区块链进行存证,以使银行系统在监听到所述清分结果时,基于所述清分结果中的金额,从所述证券化资产的管理方的投资账户,向所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户进行转账。Publish the clearing result to the blockchain for certification, so that when the banking system monitors the clearing result, based on the amount in the clearing result, from the investment of the management party of the securitized asset Account, to transfer money to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset.
  22. 根据权利要求21所述的装置,所述投资账户为在托管银行开通的托管账户。The device according to claim 21, wherein the investment account is a custodial account opened in a custodial bank.
  23. 根据权利要求19所述的装置,所述清偿模块:The device according to claim 19, the repayment module:
    确定是否接收到所述银行系统提交的与所述证券化资产的投资人的投资账户对应的转账记录;Determining whether to receive the transfer record corresponding to the investment account of the investor of the securitized asset submitted by the banking system;
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态;或者,If the transfer record is received, set the securitized asset to an invalid state; or,
    如果接收到所述转账记录,则生成与所述证券化资产对应的清偿结束事件,以使所述证券化资产的管理方在监听到所述清偿结束事件时,将所述证券化资产设置为无效状态。If the transfer record is received, a settlement end event corresponding to the securitized asset is generated, so that when the management party of the securitized asset monitors the settlement end event, it sets the securitized asset to Invalid state.
  24. 根据权利要求19所述的装置,所述证券化资产为债券或基金;所述基础资产为基础债务资产。The device according to claim 19, wherein the securitized asset is a bond or a fund; and the basic asset is a basic debt asset.
  25. 一种电子设备,包括:An electronic device including:
    处理器;processor;
    用于存储处理器可执行指令的存储器;A memory for storing processor executable instructions;
    其中,所述处理器通过运行所述可执行指令以实现如权利要求1至6中任一项所述方法的步骤。Wherein, the processor executes the executable instructions to implement the steps of the method according to any one of claims 1 to 6.
  26. 一种电子设备,包括:An electronic device including:
    处理器;processor;
    用于存储处理器可执行指令的存储器;A memory for storing processor executable instructions;
    其中,所述处理器通过运行所述可执行指令以实现如权利要求7至12中任一项所述方法的步骤。Wherein, the processor implements the steps of the method according to any one of claims 7 to 12 by running the executable instructions.
  27. 一种计算机可读存储介质,其上存储有计算机指令,其特征在于,该指令被处理器执行时实现如权利要求1至6中任一项所述方法的步骤。A computer-readable storage medium having computer instructions stored thereon, characterized in that, when the instructions are executed by a processor, the steps of the method according to any one of claims 1 to 6 are implemented.
  28. 一种计算机可读存储介质,其上存储有计算机指令,其特征在于,该指令被处 理器执行时实现如权利要求7至12中任一项所述方法的步骤。A computer-readable storage medium having computer instructions stored thereon, characterized in that, when the instructions are executed by a processor, the steps of the method according to any one of claims 7 to 12 are realized.
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