WO2017147003A1 - Novel macrocyclic antibiotics and uses thereof - Google Patents

Novel macrocyclic antibiotics and uses thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017147003A1
WO2017147003A1 PCT/US2017/018294 US2017018294W WO2017147003A1 WO 2017147003 A1 WO2017147003 A1 WO 2017147003A1 US 2017018294 W US2017018294 W US 2017018294W WO 2017147003 A1 WO2017147003 A1 WO 2017147003A1
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ci
alkyl
alkoxy
halo
optionally substituted
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PCT/US2017/018294
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French (fr)
Inventor
Dallas Hughes
Losee Lucy Ling
Anthony NITTI
Aaron J. PEOPLES
Amy SPOERING
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Novobiotic Pharmaceuticals, Llc
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Priority to US62/300,434 priority
Application filed by Novobiotic Pharmaceuticals, Llc filed Critical Novobiotic Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Publication of WO2017147003A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017147003A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07DHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07D493/00Heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen atoms as the only ring hetero atoms in the condensed system
    • C07D493/12Heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen atoms as the only ring hetero atoms in the condensed system in which the condensed system contains three hetero rings
    • C07D493/20Spiro-condensed systems

Abstract

The present invention relates generally to novel antibiotics, to methods for the preparation of these novel antibiotics, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the novel antibiotics; and to methods of using the novel antibiotics to treat or inhibit bacterial infections.

Description

NOVEL MACROCYCLIC ANTIBIOTICS AND USES THEREOF

RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/300,434, filed on February 26, 2016. The entire contents of the foregoing application are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Among modern medicine's great achievements is the development and successful use of antimicrobials against disease-causing microbes. Antimicrobials have saved numerous lives and reduced the complications of many diseases and infections. However, the currently available antimicrobials are not as effective as they once were.

Tuberculosis (MTB, TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Worldwide, tuberculosis is the second-most common cause of death from infectious disease. Treatment of tuberculosis generally consists of a combination of therapy of isoniazid, rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), and ethambutol (Myambutol) and/or pyrazinamide administered for six to nine months. Although these antibiotics were effective in treating tuberculosis, drug-resistant strains have emerged, rendering some or more of these first-line treatments ineffective.

Thus, there is an increasing need for novel antimicrobials to combat microbial infections such tuberculosis and the problem of increasing drug resistance to current therapies.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This application is directed, at least in part, to a novel antibiotic that is useful in the treatment of bacterial infections, e.g., an infection caused by a Mycobacterium species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to an isolated compound of Formula

(I):

Figure imgf000003_0001

or an enantiomer, diastereomer, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, -

C(0)N(Rla)2, S(0)Rla, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2ORla, and -S(0)2N(Rla)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

Rla is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, - C(0)N(R2a)2, S(0)R2a, -S(0)2R2a, -S(0)2OR2a, and -S(0)2N(R2a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R2a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, - C(0)N(R3a)2, S(0)R3a, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2OR3a, and -S(0)2N(R3a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R3a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, - C(0)N(R4a)2, S(0)R4a, -S(0)2R4a, -S(0)2OR4a, and -S(0)2N(R4a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R4a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, -

C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R5a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, - C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R6a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.

In a particular aspect of the first embodiment, each stereocenter of the compound of Formula (I) can be either the R or S configuration. Accordingly, when the phrase "a compound of Formula (I)" is used herein, it is meant to include enantiomers, diastereomers, and pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof. A compound of Formula (I), e.g., a compound isolated from bacterial isolate L8825, may also be referred to as "NOV028". In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a mixture of stereoisomers. In other embodiments, the present invention specifically relates to a single stereoisomer of a compound of Formula (I).

In a another embodiment, the present invention relates to an isolated compound of

Formula (II):

Figure imgf000005_0001

or an enantiomer, diastereomer, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each stereocenter can be either the R or S configuration. Accordingly, when the phrase "a compound of Formula (II)" is used herein, it is meant to include enantiomers, diastereomers, and pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof. A compound of Formula (II), e.g., a compound isolated from bacterial isolate L8825, may also be referred to as "NOV028". In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a mixture of stereoisomers. In other embodiments, the present invention specifically relates to a single stereoisomer of a compound of Formula (II) .

In another embodiment, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is an isolated product of a bacterial species. For example, in some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is an isolated product of bacterial isolate L8825. In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is producible from a bacterial species. For example, in some

embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) is producible from bacterial isolate L8825.

In yet another embodiment, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is produced heterologously in E. coli or S. cerevisiae. For example, the compound is produced by a method comprising cultivating a bacterial isolate E. coli or S. cerevisiae in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions; thereby producing a compound of Formula (I) or (II). The E. coli or S. cerevisiae isolates may have been modified to produce compounds of Formula (I) and/or (II).

In yet another embodiment, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds described herein, e.g., a compound of Formula (I) or (II), and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In yet another embodiment, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds described herein, e.g., a compound of Formula (I) or (II), and an effective amount of an added antioxidant and/or a solubilizer. In yet another embodiment, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds described herein, e.g., a compound of Formula (I) or (II), and an effective amount of an added adjuvant or synergist.

In yet other embodiments, the present invention relates to a method of treating a bacterial infection, e.g., an infection caused by a Mycobacterium species, such as

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in a subject in need thereof. The method includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II), thereby treating the bacterial infection in the subject. In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal, a human, an animal or a plant.

In yet another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting the growth of a bacteria, e.g., a Mycobacterium species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The method includes contacting the bacteria with a compound described herein, e.g., a compound of Formula (I) or, (II), thereby inhibiting the growth of the bacteria. In a particular embodiment, the bacteria is cultured in vitro.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to novel antibiotics, to processes for the preparation of these novel antibiotics, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the novel antibiotics, and to methods of using the novel antibiotics to treat or inhibit bacterial infections. The present invention relates to novel antibiotics that have activity against Mycobacterium species. These novel antibiotics have high anti-bacterial activity and low toxicity.

I. Definitions

For convenience, certain terms employed in the specification, examples, and appended claims are provided. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The initial definition provided for a group or term herein applies to that group or term throughout the present specification individually or as part of another group, unless otherwise indicated.

The articles "a" and "an" are used herein to refer to one or to more than one

(i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, "an element" means one element or more than one element.

The term "or" is used herein to mean, and is used interchangeably with, the term "and/or," unless context clearly indicates otherwise.

The term "isolated" is used herein to refer to compounds of Formula (I) or (II) being substantially free from other materials associated with it in its natural environment. For example an isolated compound can be substantially free of contaminating materials, such as cellular material, contaminating materials from the cell from which the compound is derived, chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. Substantially free of other materials refers generally to, for example, less than about 30%, or 20%, or 15%, or 10%, or 5%, or 2% (by dry weight) impurities. In some embodiments, the isolated compounds are substantially pure. In some embodiments, the preparation of a compound having less than about 10% (by dry weight) of contaminating materials from the cell, or of chemical precursors is considered to be substantially pure. In other embodiments, the preparation of a compound having less than about 5%, about 4%, about 3%, about 2%, about 1% (by dry weight) of contaminating materials from the cell, or of chemical precursors is considered to be substantially pure.

Unless otherwise indicated, any heteroatom with unsatisfied valences is assumed to have hydrogen atoms sufficient to satisfy the valences.

The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings, animals and plants without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

The term "pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier" as used herein means a

pharmaceutically-acceptable material, composition or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material, involved in carrying or transporting the subject pharmaceutical agent from one organ, or portion of the body, to another organ, or portion of the body. Each carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not injurious to a patient.

The term "treating" with regard to a subject, refers to improving at least one symptom of the subject's disorder, e.g., a disorder caused by a bacterial infection. Treating can be curing the disorder or bacterial infection, or improving it.

II. Compounds of the Invention

In a first embodiment, the compound of the present invention is a compound of Formula (I):

Figure imgf000008_0001

or an enantiomer, diastereomer, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein

R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, - C(0)N(Rla)2, S(0)Rla, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2ORla, and -S(0)2N(Rla)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

Rla is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, - C(0)N(R2a)2, S(0)R2a, -S(0)2R2a, -S(0)2OR2a, and -S(0)2N(R2a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; R a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, -

C(0)N(R3a)2, S(0)R3a, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2OR3a, and -S(0)2N(R3a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R3a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, - C(0)N(R4a)2, S(0)R4a, -S(0)2R4a, -S(0)2OR4a, and -S(0)2N(R4a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R4a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, - C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R5a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the

Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;

R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, - C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R6a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.

In a particular aspect of the first embodiment, each stereocenter of the compound of Formula (I) can be either the R or S configuration. Accordingly, when the phrase "a compound of Formula (I)" is used herein, it is meant to include enantiomers, diastereomers, and pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof. A compound of Formula (I), e.g., a compound isolated from bacterial isolate L8825, may also be referred to as "NOV028". In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a mixture of stereoisomers. In other embodiments, the present invention specifically relates to a single stereoisomer of a compound of Formula (I).

In a second embodiment, the compound of the present invention is a compound of Formula (II):

Figure imgf000010_0001

or an enantiomer, diastereomer, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each stereocenter can be either the R or S configuration. Accordingly, when the phrase "a compound of Formula (II)" is used herein, it is meant to include enantiomers, diastereomers, and pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof. A compound of Formula (II), e.g. , a compound isolated from bacterial isolate L8825, may also be referred to as "NOV028". In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a mixture of stereoisomers. In other embodiments, the present invention specifically relates to a single stereoisomer of a compound of Formula (II). In a third embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein

R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, and -C(0)N(Rla)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

Rla is selected from the group consisting of H or C1-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo or hydroxy;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, and -C(0)N(R2a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

R2a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo or and hydroxy;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, and -C(0)N(R3a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

R3a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, and -C(0)N(R4a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

R4a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo or hydroxy;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, and -C(0)N(R5a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;

R5a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo or hydroxy;

R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R6a, -C(0)2R6a, and -C(0)N(R6a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy; and

R6a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy.

In a fourth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R1 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)Rla; Rla is H or Ci-4alkyl;

R2 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R2a;

R2a is H or Ci-4alkyl;

R3 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R3a;

R3a is H or Ci-4alkyl;

R4 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R4a;

R4a is H or Ci-4alkyl;

R5 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R5a;

R5a is H or Ci-4alkyl;

R6 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R6a; and

R6a is H or Ci-4alkyl.

In a fifth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R1 is H or Ci-4alkyl; R2 is H or Ci-4alkyl; R3 is H or Ci-4alkyl; R4 is H or Ci-4alkyl; R5 is H or Q. 4alkyl; R6 is -C(0)R5a; and R6a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-4alkyl.

In a sixth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein

R1 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, - C(0)N(Rla)2, S(0)Rla, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2ORla, and -S(0)2N(Rla)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

Rla is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth and fifth embodiments.

In a seventh embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein

R2 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, - C(0)N(R2a)2, S(0)R2a, -S(0)2R2a, -S(0)2OR2a, and -S(0)2N(R2a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R2a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth embodiments. In an eighth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R3 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, - C(0)N(R3a)2, S(0)R3a, -S(0)2R3a, -S(0)2OR3a, and -S(0)2N(R3a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R3a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh embodiments.

In a ninth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, - C(0)N(R4a)2, S(0)R4a, -S(0)2R4a, -S(0)2OR4a, and -S(0)2N(R4a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R4a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth embodiments.

In a tenth embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, -C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R5a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth embodiments.

In an eleventh embodiment, the compound is a compound of Formula (I), wherein R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)2R6a, -C(0)N(R6a)2, S(0)R6a, -S(0)2R6a, -S(0)2OR6a, and -S(0)2N(R6a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and

R6a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo, wherein the values of the remaining variables are as described in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth embodiments.

The terms "alkyl" refers to a straight or branched chain alkane (hydrocarbon) radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g. , 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Exemplary "alkyl" groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, isobutyl pentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, heptyl, 4,4-dimethylpentyl, octyl, 2,2,4-trimethylpentyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, and the like.

"Halogen" or "Halo" by themselves or as part of another substituent refers to fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, or fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo.

"Hydroxy" refers to -OH.

All stereoisomers of the compounds of the present invention (for example, those which may exist due to asymmetric carbons on various substituents), including enantiomeric forms and diastereomeric forms, are contemplated within the scope of this present invention. In one embodiment, compounds of Formula (I) or (II) are mixtures. Alternatively, however, compounds of Formula (I) or (II) are single stereoisomers substantially free of other stereoisomers (e.g. , as a pure or substantially pure optical isomer having a specified activity). In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of less than about 10% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of less than about 5% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of less than about 2% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of less than about 1% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of about 5% (by dry weight) to about 10% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of about 1% (by dry weight) to about 5% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of about 1% (by dry weight) to about 10% (by dry weight) other isomers. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to a single stereoisomer in the presence of about 5% (by dry weight) to about 10% (by dry weight) other isomers. Non-related compounds make up less than 2% (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the present teachings are directed to mixtures of stereoisomers. The chiral centers of the compounds of Formula (I) or (II) may have the S or R configuration as defined by the IUPAC 1974 Recommendations. The stereoisomeric forms can be resolved by physical methods, such as, for example, fractional crystallization, separation or crystallization of diastereomeric derivatives or separation by chiral column chromatography. The individual optical isomers can be obtained from a mixture of stereoisomers by any suitable method, including without limitation, conventional methods, such as, for example, salt formation with an optically active acid followed by crystallization.

The compounds of the present invention may, subsequent to their preparation, be isolated and purified to obtain a composition containing an amount by weight equal to or greater than 90% (by dry weight), which is then used or formulated as described herein. The compounds of the present invention may be, subsequent to their preparation, e.g., isolated and purified to obtain a composition containing an amount by weight equal to or greater than 95% (by dry weight), which is then used or formulated as described herein. The compounds of the present invention may be, subsequent to their preparation, e.g., isolated and purified to obtain a composition containing an amount by weight of about 90% (by dry weight) to about 95% (by dry weight) , which is then used or formulated as described herein. The compounds of the present invention may be, subsequent to their preparation, e.g., isolated and purified to obtain a composition containing an amount by weight of about 85% (by dry weight) to about 95% (by dry weight) , which is then used or formulated as described herein. The compounds of the present invention may be, subsequent to their preparation, e.g., isolated and purified to obtain a composition containing an amount by weight of about 95% (by dry weight) to about 99% (by dry weight), which is then used or formulated as described herein.

All configurational isomers of the compounds of the present invention are

contemplated, either in admixture or in pure or substantially pure form.

The invention also provides salts of the compounds of the invention. A salt of a compound of this invention is formed between an acid and a basic group of the compound, such as an amino functional group, or a base and an acidic group of the compound, such as a carboxyl functional group. According to one embodiment, the compound is a

pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt.

The term "pharmaceutically acceptable," as used herein, refers to a component that is, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and other mammals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response and the like, and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. A "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" means any non-toxic salt that, upon administration to a recipient, is capable of providing, either directly or indirectly, a compound of this invention. A "pharmaceutically acceptable counterion" is an ionic portion of a salt that is not toxic when released from the salt upon administration to a recipient.

Acids commonly employed to form pharmaceutically acceptable salts include inorganic acids such as hydrogen bisulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid, as well as organic acids such as para-toluenesulfonic acid, salicylic acid, tartaric acid, bitartaric acid, ascorbic acid, maleic acid, besylic acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, formic acid, glutamic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, para- bromophenylsulfonic acid, carbonic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid and acetic acid, as well as related inorganic and organic acids. Such pharmaceutically acceptable salts thus include sulfate, pyrosulfate, bisulfate, sulfite, bisulfite, phosphate,

monohydrogenphosphate, dihydrogenphosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, chloride, bromide, iodide, acetate, propionate, decanoate, caprylate, acrylate, formate, isobutyrate, caprate, heptanoate, propiolate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, suberate, sebacate, fumarate, maleate, butyne-l,4-dioate, hexyne-l,6-dioate, benzoate, chlorobenzoate, methylbenzoate, dinitrobenzoate, hydroxybenzoate, methoxybenzoate, phthalate, terephthalate, sulfonate, xylene sulfonate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, phenylbutyrate, citrate, lactate, β- hydroxybutyrate, glycolate, maleate, tartrate, methanesulfonate, propanesulfonate, naphthalene- 1-sulfonate, naphthalene-2- sulfonate, mandelate and other salts. In one embodiment, pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts include those formed with mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid and hydrobromic acid, and especially those formed with organic acids such as maleic acid.

The pharmaceutically acceptable salt may also be a salt of a compound of the present invention having an acidic functional group, such as a carboxylic acid functional group, and a base. Exemplary bases include, but are not limited to, hydroxide of alkali metals including sodium, potassium, and lithium; hydroxides of alkaline earth metals such as calcium and magnesium; hydroxides of other metals, such as aluminum and zinc; ammonia, organic amines such as unsubstituted or hydroxyl-substituted mono-, di-, or tri-alkylamines, dicyclohexylamine; tributyl amine; pyridine; N-methyl, N-ethylamine; diethylamine;

triethylamine; mono-, bis-, or tris-(2-OH-(Ci-C6)-alkylamine), such as N,N-dimethyl-N-(2- hydroxyethyl)amine or tri-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine; N-methyl-D-glucamine; morpholine; thiomorpholine; piperidine; pyrrolidine; and amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and the like.

The compounds of the present invention (e.g., compounds of Formula I or Formula II), may contain an asymmetric carbon atom. As such, compounds of this invention can exist as either individual enantiomers, or mixtures of the two enantiomers. Accordingly, a compound of the present invention may exist as either a racemic mixture or a scalemic mixture, or as individual respective stereoisomers that are substantially free from another possible stereoisomer. The term "substantially free of other stereoisomers" as used herein means less than 25% of other stereoisomers, preferably less than 10% of other stereoisomers, more preferably less than 5% of other stereoisomers and most preferably less than 2% of other stereoisomers are present. Methods of obtaining or synthesizing an individual enantiomer for a given compound are known in the art and may be applied as practicable to final compounds or to starting material or intermediates.

Unless otherwise indicated, when a disclosed compound is named or depicted by a structure without specifying the stereochemistry and has one or more chiral centers, it is understood to represent all possible stereoisomers of the compound.

The term "stable compounds," as used herein, refers to compounds which possess stability sufficient to allow for their manufacture and which maintain the integrity of the compound for a sufficient period of time to be useful for the purposes detailed herein (e.g. , formulation into therapeutic products, intermediates for use in production of therapeutic compounds, isolatable or storable intermediate compounds, treating a disease or condition responsive to therapeutic agents).

Throughout this specification, a variable may be referred to generally (e.g. , "each R")

1 2 3

or may be referred to specifically (e.g. , R , R , R , etc.). Unless otherwise indicated, when a variable is referred to generally, it is meant to include all specific embodiments of that particular variable.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides a synthetic, biologically active compound of Formula (I) or Formula (II), e.g., compounds of Formula (I) or Formula (II) with properties (e.g. , solubility, biological effectiveness, anti-bacterial function) which are markedly different than those found in corresponding national product.

III. Methods of Preparation of the Compounds of the Invention

The present invention also provides method for preparing the compounds of the invention. Compounds of the present invention can be isolated from bacterial isolate L8825, for example, using the following method. The bacterial isolate can be grown on an appropriate support. A colony can then be homogenized and used to inoculate a seed broth. After fermentation, the seed culture can then be used to inoculate a production broth. After optional additional fermentation, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) can be harvested from the broth, e.g., using centrifugation and preparatory HPLC. A specific exemplary method for producing the compound of Formula (II) is discussed in further detail below and in the Examples section.

In yet another embodiment, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is an isolated product of a bacterial species. For example, in some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is an isolated product of bacterial isolate L8825. In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is producible from a bacterial species. For example, in some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) is producible from bacterial isolate L8825. The method includes cultivating or culturing a bacterial isolate L8825 in a culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions, and enabling the production of an assayable amount of the compound of Formula (I) or (II). Specific conditions for culturing the bacterial isolate L8825 are described in the examples section below.

In another embodiment, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) is produced

heterologously in E. coli or S. cerevisiae. For example, the compound of Formula (I) or (II) may be produced by a method comprising cultivating a bacterial isolate E. coli or S.

cerevisiae in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions; thereby producing a compound of Formula (I) or (II). The E. coli or S. cerevisiae isolates may have been modified in a way that allows and/or enhances the production of compounds of Formula (I) and/or (II).

In certain embodiments, the method further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II). The compound of Formula (I) or (II) may be isolated by centrifuging the fermentation broth {e.g., centrifuging at 10,000 rpm) to produce a clear supernatant and pelleted cell mass. The supernatant may be decanted and passed over a prepared column

{e.g., Diaion HP20). After washing the column with a mixture of 20% acetone in water, and the compound of interest may be eluted in a mixture of 80% acetone in water. The pelleted cell mass may be extracted with acetone (1 L), dried onto a resin {e.g., Diaion HP20) then eluted in a similar manner to the supernatant. The active fractions may be combined and dried to completeness under vacuum. The resulting slurry may be washed with hexane and then reconstituted in methanol. The methanol solution may be run on a column (e.g. , Sephadex LH20). The active fractions may be combined, dried to completeness, and then reconstituted in DMSO. The final purification may be completed by reverse-phase HPLC using a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA (v:v). The fractions containing the compound may then be lyophilized. Specific conditions for isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) are further described in the examples section below.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 75% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 80% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 85% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 90% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 95% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I) or (II) to at least about 97% purity (by dry weight). In other embodiments, the process further comprises isolating the compound of Formula (I)or (II) to at least about 99% purity (by dry weight).

The bacterial isolate L8825 was deposited with , and assigned Accession

Number . This deposit will be maintained under the terms of the Budapest Treaty on the

International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure. This deposit was made merely as a convenience for those of skill in the art and is not an admission that a deposit is required under 35 U.S.C. § 112.

In another embodiment, the compounds of Formula (I) or Formula (II) are

synthetically produced.

IV. Pharmaceutical Compositions

The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II) (e.g. , including any of the formulae provided herein), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound; and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier(s) are "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and, in the case of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, not deleterious to the recipient thereof in an amount used in the medicament. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles that may be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention include, but are not limited to, ion exchangers, alumina, aluminum stearate, lecithin, serum proteins, such as human serum albumin, buffer substances such as phosphates, glycine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes, such as protamine sulfate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat.

The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II) (e.g. , including any of the formulae provided herein), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound; and an added preservative. The preservative may be selected from the group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzoic acid and salts, benzyl alcohol, boric acid and salts, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chorhexidine gluconate or chlorhexidine acetate, cresol, ethanol, imidazolidinyl urea, metacresol, methylparaben, nitromersol, o-phenyl phenol, parabens, phenol, phenylmercuric acetate/nitrate, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, sorbic acids and salts, and thimerosal.

The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II) (e.g. , including any of the formulae provided herein), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound; and an added anti-oxidant and/or a solubilizer. The anti-oxidant is selected from the group consisting of a-tocopherol acetate, acetone sodium bisulfite, acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (bha), butylated hydroxytoluene (bht), cysteine, cysteine hydrochloride, d- a- tocopherol natural, d- a-tocopherol synthetic, dithiothreitol, monothioglycerol,

nordihydroguaiaretic acid, propyl gallate, sodium bisulfite, sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite, sodium thio sulfate, and thiourea. The solublizer may be a low molecular weight alcohol (e.g. , ethanol, isopropyl), a glycol (e.g. , propylene glycol), or organic solvent (e.g. DMSO).

The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II) (e.g. , including any of the formulae provided herein), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound; and an added adjuvant or synergist. The adjuvant or synergist may be selected from the group consisting of citric acid, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) and salts, hydroxyquinoline sulfate, phosphoric acid, and tartaric acid.

If required, the solubility and bioavailability of the compounds of the present invention in pharmaceutical compositions may be enhanced by methods well-known in the art. One method includes the use of lipid excipients in the formulation. See "Oral Lipid- Based Formulations: Enhancing the Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)," David J. Hauss, ed. Informa Healthcare, 2007; and "Role of Lipid Excipients in Modifying Oral and Parenteral Drug Delivery: Basic Principles and Biological Examples," Kishor M. Wasan, ed. Wiley-Interscience, 2006.

Another known method of enhancing bioavailability is the use of an amorphous form of a compound of this invention optionally formulated with a poloxamer, such as LUTROL™ and PLURONIC™ (BASF Corporation), or block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. See United States patent 7,014,866; and United States patent publications 20060094744 and 20060079502.

The pharmaceutical composition of the invention may be in a form selected from the group consisting of a capsule, a tablet, a pill, a dragee, a powder, a spray, an ointment, a paste, a cream, a lotion, a gel, a drop, a patch, and an inhalant.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include those suitable for oral, rectal, nasal, topical (including buccal and sublingual), vaginal or parenteral (including subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intradermal) administration. In certain embodiments, the compound of the formulae provided herein is administered transdermally (e.g., using a transdermal patch or iontophoretic techniques). Other formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., tablets, sustained release capsules, and in liposomes, and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. See, for example, Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD (20th ed. 2000).

Such preparative methods include the step of bringing into association with the compound to be administered ingredients such as the carrier that constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active ingredients with liquid carriers, liposomes or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product.

In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally. Compositions of the present invention suitable for oral administration may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, sachets, or tablets each containing a predetermined amount of the active ingredient; a powder or granules; a solution or a suspension in an aqueous liquid or a non-aqueous liquid; an oil-in-water liquid emulsion; a water-in-oil liquid emulsion; packed in liposomes; or as a bolus, etc. Soft gelatin capsules can be useful for containing such suspensions, which may beneficially increase the rate of compound absorption.

In the case of tablets for oral use, carriers that are commonly used include lactose and corn starch. Lubricating agents, such as magnesium stearate, are also typically added. For oral administration in a capsule form, useful diluents include lactose and dried cornstarch. When aqueous suspensions are administered orally, the active ingredient is combined with emulsifying and suspending agents. If desired, certain sweetening and/or flavoring and/or coloring agents may be added.

Compositions suitable for oral administration include lozenges comprising the ingredients in a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; and pastilles comprising the active ingredient in an inert basis such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia.

Compositions suitable for parenteral administration include aqueous and non-aqueous sterile injection solutions which may contain anti-oxidants, buffers, bacteriostats and solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient; and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions which may include suspending agents and thickening agents. The formulations may be presented in unit-dose or multi-dose containers, for example, sealed ampules and vials, and may be stored in a freeze dried (lyophilized) condition requiring only the addition of the sterile liquid carrier, for example water for injections, immediately prior to use. Extemporaneous injection solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders, granules and tablets.

Such injection solutions may be in the form, for example, of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. This suspension may be formulated according to techniques known in the art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents (such as, for example, Tween 80) and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally-acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are mannitol, water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids, such as oleic acid and its glyceride derivatives are useful in the preparation of injectables, as are natural pharmaceutically-acceptable oils, such as olive oil or castor oil, especially in their polyoxyethylated versions. These oil solutions or suspensions may also contain a long-chain alcohol diluent or dispersant.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. These compositions can be prepared by mixing a compound of this invention with a suitable non-irritating excipient which is solid at room temperature but liquid at the rectal temperature and therefore will melt in the rectum to release the active components. Such materials include, but are not limited to, cocoa butter, beeswax and polyethylene glycols.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be administered by nasal aerosol or inhalation. Such compositions are prepared according to techniques well-known in the art of pharmaceutical formulation and may be prepared as solutions in saline, employing benzyl alcohol or other suitable preservatives, absorption promoters to enhance

bioavailability, fluorocarbons, and/or other solubilizing or dispersing agents known in the art. See, e.g. : Rabinowitz JD and Zaffaroni AC, US Patent 6,803,031, assigned to Alexza

Molecular Delivery Corporation.

Topical administration of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention is especially useful when the desired treatment involves areas or organs readily accessible by topical application. For topical application topically to the skin, the pharmaceutical composition should be formulated with a suitable ointment containing the active components suspended or dissolved in a carrier. Carriers for topical administration of the compounds of this invention include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, liquid petroleum, white petroleum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax, and water. Alternatively, the pharmaceutical composition can be formulated with a suitable lotion or cream containing the active compound suspended or dissolved in a carrier. Suitable carriers include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl esters wax, cetearyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol, benzyl alcohol, and water. The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may also be topically applied to the lower intestinal tract by rectal suppository formulation or in a suitable enema formulation.

Topically-transdermal patches and iontophoretic administration are also included in this invention.

Application of the subject therapeutics may be local, so as to be administered at the site of interest. Various techniques can be used for providing the subject compositions at the site of interest, such as injection, use of catheters, trocars, projectiles, pluronic gel, stents, sustained drug release polymers or other device which provides for internal access. Thus, according to yet another embodiment, the compounds of the invention may be incorporated into compositions for coating an implantable medical device, such as prostheses, artificial valves, vascular grafts, stents, or catheters. Suitable coatings and the general preparation of coated implantable devices are known in the art and are exemplified in US Patents 6,099,562; 5,886,026; and 5,304,121. The coatings are typically biocompatible polymeric materials such as a hydrogel polymer, polymethyldisiloxane, polycapro lactone, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, ethylene vinyl acetate, and mixtures thereof. The coatings may optionally be further covered by a suitable topcoat of fluoro silicone, polysaccharides, polyethylene glycol, phospholipids or combinations thereof to impart controlled release characteristics in the composition. Coatings for invasive devices are to be included within the definition of pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, adjuvant or vehicle, as those terms are used herein.

According to another embodiment, the invention provides a method of coating an implantable medical device comprising the step of contacting the device with the coating composition described above. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the coating of the device will occur prior to implantation into a mammal.

According to another embodiment, the invention provides a method of impregnating an implantable drug release device comprising the step of contacting the drug release device with a compound or composition of this invention. Implantable drug release devices include, but are not limited to, biodegradable polymer capsules or bullets, non-degradable, diffusible polymer capsules and biodegradable polymer wafers.

According to another embodiment, the invention provides an implantable medical device coated with a compound or a composition comprising a compound of this invention, such that the compound is therapeutically active.

According to another embodiment, the invention provides an implantable drug release device impregnated with or containing a compound or a composition comprising a compound of the invention, such that the compound is released from the device and is therapeutically active.

Where an organ or tissue is accessible because of removal from the subject, such organ or tissue may be bathed in a medium containing a composition of the invention, a composition of the invention may be painted onto the organ, or a composition of this invention may be applied in any other convenient way.

In another embodiment, a composition of the invention may further comprise a second therapeutic agent. The second therapeutic agent may be selected from any compound or therapeutic agent known to have or that demonstrates advantageous properties when administered with a compound having the same mechanism of action as the compound of the invention. In one embodiment, the second therapeutic agent is selected from isoniazid rifampicin pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin. In another embodiment, the second therapeutic agent is selected from kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, and streptomycin. In another embodiment, the second therapeutic agent is selected from levofloxacin,

moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. In another embodiment, the second therapeutic agent is selected from para-amino salicylic acid, cycloserine, terizidone, thionamide, and

protionamide. In another embodiment, the second therapeutic agent is selected from clofazimine, linezolid, amoxicillin/clavulanate, thioacetazone, imipenem/cilastatin, high dose isoniazid, clarithromycin.

In another embodiment, the invention provides separate dosage forms of a compound of the invention and one or more of any of the above-described second therapeutic agents, wherein the compound and second therapeutic agent are associated with one another. The term "associated with one another" as used herein means that the separate dosage forms are packaged together or otherwise attached to one another such that it is readily apparent that the separate dosage forms are intended to be sold and administered together (within less than 24 hours of one another, consecutively or simultaneously).

In the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention, the compound of the present invention is present in an effective amount. As used herein, the term "effective amount" refers to an amount which, when administered in a proper dosing regimen, is sufficient to treat the target disorder, e.g., an infection caused by a Mycobacterium species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The interrelationship of dosages for animals and humans (based on milligrams per meter squared of body surface) is described in Freireich et al., Cancer Chemother. Rep, 1966, 50: 219. Body surface area may be approximately determined from height and weight of the subject. See, e.g., Scientific Tables, Geigy Pharmaceuticals, Ardsley, N.Y., 1970, 537.

In one embodiment, an effective amount of a compound of this invention can range from 1 mg-lOg of the compound of Formula (I) or (II). Alternatively, the effective amount of the compound is ^g/kg-lOOmg/kg, ^g/kg-50mg/kg., or 10μg/kg-10mg/kg.

Effective doses will also vary, as recognized by those skilled in the art, depending on the diseases treated, the severity of the disease, the route of administration, the sex, age and general health condition of the subject, excipient usage, the possibility of co-usage with other therapeutic treatments such as use of other agents and the judgment of the treating physician. For pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a second therapeutic agent, an effective amount of the second therapeutic agent is between about 20% and 100% of the dosage normally utilized in a monotherapy regime using just that agent. Preferably, an effective amount is between about 70% and 100% of the normal monotherapeutic dose. The normal monotherapeutic dosages of these second therapeutic agents are well known in the art. See, e.g., Wells et al., eds., Pharmacotherapy Handbook, 2nd Edition, Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn. (2000); PDR Pharmacopoeia, Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2000, Deluxe Edition, Tarascon Publishing, Loma Linda, Calif. (2000), each of which references are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

It is expected that some of the second therapeutic agents referenced above will act synergistically with the compounds of this invention. When this occurs, it will allow the effective dosage of the second therapeutic agent and/or the compound of this invention to be reduced from that required in a monotherapy. This has the advantage of minimizing toxic side effects of either the second therapeutic agent of a compound of this invention, synergistic improvements in efficacy, improved ease of administration or use and/or reduced overall expense of compound preparation or formulation.

V. Methods of Treatment

The present invention also provides methods of inhibiting the growth of a bacteria (e.g., mycobacterium species). The methods involve contacting the bacteria with an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II), thereby inhibiting the growth of the bacteria compared with the growth of the bacteria in the absence of treatment with the compound. In certain embodiments, the method reduces the growth of the bacteria compared with the growth of the bacteria in the absence of treatment with the compound. In other instances, the treatment results in the killing of the bacteria. These methods may be practiced in vivo or in vitro.

The anti-bacterial activity of the compounds of Formula (I) or (II) with respect to a specific bacterium can be assessed by in vitro assays such as monitoring the zone of inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of treating a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof. The method includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or (II), thereby treating the bacterial infection in the subject. In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal, e.g., a human, a dog, a cat, a cow, a horse, a sheep, or any other domestic animal. In certain embodiments, the bacteria is (and the bacterial infection is caused by) a

Mycobacterium species. In particular, the Mycobacterium species may be selected from the group consisting of M. africanum, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. canetti, M. caprae, M.

microti, M. mungi, M. orygis, M. pinnipedii, M. suricattae, M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. avium paratuberculosis, M. avium silvaticum, M. avium "hominissuis ", M. colombiense, M. indicus pranii, M. asiaticum, M. gordonae, M. gastri and M. kansasii, M. hiberniae, M.

nonchromogenicum, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. ulcerans, M. pseudoshottsii, M. shottsii, M. triplex, M. genavense, M. florentinum, M. lentiflavum, M. palustre, M. kubicae, M.

parascrofulaceum, M. heidelbergense, M. interjectum, M. simiae, M. bohemicum, M.

botniense, M. branderi, M. celatum, M. chimaera, M. conspicuum, M. cookie, M. doricum, M. farcinogenes, M. haemophilum, M. heckeshornense, M. intracellular, M. lacus, M. leprae ,

M. lepraemurium, M. lepromatosis, M. liflandii, M. malmoense, M. marinum , M. monacense,

M. montefiorense, M. murale, M. nebraskense, M. saskatchewanense, M. scrofulaceum, M. shimoidei, M. szulgai, M. tusciae, M. xenopi, M. yongonense, M. intermedium, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum, M. fortuitum subsp. Acetamidolyticum, M. boenickei,

M. peregrinum, M. porcinum, M. senegalense, M. septicum, M. neworleansense, M.

houstonense, M. mucogenicum, M. mageritense, M. brisbanense, M. cosmeticum, M.

parafortuitum, M. austroafricanum, M. diernhoferi, M. hodleri,M. neoaurum, M.

frederiksbergense, M. aurum, M. vaccae, M. chitae, M. fallax, M. confluentis, M. flavescens, M. madagascariense, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, M. goodie, M. wolinskyi, M. thermoresistibile,

M. gadium, M. komossense, M. obuense, M. sphagni, M. agri, M. aichiense, M. alvei, M. arupense, M. brumae, M. canariasense, M. chubuense, M. conceptionense, M. duvalii, M. elephantis, M. gilvum, M. hassiacum, M. holsaticum, M. immunogenum, M. massiliense, M. moriokaense, M. psychrotolerans, M. pyrenivorans, M. vanbaalenii, M. pulveris, M.

arosiense, M. aubagnense, M. caprae, M. chlorophenolicum, M. fluoroanthenivorans, M. kumamotonense, M. novocastrense, M. parmense, M. phocaicum, M. poriferae, M. rhodesiae,

M. seoulense, or M. tokaiense. In a particular embodiment, the bacteria is (and bacterial infection is caused by) M. tuberculosis.

The compounds of the invention can be used to treat diseases caused by

Mycobacterium species. For example, the compounds of the invention can be used to treat tuberculosis, Buruli or Bairnsdale ulcer, leprosy, and aquarium granuloma. In addition, the compounds of the invention can be used to treat infections resulting from a subject being immunocompromised by a disease, e.g., AIDS or Crohn's disease in humans and Johne's disease in cattle and sheep. The compounds of Formula (I) or (II) may be administered to a subject by any methods well known in the art. These methods include local or systemic administration. Exemplary routes of administration include oral, parenteral, transdermal, intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal (e.g. , nebulizer, inhaler, aerosol dispenser), intraocular (e.g. , for the treatment of conjunctivitis), intraaural (e.g. , for the treatment of ear infections), colorectal, rectal, intravaginal, and any combinations thereof. In addition, it may be desirable to introduce the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention into the central nervous system by any suitable route, including intraventricular and intrathecal injection. Intraventricular injection may be facilitated by an intraventricular catheter, for example, attached to a reservoir, such as an Ommaya reservoir. Methods of introduction may also be provided by rechargeable or biodegradable devices, e.g., depots. Furthermore, it is contemplated that administration may occur by coating a device, implant, stent, or prosthetic. The compounds of Formula (I) or (II) can also be used to coat catheters in any situation where catheters are inserted in the body.

Administration of the compounds disclosed herein may be hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, or a single event. In addition, administration can have a duration of from one day to one year or more. In some embodiments, administration refers to daily

administration for a period of time, e.g. , for about a week, two weeks, three weeks, one month, two months, three months, four months, five months, six months, seven months, eight months, nine months, ten months, eleven months or a year. In some embodiments, administration refers to weekly administration for a period of time, e.g. , for about a month, three months, six months, one year or more.

In another embodiment, any of the above methods of treatment comprises the further step of co -administering to the subject in need thereof one or more second therapeutic agents. The choice of second therapeutic agent may be made from any second therapeutic agent known to be useful for co-administration with the compounds of the present invention. The choice of second therapeutic agent is also dependent upon the particular disease or condition to be treated. Examples of second therapeutic agents that may be employed in the methods of this invention are those set forth above for use in combination compositions comprising a compound of this invention and a second therapeutic agent.

The term "co- administered" as used herein means that the second therapeutic agent may be administered together with a compound of this invention as part of a single dosage form (such as a composition of this invention comprising a compound of the invention and an second therapeutic agent as described above) or as separate, multiple dosage forms. Alternatively, the additional agent may be administered prior to, consecutively with, or following the administration of a compound of this invention. In such combination therapy treatment, both the compounds of this invention and the second therapeutic agent(s) are administered by conventional methods. The administration of a composition of this invention, comprising both a compound of the invention and a second therapeutic agent, to a subject does not preclude the separate administration of that same therapeutic agent, any other second therapeutic agent or any compound of this invention to the subject at another time during a course of treatment.

Effective amounts of these second therapeutic agents are well known to those skilled in the art and guidance for dosing may be found in patents and published patent applications referenced herein, as well as in Wells et al., eds., Pharmacotherapy Handbook, 2nd Edition, Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn. (2000); PDR Pharmacopoeia, Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2000, Deluxe Edition, Tarascon Publishing, Loma Linda, Calif. (2000), and other medical texts. However, it is well within the skilled artisan's purview to determine the second therapeutic agent's optimal effective-amount range.

In one embodiment of the invention, where a second therapeutic agent is administered to a subject, the effective amount of the compound of this invention is less than its effective amount would be where the second therapeutic agent is not administered. In another embodiment, the effective amount of the second therapeutic agent is less than its effective amount would be where the compound of this invention is not administered. In this way, undesired side effects associated with high doses of either agent may be minimized. Other potential advantages (including without limitation improved dosing regimens and/or reduced drug cost) will be apparent to those of skill in the art.

In yet another aspect, the invention provides the use of a compound of Formula (I) or (II) (alone or together with one or more of the above-described second therapeutic agents) in the manufacture of a medicament, for treatment of a subject suffering, or prone to suffering, from a bacterial infection. In a further aspect, the present invention provides a compound of Formula (I) or (II) for use in the treatment of a subject suffering, or prone to suffering, from a bacterial infection.

VI. Kits and Articles of Manufacture Comprising Compounds of the Invention

The present invention also provides kits comprising the compounds of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and instructions for use. The term "kit" as used herein refers to a packaged product comprising components with which to administer a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, of the invention for treatment of a disorder caused by a bacterium, e.g., a Mycobacterium species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The kit preferably comprises a box or container that holds the components of the kit. The box or container is affixed with a label or a Food and Drug Administration approved protocol. The box or container holds components of the invention which are preferably contained within plastic, polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene, or propylene vessels. The vessels can be capped-tubes or bottles, or bottles containing a dropper suitable for the dropwise

administration of a solution containing the compounds of the invention, e.g., into the ear or eye of a subject. The kit can also include instructions for administering a pharmaceutical composition comprising compounds of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In a particular embodiment, the kit may comprise (a) a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula (I) or (II) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in a container; and (b) instructions describing a method of using the pharmaceutical composition.

The invention also provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with a liquid formulation of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, a container filled with a liquid formulation of the invention is a pre-filled syringe. In a specific embodiment, the formulations of the invention are formulated in single dose vials as a sterile liquid. For example, the formulations may be supplied in 3 cc USP Type I borosilicate amber vials (West Pharmaceutical Services - Part No. 6800-0675) with a target volume of 1.2 mL. Optionally associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration.

Any pre-filled syringe known to one of skill in the art may be used in combination with a liquid formulation of the invention. Pre-filled syringes that may be used are described in, for example, but not limited to, PCT Publications WO05032627, WO08094984,

W09945985, WO03077976, US Patents US6792743, US5607400, US5893842, US7081107, US7041087, US5989227, US6807797, US6142976, US5899889, US Patent Publications US20070161961A1, US20050075611A1, US20070092487A1, US20040267194A1,

US20060129108A1. Pre-filled syringes may be made of various materials. In one embodiment a pre-filled syringe is a glass syringe. In another embodiment a pre-filled syringe is a plastic syringe. One of skill in the art understands that the nature and/or quality of the materials used for manufacturing the syringe may influence the stability of a compound formulation stored in the syringe. For example, it is understood that silicon based lubricants deposited on the inside surface of the syringe chamber may affect particle formation in the compound formulation. In one embodiment, a pre-filled syringe comprises a silicone based lubricant. In one embodiment, a pre-filled syringe comprises baked on silicone. In another embodiment, a pre-filled syringe is free from silicone based lubricants. One of skill in the art also understands that small amounts of contaminating elements leaching into the formulation from the syringe barrel, syringe tip cap, plunger or stopper may also influence stability of the formulation. For example, it is understood that tungsten introduced during the manufacturing process may adversely affect formulation stability. In one embodiment, a pre-filled syringe may comprise tungsten at a level above 500 ppb. In another embodiment, a pre-filled syringe is a low tungsten syringe. In another embodiment, a pre-filled syringe may comprise tungsten at a level between about 500 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 400 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 300 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 200 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 100 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 50 ppb and about 10 ppb, between about 25 ppb and about 10 ppb.

The present invention also encompasses a finished packaged and labeled

pharmaceutical product. This article of manufacture includes the appropriate unit dosage form in an appropriate vessel or container such as a glass vial, pre-filled syringe or other container that is hermetically sealed. In one embodiment, the unit dosage form is provided as a sterile particulate free solution comprising pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, that is suitable for parenteral administration. In another embodiment, the unit dosage form is provided as a sterile lyophilized powder comprising a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula (I) or (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, that is suitable for reconstitution.

In one embodiment, the unit dosage form is suitable for intravenous, intramuscular, intranasal, oral, topical or subcutaneous delivery. Thus, the invention encompasses sterile solutions suitable for each delivery route. The invention further encompasses sterile lyophilized powders that are suitable for reconstitution.

As with any pharmaceutical product, the packaging material and container are designed to protect the stability of the product during storage and shipment. Further, the products of the invention include instructions for use or other informational material that advise the physician, technician or patient on how to appropriately prevent or treat the disease or disorder in question, as well as how and how frequently to administer the pharmaceutical. In other words, the article of manufacture includes instruction means indicating or suggesting a dosing regimen including, but not limited to, actual doses, monitoring procedures, and other monitoring information.

Specifically, the invention provides an article of manufacture comprising packaging material, such as a box, bottle, tube, vial, container, pre-filled syringe, sprayer, insufflator, intravenous (i.v.) bag, envelope and the like; and at least one unit dosage form of a compound of the invention contained within the packaging material, wherein the compound comprises a liquid formulation containing an antibiotic. The packaging material includes instruction means which indicate how that the compound can be used to prevent, treat and/or manage one or more symptoms associated with a disease or disorder.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples which should not be construed as limiting in any way. Throughout this application, various patents, patent applications, and publications are referenced. The disclosures of these patents, patent applications, and publications in their entireties are hereby incorporated by reference into this application. The instant disclosure will govern in the instance that there is any inconsistency between the patents, patent applications, and publications and this disclosure.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Preparation of a compound of Formula (II)

Growth ofL8825. The compound of Formula (II) was produced by the isolate L8825. L8825 was grown on SMSR4 agar (0.125 g casein digest, 0.1 g potato starch, 1.0 g casamino acids, 20g bacto-agar, and 100ml R4 broth in 1L dIH20. R4 broth: lOg glucose, lg yeast extract, O. lg casamino acids, 3g L-proline, lOg MgCl2-6H20, 4g CaCl2-2H20, 0.2 g K2S04, 5.6g TES, 1 ml Trace Mix with pH adjusted to 7.0 with NaOH in 1L dIH20). Formula (II) was produced by inoculating scraped mycelia from an agar plate into modified seed broth (15 g glucose, lOg malt extract, 7.5g glycerol, 5g casamino acids, 2.5g yeast extract, and 5

Marble chips (CaC12 - 2H20) in 1L dIH20)). This seed was grown for 5 days at 28°C shaking at 225rpm. After 5 days the culture was diluted 1:20 into BPM production media (20 g Glucose, 10 g Organic Soy Flour, 10 g Pharmamedia, 1 g (NH4)2S04, 10 g CaC03, 20 g Glycerol in 1L (IIH2O). This fermentation culture was shaken at 225rpm at 28°C for 5 days and activity was monitored by bioassay. The active culture was harvested by centrifugation.

Isolation and Extraction. The compound of Formula (II) was isolated from a 10L fermentation of strain L8825. The whole fermentation broth was centrifuged (10,000 rpm) to produce a clear supernatant and pelleted cell mass. The supernatant was decanted and passed over a prepared column of Diaion HP20. The HP20 column was rinsed with a mixture of 20% acetone in water, and then the compound of Formula (II) was eluted in a mixture of 80% acetone in water. The pelleted cell mass was extracted with acetone (1 L) dried onto HP20 resin then eluted in a similar manner to the supernatant. The active HP20 fractions were combined and dried to completeness under vacuum. The resulting slurry was washed with hexane and then reconstituted in methanol. The methanol solution was run on a column of Sephadex LH20. The active fractions were combined, dried to completeness, and then reconstituted in DMSO. The final purification was completed by reverse-phase HPLC using a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA (v:v). A final mass of 15.3 mg of the compound of Formula (II) was isolated from this fermentation.

Example 2. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC)

The broth microdilution procedure was used to determine the MIC for Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2155, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mc 26020. A two-fold serial dilution of the compound, the compound of Formula (II), was made in DMSO, and a 1.5 μΐ aliquot of the serial dilution added to the wells of a 96 well plate. The medium used for M. smegmatis mc 2155 was Mueller Hinton broth, and the medium for M. tuberculosis mc 26020 was 7H9 medium. The mycobacteria strains were diluted to an optical density of 0.003 at 600nm. A 148.5μ1 aliquot of the bacterial dilution was added to the wells, and incubated at 37°C (48

2 2

hours for M. smegmatis mc 155, and 7 days for M. tuberculosis mc 6020). The MIC is defined as the lowest concentration with no visible growth.

The MIC was 1-2 micrograms per mL for M. smegmatis mc 155, and 4-8 micrograms per mL for M. tuberculosis mc 6020. EQUIVALENTS

Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain, using no more than routine experimentation, numerous equivalents to the specific embodiments described specifically herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed in the scope of the following claims.

Claims

compound of the Formula (I)
Figure imgf000035_0001
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein
R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, - C(0)N(Rla)2, S(0)Rla, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2ORla, and -S(0)2N(Rla)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
Rla is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, -
C(0)N(R2a)2, S(0)R2a, -S(0)2R2a, -S(0)2OR2a, and -S(0)2N(R2a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R2a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the
Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, - C(0)N(R3a)2, S(0)R3a, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2OR3a, and -S(0)2N(R3a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R3a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, -
C(0)N(R4a)2, S(0)R4a, -S(0)2R4a, -S(0)2OR4a, and -S(0)2N(R4a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R4a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the
Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, - C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the
Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R5a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo;
R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R6a, -C(0)2R6a, - C(0)N(R6a)2, S(0)R6a, -S(0)2R6a, -S(0)2OR6a, and -S(0)2N(R6a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R6a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, and
-C(0)N(Rla)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
Rla is selected from the group consisting of H or C1-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, and
-C(0)N(R2a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R2a is selected from the group consisting of H and C1-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, and
-C(0)N(R3a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R3a is selected from the group consisting of H and Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, and
-C(0)N(R4a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R4a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, and
-C(0)N(R5a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy;
R5a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy; R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R6a, -C(0)2R6a. and
-C(0)N(R6a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy; and
R6a is selected from the group consisting of H or Ci-6alkyl, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 3 groups independently selected from halo and hydroxy.
The compound of claim 1 or 2, wherein
R1 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)Rla;
Rla is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R2 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R2a;
R2a is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R3 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R a;
Figure imgf000038_0001
R4 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R4a;
R4a is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R5 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R5a;
R5a is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R6 is H, Ci-4alkyl, or -C(0)R6a; and
R6a is H or Ci-4alkyl.
4. The compound of claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein
R1 is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R2 is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R3 is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R4 is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R5 is H or Ci-4alkyl;
R6 is -C(0)R5a; and
R6a is selected from the group consisting of H or C1-4alkyl. The compound of claim 1, wherein
R1 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)Rla, -C(0)2Rla, -
C(0)N(Rla)2, S(0)Rla, -S(0)2Rla, -S(0)2ORla, and -S(0)2N(Rla)2, wherein the Ci-ealkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
Rla is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R2 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R2a, -C(0)2R2a, -
C(0)N(R2a)2, S(0)R2a, -S(0)2R2a, -S(0)2OR2a, and -S(0)2N(R2a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R2a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R3 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R3a, -C(0)2R3a, -
C(0)N(R3a)2, S(0)R3a, -S(0)2R3a, -S(0)2OR3a, and -S(0)2N(R3a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R3a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R4 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)R4a, -C(0)2R4a, -
C(0)N(R4a)2, S(0)R4a, -S(0)2R4a, -S(0)2OR4a, and -S(0)2N(R4a)2, wherein the Ci-6alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R4a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, -C(0)R5a, -C(0)2R5a, -C(0)N(R5a)2, S(0)R5a, -S(0)2R5a, -S(0)2OR5a, and -S(0)2N(R5a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R5a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
The compound of claim 1, wherein
R6 is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, -C(0)2R6a, -C(0)N(R6a)2, S(0)R6a, -S(0)2R6a, -S(0)2OR6a, and -S(0)2N(R6a)2, wherein the C^alkyl may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo; and
R6a is selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6alkyl, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Ci-6alkyl and Ci-6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 groups independently selected from halo, hydroxy, and Ci-6alkoxy, wherein the Q. 6alkoxy may be optionally substituted with 1 to 5 halo.
11. A compound of Formula (II):
Figure imgf000041_0001
or an enantiomer, diastereomer, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof. 12. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 11 and pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 12, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is selected from the group consisting of ion exchangers, alumina, aluminum stearate, lecithin, serum proteins, such as human serum albumin, buffer substances selected from phosphates, glycine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat.
14. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 11 and an effective amount of an added preservative.
15. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 14, wherein the preservative is selected from the group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzoic acid and salts, benzyl alcohol, boric acid and salts, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chorhexidine gluconate or chlorhexidine acetate, cresol, ethanol, imidazolidinyl urea, metacresol, methylparaben, nitromersol, o- phenyl phenol, parabens, phenol, phenylmercuric acetate/nitrate, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, sorbic acids and salts, and thimerosal.
16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 11 and an effective amount of an added anti-oxidant and/or a solubilizer.
17. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 16, wherein the anti-oxidant is selected from the group consisting of a-tocopherol acetate, acetone sodium bisulfite, acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (bha), butylated hydroxytoluene (bht), cysteine, cysteine hydrochloride, d- a-tocopherol natural, d- a-tocopherol synthetic, dithiothreitol, monothioglycerol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, propyl gallate, sodium bisulfite, sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, and thiourea. 18. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 11 and an effective amount of an added adjuvant or synergist.
19. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 18, wherein the adjuvant or synergist is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) and salts, hydroxyquinoline sulfate, phosphoric acid, and tartaric acid.
20. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 12 to 19, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in a form selected from the group consisting of a capsule, a tablet, a pill, a dragee, a powder, a spray, an ointment, a paste, a cream, a lotion, a gel, a drop, a patch, and an inhalant.
21. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises lmg-lOg of the compound of Formula (I) or Formula (II). 22. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in a pre-filled syringe.
23. A method of treating a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I), thereby treating the bacterial infection in the subject. 24. A method of treating a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of Formula (II), thereby treating the bacterial infection in the subject.
25. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the bacterial infection is caused by a Mycobacterium species.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein the Mycobacterium species is selected from the group consisting of M. africanum, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. canetti, M. caprae, M. microti, M. mungi, M. orygis, M. pinnipedii, M. suricattae, M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. avium paratuberculosis, M. avium silvaticum, M. avium "hominissuis", M. colombiense, M. indicus pranii, M. asiaticum, M. gordonae, M. gastri and M. kansasii, M. hiberniae, M.
nonchromogenicum, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. ulcerans, M. pseudoshottsii, M. shottsii, M. triplex, M. genavense, M. florentinum, M. lentiflavum, M. palustre, M. kubicae, M.
parascrofulaceum, M. heidelbergense, M. interjectum, M. simiae, M. bohemicum, M.
botniense, M. branderi, M. celatum, M. chimaera, M. conspicuum, M. cookie, M. doricum, M. farcinogenes, M. haemophilum, M. heckeshornense, M. intracellular, M. lacus, M. leprae ,
M. lepraemurium, M. lepromatosis, M. liflandii, M. malmoense, M. marinum , M. monacense,
M. montefiorense, M. murale, M. nebraskense, M. saskatchewanense, M. scrofulaceum, M. shimoidei, M. szulgai, M. tusciae, M. xenopi, M. yongonense, M. intermedium, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum, M. fortuitum subsp. Acetamidolyticum, M. boenickei,
M. peregrinum, M. porcinum, M. senegalense, M. septicum, M. neworleansense, M.
houstonense, M. mucogenicum, M. mageritense, M. brisbanense, M. cosmeticum, M.
parafortuitum, M. austroafricanum, M. diernhoferi, M. hodleri,M. neoaurum, M.
frederiksbergense, M. aurum, M. vaccae, M. chitae, M. fallax, M. confluentis, M. flavescens, M. madagascariense, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, M. goodie, M. wolinskyi, M. thermoresistibile,
M. gadium, M. komossense, M. obuense, M. sphagni, M. agri, M. aichiense, M. alvei, M. arupense, M. brumae, M. canariasense, M. chubuense, M. conceptionense, M. duvalii, M. elephantis, M. gilvum, M. hassiacum, M. holsaticum, M. immunogenum, M. massiliense, M. moriokaense, M. psychrotolerans, M. pyrenivorans, M. vanbaalenii, M. pulveris, M. arosiense, M. aubagnense, M. caprae, M. chlorophenolicum, M. fluoroanthenivorans, M. kumamotonense, M. novocastrense, M. parmense, M. phocaicum, M. poriferae, M. rhodesiae, M. seoulense, and M. tokaiense. 27. The method of claim 25, wherein the bacterial infection is caused by M.
tuberculosis.
28. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the effective amount of the compound is ^g/kg-lOOmg/kg.
29. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the effective amount of the compound is ^g/kg-50mg/kg.
30. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the effective amount of the compound is 10μg/kg-10mg/kg.
31. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the compound is administered via a route selected from the group consisting of oral, parenteral, transdermal, intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, intraocular, intraaural, colorectal, rectal, intravaginal, and any combinations thereof.
32. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the compound is administered daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. 33. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the composition is administered daily for about a week, two weeks, three weeks, one month, two months, three months, four months, five months, six months, seven months, eight months, nine months, ten months, eleven months or a year.
34. The method of claim 23 or 24, wherein the subject is a human.
35. A method for producing a compound of Formula (I), the method comprising: cultivating a bacterial isolate L8825 in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions;
thereby producing a compound of Formula (I).
36. A method for producing a compound of Formula (I), the method comprising: cultivating a bacterial isolate E. coli or S. cerevisiae in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions;
thereby producing a compound of Formula (I).
37. A method for producing a compound of Formula (II), the method comprising: cultivating a bacterial isolate L8825 in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions;
thereby producing a compound of Formula (II).
38. A method for producing a compound of Formula (II), the method comprising: cultivating a bacterial isolate E. coli or S. cerevisiae in a culture medium, the culture medium comprising assimilable sources of carbon, nitrogen, and inorganic salts under aerobic conditions;
thereby producing a compound of Formula (II).
39. The method of any one of claims 35, 36, 36 or 38, further comprising isolating the compound of Formula (I) or Formula (II).
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