WO2017152215A1 - A system for improving engagement - Google Patents

A system for improving engagement Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017152215A1
WO2017152215A1 PCT/AU2017/000060 AU2017000060W WO2017152215A1 WO 2017152215 A1 WO2017152215 A1 WO 2017152215A1 AU 2017000060 W AU2017000060 W AU 2017000060W WO 2017152215 A1 WO2017152215 A1 WO 2017152215A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
audio
subject
format
presentation
learning information
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Application number
PCT/AU2017/000060
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Matthew Ross DARLING
Original Assignee
Darling Matthew Ross
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Publication date
Priority to AU2016900847 priority Critical
Priority to AU2016900847A priority patent/AU2016900847A0/en
Application filed by Darling Matthew Ross filed Critical Darling Matthew Ross
Publication of WO2017152215A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017152215A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/011Arrangements for interaction with the human body, e.g. for user immersion in virtual reality
    • G06F3/013Eye tracking input arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/10Services
    • G06Q50/20Education
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B5/00Electrically-operated educational appliances
    • G09B5/02Electrically-operated educational appliances with visual presentation of the material to be studied, e.g. using film strip
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B7/00Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers

Abstract

The present invention relates to the field of improving engagement in a subject. For example, the present invention provides methods and systems comprising monitoring attention of the subject to audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on a display device by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze, determining the attention level of the subject to the learning information, and modifying the format and/or content of the displayed learning information e.g., to increase attention level of the subject to the learning information.

Description

TITLE: A SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING ENGAGEMENT

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates generally to the field of seeking to improve rate of learning in a subject and/or engagement in the learning/comprehension process, and more particularly, to methods and systems which include monitoring attention of a subject to learning information communicated on a multimedia display device preferably but not exclusively by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze, and modifying the format and/or content of the learning information displayed.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Devices currently exist that can track the movement of a person's eyes as that person engages in an activity. For example, using a computer system. Such eye tracking devices generally contain a camera and associated electronic components to data representing gaze position. This data can then be used to determine where the person is looking.

[0003] Also, studies of human mental activity by examining the eye movement of humans, have been known. Analysis of recorded eye movement data allows to explore a relationship between the eye movement of person and the mental activity of that person. However, to date there has been no practical use made of the relationship between monitoring eye movement and mental activity of a person in the context of education programs and/or for improving learning in subjects for example in an education program.

[0004] US Pat. No. 6,608,615 describes a method and a system for tracking a user's gaze while the user is browsing a web page and modifying the appearance of web page during subsequent visits by the user to the same web page. During those subsequent visits to the same web page, the browser is enabled to re-present regions of the web page which have been previously glanced at by the user in a modified appearance, to focus the user's gaze to regions of the web page previously ignored, thereby facilitating more efficient browsing of the same web page during subsequent visits. However, the method and system described in US Pat. No. 6,608,615 do not improve the user's of comprehension and/or rate of learning of the information displayed by the browser in a single web-page e.g., during a single visit to the web page. Multiple visits to the same web page are required for the user to view the entire content of the web page, and during each visit the user's attention is merely being focussed to those areas of the web page which have been ignored in previous visits.

[0005] US publication No. 2009/0146775 describes a method and a system employing tracking eye movements of an attendee during real-time media displayed presentation, to assess and communicate to a real-time media content provider the attendee's reaction/interest in the content of the media presentation. However, the method and system disclosed in US publication No. 2009/0146775 do not assess the attendee's comprehension of the contents of the of the real-time media presentation and do not attempt to improve his/her comprehension of the content displayed, and also do not attempt to improve his/her attention to the content displayed e.g., if the attendee losses interest in the displayed presentation.

[0006] CN102354349 assigned to Huazhong Normal University discloses a system for multi-modal interaction for assisting and improving social interaction capacity of autistic children. This disclosure concentrates on the nature of the interface to the child.

[0007] Also noted is the IEEE publication "Toward Multimodal Human-Computer Interface" by Sharma et al. published in Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 5, May 1998.

[0008] There is a need for a system which makes use of components of one or other of above systems to provide a fully enabled system for improving engagement with students of all types, of all capabilities and for a wide variety of subject matter.

[0009] It is an object of the present invention to address or at least ameliorate some of the above disadvantages or provide a useful alternative.

Notes [00010] Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like which has been included in the present specification whether in the Background of the invention section or any anywhere else in this specification is included solely for the purpose of providing a context for the present invention. It is not to be taken as an admission that any or all of these matters form part of the prior art base or were common wisdom or were part of the common general knowledge of persons skilled in the art or the field relevant to the present invention before the priority date of each claim of this application.

[00011] Throughout this specification, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprise" or variations thereof such as "comprises" or "comprising", and the word "include" or variations thereof such as "includes" and "including" be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated step or element or integer or group of steps or elements or integers but not the exclusion of any other step or element or integer or group of steps or elements or integers.

[00012] Unless the context requires otherwise or specifically states to the contrary, integers, steps, or elements of the invention recited herein as singular integers, steps or elements clearly encompasses both singular and plural forms of the recited integers, steps or elements.

[00013] Accordingly, throughout this specification, unless specifically states otherwise or the context requires otherwise, reference to a single step, product, composition of matter, groups of steps, groups of products, groups of compositions of matter shall be taken to encompass one and plurality (i.e., one or more) of those steps, products, compositions of matter, groups of steps, groups of products or groups of compositions of matter. Also, accordingly, as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural reference unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. For example, a reference to "a system" clearly includes a plurality of such systems, and a reference to "a subject" is a reference to one or more subjects. [00014] Each example described herein is to be applied mutatis mutandis to each and every other example unless specifically stated otherwise.

[00015] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the invention described herein is susceptible to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is to be understood that the invention includes all such variations and modifications. The invention also includes all of the methods, steps, features, products, compositions of matter, referred to or indicated in this specification, individually or collectively, and any and all combinations of any two or more of said steps or features.

[00016] The present invention is not to be limited scope by the specific examples described herein, which are intended for the purpose of exemplification only.

Functionally-equivalent products and methods are clearly within the scope of the scope of the invention, as described herein.

[00017] All publications. Patents and patent applications cited herein, whether supra or infra are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. However, publications mentioned herein are cited for the purpose of describing and disclosing the protocols, methods and integers which are reported in the publications and which might be used in connection with the invention. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admissions that the invention is not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

1. General

[00018] In the work leading to the present invention, the inventor sought to identify and develop methods and systems which allow to increase attention level of individual subjects in a learning cohort such as a class room environment, to learning information presented to them in real time, for example during a single learning session. In particular the inventor sought to identify and develop methods and systems which improve the rate of learning in real time of individual subjects in a learning cohort such as in a class room environment, to learning information presented to them in real time, for example during a single learning session.

[00019] In the work leading to the present invention, the inventor observed that multimedia display devices have increasingly been used as a vehicle for presenting educational learning information to subjects such as students. Accordingly, the present inventor has sought to utilise the flexibility of multimedia display device in displaying information in different formats to improve attention, comprehension and learning rate of subjects to educational learning information.

[00020] Without being bound by any particular mode of action or theory, in the work leading to the present invention, the inventor postulated that different subjects in any given learning cohort when presented with learning information absorb and learn the presented information at different rates depending on several factors including, for example, the individual needs and learning aptitudes of the subjects in real time. The inventor postulated that this can particularly be observed in any given time in children and young people (even within the same age group and the same socioeconomic background) who may undergo different stages of maturation and changing ways in which they engage with learning information as they develop. The inventor also postulated that individual subjects in any given learning cohort such as a class-room environment, best absorb and learn information presented to them by exposure to different formats of learning material, so that even in learning cohorts having individuals students falling within the same age group and the same socioeconomic background, presenting educational learning material to the students in a variety of different ways, can appeal to the individual students who understand and learn information in different ways. Accordingly, the present inventor postulated that varying the format and level of any educational learning information presented which appeal to different senses of the individual students improves their concentration to the learning information presented and optimise their learning rate of the information presented.

[00021] The inventor reasoned that it is possible to increase the attention level of individual subjects to learning information such as educational information in real time and/or to increase the level of comprehension and/or the rate of learning by individual subjects of any learning information presented to the subjects, in real time, by first tracking eye movement and/or other indicators of eye gaze of each individual subject in a learning cohort when the learning information is presented on a multimedia display device, to determine the level of attention of each individual subject to the learning information, and then varying the format and/or level of the learning information modalities presented to the subject in real time.

[00022] Accordingly, the methods and systems of the present invention employ among other things tracking of the trajectory of eye movement of subjects such as students in a learning cohorts {e.g., class-room environment) for monitoring the subjects' mental activity and concentration in response to educational information presented to the subjects. However, in addition to merely tracking the subjects' eye movement the present invention seeks increase the attention level of individuals to learning information presented to them in real time. The methods and systems of the present invention are useful in tailoring the format and/or content of learning information presented to subjects, to optimise their attention level, comprehension level and learning rate of the information to meet individual subject's learning education needs in real time.

Definitions

[00023] Throughout this specification, the following definitions are used.

[00024] As used herein, the term "eye-tracking device" in the context of the present invention refers to any device suitable for detecting, measuring and reporting eye movement patterns and changes to the eye movement patterns of a subject or a group of subjects, including but not limited to, any one or more of the following eye movement characteristics: gaze position or direction of gaze i.e., where a subject or a group of subjects gaze/s is/are directed such as coordinates of eye gaze position including coordinates of x-axis and/or y axis and/or z axis of each subject's gaze position; gaze duration; gaze latency; gaze fixation (steady gaze for a predetermined period of time) including position, time and duration of gaze fixation; gaze saccades (movements of the gaze between two points) including magnitude, direction and velocity of gaze saccades; direction of any change in a subject's gaze including change in direction of gaze saccade; gaze pursuit motion including path and velocity of movement taken by the eye(s); blink rate during any predetermined time, pupil dilation or pupil diameter, closure of eye lids, opening of eye lids, object being viewed, distance of a subject's eye(s) from an object being viewed. The eye tracking device can be any known eye tracking device. For example, the eye tracking device can track eye movement via optical, electrical and/or other techniques.

[00025] As used herein, the term "eye-tracking data" or "gaze data" in the context of the present invention refers to any data such as biofeedback data returned by an eye tracking device, which can include data in respect of one eye, two eyes, or a combination of the eyes of a subject, for example, coordinates of x-axis and/or y-axis and/or z-axis, time of gaze in a single position, pupil dilation or pupil diameter, whether the eyelid is opened or closed, percentage of eyelid open, percentage of eyelid closed, number of blinks during any predetermined time, objects being viewed e.g., on any digital display such as a computer screen or in the world or an environment (which may be reported explicitly or implicitly via the coordinates), distance from the eye(s) to any point or object being viewed, extent of any peripheral vision, and/or any other eye- related data.

[00026] As used herein, the term "curriculum" in the context of the present invention will be understood to refer to the content of a course of study or learning in any one subject module offered by an educational institute.

[00027] As used herein the terms "curriculums" and "curriculae" in the context of the present invention may be used interchangeably and will each be understood to refer to the content of a course of study or leaning in multiple subjects' modules offered by an educational institute, and may include all the courses of study or learning offered by an educational institute.

[00028] As used herein, the term "an educational institute" in the context of the present invention, will be understood to encompass any educational institute or educational body or educational entity concerned with providing and/or administrating and/or facilitating teaching courses including but not limited to, a kindergarten, a preschool, a play school, a primary school such as elementary school, middle school, a comprehensive school, a secondary school such as high school or upper school, an independent school, an academy, a university-preparatory school, a boarding school, a gymnasium, a college, a trade-school, a training and further education (TAFE) institute, a university, a long-distance education institute, an open university or on-line university, a correctional institute including a prison, or a body or entity providing training and/or teaching course(s) of any kind.

[00029] Accordingly in one broad form of the invention, there is provided a method of improving engagement with subject matter by a subject, the method comprising:

[00030] Communicating on a communications device audio and/or visual learning information in a first format;

[00031] monitoring attention of the subject by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the audio and/or visual learning information to produce a tracking signal;

[00032] determining from the tracking signal the attention level of the subject to the learning information;

[00033] varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from the first format to a second format, so as to increase the engagement of the subject to the communicated information.

[00034] Preferably, the method further comprising:

[00035] continuing to monitor attention of the subject by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the audio and/or visual learning information in the second format to produce a further tracking signal;

[00036] determining from the further tracking signal the attention level of the student/subject to the learning information in the second;

[00037] varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning

information being displayed on the display device from the second format to a further format, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information. [00038] Preferably the method further comprises:

[00039] displaying on the display device the audio and/or visual learning information in a first format comprises displaying a stream of the audio and/or visual learning information in the first format;

[00040] monitoring attention of the subject comprises tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the stream of the audio and/or visual learning information to produce a tracking signal; and

[00041] varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device comprises varying the format of the streamed audio and/or visual learning information from a first streamed format to a second streamed format.

[00042] Preferably the format of the learning information being displayed on the display device is selected from one or more of - either alone or combination:

[00043] a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour;

[00044] a dot point presentation;

[00045] summaries;

[00046] a streaming text presentation;

[00047] static graphics;

[00048] static charts;

[00049] animated graphics;

[00050] animated charts;

[00051] an animation or an animated film;

[00052] filmed motion with narration;

[00053] filmed motion without narration;

[00054] recorded oral presentation;

[00055] recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and

[00056] an audio only presentation. [00057] Preferably the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is a dot point presentation format; and

[00058] the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00059] Preferably the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and

[00060] the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00061] Preferably the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is a dot point presentation format; and

[00062] the further format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00063] Preferably the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and

[00064] the further format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00065] Preferably the method further comprises varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device within a single audio and/or visual learning session, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information within a single learning session. [00066] Preferably the method further comprises varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device between two or more audio and/or visual learning sessions, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information between multiple learning sessions.

[00067] Preferably an increase in the attention level of the subject to the displayed information is determined by an increase in the number and/or duration of the subject's gaze(s) on the display.

[00068] Accordingly in a further broad of the invention there is provided a system of improving engagement by a subject, the system comprising:

[00069] A device for communicating audio and/or visual learning information;

[00070] a gaze tracker to track changes in a subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the of audio and/or visual learning information, wherein the gaze tracker produces a tracking signal;

[00071] a detector which detects the tracking signal; and

[00072] a processor for determining subject's level of attention to the learning information displayed on a display device based on the tracking signal detected, wherein the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from a first format to a second format so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information.

[00073] Preferably the system is adaptive and learns from past experience with individual users thereby to individualise improvements in attention levels of a subject during learning, on a student by student basis.

[00074] Preferably the device emits a stream of audio and/or visual learning information,

[00075] the gaze tracker tracks changes in a subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving a stream of the audio and/or visual learning information; and [00076] the processor determines subject's level of attention to the stream of learning information displayed on a display device based on the tracking signal detected, wherein the processor varies the format of the streamed audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from a first streamed format to a second streamed format so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information.

[00077] Preferably the means for displaying the audio and/or visual learning information on a display device is capable of displaying said information in a format selected from one or more of (either alone or in combination):

[00078] a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour;

[00079] a dot point presentation;

[00080] summaries;

[00081] a streaming text presentation;

[00082] static graphics;

[00083] static charts;

[00084] animated graphics;

[00085] animated charts;

[00086] an animation or an animated film;

[00087] filmed motion with narration;

[00088] filmed motion without narration;

[00089] recorded oral presentation;

[00090] recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and

[00091] an audio only presentation.

[00092] Preferably the first format of the audio and/or visual learning

information is a dot point presentation format; and

[00093] the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00094] Preferably the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and

[00095] the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.

[00096] Preferably the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device within a single audio and/or visual learning session, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information within a single learning session.

[00097] Preferably the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device between two or more audio and/or visual learning sessions, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information between multiple learning sessions.

[00098] Preferably the processor determines subject's level of attention to the stream of learning information displayed on the display device by determining and/or measuring an increase in the number and/or duration of the subject's gaze(s) on the display.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[00099] Examples of the present invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein: [000100] Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of an exemplary system for improving rate of learning in a subject according to the present invention.

[000101] Figure 2 is a logic flow diagram of the engagement system in accordance with a further preferred embodiment

[000102] Figure 3 is a block diagram of a system according to the further preferred embodiment

[000103] Figure 4 illustrates options for presentation of subject matter in accordance with the further preferred embodiment

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERED EMBODIMENTS

1. First Preferred Embodiment

[000104] Figure 1 shows an eye tracking device 100 that monitors eye movements of a subject such as a student, which are sent to the concentration and engagement engine 101 which signals the curriculum options engine 104 where curriculum level and or format(s) are tailored to the specific needs of the student at that point in time. Multiple curriculae options such as level and formats are stored 102 and can be selected by the curriculum options engine 104. The curriculum is communicated on a device such as device 105 which supports multimedia presentation options. Student comprehension and retention are regularly tested 106 and student profiles 103 are retained and continuously updated ensuring that the student is receiving optimal curriculum in an optimised presentation modality mix which is tailored to the needs of the student in real time.

[000105] In use, according to example shown in Figure 1, when presenting teaching or study material to a subject 20 such as a student, for example in a classroom learning environment and/or during self-learning session and/or during distance education learning session, a learning information 10 such as audio and/or visual learning information included in a lesson module and/or study course curriculum, is displayed on display device 105. The display device of the present invention

encompasses any audio and/or visual display device that supports a variety of multimedia presentation options. In accordance with this example, a subject 20 such as a student is located in front of the display device 105 and receives the learning information 10 by viewing and/or listening to the learning information displayed on the display device 105. An eye-tracking device 100 tracks eye movement of the subject 20 to produce eye-tracking or gaze data to determine where the subject is looking. The eye tracking device according to the present invention generally comprises a camera 107 and associated electronic components 108 to produce the eye-tracking or gaze data representing the gaze position of the subject.

[000106] In one such example, the eye-tracking device 100 continues to monitor the eye movement of the subject periodically or continuously while the learning information is displayed on the display device 105. The eye-tracking or gaze data includes information to determine where the subject 20 is looking at any given time. Alternatively, or in addition, the eye-tracking or gaze data includes information to determine changes in the eye movement of the subject during any period that the learning information 10 is displayed on the display device 105. Preferably, the eye- tracking or gaze data includes information which may be described in terms of, including but not limited to, fixation(s) (steady gaze(s) for a predetermined period of time) and/or saccades (movements of the gaze between two points) and/or path and/or velocity of the eye movement and/or the number and duration of eye blinks by the subject during a predetermined period of time. Elementary features that are determined from the eye tracking data in respect of fixation(s) can include for example positions of the eye(s), time and/or duration(s). Elementary features that are determined from the eye tracking data in respect of saccades can include for example magnitude, direction, and/or velocity of the movements of the gaze between two points.

[000107] In use, according to the example in Figure 1, the eye-tracking or gaze data is sent to a concentration and engagement engine 101 which processes the data and determines, the level of attention of the subject 20 to the learning information i.e., based on the eye-tracking or gaze data. For example, the concentration and

engagement engine 101 processes the eye-tracking or gaze data to determine the level of concentration of the subject 20 with respect to the information displayed and/or the level of engagement the subject 20 has with the learning information displayed on the display device 105.

[000108] For example, the concentration and engagement engine 101 determines that the subject has low level of concentration or is not concentrated on the learning information 10 being displayed on the display device 105 and/or the subject has low level of engagement or is not engaged with the learning information 10 being displayed on the display device 105, when the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye- tracking device 101 indicates that the subject's stare dwells on one point on the display device 105 for a prolonged length of time e.g., 5 seconds or 10 seconds or 20 seconds or 30 seconds, or 40 seconds or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds. Preferably, according to this example, the learning information 10 is displayed on the display device 105 in a text format such as a dot point written text presentation format, a written summary text format, and/or a streaming text presentation format.

[000109] Alternatively, or in addition, the concentration and engagement engine 101 determines that the subject has low level of concentration or is not concentrated on the learning information 10 being displayed and/or the subject has low level of engagement or is not engaged with the learning information, when the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye-tracking device 10 indicates that the subject is looking away from the display device for a prolonged length of time e.g., 5 seconds or 10 seconds or 20 seconds or 30 seconds, or 40 seconds or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds.

[000110] Alternatively, or in addition, the concentration and engagement engine 101 determines that the subject has low level of concentration or is not concentrated on the learning information being displayed and/or the subject has low level of engagement or is not engaged with the learning information being displayed, when the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye-tracking device 100 indicates that the subject's pupils are enlarged for a prolonged period of time e.g., 5 seconds or 10 seconds or 20 seconds or 30 seconds, or 40 seconds or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds, and/or the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye- tracking device 100 indicates that the subject's eyelids gradually close and/or remain closed for a prolonged period of time e.g., 5 second or 10 second or 20 second or 30 second, or 40 second or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds, and/or the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye-tracking device 100 indicates increase in subject's blinking in one or both eyes. Preferably, according to this example, the learning information is displayed on the display device 105 in a text format such as a dot point written text presentation format, a written summary text format, and/or a streaming text presentation format.

[000111] In another example, the concentration and engagement engine 101 determines that the subject has high level of concentration or is fully concentrated on the learning information being displayed on the display device 105 and/or the subject has high level of engagement or is fully engaged with the learning information being displayed on the display device 105, when the eye-tracking or gaze data returned by the eye-tracking device 10 indicates that the subject's eye(s) saccade(s) along the display device for a prolonged length of time e.g., 5 seconds or 10 seconds or 20 seconds or 30 seconds, or 40 seconds or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds such as for the entire duration of the learning session being displayed on the display device 105.

[000112] Alternatively, or in addition, the concentration and engagement engine 101 determines that the subject has high level of concentration or is fully concentrated on the learning information being displayed on the display device 105 and/or the subject has high level of engagement or is fully engaged with the learning information being displayed on the display device 105, when the subject's gaze is maintained on the display device e.g., when the is looking away from the display device and/or the subject's eyelids remain open and/or the subject's pupils do not enlarge and/or when the subject does not experience excessive blinking, during a prolonged length of time e.g., 5 seconds or 10 seconds or 20 seconds or 30 seconds, or 40 seconds or 50 seconds or 60 seconds or more than 60 seconds such as for the entire duration of the learning session being displayed on the display device 105.

[000113] In use, according to the example shown in Figure 1, after the

concentration and engagement engine 101 determines the level of attention of the subject 20 to the learning information displayed on the display device 105, the concentration and engagement engine 101 communicates the determined level of attention of the subject 20 to a curriculum and format option engine 104.

[000114] In use, according to the example shown in Figure 1, there is also provided a storage device 102 which may be in communication with and/or coupled to the curriculum and format option engine 104. According to this example, the storage device 102 is configured store learning information 10 relating to one or more curriculum(s) offered by an educational institute or a teaching course. Preferably, the storage device 102 is configured to store learning information 10 of each curriculum in a different presentation format, so that the same learning information of each curriculum is stored in multiple presentation formats suitable for displaying the learning information 10 on the display device 105. For example, the storage device 102 is configured to store the same learning information of each curriculum in one or more presentation formats selected from a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour; a dot point text presentation; text summaries; a streaming text presentation; static graphics; static charts; animated graphics; animated charts; an animation or an animated film; filmed motion with or without narration; recorded oral presentation; an audio only presentation; and recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter.

[000115] Furthermore, educational institutes such as schools and/or universities offer different curriculums in the same subject module which vary in content of the learning information therein. For example, an educational institute can offer different levels of a curriculum relating to the same subject module wherein each level of curriculum varies from the other levels in the degree of complexity and/or amount and/or structure of the content of the learning information included therein. For instance, an educational institute can offer a base-level curriculum, an intermediate- level curriculum, and advanced-level curriculum of the same subject module, wherein the amount and/or complexity and/or structure of the content of the learning information of that subject module progressively increases with each curriculum level. By way of illustration, an educational institute such as a school or university may offer a study subject module being "Chemistry" or "Arts History" at the above-mentioned base, intermediate and advanced curriculum levels. Therefore, in use, according to the example shown in Figure 1, and in addition to being configured to store the same learning information 10 of each curriculum in one or more presentation formats, the storage device 102 can be further configured to store different levels of a curriculum relating to the same subject module which vary in content of the learning information included therein (e.g., which vary in level of complexity and/or amount and/or structure of the content of the learning information) such as those which corresponds to base- level curriculum, an intermediate-level curriculum, and advanced-level curriculum of the same subject module. It is to be understood that the levels of curriculum content (e.g., amount, complexity and/or structure) which can be stored in the storage device 102 are not limited in scope to the base-level, intermediate-level, and advanced-level, and that other suitable levels known for educational teaching/learning material are clearly encompassed by the scope of the present invention.

[000116] Moreover, in use according to the example shown in Figure 1, the storage device 102 can be further configured to store curriculums of multiple subjects' modules from one or multiple educational institutes including curriculums of all courses of study or learning offered by one or more educational institutes. Preferably, each one of these multiple curriculums is stored in the storage device 102 in multiple curriculum levels e.g., which vary in degree of complexity and/or amount and/or structure of the content of the learning information included the different curriculums such as described according to any example hereof. Also preferably, the learning information 10 of each one of these multiple curriculums is stored in the storage device 102 in multiple presentation formats suitable for displaying the learning information 10 on the display device 105. For example, the storage device 102 is configured to store the same learning information of each curriculum in one or more presentation formats selected from a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour; a dot point text presentation; text summaries; a streaming text presentation; static graphics; static charts; animated graphics; animated charts; an animation or an animated film; filmed motion with or without narration; recorded oral presentation; an audio only presentation; and recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter.

[000117] The different levels of curriculum(s) and the different presentation formats of learning information 10 stored in the storage device allows to cater to the different comprehension and/or learning needs of subjects, in real time.

[000118] In use, according to the example shown in Figure 1, after the

concentration and engagement engine 101 determines the level of attention of the subject 20 to the learning information displayed on the display device 105, the concentration and engagement engine 101 communicates the determined level of attention of the subject 20 to the curriculum and format option engine 104. In response, depending on the determined level of attention, the curriculum and format option engine 104 may communicate with the storage device 102 to select and retrieve a learning information 10 in a different format from that which is currently displayed.

[000119] By storing multiple different presentation formats of learning

information relating to each curriculum, multiple different levels of a curriculum relating to the same subject module, and curriculums of multiple subjects' modules from one or multiple educational institutes including curriculums of all courses of study or learning offered by one or more educational institutes, and varying the presentation format of learning information and/or level of the curriculum(s) displayed on the display device 105 in response to subject's eye movement, the methods and systems of the present invention permit flexibility in tailoring the presentation and content of the learning information presented to subjects depending on the individual needs and learning aptitude of the subjects. This means that subjects can receive learning information according to their needs and/or aptitude for learning in real time.

Accordingly, the methods and systems of the present invention are particularly useful in tailoring learning information in children and young people, to reflect the different stages of maturation of children and young people and the changing way in which they engage with learning as they develop. Providing varying presentation formats and curriculum levels in response to subject's eye-movement, allows to cater to different comprehension and/or development needs of subjects such as students and young children, in real-time.

[000120] Reference in the specification to "one embodiment" or "an

embodiment" or to "one example" or "an example" means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment or example is included in at least one embodiment or example of the invention. Use of the phrase "in one embodiment" or "in one example" in various places in the specification are not necessarily refereeing to the same embodiment or to the same example.

[000121] Curriculum for Excellence defines five levels of learning. The first four levels are described in the experiences and outcomes, with progression to qualifications described under a fifth level, the senior phase.

[000122] The path most children and young people are expected to follow through the levels reflects the stages of maturation of children and young people and the changing ways in which they engage with learning as they develop.

[000123] Some children and young people will start learning at these levels earlier and others later, depending upon individual needs and aptitudes. The framework is however designed to be flexible in order to permit careful planning for those with additional support needs, including those who, for example, have a learning difficulty and those who are particularly able or talented.

[000124] While children and young people should feel that the transition from one stage of learning to another is smooth, they should still be able to look forward to the excitement of starting nursery, primary school and secondary school, and finally to moving on to positive and sustained destinations.

[000125] In use, according to the example in Figure 1, the eye-tracking or gaze data is sent to concentration and engagement engine 101 which processes the data and determines, the level of attention of the subject 20 to the learning information i.e., based on the eye-tracking or gaze data. For example, the concentration and

engagement engine 101 processes the eye-tracking or gaze data to determine the level of concentration of the subject 20 with respect to the information displayed and/or the level of engagement the subject 20 has with the learning information displayed on the display device 105.

[000126] 2 Further embodiment

[000127] With reference to figures 2, 3 and 4 there is disclosed a further embodiment of the present invention.

[000128] With reference to the flow chart of figure 2 the system for improving engagement 210 in this instance includes a first test, evaluate, modify sequence 211 and a second test, evaluate, modify sequence 212. In this instance the second test, evaluate, modify sequence 212 is distinguished from the first test, evaluate, modify sequence.

[000129] In this instance it is distinguished firstly by the output of the second sequence 212 comprising an input to the first sequence 211.

[000130] In this instance it is further distinguished by the input 213 to the first sequence being different to the input 214 to the second sequence.

[000131] In this instance the input 213 to the first sequence comprises data based on substantially continuously physiological monitoring of a subject as will be described further.

[000132] In this instance the input 214 to the second sequence comprises data based on periodic direct testing of the comprehension of an application of the subject matter presented to the subject by a communications device, that subject matter itself being subject to change in the course of operation of the first test, evaluate, modify sequence 211.

[000133] In preferred forms the same communications device is used for communication with the subject in relation to both the first sequence 211 and the second sequence 212. This is particularly the case where the first sequence 211 specifically includes presentation of material for learning to the subject and the communications device is also used for presentation of periodic direct testing of comprehension/application of the subject matter which has been presented as material for learning to the subject.

[000134] With reference to figure 3 the system 210 comprises a number of components which interact with the subject of 215.

[000135] In this instance the subject 215 interacts with a communications device 216.

[000136] The committee that his device 216 is in communication with a digital processor 217.

[000137] In this instance the digital processor 217 is also in communication with at least a first video image acquisition device 218 and, in some instances, further video image acquisition devices 218 A.

[000138] In one form as described with reference to an earlier embodiments the video image acquisition devices 218 focus on the eyes and high movements of the subject 215 and communicate data corresponding to those movements to the processor 217.. As described with reference to earlier embodiments the processor utilises that data to determine substantially physiological assessments of the attention of the subject 215 to what is being communicated to the subject by the

communications device 216.

[000139] In at least one alternative form the video image acquisition device (S) may acquire data associated with body movement in order to acquire data which processor 217 can also utilise to determine the degree of engagement of the subject 215 with the subject matter 219 be presented to the subject 215 as and while that subject matter 219 is being presented to the subject 215.

[000140] In a further particular form a direct physiological monitor 225 may be utilised to take substantially direct measurement if physiological parameters such as respiration rate, ECG and/or pulse and transmit that information for example via wifi wireless transmission to the processor 217 whereby directly measured physiological measurements may be utilised in addition or instead of the previously mentioned inputs for the purpose of determining degree of engagement of the subject 215.

[000141] The digital processor 17 is bidirectional communication with a database and processor 220 which includes a processor and memory and also programmed algorithms recite in the memory and executed by the processor relating to execution of the first test, evaluate, modify sequence 211 and the second test, evaluate, modify sequence 212.

[000142] In use and with reference to figure 4 the subject 215 is presented with subject matter 219 by way of a communications device 216 which, in at least some instances, may be a digital display device may also include audio output capability.

[000143] As the subject matter 219 is presented the first test, evaluate, modify sequence 211 receives input as to the engagement of the subject 215 and, subject to the evaluation may alter the manner of presentation of the subject matter 219 on the communications device 216 as the engagement progresses.

[000144] For example, as described with reference to earlier embodiments, the subject matter 219 may be presented as text 221 but, on a valuation of poor engagement, may be changed to be presented as a series of dot points 222. Should engagement still be evaluated as less than optimal then the subject matter 219 may be further amended in its presentation to be a series of pictures with or without accompanying annotation 223.

[000145] At the end of an engagement session the second test, evaluate, modify sequence 212 is triggered for execution on the database and processor 220 and may entail presentation of a series of questions on communications device 219 with the subject 215 required to provide answers is by way of audible response and/or keyboard input or a combination in order for the second test, evaluate, modify sequence 212 to determine the nature and extent of comprehension of the subject matter 219 presented during the engagement session. [000146] The assessment of the second test, evaluate, modify sequence is then passed to the first test, evaluate, modify sequence 211 as an input to determine the manner of presentation of subject matter 219 in a subsequent engagement session with the subject 215.

[000147] In this manner the system 210 seeks to improve the engagement at the time of the subject 215 with the subject matter 219.

[000148] In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described with reference to specific examples thereof. It will however be evident that various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the broader spirit and scope of the invention. The specification and drawings are, accordingly, to be regarded in an illustrative rather than restrictive sense.

Claims

1. A method of improving engagement with subject matter by a subject, the method comprising:
Communicating on a communications device audio and/or visual learning information in a first format;
monitoring attention of the subject by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the audio and/or visual learning information to produce a tracking signal;
determining from the tracking signal the attention level of the subject to the learning information;
varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from the first format to a second format, so as to increase the engagement of the subject to the communicated information.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
continuing to monitor attention of the subject by tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the audio and/or visual learning information in the second format to produce a further tracking signal;
determining from the further tracking signal the attention level of the
student/subject to the learning information in the second;
varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from the second format to a further format, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information.
3. The method of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein:
displaying on the display device the audio and/or visual learning information in a first format comprises displaying a stream of the audio and/or visual learning information in the first format;
monitoring attention of the subject comprises tracking changes in subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the stream of the audio and/or visual learning information to produce a tracking signal; and varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device comprises varying the format of the streamed audio and/or visual learning information from a first streamed format to a second streamed format.
4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the format of the learning information being displayed on the display device is selected from:
a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour;
a dot point presentation;
summaries;
a streaming text presentation;
static graphics;
static charts;
animated graphics;
animated charts;
an animation or an animated film;
filmed motion with narration;
filmed motion without narration;
recorded oral presentation;
recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and
an audio only presentation.
5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein:
the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is a dot point presentation format; and
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein:
the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
7. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 6, wherein:
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is a dot point presentation format; and
the further format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
8. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 6, wherein:
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and
the further format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, comprises varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device within a single audio and/or visual learning session, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information within a single learning session.
10. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, comprises varying the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device between two or more audio and/or visual learning sessions, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information between multiple learning sessions.
11. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein an increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information is determined by an increase in the number and/or duration of the subject's gaze(s) on the display.
12. A system of improving rate of learning by a subject, the system comprising:
A device for communicating audio and/or visual learning information;
a gaze tracker to track changes in a subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving the of audio and/or visual learning information, wherein the gaze tracker produces a tracking signal;
a detector which detects the tracking signal; and
a processor for determining subject's level of attention to the learning information displayed on a display device based on the tracking signal detected, wherein the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from a first format to a second format so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information.
13. The system of claim 12, wherein said system is adaptive and learns from past experience with individual users thereby to individualise improvements in attention levels of a subject during learning, on a student by student basis.
14. The system of claim 12 or claim 13, wherein:
the device emits a stream of audio and/or visual learning information, the gaze tracker tracks changes in a subject's eye gaze while the subject is receiving a stream of the audio and/or visual learning information; and
the processor determines subject's level of attention to the stream of learning information displayed on a display device based on the tracking signal detected, wherein the processor varies the format of the streamed audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device from a first streamed format to a second streamed format so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information.
15. The system of any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein the means for displaying the audio and/or visual learning information on a display device is capable of displaying said information in a format selected from:
a written format presentation comprising highlighted key phrases within paragraphs with alteration to font size and/or font weight and/or font colour and/or font shape and/or background colour;
a dot point presentation;
summaries;
a streaming text presentation;
static graphics;
static charts;
animated graphics;
animated charts;
an animation or an animated film;
filmed motion with narration;
filmed motion without narration;
recorded oral presentation;
recorded audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and
an audio only presentation.
16. The system according to any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein:
the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is a dot point presentation format; and
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
17. The system according to any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein:
the first format of the audio and/or visual learning information is an audio and visual presentation showing head and shoulders of the presenter; and
the second format of the audio and/or visual learning information is selected from a dot point presentation, an animation or an animated film, a streaming text presentation and an audio only presentation.
18. The system according to any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device within a single audio and/or visual learning session, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information within a single learning session.
19. The system according to any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein the processor varies the format of the audio and/or visual learning information being displayed on the display device between two or more audio and/or visual learning sessions, so as to increase the attention level of the subject to the displayed information between multiple learning sessions.
20. The system according to any one of claims 12 to 17, wherein the processor determines subject's level of attention to the stream of learning information displayed on the display device by determining and/or measuring an increase in the number and/or duration of the subject's gaze(s) on the display.
21 A system for improving engagement, the system comprising a first test, evaluate, modify sequence and a second test, evaluate, modify sequence.
22 The system of claim 21 wherein the second test, evaluate, modify sequence is distinguished from the first test, evaluate, modify sequence.
23 The system of claim 22 wherein the second sequence is distinguished firstly by the output of the second sequence comprising an input to the first sequence. 24 The system of claim 22 or 23 wherein the second sequence is further distinguished by the input to the first sequence being different to the input to the second sequence.
25 The system of any one of claims 21 to 24 wherein the input to the first sequence comprises data based on substantially continuously physiological monitoring of a subject.
26 The system of any one of claims 21 to 24 wherein the input to the second sequence comprises data based on periodic direct testing of the comprehension of an application of the subject matter presented to the subject by a communications device, that subject matter itself being subject to change in the course of operation of the first test, evaluate, modify sequence.
27 The system of any one of claims 21 to 26 wherein the same communications device is used for communication with the subject in relation to both the first sequence and the second sequence.
28 The system of any one of claims 21 to 27 wherein the first test, evaluate, modify sequence operates according to the system of any one of claims 12 to 20.
PCT/AU2017/000060 2016-03-07 2017-03-07 A system for improving engagement WO2017152215A1 (en)

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