WO2018141742A1 - Laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers - Google Patents

Laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018141742A1
WO2018141742A1 PCT/EP2018/052264 EP2018052264W WO2018141742A1 WO 2018141742 A1 WO2018141742 A1 WO 2018141742A1 EP 2018052264 W EP2018052264 W EP 2018052264W WO 2018141742 A1 WO2018141742 A1 WO 2018141742A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
layer
preferably
laminated glazing
laminated
side
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PCT/EP2018/052264
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Birgit GERKE
Janusz SCHINKE
Jens Roeder
Original Assignee
Basf Se
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Priority to EP17154613 priority Critical
Priority to EP17154613.8 priority
Application filed by Basf Se filed Critical Basf Se
Publication of WO2018141742A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018141742A1/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10018Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising only one glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/1055Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the resin layer, i.e. interlayer
    • B32B17/10651Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the resin layer, i.e. interlayer comprising colorants, e.g. dyes or pigments
    • B32B17/10669Luminescent agents

Abstract

The invention relates to a laminated glazing (10) comprising a composite structure of laminated layers. The composite structure comprises a first layer (A) (1),a second layer (B)(3), and a functional interlayer (C)(2), wherein at least the first layer (A) (1) is an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air side (14) and a tin side (13) and wherein the functional interlayer (C) (3) is sandwiched between the first layer (A) (1) and the second layer (B) (2) and is arranged parallel to the first layer (A) (1) and the second layer(B) (2). Further, at least a first side of the functional layer (C) (3) is at least partially coated with a luminous coating (12) and the first side of the functional layer (C) (3) is laminated to the air side (14) of the first layer (A) (1) Further, alighting unit comprising such a laminated glazing (10) and at least one light source arranged at an edge of the laminated glazing (10) is provided.

Description

Laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers Description The invention relates to a laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers comprising a first layer (A), a second layer (B), and a functional interlayer (C), wherein at least the first layer (A) is an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air-side and a tin-side, and wherein the functional interlayer (C) is sandwiched between the first layer (A) and the second layer (B) and is arranged parallel to the first layer (A) and the sec- ond layer (B).

Laminated safety glass, comprising sheets of glass and plastic, are used in areas where structural integrity after fracture is highly desired or required for safety reasons, especially but not exclusive in the fields of architectural glazing or automotive glazing.

The surface may be used for this purpose in illuminated form or in not illuminated form, where the illumination may be produced by suitable light sources. It is possible that the complete surface is illuminated, but it is also possible to apply pattern onto the surface. It is further possible to use different light sources, whereby for example colored or blocked lighting effects are pro- duced. The surfaces may be used for example in buildings, furniture, cars, trains, planes and ships as well as in facades, skylights, glass roofs, stair treads, glass bridges, canopies and railings.

US 2015/308659 A1 concerns a glazing unit which includes sheets of glass and of plastic lami- nated between the glass sheets, and luminophores, wherein the glazing unit includes at least three glass sheets and at least two plastic films inserted in alternation between the glass sheets. The selection of at least three glass sheets associated with at least two intermediate films of plastic allows a three-dimensional image to be obtained. US 2013/0252001 A1 concerns a laminated glazing for information display comprising an assembly of at least two transparent sheets of inorganic glass or of a strong organic material, joined together by an interlayer of a thermoformable material or by multilayer foils incorporating such interlayers, whereby said glazing being characterized in that a luminophore material of the hydroxyterephthalate type, combined with an antioxidant additive, is added into said interlayer. Further, in US 2013/0252001 A1 a device for displaying an image on transparent glazing is disclosed, comprising a laminated glazing as mentioned before and a source generating concentrated UV radiation of the laser type.

DE 10 2005 061 885 A1 concerns a glass element being part of a facade of a building with a long afterglow effect based on an element with a long afterglow effect with inorganic long afterglow pigments in a matrix, whereby the long afterglow element is graphically designed and applied to the glass element by screen printing or transfer technique, whereby the glass element is formed from at least two glass elements together with a carrier element, and the at least two glass elements form a laminated safety glass.

DE 10 2009 006 856 A1 concerns a glass comprising at least one integrated light field and a process for the preparation thereof and its use.

WO 2007/023083 concerns a glass assembly comprising phosphorescent, luminescent substance and two outer cover glass parts, which are indirectly or directly connected, between which the luminescent substance is sandwiched.

EP 2 1 10 237 concerns the preparation and use of photoluminescent intermediate layers as well as the use of said layers in laminated glass or photovoltaic modules.

The glass or lighting elements known in the prior art suffer from the drawback that the prepara- tion of the lighting unit respectively the interlayer in the laminated glass is complicated, and the lighting units obtained are therefore expensive. When illuminated, glass sheets larger than 50 cm in one direction usually exhibit inhomogeneous color and light intensity due to light absorption and greenish color of glass sheets. Further, undesired light scattering in the laminated glass of known lighting elements is observed when the laminated glass comprises glass sheets produced in a float glass process.

It is an object of the present invention over the prior art to provide an improved laminated glazing which may be used in a lighting unit and which allows distribution of light with desired light color and light intensity distribution while avoiding undesired scattering of light.

A laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers is provided. The composite structure comprises a first layer (A), a second layer (B), and a functional interlayer (C), wherein at least the first layer (A) is an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air-side and a tin-side and wherein the functional interlayer (C) is sandwiched between the first layer (A) and the second layer (B) and is arranged parallel to the first layer (A) and the second layer (B). Further, at least a first side of the functional layer (C) is at least partially coated with a luminous coating and the first side of the functional layer (C) is laminated to the air-side of the first layer (A) The laminated glazing may be prepared using lamination processes for producing laminated safety glasses which are known in the art. Especially the functional interlayer (C) is preferably based on layers usually used in laminated safety glasses. Such an interlayer can easily be func- tionalized by luminous particles based on elements known in the prior art. The provided laminated glazing may be combined with a light source in order to form a lighting unit. Such lighting units may be used in the architectural, e.g. buildings and furniture, or automotive or aeronautic field. When used in a lighting unit, light may be coupled into the laminated glazing from at least one of the edges. Preferably, light is coupled into the laminated glazing such that the light exhibits internal reflection, especially total internal reflection. Light is partially absorbed and re-emitted by the luminous coating. The luminous coating emits the light at arbitrary angles, thus allowing the re-emitted light to exit the laminated glazing. By use of the luminous coating the light is intentionally scattered so that the re-emitted light does not exhibit total internal reflection.

Unfortunately, light is not only scattered by the luminous coating of the functional interlayer (C), but also by impurities on the tin side of material produced in a float glass process. In a float glass process, molten glass material floats on a bed of molten metal, typically tin. The side of the glass material which has faced the bed of molten metal is called tin-side and the opposite side is called air-side. A small quantity of the metal diffuses into the glass material and forms impurities which may scatter light. Tin impurities in float glass may be easily detected by shining short wavelength (for example 254 nm) UV light onto the glass surface. The tin-side fluoresces under UV-light wherein the air-side does not.

It has been found that undesired scattering of light in the glazing unit of the present invention is reduced by laminating the coated side of the functional interlayer (C) to the air-side of the first layer (A) which is an optically transparent material being produced in a float glass process.

The material of the second layer (B) is preferably optically transparent. Examples for suitable materials of the second layer (B) are transparent polymers and transparent materials obtained in a float glass process. If the material of the second layer (B) is also an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air-side and a tin-side, it is preferred to laminate the air side of the second layer (B) to a second side of the functional layer (C).

If the material of the second layer (B) is based on a transparent polymer, either side of the sec- ond layer (B) may be laminated to the second side of the functional layer (C).

The transparent polymer is preferably selected from the group comprising PVC (polyvinylchlo- ride), PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PC (polycarbonate), PS (polystyrene), PPO (polypropylene oxide), PE (polyethylene), LDPE (low density polyethylene), LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene), PEN (polyethylene naphthalate), PP (polypropylene), LDPP (low density polypropylene), PET (polypropylene terephthalate), glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate, PES (polyether sulfones), PI (polyimides) and mixtures thereof.

A suitable PMMA is commercially available under the trade name Plexiglas. The first layer (A) and/or the second layer (B), if the second layer (B) is produced in a float glass process, is preferably selected from the group comprising low-iron glass, glass with an optical transmission >90%, heat strengthened glass and chemically strengthened glass Suitable low iron float glass is available under the trade names e.g. Pilkington Optiwhite, Guardian UltraClear Float Glass, SGG Planiclear, SGG Diamont.

Low-iron glass or "white glass" is a type of high-clarity glass that is made from silica with very low amounts of iron. This low level of iron removes the greenish-blue tint that can be seen especially on larger and thicker sizes of normal glass. Low-iron glass has a low iron content of less than 500 ppm (0.05%), preferably less than 200 ppm (0.02%) and especially preferred less than 100 ppm (0.01 %). Optionally, the first layer (A) and/or the second layer (B) is coated with at least one functional layer. The functional layer is preferably a color effect coating, low-emissivity (low-e) coating, sun-protection coating, metal coating, metal oxide coating or any other coating. Preferably, the coating is located on the surface facing away from the functional interlayer (C). Thus, in case of the first layer (A) which is a material produced in a float glass process the coating is preferably applied to the tin-side.

The layer thickness of the first layer (A) is preferably 0.1 to 50 mm, more preferably 0.5 to 30 mm, most preferably 1 .5 to 12 mm. The layer thickness of the second layer (B) is preferably 0.1 to 50 mm, more preferably 0.5 to 30 mm, most preferably 1 .5 to 12 mm.

The first layer (A) and/or second layer (B) might have an additional imprint. An additional film might be located on the optically transparent layer (A) and/or (B). The film might be imprinted, having a certain optical transparency e.g. but not limited to for advertisements using the invention as backlight.

The light transmission of the first layer (A) and/or the second layer (B) is preferably at least 30%, preferably 30% to 100%, more preferably at least 50%, even more preferably 50% to

100%, most preferably at least 80%, even more most preferably 90% to 100%. The light transmission is preferably determined as light transmission TL for visible light based on EN

410:201 1 . The wavelength of visible light is from 380 nm to 780 nm. It is possible that not the complete first layer (A) and/or second layer (B) is optically transparent, but only a part of layer (A) and/or (B). Further, it is possible that only the first layer (A) is optically transparent and the second layer (B) is opaque.

Suitable examples for an opaque second layer (B) include polished glass (metal coated glass), a metal foil, a metal sheet or frosted glass, respectively partially frosted glass. Further, non- transparent polymer layers may be used. However, preferably both first layer (A) and second layer (B) are optically transparent and selected from an optically transparent material.

It is also possible that the transparency is wavelength sensitive, i.e. optically transparent also means that the light transmission mentioned before is only for yellow light or only for green light or only for red light or only for blue light, but the light transmission is lower for light of other wavelengths. This is for example the case when first layer (A) and/or second layer (B) is a wavelength sensitive glass, for example a toned glass layer. It is also possible to use wavelength sensitive polymer layers, for example toned polymer layers.

At least one of the first layer (A) or second layer (B) may comprise one or more functional features like a coating or printing for decorative or informative purposes, a sensor element for pressure (touch panel), heat, light, humidity, pH-value -for example to switch the light source-, or an integrated solar cell or a solar cell foil, for example for power supply of the light source. The first layer (A) and the second layer (B) usually have independently of each other a thickness of 0.1 to 50 mm, preferably 0.5 to 30 mm, more preferably 1.5 to 12 mm.

The area of the first layer (A) and second layer (B) may be the same or different and is preferably the same. The area is usually 0.05 to 25 m2, preferably 0.08 to 15 m2, more preferably 0.09 to 10 m2.

At least one dimension of first layer (A) and second layer (B) is usually 0.1 to 10 m, preferably 0.25 to 5 m, more preferably 0.3 to 3 m. Functional interlayer (C)

The functional interlayer (C) is arranged between the first layer (A) and the second layer (B) and is arranged parallel to the first layer (A) and second layer (B). A first side of said functional interlayer (C) is at least partially coated with a luminous coating.

The functional interlayer (C) may be of any material which is useful in laminated glass. Therefore, suitable materials for the functional interlayer (C) are known by a person skilled in the art. The advantage of the present invention is that material for the first layer (A), second layer (B), and functional interlayer (C) may be used which are usually employed in laminated glass.

Preferably, the functional interlayer (C) is based on an ionomer (ionoplast), polymethlymethac- rylate (PMMA), acid copolymers of oolefins and α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl acetal (for example poly(vinylbutyral)) (PVB), including acoustic grades of polyvinyl acetal), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyethylenes (for ex- ample metallocene-catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes), polyolefin block elastomers, ethylene acrylate ester copolymers (for example poly(ethylene-co-methyl-acrylate) and poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate)), silicone elastomers, epoxy resins and mixtures thereof. Suitable ionomers are derived from acid copolymers. Suitable acid copolymers are copolymers of a-olefins and α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids having 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The acid copolymers usually contain at least 1 % by weight of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids based on the total weight of the copolymers. Preferably, the acid copolymers contain at least 10% by weight, more preferably 15% to 25% by weight and most preferably 18% to 23% by weight of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids based on the total weight of the copolymers.

The α-olefins mentioned before usually comprise 2 to 10 carbon atoms. Preferably, the a-olefins are selected from the group consisting of ethylene, propylene, 1 -butene, 1 -pentene, 1 -heptene, 1 -hexene, 3-methyl 1 -butene, 4-methyl-1 -pentene and mixtures thereof. More preferably, the a- olefin is ethylene. The α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids are preferably selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, maleic acid, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, monomethyl maleic acid and mixtures thereof, preferably acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and mixtures thereof.

The acid copolymers may further contain other unsaturated copolymers like methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethyl methacrylate, propyl acrylate, propyl methacrylate, isopropyl acrylate, isopropyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, isobutyl acrylate, isobutyl methacrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, tert-butyl methacrylate, octyl acrylate, octyl methacrylate, undecyl acrylate, undecyl methacrylate, octadecyl acrylate, octadecyl methacrylate, do- decyl acrylate, dodecyl methacrylate, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate, 2-ethyl hexyl methacrylate, isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, lauryl acrylate, lauryl methacrylate, 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, glycidyl acrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate, polyethylene glycol (meth)acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methylether acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methylether methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) ether methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)behenyl ether acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)behenyl ether methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)4-nonylphenylether acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)4-nonylphenylether methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)phenyl ether acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol)phenyl ether methacrylate, dimethyl maleate, diethyl maleate, dibutyl maleate, dimethyl fumarate, diethyl fumarate, dibutyl fumarate, dimenthyl fumarate, vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the other unsaturated comonomers are selected from the group consisting of methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate and mixtures thereof. The acid copolymers may comprise up to 50% by weight, preferably up to 30% by weight, more preferably up to 20% by weight of other unsaturated copolymers, based on the total weight of the copolymer.

The preparation of the acid copolymers mentioned before is known in the art and described for example in US 3,404,134, US 5,028,674, US 6,500,888, and US 6,518,635.

To obtain the ionomers, the acid copolymers are partially or fully neutralized with metallic ions. Preferably, the acid copolymers are 10% to 100%, more preferably 10% to 50%, most preferably 20% to 40% neutralized with metallic ions, based on the total number of moles of carbox- ylate groups in the ionomeric copolymer. The metallic ions may be monovalent, divalent, triva- lent or multivalent or mixtures of said metallic ions. Preferable monovalent metallic ions are sodium, potassium, lithium, silver, mercury, copper and mixtures thereof. Preferred divalent metallic ions are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, mercury, tin, lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, and mixtures thereof. Preferred trivalent metallic ions are aluminum, scandium, iron, yttrium and mixtures thereof. Preferred multivalent metallic ions are titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, tantalum, tungsten, chromium, cerium, iron and mixtures thereof. It is preferred that when the metallic ion is multivalent, complexing agents, such as stearate, oleate, salicylate and phenylate radicals are included (see US 3,404,134). More pre- ferred metallic ions are selected from the group consisting of sodium, lithium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and mixtures thereof. Furthermore preferred metallic ions are selected from the group consisting of sodium, zinc and mixtures thereof. Most preferred is zinc as a metallic ion. The acid copolymers may be neutralized as disclosed for example in US 3,404,134. The ionomers usually have a melt index (Ml) of, less than 10 g/10 min, preferably less than 5 g/10 min, more preferably less than 3 g/10 min as measured at 190 °C by ASTM method D1238. Further, the ionomers usually have a flexural modulus, greater than 40000 psi, preferably greater than 50000 psi, more preferably greater than 60000 psi, as measured by ASTM method D638.

The ionomer resins are typically prepared from acid copolymers having a Ml of less than 60 g/10 min, preferably less than 55 g/10 min, more preferably less than 50 g/10 min, most preferably less than 35 g/10 min, as determined at 190 °C by ASTM method D1238. Suitable ionomers are mentioned in US 8,080,726 B2.

Preferably, the functional interlayer (C) is based on an ionomer, whereby preferred ionomers are mentioned before, polyvinylbutyral (PVB), polyvinylacetal, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA), eth- ylene/vinylalcohol/vinylacetal copolymer and epoxy pouring resins. Commercial materials for the functional interlayer (C) are Trosifol®, Butacite®, Saflex®, S-Lec®, and SentryGlas®.

The thickness of the functional interlayer (C) is usually from 0.05 mm to 10 mm, more preferably from 0.2 mm to 6 mm, most preferably from 0.3 mm to 5 mm. Preferably, the functional interlayer (C) is a laminate comprising at least two layers. The material of each of the layers of the laminate may be selected independently from materials suitable in laminated glass. In particular, the materials disclosed for the functional interlayer (C) are suitable. The material of the at least two layers may be chosen such that each layer is made from a different material. Alternatively, two or more layers of the same material may be used.

If a laminate is used as functional interlayer (C), the coating is applied on an outer surface of the laminate so that the coating is in direct contact to the air-side of the first layer (A) in the laminated glazing. The area of the functional interlayer (C) may be identical with or different from the area of the first layer (A) and/or second layer (B). Preferably, the area of layers (A), (B) and functional interlayer (C) are identical. Suitable areas for the functional interlayer (C) are the same as men- tioned for layers (A) and (B). The functional interlayer (C) may be comprised by several pieces of functional interlayer of smaller area, tiled side-by-side to be combined to become one larger functional interlayer. The functional interlayer (C) comprises a luminous coating and is therefore described as functional interlayer (C). The luminous coating may cover the complete surface of the functional interlayer (C), i.e. 100% of the area of the functional interlayer (C). However, it is also possible that only a part of the surface of the functional interlayer (C) is covered by the luminous coating. Therefore, for example 0.5 to 50%, preferably 1 to 40 %, more preferably 2 to 30%, most preferably 3 to 25% and even most preferably 4 to 20% of the surface of the functional interlayer (C) are covered by the luminous coating.

The luminous coating may be uniformly applied to the functional layer (C). Alternatively, the luminous coating may be selectively applied so that certain patterns and/or shapes such as letters or images are formed.

Preferably, the luminous coating has a thickness of from 100 nm to 50 μηη and especially preferably of from 5 μηη to 20 μηη.

The luminous coating preferably comprises luminous particles.

The luminous particles may be applied such that a concentration gradient is formed, i.e., the amount of the luminous particles on the functional interlayer (C) varies, depending on the distance to at least one edge of the laminated glazing. For example the density of the luminous particles in the coating of the functional interlayer (C) may be linearly scaled with increasing distances to an edge of the laminated glazing. When assembled into a lighting unit, a light source is preferably arranged at said edge of the laminated glazing so that the concentration of luminous particles scales with increasing distance from the light source.

Luminous Particles

The luminous particles which are present in the coating of the functional interlayer (C) preferably comprise: i) at least one matrix (i); and

one or both of the following components (ii) and (iii):

ii) at least one luminophore (ii);

iii) at least one grit (iii). In one preferred embodiment, the coating comprises at least one matrix (i) and at least one lu- minophore (ii).

In a further preferred embodiment, the coating comprises at least one matrix (i) and at least one grit (iii).

In a further preferred embodiment, the coating comprises at least one matrix (i), at least one luminophore (ii) and at least one grit (iii). There may be further components present in the luminous particles and/or in the coating like plastizers, UV stabilizers, cross-linking agents, accelerants, photo-initiators, surfactants (preferably non polymeric dispersion agents), thixotropic modifiers.

Grit in the meaning of the present application is a scattering body.

In one embodiment, the luminous particles are present in the coating of the functional interlayer (C) in the form of agglomerates. Usually, said agglomerates have particle sizes of more than 400 nm. Matrix (i)

The at least one matrix (i) present in the luminous particles and/or in the coating according to the present application may be of any material known by a person skilled in the art useful for such a matrix.

Suitable matrix materials are polymers. The polymers are usually inorganic polymers or organic polymers. Preferred are polymers, wherein the luminophore (ii) and/or the grit (iii) can be dissolved or homogeneously distributed without decomposition. Suitable inorganic polymers are, for example, silicates or silicon dioxide. In the case of silicates or silicon dioxide, for example, this can be accomplished by deposition of the polymer from a waterglass solution.

Preferably, the matrix (i) comprises homo- or copolymers of: (meth)acrylates, i.e. polymethacry- lates or polyacrylates, for example polymethylmethacrylate, polyethyl(meth)acrylate or poly- isobutyl(meth)acrylate; polyvinyl acetal), especially polyvinyl butyral) (PVB), cellulose polymers like ethyl cellulose, nitro cellulose, hydroxy alkyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate), polystyrenes (PS), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyimides, polyethylene oxides, polypropylene oxides, polyamines, polycaprolactones, phosphoric acid functionalized polyethylene glycols, polyeth- ylene imines, polycarbonates (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylenes (for example metallocene-catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes), castor oil, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl chloride, polybutene, silicone, epoxy resin, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), polystyreneacrylonitrile (SAN), poly- butylene terephthalate (PBT), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyamides, polyoxymethylenes, polyimides, polyetherimide or mixtures thereof.

Preferred matrix materials (i) are selected from the group consisting of homo- or copolymers or (meth)acrylate, i.e. polymethylmethacrylate, polymethacrylate, polyacrylate, cellulose derivative like ethyl cellulose, nitro cellulose, hydroxy alkyl cellulose, polystyrenes, polycarbonates, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or mixtures thereof.

Polyethylene terephthalate is obtainable by condensation of ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid.

Preferred matrix materials (i) are organic polymers consisting essentially of polystyrene and/or polycarbonate, more preferably, the matrix consists of polystyrene or polycarbonate. Polystyrene is understood to include all homo- or copolymers which result from polymerization of styrene and/or derivative of styrene.

Derivatives of styrene are, for example, alkyl styrenes such as omethyl styrene, ortho-meta- para-methylstyrene, para-butylstryrene, especially para-tert.-butystyrene, alkoxystyrene, such as para-methoxy styrene, para-butoxy styrene, especially para-tert.-butoxy styrene.

In general suitable polystyrenes have a mean molar mass Mn of 10000 to 1000000 g/mol (determined by GPC), preferably 20000 to 750000 g/mol, more preferably 30000 to 500000 g/mol. In one preferred embodiment, the matrix (i) consists essentially of or completely of the homo- polymer of styrene or derivatives of styrene.

In a further preferred embodiment the matrix (i) consists essentially of or completely of a styrene copolymer which, in the context of this application, is likewise considered to be polystyrene. Styrene copolymers may comprise as further constituents, for example butadiene, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride, vinyl carbazoles or esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or itacrylic acid as monomers. Suitable styrene copolymers comprise generally at least 20% by weight of styrene, preferably at least 40% by weight of styrene and more preferably at least 60% by weight of styrene. In another embodiment, they comprise at least 90% by weight of styrene.

Preferred styrene copolymers are styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers (SAN) and acrylonitrile- butadiene styrene copolymers (ABS), styrene-1 ,1 -diphenylethylene copolymers, acrylic ester- styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ASA), methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene copolymers (MABS) and omethyl styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (AMSAN).

The styrene homo- or copolymers can be prepared for example by free-radical polymerization, cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization, or under the influence of organometallic catalysts (for example Ziegler-Natta-catalysts). This can lead to isotactic, syndiotactic, atactic poly- styrene or copolymers. They are preferably prepared by free-radical polymerization. The polymerization can be performed as a suspension polymerization, emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization or bulk polymerization. The preparation of suitable polystyrenes is described for example in Oskar Nuyken, Polystyrenes and Other Aromatic Polyvinyl Compounds; in Kricheldorf, Nuyken, Swift, New York, 2005, p. 73 to 150, and references cited therein; and in Elias, Macromolecules, Weinheim 2007, p. 269 to 275. Polycarbonates are polyesters of carbonic acid with aromatic or aliphatic dihydroxyl compounds. Preferred dihydroxyl compounds are for example methylene, diphenylene, dihydroxyl compounds, for example bisphenol A.

One means of preparing polycarbonates is the reaction of suitable dihydroxyl compounds with phosgenes in an interfacial polymerization. Another means is the reaction with diesters of carbonic acid, such as diphenyl carbonate, in a condensation polymerization.

The preparation of suitable polycarbonates is described for example, in Elias, Macromolecules, Weinheim 2007, p. 343 to 347.

In a preferred embodiment, polystyrenes or polycarbonates which have been polymerized with the exclusion of oxygen are used. The monomers preferably comprise, during polymerization, a total of at most 1000 ppm of oxygen, more preferably at most 100 ppm and especially preferably at most 10 ppm.

The preparation of the polycarbonates and polystyrenes mentioned above as well as the preparation of the other compounds mentioned as matrix material (i) according to the present invention is known by a person skilled in the art. Generally, the matrix materials (i) mentioned above, are commercially available.

Suitable matrix materials, especially suitable polystyrenes and/or polycarbonates, may comprise, as further constituents, additives such as flame retardants, antioxidants, light stabilizers, free-radical scavengers, antistats. Such further constituents are known to those skilled in the art and usually commercially available.

In one embodiment of the present invention, polystyrenes or polycarbonates used as matrix (i) which do not comprise any antioxidants or free-radical scavengers.

In one further embodiment of the present invention the matrix materials (i), especially the poly- styrenes or polycarbonates, are transparent polymers.

In another embodiment, suitable matrix materials (i), especially suitable polystyrenes or polycarbonates, are opaque polymers. In one embodiment of the present invention, the matrix (i) consists essentially of or completely of a mixture of polystyrene and/or polycarbonate with other polymers, but the matrix (i) preferably comprises at least 25% by weight, more preferably at least 50% by weight, most preferably at least 70% by weight of polystyrene and/or polycarbonate.

In another embodiment, the matrix consists essentially of or completely of polystyrene or polycarbonate or a mixture of polystyrene and polycarbonate in any ratio. It is possible that the polystyrenes, respectively the polycarbonates are employed as mixtures of different polystyrenes, respectively different polycarbonates.

The matrix (i) may be mechanically reinforced for example with glass fibers. Luminophore (ii)

Luminophores in the sense of the present application are photoluminescent compounds, whereby said compounds may be fluorescent or phosphorescent. Preferred luminophores according to the present invention show the following features:

Exitation by light;

High luminescence (i. e. fluorescence or phosphorescence) after excitation; preferred are photoluminescence quantum yields of 50% to 100%, more preferred of 70% to 100%, most preferred of 80% to 100%;

- An absorption spectrum in the ultraviolet and visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with a maximum absorption at a wavelength of 250 - 800 nm, more preferably 350 - 550 nm, most preferably 400 - 475 nm.

An emission spectrum in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum with a maximum emission at a wavelength at 400 - 800 nm, more preferably 410 - 750 nm, most preferably 430 - 630 nm.

Suitable luminophores are preferably selected from inorganic luminescent colorants and/or organic luminescent colorants, whereby luminescent means fluorescent or phosphorescent. Preferred inorganic luminescent colorants are those from the class of the rare earth-doped alu- minates, silicates, nitrides and garnets. Further inorganic luminescent colorants are, for example, those mentioned in "Luminescence - from Theory to Applications", Cees Ronda [ed.], Wiley-VCH, 2008, Chapter 7, "Luminescent Materials for Phosphor - Converted LEDs", Th. Justel, pages 179-190.

Garnets are compounds of the general formula X3Y2[Z04]3 in which Z is a divalent cation such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Y is a trivalent cation such as Al, Fe, Cr, rare earths, and Z is Si, Al, Fe3+, Ga3+. The garnet is preferably yttrium aluminum garnet Y3AI5O12 doped with Ce3+, Gd3+, Sm3+, Eu2+, Eu3+, Dy3+, Tb3+ or mixtures thereof.

Suitable nitrides are described, for example, in US 8,274,215. Suitable silicates are described, for example, in US 7,906,041 and US 7,31 1 ,858.

Suitable aluminates are described, for example, in US 7,755,276.

Suitable aluminate phosphors of the formula SrLu2-xAI40i2:Cex in which x is a value from the range from 0.01 to 0.15 are known from WO2012010244. Luminescent colorants of the composition MLn2QR40i2 where M is at least one of the elements Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba, Ln is at least one of the elements Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu; Q is one of the elements Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb, and R, finally, is at least one of the elements B, Al, Ga, In and Tl are known from US 2004/0062699.

Further preferred inorganic luminescent colorants are silicate-based phosphors of a general composition A3Si(0,D)5 or A2Si(0,D)4, in which Si is silicon, O is oxygen, A comprises strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), magnesium (Mg) or calcium (Ca) and D comprises chlorine (CI), fluorine (F), nitrogen (N) or sulfur, aluminum-based phosphors, aluminum-silicate-based phosphors, nitride- based phosphors, sulfate phosphors, oxy-nitride phosphors, oxy-sulfate phosphors, garnet materials, iron oxides, titanium dioxide, lead chromate pigments, lead molybdate pigments, nickel titanium pigments or chromium oxide or mixtures thereof.

Suitable inorganic pigments are for example described in US 8,337,029B2 and in EP 2 1 10 237 A1 .

More preferred inorganic luminescent colorants are yttrium aluminum garnets (Y3AI5O12), cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnets (Y3AI5O12 : Ce3+), lutetium aluminum garnet (AI5LU3O12), europium doped strontium-barium-nitride-silicate, ASiO : EuF (wherein A is defined above and EuF is doped into ASiO), preferably A is Sr, Ba and C or Ca, BaEuAIO : F (wherein F is doped into BaEu AIO) and MgAIZr : CeF (wherein CeF is doped into MgAIZr).

Preferred organic luminescent colorants are organic luminescent pigments or organic luminescent dyes, for example functionalized naphthalene derivatives or functionalized rylene deriva- tives, for example naphthalene comprising compounds bearing one or more substituents selected from halogen, cyano, benzimidazole or one or more groups bearing carbonyl functions or perylene compounds bearing one or more substituents selected from halogen, cyano, benzimidazole, or one or more groups bearing carbonyl functions, heterocyclic hydrocarbons, cuma- rins, stilbenes, cyanines, rubrens, pyranines, rhodanines, phenoxazines, diazo compounds, isoindoline derivatives, monoazo compounds, anthrachinone pigments, thioindigo derivatives, azomethine derivatives, chinacridones, perinones, dioxazines, pyrazolo-chinazolones, polycy- clic compounds comprising keto groups, phthalocyanines, varnished basic colorants, benzoxan- thene or benzimidazoxanthenoisoquinolinone (suitable benzimidazoxanthenoisoquinolinones are for example described in WO 2015/062916A1 ) or inorganic quantum dots, especially based on CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, InP, PbS, CdS or mixtures thereof

Inorganic quantum dots are for example described in WO 2013/078252 A1 . Preferred inorganic quantum dots are based on CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, InP, PbS, CdS or mixtures thereof. The quantum dots usually have an average diameter of less than 100 nm, preferably less than 20 nm, more preferably less than 10 nm, for example 2 to 10 nm.

The luminophores (ii) are usually dispersed in the matrix (i) or solved in the matrix (i).

Most preferred inorganic pigments are cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnets (Y3AI5O12 : Ce3+).

Most preferred organic components (dyes or pigments) are perylene dyes and or pigments, functionalized naphthalene dyes or functionalized rylene dyes, whereby suitable functions of the naphthalene dyes and rylene dyes are mentioned before.

Preferred perylene pigments and functionalized naphthalene dyes and rylene dyes are for example described in WO 2012/1 13884. Further preferred organic dyes are cyanated naphthalene benzimidazole compounds as for example described in WO 2015/019270.

The organic dyes mentioned above are usually molecularly dissolved in the polymer matrix. Suitable inorganic quantum dots usually have a mean particle size according to DIN 13320 of 2 to 30 nm.

Suitable inorganic pigments usually have a mean particle size according to DIN 13320 of 0.5 to 50 μηη, preferably 2 to 20 μηη, even more preferably between 5 and 15 μηη.

In a preferred embodiment, luminous particles comprise a combination of at least two luminophores or at least one luminophore and at least one grit. For example, the at least one inorganic or organic luminescent colorant can be combined with at least one further inorganic or organic luminescent colorant. In another example, at least one inorganic or organic luminescent color- ant can be combined with at least one grit. In a preferred example, cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnets (Y3AI5O12 : Ce3+) serve as inorganic luminescent colorant and are combined with yttrium aluminum garnets (Y3AI5O12), serving as grit.

In a preferred embodiment, the colorants are combined with one another such that blue light can be converted to white light with a color temperature of 1500 - 8500 K and good color rendering. In a preferred embodiment, the colorants and/or the grits are combined with one another such that white light (LED light) with a color temperature of 8000 to 15000 K can be converted to white light with a color temperature of 1500 - 7500 K and good color rendering. In a further preferred embodiment the colorants and/or the grits are combined with one another such that blue light (LED light) with usually 440 to 475 nm peak wavelength can be converted to white light, for example by using a yellow converter.

In a further preferred embodiment the colorants and/or the grits are combined with one another such that red, green and blue light (LED light) can be converted to each color desired.

Grit (iii) (scattering bodies)

As at least one grit (iii) usually all suitable grit material known in the art can be employed.

Preferably, the grit (iii) is selected from particles comprising Ti02, Sn02, ZnO, AI2O3, Y3AI5O12, Zr02, barium sulfate, lithopone, zinc sulfide, calcium carbonate and mixtures thereof.

The grits (iii) are usually colored (for example red, green or blue) pigments or white pigments. Preferably, the grits (iii) are white pigments, preferably selected from Ti02, ZnO, AI2O3, Y3AI5O12, barium sulfate, lithopone, zinc sulfide, calcium carbonate and mixtures thereof.

Usually, the grit (iii) has a mean particle size according to DIN 13320 of 0.01 to 30 μηη, preferably 0.5 to 10 μηη, more preferably 1 to 10 μηη.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the luminous particles in the luminous coating comprise i) at least one matrix (i), selected from polystyrene, polycarbonate, ethyl cellulose, nitro cel- lulose, hydroxyl alkyl cellulose, poly(meth)acrylate, copolymers comprising (meth)acrylate or mixtures thereof; and

one or both of the following components (ii) and (iii):

ii) at least one luminophore (ii) selected from cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,

perylene dyes, functionalized naphthalene dye, functionalized rylene dyes, cyanated naphthalene benzimidazole compounds or mixtures thereof;

iii) at least one grit (iii) selected from ΤΊΟ2, ZnO, AI2O3, Y3AI5O12 and mixtures thereof.

Preferably, the luminous particles comprise 0.01 to 5% by weight, preferably 0.02 to 3% by weight, more preferably 0.05 to 2.5% by weight of at least one organic luminophore (ii), based in each case on the total amount of the luminous particles, which is 100% by weight - in the case that at least one organic luminophore (ii) is present in the luminous particles. In a further preferred embodiment, the luminous particles comprise 0.5 to 60% by weight, preferably 2 to 55% by weight, more preferably 5 to 52% by weight of at least one inorganic lumino- phore (ii), based in each case on the total amount of the luminous particles, which is 100% by weight - in the case that at least one inorganic luminophore (ii) is present in the luminous parti- cles.

The grit (iii) (scattering bodies) is typically present in the luminous particles in an amount of 0.01 to 50% by weight, preferably 0.05 to 20% by weight, more preferably 0.1 to 4% by weight, based in each case on the luminous particles which are 100% by weight- in the case that at least one grit (iii) is present in the luminous particles.

The luminous particles preferably comprise i) 45% by weight to 99.99% by weight, 77% by weight to 99.93% by weight, more preferably 93.5% to 99.85% by weight of at least one matrix (i), ii) 0.01 to 5% by weight, preferably 0.02 to 3% by weight, more preferably 0.05 to 2.5% by weight of at least one organic luminophore (ii), iii) 0 to 50% by weight; preferably 0.05 to 20% by weight; more preferably 0.1 to 4% by

weight of at least one grit (iii);

wherein the sum of all components (i), (ii) and (iii) is 100% by weight.

In a further preferred embodiment, the coating of the functional interlayer (C) comprises lumi- nous particles, wherein said luminous particles comprise 0.5 to 60% by weight, preferably 1 to 55% by weight, more preferably 2 to 52% by weight of at least one inorganic luminophore (ii), based in each case on the total amount of the luminous particles, which is 100% by weight - in the case that at least one inorganic luminophore (ii) is present in the luminous particles. The grit (iii) (scattering bodies) is typically present in the luminous particles in said further embodiment in an amount of 0.5 to 60% by weight, preferably 1 to 55% by weight, more preferably 2 to 52% by weight, based in each case on the luminous particles which are 100% by weight- in the case that at least one grit (iii) is present in the luminous particles. The luminous particles preferably therefore comprise in a further embodiment i) 15 % by weight to 99.5 % by weight, 30 % by weight to 97.5 % by weight, more preferably 38 % to 97 % by weight of at least one matrix (i), ii) 0 to 60 % by weight, preferably 1 to 55 % by weight, more preferably 2 to 52 % by weight of at least one inorganic luminophore (ii), iii) 0 to 60 % by weight, preferably 1 to 55 % by weight, more preferably 2 to 52 % by weight of at least one grit (iii);

wherein the sum of all components (i), (ii) and (iii) is 100% by weight. Adhesion promoter

Preferably, the air side of the first layer (A) and/or the side of the second layer (B) which is in contact with the functional interlayer (C) is treated with an adhesion promoter. Especially when the functional interlayer (C) is based on an ionomer (ionoplast) it is preferred to apply an adhe- sion promoter to the air-side of the first layer (A). Further, it is preferred to apply the adhesion promoter to the side of the second layer (B) which is in contact with the functional interlayer (C). Applying the adhesion promoter to the second layer (B) is especially preferred if the second layer has been obtained in a float-glass process and the air-side of the second layer (B) is in contact with the functional interlayer (C) or if the second layer (B) is a glass not obtained by means of a float glass process.

The use of an adhesion promoter for lamination of an interlayer based on an ionomer is usually not required if a float glass is used and the interlayer is laminated to the tin-sides of the glass layers. In laminated safety glass known in the art the used float glass sheets are thus arranged such that the tin-sides face the interlayer in order to avoid the use of an adhesion promoter.

A suitable adhesion promoter for lamination of a functional interlayer (C) based on an ionomer such as SentryGlas® is based on gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as active ingredient. For application of the adhesion promoter to a float glass layer, the active ingredient is preferably used in a solution comprising as further components 2-propanol, water and acetic acid. The adhesion promoter solution may for example be applied by spraying the solution onto the surface and subsequently drying the surface.

Preferably, the laminated glazing consists of in this order a first layer (A), a functional interlayer (C) and a second layer (B).

Alternatively, the laminated glazing comprises in this order a first layer (A) a functional interlayer (C) and a second layer (B) and further comprises at least one support layer which is laminated to the first layer (A) or the second layer (B) by means of an interlayer. A laminated glazing con- sisting of in this order a first layer (A) a functional interlayer (C) and a second layer (B) may be used as an intermediate product wherein the at least one support layer is laminated to either the first layer (A) or the second layer (B) by means of the interlayer. In a preferred embodiment, two support layers are used wherein a first support layer is laminated to the tin-side of the first layer (A) using a first interlayer und a second support layer is laminated to the second layer (B) using a second interlayer.

The at least one support layer is preferably selected from a transparent polymer, a glass, especially glass produced in a float glass process, metals, or a combination of at least two of these materials. The materials described with respect to the first layer (A) and the second layer (B) are suitable materials for the at least one support layer. In case of the second support layer, the material may also be selected from an opaque material such as, for example polished glass (metal coated glass), a metal foil, a metal sheet or frosted glass, respectively partially frosted glass. Further, non-transparent polymer layers may be used.

The materials described with respect to the functional interlayer (C) are also suitable for use with the at least one interlayer. Preferably, the at least one support layer has a color effect coating, low-emissivity (low-e) coating, sun-protection coating, metal coating, metal oxide coating or any other coating. If the material of the support layer is a material produced in a float glass process it is preferred to apply the coating to the air-side of the support layer. Lighting unit

A further aspect of the invention is providing a lighting unit comprising one of the described laminated glazings and at least one light source arranged at an edge of the laminated glazing. The at least one light source is arranged at the edge of the laminated glazing such that light emitted by the at least one light source is coupled into the laminated glazing. This means that the at least one light source is preferably arranged in a way that the radiation is irradiated parallel to the functional interlayer (C). Preferably, the at least one light source is arranged in the middle of the total height of the laminated glazing.

If the laminated glazing is of a rectangular shape, the at least one light source may be arranged at one of the four edges of the laminated glazing. Preferably, the lighting unit comprises at least two light sources which are preferably arranged at opposing edges of the laminated glazing. In the case that more than one light source is employed and more than one light source is arranged on the same edge of the laminated glazing, the light sources are preferably arranged in a line preferably with identical distance to the layers of the laminated glazing.

The number of light sources usually depends on the desired luminous intensity and the efficien- cy of the light source and the area of the laminated glazing.

In the case that the light sources are arranged at two edges of the laminated glazing opposite to each other, it is possible to reduce inhomogeneities for example because of light absorption in the layers of the laminated glazing.

The at least one light source may be any light source known by a person skilled in the art as useful for lighting units. Preferably, the light source is selected from the group consisting of LEDs (light emitting diode), OLEDs (organic light emitting diode), laser and gas-discharge lamps. Preferably, the light source is selected from the group consisting of LEDs and OLEDs, more preferred are LEDs. Preferred light sources show a low power consumption, a low mounting depth and very flexible wavelength ranges, which can be chosen depending on the necessity (a small wavelength range or a broad wavelength range).

Suitable wavelength ranges for the light source are for example 440 to 470 nm (blue), 515 to 535 nm (green) and 610 to 630 nm (red). Depending on the desired color of light, for example in the case of white light, light sources with different wavelengths may be combined or light sources having the desired color of light (for example white light) can be employed. The emission spectrum of an OLED may for example selectively adjusted by the device structure of the OLED.

Therefore, the at least one light source preferably emits light in a wavelength range of 250 to 1000 nm, preferably of 360 to 800 nm. More preferably, the light source emits light with a wavelength (peak wavelength) of 360 to 475 nm. The half width of the emission spectrum of the light source is for example less than 35 nm.

In the lighting unit according to the present invention one or more light sources can be used. Preferably, 1 to 200 light sources, more preferably 1 to 100 light sources, most preferably 1 to 50 light sources are used in the lighting unit according to the present application.

Said light sources emit in an identical wavelength range or in different wavelength ranges, i. e. said light sources emit with the same color of light or with different colors of light. Preferably, the light sources employed in the lighting unit according to the present application emit in the same color of light or in three different colors of light, i.e. usually red, green and blue. By combination of the emission of red, green and blue emitting light sources desired different light colors can be adjusted.

The at least one light source preferably shows a directional light radiation. The angle of radiation (half value angle) is preferably less than 120° more preferably less than 90°, most prefera- bly less than 45°.

The lighting unit according to the present application comprises in a preferred embodiment at least one optical element which is arranged between the at least one light source and the laminated glazing, at the edge of said laminated glazing.

In the case that more than one light source is employed, it is possible to employ also more than one optical element, i.e. preferably as many optical elements as light sources are present. Suitable optical elements are known by a person skilled in the art. Examples for suitable optical elements are lenses or cylindric lenses. The optical element(s) is (are) placed in the path of light emitted from the light source(s) into the edge of the laminated glazing. The optical element(s) can be attached (e.g. glued) directly to the light source(s), or can be attached (e.g. glued) to one edge of the laminated layers of the glazing, or can be attached to a profile, which fixes the position of light source(s), to the position optical element(s) and of the laminated glazing to each other.

In a further preferred embodiment, which may be combined with the preferred embodiment (the presence of at least one optical element) mentioned before, the lighting unit comprises at least one light source at each edge of two edges of the laminated layers, especially at two edges which are opposite to each other.

Preparation of the Lighting Unit

The preparation of the lighting unit according to the present application is usually carried out as known in the art.

Preferably, the process of preparing the lighting unit according to the present invention com- prises the steps of:

i) applying a luminous coating to an interlayer layer (C*), whereby the functional interlayer (C) is formed;

ii) laminating a first layer (A), which is a material obtained in a float glass process, and a second layer (B) to the functional interlayer (C), wherein the layers (A), (C) and (B) are ar- ranged parallel to each other, whereby the functional interlayer (C) is arranged between layers (A) and (B) and wherein the air-side of the first layer (A) contacts the coated side of the functional interlayer (C), whereby the laminated glazing is formed;

iii) mounting the at least one light source at an edge of the laminated glazing. The layers of the laminated glazing are laminated by any process known in the art, for example by stacking of the layers of the laminated glazing and laminating by for example placing it under vacuum in a vacuum bag and backing it in an autoclave, for example at 100 to 180 °C and for example at a pressure of from 2 to 20 bar and/or for example for 0.5 to 10 hours. iii) Mounting the at least one light source at an edge of the laminated layer

The light source is usually applied to the laminated glazing after lamination as known by a person skilled in the art. In one embodiment of the present application, the light source, as well as optional optical elements are fixed to the laminated glazing by a profile, for example by an LED-profile. i) Applying a luminous coaiting to an interlayer layer (C*), whereby the functional interlayer (C) is formed

The functionalization of the interlayer (C*) with the luminous coating is usually carried out by any known method, for example by printing, e.g. screen printing or inkjet printing, or by coating, e.g. slot-die, slit, roller, curtain coating or spraying. Preferably, the functionalization with the luminous coating is carried out by screen printing, inkjet printing, or slot-die coating.

The interlayer (C*) is identical with the functional interlayer (C) as defined before, except for the presence of the luminous coating. Preferred components of the functional interlayer (C) are described above and are also preferred components for the interlayer (C*).

Preferably, in order to apply the luminous coating by screen printing, inkjet printing or slot dye coating, luminous particles are applied to the interlayer (C*) in form of a printing formulation (ink). Said printing formulation comprises besides the luminous particles comprising at least one matrix (i), and one or both of the following components (ii) and (iii):

at least one luminophore (ii), at least one grit (iii) usually at least one solvent.

The at least one solvent is usually an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvents, wherein the luminous particles are dissolved or dispersed.

Suitable solvants are for example alkanols, like n- and i-alkanols, for example ethanol, iso- propanol, n-propanol, n-butanal; texanol; butylcarbitol; etherol or alcohol based acetates like butylcarbitol acetate, methoxypropyl acetate, propylene glycol methylether acetate, propylene glycol diacetate; dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether; glyme, diglyme; or linear or branched alkyl acetates with 3 to 22 carbon atoms.

Said printing formulation is processed to the material of the interlayer (C*), for example by printing, e.g. screen printing or inkjet printing, or by coating, e.g. slot-die, slit, roller, curtain coating or spraying, whereby the luminous particles are preferably homogeneously distributed. It is also possible to apply the luminous particles only to a part of the interlayer (C*) or in form of pattern or in form of a gradient as mentioned above. Processes to apply the luminous particles only to a part of the interlayer (C*) or in form of pattern or in form of a gradient are known by a person skilled in the art.

After processing the luminous particles in form of a printing formulation to the interlayer (C*), the solvent is removed by a process known in the art, e.g. by heating under ambient or by heating under laminar gas flow, or by heating under controlled atmosphere e.g. under a vacuum.

Typical printing formulations are known by a person skilled in the art.

Preferred printing formulations comprise:

(I) luminous particles comprising at least one matrix (i), and one or both of the following components (ii) and (iii): at least one luminophore (ii), at least one grit (iii), and

(II) at least one solvent. Suitable and preferred luminous particles are mentioned before. Also, preferred and suitable organic solvents are mentioned before.

Examples for typical printing formulations are:

(i)

a-Terpineol (70 to 90 % by weight, based on the total amount of the formulation),

EFKA PX 4330 (70%) (0.1 to 5 % by weight, based on the total amount of the formulation), Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15 % by weight, based on the total amount of the formulation),

ETHOCEL Std 4 Industrial (0.5 to 10 % by weight, based on the total amount of the formulation) and

DISPARLON 6700 (0.5 to 10 % by weight, based on the total amount of the formulation), (ii)

Diacetin (70 to 90% by weight),

EFKA PX 4330 (70%) (0.1 to 5 % by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation),

Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation),

ETHOCEL Std 4 Industrial (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing for- mulation), and

DISPARLON 6700 (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), (iii)

a-Terpineol (70 to 90% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Solsperse 36000 (0.1 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation),

ETHOCEL Std 4 Industrial (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), and

DISPARLON 6700 (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), (iv)

a-Terpineol (70 to 90% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Disperbyk 180 (0.1 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation),

ETHOCEL Std 4 Industrial (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), and DISPARLON 6700 (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation).

(v)

a-Terpineol (70 to 90% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Disperbyk 2022 (0.1 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation),

ETHOCEL Std 4 Industrial (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), and

DISPARLON 6700 (0.5 to 10% by weight, based on the total amount of the printing formulation), (vi)

Butylcarbitol (80 to 90 parts by weight),

Ethylcellulose (5 to 10 parts by weight),

Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15 parts by weight).

(νϋ)

Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (80 to 90 parts by weight),

Ethylcellulose (5 to 10 parts by weight),

Ce3+:YAG (e.g. Tailorlux TL 0036®) (5 to 15 parts by weight).

Solsperse 36000 = polyamine dispersant

Ethocel = ethyl cellulose

Disparlon 6700 = fatty acid diamide of ethylene diamine

Disperbyk 180 = oligomeric MPEG-phosphate dispersant

Figure imgf000025_0001

wherein a is 0 or an integer from 1 to 5, and b and c are independent of each other integers from 1 to 14, and n is 1 to 5.

Disperbyk 2022 = acrylate copolymer dispersant

Amine value: 61 mg KOH/g

MW = 9000 g/mol, PDI = 1.6 Composition: by 1H-NMR

Figure imgf000026_0001

The lighting unit according to the present application may be used in any useful application for lighting units. Examples for useful applications are the use of a lighting unit according to the present invention in buildings, furniture, cars, trains, planes and ships. In specific, present invention is useful in all applications, in which illuminated glass is of benefit.

The lighting units according to the present application are for example used in facades, skylights, glass roofs, stair treads, glass bridges, canopies, railings, car windows and train win- dows.

The present invention therefore further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit in buildings, furniture, cars, trains, planes and ships as well as to the use of the inventive lighting unit in facades, skylights, glass roofs, stair treads, glass bridges, canopies, railings, car glazing, train glazing.

The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit for control of radiation, especially UV radiation (100-400 nm), visible radiation (400 nm to 700 nm) and infrared radiation (700 nm to 1 mm), i.e. near infrared (700 nm to 1400 nm), short wave length infrared (1 .4 μηη to 3 μηη), mid length infrared (3 μηη to 8 μηη), long wave length infrared (8 μηη to 15 μηη) and far infrared (15 μηη to 1000 μηη), for optical control and/or for acoustical control.

The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit in insulating glass units, windows, rotating windows, turn windows, tilt windows, top-hung windows, swinging win- dows, box windows, horizontal sliding windows, vertical sliding windows, quarterlights, store windows, skylights, light domes, doors, horizontal sliding doors in double-skin facades, closed cavity facades, all-glass constructions, D3-facades (Dual, Dynamic Durable Facade), facade glass construction elements (e.g. but not limited to fins, louvres), interactive facades (facades reacting on an external impulse e.g. but not limited to a motion control, a radio sensor, other sensors) curved glazing, formed glazing, 3D three-dimensional glazing, wood-glass combinations, over head glazing, roof glazing, bus stops, shower wall, indoor walls, indoor separating elements in open space offices and rooms, outdoor walls, stair treads, glass bridges, canopies, railings, aquaria, balconies, privacy glassand figured glass. The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit for thermal insulation, i.e. insulation against heat, insulation against cold, sound insulation, shading and/or sight protection. The present invention is preferably useful when combined with further glass layers to an insulation glass unit (IGU), which can be used for building facades. The IGU might have a double (Pane 1 + Pane 2), or triple glazing (Pane 1 + Pane 2 + Pane 3), or more panes. The panes might have different thicknesses and different sizes. The panes might be of tempered glass, tempered safety glass, laminated glass, laminated tampered glass, safety glass. The lighting unit according to the present application may be used in any of the Panes 1 , 2, 3. Materials can be put into the space between the panes. For example, but not limited such materials might be wooden objects, metal objects, expanded metal, prismatic objects, blinds, louvres, light guiding objects, light guiding films, light guiding blinds, 3-D light guiding objects, sun protecting blinds, movable blinds, roller blinds, roller blinds from films, translucent materials, capillary objects, honey comb objects, micro blinds, micro lamella, micro shade, micro mirrors insulation materials, aerogel, integrated vacuum insulation panels, holographic elements, integrated photovoltaics or combinations thereof.

The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit in advertising panels, showcases, display facades, interactive facades, interactive bus stops, interactive train stations, interactive meeting points, interactive surfaces, motion sensors, light surfaces and back- ground lighting, signage, pass protection. Optionally, a film and/or an imprinted film might be put on one or more surfaces.

The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit in heat-mirror glazing, vacuum glazing, multiple glazing and laminated safety glass.

The present invention further relates to the use of the inventive lighting unit in transportation units, preferably in boats, in vessels, in spacecrafts, in aircrafts, in trains, in automotive, in trucks, in cars e.g. but not limited to windows, separating walls, light surfaces and background lighting, signage, pass protection, as sunroof, in the trunk lid, in the tailgate, for brake lights, for blinker, for position lights in said transportation units. Optional a film and/or an imprinted film might be put on one or more surfaces.

The present invention is preferentially useful when combined with further glass layers to an insulation glass unit (IGU), which can be used for building facades.

Brief description of the drawings

Figure 1 shows a first embodiment of the laminated glazing,

Figure 2 shows a second embodiment of the laminated glazing,

Figures 3a to 3c show a first embodiment of the lighting unit,

Figures 4a to 4c show a second embodiment of the lighting unit,

Figures 5a and 5b show a third embodiment of the lighting unit, and

Figures 6a and 6b show a fourth embodiment of the lighting unit, Figure 1 shows a first embodiment of a laminated glazing 10 consisting of a sandwich structure comprising in this order a first layer (A) 1 , a functional interlayer (C) 3 and a second layer (B) 2. The first layer (A) 1 is optically transparent and is preferably a glass produced in a float glass process. Thus, the first layer (A) 1 has a tin-side 14, which has been in contact with molten metal during the production of the first layer, and an air-side 13.

The functional interlayer (C) 3 comprises an interlayer (C*) 1 1 and a luminous coating 12 ap- plied to one side of the interlayer (C*) 1 1 .

The second layer (B) 2 is may be optically transparent or opaque and may for example be based on a polymer or a glass. In the laminated glazing 10 the air-side 14 of the first layer (A) 1 , which may optionally be treated with an adhesion promoter, is in direct contact with the luminous coating 12 on a first side of the functional interlayer (C) 3. A second side of the functional interlayer (C) 3 is in direct contact with a first side of the second layer (B) 2 which may optionally be treated with an adhesion promoter.

Figure 2 shows a second embodiment of a laminated glazing 10 consisting of a sandwich structure comprising in this order a first support layer 16, a first interlayer 15, the first layer (A) 1 , the functional interlayer (C) 3, the second layer (B) 2, a second interlayer 17 and a second support layer 18.

The support layers 16 and 18 may be used to provide additional strength and stability to the laminated glazing 10 as required by the individual application.

In figures 3a to 3c a first embodiment of a lighting unit according to the present invention is shown.

Figure 3a shows a side view, wherein X and X' identify the viewing direction of figure 3b and Y is a detail shown in figure 3c. The lighting unit comprises a laminated glazing comprising a first layer (A) 1 , a functional interlayer (C) 3 and a second layer (B) 2. Further, the lighting unit com- prises a light source 4 which is arranged at an edge of the laminated glazing.

Figure 3b shows a cross sectional view of the lighting unit according to figure 3a. In the first embodiment, a plurality of light sources 4 is used. The light sources 4 are arranged such that the main direction 5 of the light beams emitted from the light sources 4 is directed onto the lam- inated glazing.

Figure 3c shows detail Y as marked in figure 3a. As can be seen in figure 3c, the light source 4 is arranged at half the height of the laminated glazing so that the main direction 5 of the light beams emitted from the light source 4 is directed into the functional interlayer 3. Further, the half-value angle 6 of the light emission of light source 4 is marked.

Light emitted by light source 4 is coupled into the functional interlayer 3 and is absorbed by the luminous coating. The luminous coating re-emmits light in an omnidirectional manner (at arbitrary angles), so that the luminous coating scatters the light of light source 4. One direction of the scattered light is marked by reference numeral 7 in figure 3c.

In figures 4a to 4c a second embodiment of a lighting unit according to the present invention is shown. The second embodiment of the lighting unit comprises an additional optical element 8 which is arranged between the light source 4 and the laminated glazing. In the shown embodiment the optical element 8 is a cylindrical lens.

In figures 5a and 5b a third embodiment of a lighting unit according to the present invention is shown. The third embodiment of the lighting unit comprises light sources 4 which are arranged on two opposing edges of the laminated glazing.

In figures 6a and 6b a fourth embodiment of a lighting unit according to the present invention is shown. The fourth embodiment of the lighting unit comprises a profile 9. The profile 9 fixes the position of light sources 4, to the position optical element 8 and of the laminated layers 1 , 2 and 3 to each other.

List of reference numerals

1 first layer (A)

2 second layer (B)

3 functional interlayer (C)

4 light source

5 main direction of the light beams emitted from the light source

6 angle of radiation (half-value angle)

7 one direction of light beams emitted from luminous particles

8 optical element

9 profile

10 laminated glazing

1 1 interlayer (C*)

12 luminous coating

13 tin-side

14 air-side

15 first interlayer

16 first support layer

17 second interlayer

18 second support layer

Claims

Patent claims
A laminated glazing (10) comprising a composite structure of laminated layers comprising a first layer (A) (1 ),
a second layer (B) (2), and
a functional interlayer (C) (3), wherein
at least the first layer (A) (1 ) is an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air-side (14) and a tin-side (13), and wherein
the functional interlayer (C) (3) is sandwiched between the first layer (A) (1 ) and the second layer (B) (2) and is arranged parallel to the first layer (A) (1 ) and the second layer (B) (2),
characterized in that
at least a first side of the functional layer (C) (3) is at least partially coated with a luminous coating (12) and the first side of the functional layer (C) (3) is laminated to the air-side (14) of the first layer (A) (1 ).
The laminated glazing (10) of claim 1 , characterized in that the second layer (B) (2) is an optically transparent layer produced in a float glass process having an air-side and a-tin side, wherein the air-side of the second layer (B) is laminated to a second side of the functional layer (C) (3).
The laminated glazing (10) of claim 1 , characterized in that the second layer (B) (2) is based on a transparent polymer selected from the group comprising PVC (polyvinylchlo- ride), PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PC (polycarbonate), PS (polystyrene), PPO (polypropylene oxide), PE (polyethylene), LDPE (low density polyethylene), LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene), PEN (polyethylene naphthalate), PP (polypropylene), LDPP (low density polypropylene), PET (polypropylene terephthalate), glycol modified polyethylene therephthalate, PES (polyether sulfones), PI (polyimides) and mixtures thereof.
The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claimsl to 3, characterized in that the first layer (A) (1 ) and/or the second layer (B) (2), if the second layer (B) (2) is produced in a float glass process, is selected from the group comprising low-iron glass, glass with an optical transmission >90%, heat strengthened glass and chemically strengthened glass.
The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the functional interlayer (C) (3) is based on an ionomer (ionoplast), polymethlymethacrylate (PMMA), acid copolymers of oolefins and α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl acetal, polyvinyl butyral (PVB), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyethylenes, polyolefin block elastomers, ethylene acrylate ester copolymers, silicone elastomers, epoxy resins and mixtures thereof.
6. The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the air-side (14) of the first layer (A) (1 ) and/or the side of the second layer (B) (2) which is in contact with the functional interlayer (C) (3) is treated with an adhesion promotor. 7. The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the functional interlayer (C) (3) is a laminate comprising at least two layers.
The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the luminous coating (12) comprises luminous particles.
The laminated glazing (10) of claim 8, characterized in that the luminous particles comprise:
i) at least one matrix (i), and
one or both of the following components (ii) and (iii):
ii) at least one luminophore (ii);
iii) at least one grit (iii)
The laminated glazing (10) of claim 9, wherein the matrix (i) comprises homo- or copolymers of: (meth)acrylates, polyvinyl acetal), cellulose polymers, polyvinyl acetate), polystyrenes (PS), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyimides, polyethylene oxides, polypropylene oxides, polyamines, polycaprolactones, phosphoric acid functionalized polyethylene glycols, polyethylene imines, polycarbonates (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylenes, castor oil, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl chloride, polybutene, silicone, epoxy resin, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvi- nylidene chloride (PVDC), polystyreneacrylonitrile (SAN), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyamides, polyoxymethylenes, polyimides, polyetherimide or mixtures thereof.
The laminated glazing (10) of claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the luminophore (ii) comprises inorganic luminescent colorants and/or organic luminescent colorants.
The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 9 to 1 1 , characterized in that the grit (iii) is selected from particles comprising Ti02, Sn02, ZnO, AI2O3, Y3AI5O12, barium sulfate, litho- pone, zinc sulfide, calcium carbonate, ZrC"2 and mixtures thereof.
The laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the laminated glazing (10) further comprises at least one support layer (16, 18) which is laminated to the tin-side of the first layer (A) or to the second layer (B) using an interlayer (15, 17). 14. A lighting unit comprising a laminated glazing (10) of any one of claims 1 to 13 and at least one light source (4) arranged at an edge of the laminated glazing (10).
15. Use of the lighting unit according to claim 14 in transportation units, in buildings and/or advertising panels.
PCT/EP2018/052264 2017-02-03 2018-01-30 Laminated glazing comprising a composite structure of laminated layers WO2018141742A1 (en)

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