WO2016150657A1 - Packaging material comprising polyethylene foam - Google Patents

Packaging material comprising polyethylene foam Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016150657A1
WO2016150657A1 PCT/EP2016/054239 EP2016054239W WO2016150657A1 WO 2016150657 A1 WO2016150657 A1 WO 2016150657A1 EP 2016054239 W EP2016054239 W EP 2016054239W WO 2016150657 A1 WO2016150657 A1 WO 2016150657A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
packaging material
wood
material according
cellulose
foam
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2016/054239
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Renate Francisca Tandler
Maria Soliman
Douwe Wiebe VAN DER MEER
Emanuel Joseph Herman Marie VAN DER VEN
Johan Maria Krist
Original Assignee
Sabic Global Technologies B.V.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Sabic Global Technologies B.V. filed Critical Sabic Global Technologies B.V.
Publication of WO2016150657A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016150657A1/en

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/0014Use of organic additives
    • C08J9/0023Use of organic additives containing oxygen
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B15/00Layered products comprising a layer of metal
    • B32B15/04Layered products comprising a layer of metal comprising metal as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B15/046Layered products comprising a layer of metal comprising metal as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of foam
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B15/00Layered products comprising a layer of metal
    • B32B15/20Layered products comprising a layer of metal comprising aluminium or copper
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/06Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B27/065Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of foam
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/30Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin comprising vinyl (co)polymers; comprising acrylic (co)polymers
    • B32B27/306Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin comprising vinyl (co)polymers; comprising acrylic (co)polymers comprising vinyl acetate or vinyl alcohol (co)polymers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/32Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin comprising polyolefins
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/36Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin comprising polyesters
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/18Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by features of a layer of foamed material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/32Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed at least two layers being foamed and next to each other
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/0061Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof characterized by the use of several polymeric components
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/0085Use of fibrous compounding ingredients
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/0095Mixtures of at least two compounding ingredients belonging to different one-dot groups
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    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/04Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent
    • C08J9/12Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent by a physical blowing agent
    • C08J9/122Hydrogen, oxygen, CO2, nitrogen or noble gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/04Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent
    • C08J9/12Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent by a physical blowing agent
    • C08J9/14Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent by a physical blowing agent organic
    • C08J9/141Hydrocarbons
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J9/00Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof
    • C08J9/04Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent
    • C08J9/12Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent by a physical blowing agent
    • C08J9/14Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof using blowing gases generated by a previously added blowing agent by a physical blowing agent organic
    • C08J9/143Halogen containing compounds
    • C08J9/144Halogen containing compounds containing carbon, halogen and hydrogen only
    • C08J9/146Halogen containing compounds containing carbon, halogen and hydrogen only only fluorine as halogen atoms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2255/00Coating on the layer surface
    • B32B2255/10Coating on the layer surface on synthetic resin layer or on natural or synthetic rubber layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2255/00Coating on the layer surface
    • B32B2255/20Inorganic coating
    • B32B2255/205Metallic coating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition or structural features of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/06Vegetal fibres
    • B32B2262/062Cellulose fibres, e.g. cotton
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition or structural features of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/06Vegetal fibres
    • B32B2262/062Cellulose fibres, e.g. cotton
    • B32B2262/065Lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. jute, sisal, hemp, flax, bamboo
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition or structural features of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/06Vegetal fibres
    • B32B2262/062Cellulose fibres, e.g. cotton
    • B32B2262/067Wood fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2264/00Composition or properties of particles which form a particulate layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2264/06Vegetal particles
    • B32B2264/062Cellulose particles, e.g. cotton
    • B32B2264/067Wood particles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2266/00Composition of foam
    • B32B2266/02Organic
    • B32B2266/0214Materials belonging to B32B27/00
    • B32B2266/025Polyolefin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
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    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/50Properties of the layers or laminate having particular mechanical properties
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    • B32B2307/518Oriented bi-axially
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    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/70Other properties
    • B32B2307/75Printability
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    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
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    • B32B2439/00Containers; Receptacles
    • B32B2439/70Food packaging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B32B2553/00Packaging equipment or accessories not otherwise provided for
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2201/00Foams characterised by the foaming process
    • C08J2201/02Foams characterised by the foaming process characterised by mechanical pre- or post-treatments
    • C08J2201/03Extrusion of the foamable blend
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2203/00Foams characterized by the expanding agent
    • C08J2203/06CO2, N2 or noble gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2203/00Foams characterized by the expanding agent
    • C08J2203/14Saturated hydrocarbons, e.g. butane; Unspecified hydrocarbons
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2205/00Foams characterised by their properties
    • C08J2205/04Foams characterised by their properties characterised by the foam pores
    • C08J2205/052Closed cells, i.e. more than 50% of the pores are closed
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2207/00Foams characterised by their intended use
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2323/00Characterised by the use of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond; Derivatives of such polymers
    • C08J2323/02Characterised by the use of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond; Derivatives of such polymers not modified by chemical after treatment
    • C08J2323/04Homopolymers or copolymers of ethene
    • C08J2323/06Polyethene
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2401/00Characterised by the use of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives
    • C08J2401/02Cellulose; Modified cellulose
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2451/00Characterised by the use of graft polymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Derivatives of such polymers
    • C08J2451/06Characterised by the use of graft polymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Derivatives of such polymers grafted on to homopolymers or copolymers of aliphatic hydrocarbons containing only one carbon-to-carbon double bond
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G or C08H
    • C08J2497/00Characterised by the use of lignin-containing materials
    • C08J2497/02Lignocellulosic material, e.g. wood, straw or bagasse

Definitions

  • Isobutane was blowing agent during foaming of said compounds at a foam extrusion line comprising a direct-gassed single screw extruder with fluid cooled extension barrel with a metering unit for blowing agents, fluid cooled static mixer and melt pump. Temperature setup of the foam extrusion line was 50-160-180-180-180- 167-147-140-115 °C.

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Medicinal Chemistry (AREA)
  • Polymers & Plastics (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Emergency Medicine (AREA)
  • Manufacture Of Porous Articles, And Recovery And Treatment Of Waste Products (AREA)

Abstract

The invention is directed to a packaging material comprising polyethylene foam obtained by foaming a composition comprising low density polyethylene and a cellulose based component. The packaging material shows reduced permeation of oxygen and reduced permeation of carbon dioxide.

Description

Packaging material comprising polyethylene foam
The present invention relates to a packaging material comprising polyethylene foam.
Packaging materials protect food, medicines, and all other products, which should not be wasted or damaged. Plastic packaging can very well protect especially food. Those packaging materials are optimized depending on the type of food they have to protect. Gas barrier properties are optimized for conservation of sensitive food products, commonly known as 'shelf life'. Diffusion of oxygen towards the food has to be reduced in order to keep it fresh and tasteful for a longer period. The amount of material for a package has to be reduced while keeping the functionality. In countries where food is not packed in an optimized way, more than 20% of the valuable food is already wasted before it reaches the consumer, which is unfavorable from a financially and environmental point of view.
It is the object of the present invention to provide polymer compositions, which result in improved shelf life of food packaging materials.
The invention is characterised in that the packaging material comprises polyethylene foam obtained by foaming a composition comprising low density polyethylene and a cellulose based component wherein the foam is produced via a physically blowing process.
The invention results in packaging material having a reduction of permeation of oxygen and reduction of permeation of carbon dioxide.
The carbon dioxide transmission rate decreases more than 20% in the compound which contains a cellulose based component (in comparison with a compound comprising no cellulose based component).
The oxygen transmission rate decrease more than 8% in the compound which contains a cellulose based component (in comparison with a compound comprising no cellulose based component).
The reduction of these permeation values result in improved barrier properties and consequently in an improved shelf life of food packaging.
A further advantage is the possibility to down gauge and to obtain lighter products without loss of the required product properties.
The composition according to the invention can be applied in a broad range of protective packaging for example food packaging, packaging material for medicines and health care uses, seals, closures, -packaging for electronics and egg trays. Generally the LDPE to be applied in the present invention has a density between 910 kg/m3 and 935 kg/m3 (according to ISO 1183) and a melt index
MFI(190°C, 2.16kg) between 0.10 and 100 dg/minute (according to ASTM D1 133).
Preferably the melt index MFI (190°C, 2.16kg) ranges between 0, 5 and 8.0 dg/minute and more preferably between 1 , 5 and 5.0 dg/minute.
The high-pressure polymerisation process to obtain LDPE may be an autoclave polymerisation process or a tubular polymerisation process.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the high-pressure polymerisation process is a tubular polymerisation process.
The low-density polyethylene may be obtained for example by a polymerisation process as disclosed in WO2006/094723.
The LDPE applied in the present invention may comprise a small amount of HDPE such as for example disclosed in WO2008/145267 wherein a blend comprising 95.5 - 99.5% by weight low density polyethylene and 0.5 - 4.5% by weight high density polyethylene is used.
The cellulose component has OH functionality. This functionality results in the reduction of permeation of oxygen and reduction of permeation of carbon
dioxide. Furthermore the component plays a role as a filler for modifying mechanical properties.
The cellulose component must have the ability to be dispersed in LDPE.
The L/D ratio of the cellulose component ranges between 1 and 1000. Cellulose powder has L/D of 1 and cellulose fibers have a L/D higher than 1.
The man skilled in the art will select a particle size of the cellulose compound which is suitable to be applied during the compounding process.
Suitable cellulose components include for example cellulose, paper pulp, recycled paper, mycrocristalline cellulose, nanocellulose, cotton, ramie, jute, and aflax (bast fibers), sisal , abaca (leaf fibers), sawdust, alfalfa, wheat pulp, wood fibers, wood chips, wood particles, ground wood, wood flour, wood flakes, wood veneers, wood laminates, paper, cardboard, straw, cotton, peanut shells, bagass, plant fibers, bamboo fiber, palm fibers, bast, leaves, newspaper, coconut shells and seed fibers.
Preferred cellulose components are wood fibers and wood flour.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the composition comprises a compatibiliser. The compatibiliser or coupling agent such as for example maleic anhydride-g-PE may be applied to improve the adhesion between LDPE and the hydrophilic fiber. The classification and application of thermoplastic foams are closely related to the structure of foams (cell size, cell density, foam density or volume expansion ratio, closed or open cell). Therefore, the structural characterization of foams is very important. For example for barrier properties a foam with essentially closed cells is required. For example for optical properties a small cell sized foam is necessary.
The polyethylene foam has a density of between 10 and 800 kg/m3.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the polyethylene foam has a density of between 50 and 600 kg/m3.
Generally the physically blown polyethylene and cellulose based component based foam has a highly regular, fine cellular foam structure wherein the cell size may range between 30 and 1200 micrometres.
dso may range between 250 pm and 350 pm.
The amount of cellulose based component in the foam composition may range between 0.1 and 30 % by weight of the total composition.
Preferably, the amount of cellulose based component in the foam composition ranges between 10 and 25 % by weight of the total composition.
The amount of polyethylene in the foam composition is at least 70 % by weight of the total composition to be foamed. Preferably, the amount of polyethylene in the foam composition ranges between 75 and 90 % by weight of the total composition.
The polyethylene and cellulose based component based foam has a
substantially closed cell foam structure. The amount of closed foam cells will be higher than 90 %, preferably higher than 98 %.
The foam is produced via a non-crosslinkable physically blowing process wherein all steps take place in one extruder. The preferred physical foaming process is a continuous extrusion process in which the blowing gas, which forms cells in the complete mixture of PE, cellulose based component, and other additives for example nucleating agents, cell stabilizers is injected directly into the PE melt and
homogeneously mixed and dissolved in the molten polyethylene. At or just before the die exit the gas demixes and the PE melt is foamed.
The composition to be foamed contains at least the polymer, the cellulose based component, the nucleating agent, a physical blowing agent and a cell stabilizer. The composition may additionally contain other additives such as for example flame retardants, pigments, lubricants, antistatic agents, processing stabilizers, chemical blowing agents and/or UV stabilizers. A nucleating agent is distributed homogeneously. The nucleating agent may be an organic or an inorganic nucleating agent. Besides the cellulose based component other nucleating agents for example talc, silicium oxide, titanium oxide and alumium trihytate can be apllied.
Suitable organic nucleating agents include an amide, an amine and/or an ester of a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic (C10-C34) carboxylic acid.
Examples of suitable amides include fatty acid (bis)amides such as for example stearamide, caproamide, caprylamide, undecylamide, lauramide, myristamide, palmitamide, behenamide and arachidamide, hydroxystearamides and alkylenediyl-bis- alkanamides, preferably (C2-C32) alkylenediyl-bis-(C2-C32) alkanamides, such as for example ethylene bistearamide, butylene bistearamide, hexamethylene bistearamide, and/or ethylene bibehenamide.
Suitable amines are for instance (C2-C18) alkylene diamines such as for example ethylene biscaproamine and hexamethylene biscaproamine.
Preferred esters of a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic (C10-C34) carboxylic acid are the esters of an aliphatic (C16-C24) carboxylic acid.
It is possible to apply a nucleating agent for example in an amount of between
0.1 and 4.0 wt. % relative to polyethylene. A more preferred amount ranges between 0.5 and 1 wt. %.
Suitable physical blowing agents include for example isobutane, CO2, pentane, butane, nitrogen and/or fluorohydrocarbons. Preferably, the physical blowing agent is isobutane or CO2. In order to keep the gas dissolved in the PE melt, a minimum pressure, which is dependent on the gas used and the prevailing melt temperature, is needed in the molten polyethylene.
Suitable cell stabilizers include for example glycerol monostearate (GMS), mixtures of GMS and glycerol monopalmitate (GMP) and/or amides such as for example stearyl stearamide and/or stearamide. Preferably, the cell stabiliser is GMS.
The composition is extruded at a temperature just above the crystallization temperature of the polyethylene. The exit temperature from the extrusion opening usually is maximum 10°C and preferably maximum 5°C higher than the crystallization temperature. The temperature at which the viscosity increase begins due to the crystallization of polyethylene corresponds with the crystallization onset temperature from a DSC curve. In order to achieve on the one hand the maximum viscosity and hence the desired fine cellular structure and, on the other, to prevent the melt from "freezing" (crystallizing too rapidly) in the outlet, the melt temperature is maintained at about 5°C and preferably about 2°C above the crystallization onset temperature so as to obtain the desired fine cellular foam. The end product is completely foamed. The end product is recyclable and can be processed as any thermoplastic polymer.
The packaging may be composed completely of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) foam in a monolayer system and the packaging may comprise a one of the layers the LDPE foam in a multi-layer system wherein the packaging material may comprise several layers such as a foamed support layer of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and layers of a non-foamed, solid polymeric material or a solid metal, called lamination films.
Lamination films can be present at one or both sides of the foamed support layer. In between the lamination film and support foam an adhesive or extrusion coated layer maybe present.
The thickness of the foamed support layer can be between 0.5 mm and 4 mm, whereas the individual thickness of the other layers may be between 15 micrometres and 200 micrometres. The thickness of the adhesive or extrusion coated layer is usually small in comparison to the dimensions of other layers.
Suitable materials for the outer-layers are for example bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP), bi-oriented polyester terephthalate (BOPET), ethylene vinyl alcohol and an aluminium layer and multilayer filmic structures comprising for example LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE , PP and other material (i.e. barrier layer). Those film layers may be used as such (transparent or opaque) or may be printed possible combined with coated with an additional barrier material or slip material (silicones), or vacuum deposited with a metal like aluminium. The foamed support layer consists mainly of a low density
polyethylene copolymer. The outer layers are laminated to the foamed support layer after the production of the foamed support layer via heat or extrusion lamination process or with adhesives. This can be done in-line or in a second process step.
GB1353041 discloses a batch mould process for producing foamed composite articles. The method to produce composite articles comprises placing in a mould crosslinkable powdered plastic materials and crosslinkable granular plastic materials in specific particle sizes containing a chemically blowing agent and next rotating and vibrating the mould to separate the two kinds of plastics materials from each other and heating the mixture.
US2014/272229 discloses a polyethylene foam and a multi-layer structure. The end product is not completely foamed because the structure comprises a foam and a solid composition. The solid composition may comprise a huge amount of additives for example fillers for example wood powder. CN 103360674 is directed to a crosslinked foam composition based on less than 50 % by weight LDPE which is produced with azodicarbonamide as chemically blowing agent.
CN103554626 is directed to a batch process to produce molded articles wherein the composition to be foamed comprises azodicarbonamide and a crosslinking agent.
The invention is elucidated by means of the following non-restrictive
experiments and examples. Examples.
The applied materials are:
-LDPE: LDPE 1905 UMS of SABIC with a melt flow rate MFR (190°, 2.16kg) of 5.0 dg/min and a density of 920 kg/m3.
- Wood fiber pellets: Woodforce GWFB00003 of Sonae Industria.
- Maleic anhydride modified HDPE: Polybond 3029 (Addivant)
Production of compounds.
-Compound I was produced by compounding of 88.5 parts by weight LDPE, 10 parts by weight wood fibers and 1.5 parts by weight maleic anhydride modified HDPE (Polybond 3029) on a screw extruder.
The extruder had a temperature profile of the screw as follows: zone 1 : 30°C, zone 2: 155°C, zone 3 to 5: 160°C, zone 6 to 12: 165°C and die: 180°C.
The compound was dried 4 hours at 80°C.
-Comparative Compound A was produced via the same process with the exception that no wood fibers and no maleic anhydride modified HDPE were applied.
-Comparative Compound B was produced via the same process with the exception that no wood fibers and no maleic anhydride modified HDPE were applied and additionally 10 % by weight talcum were present. Production of foam.
Before foaming to
- Compound I: 1 .0 % by weight (relative to the total amount of the compound) glycerol mono stearate were added
- Compound A: 1 .0 % by weight (relative to the total amount of the compound) glycerol mono stearate and 1.0 % by weight talc (relative to the total amount of the compound) were added and - Compound B: 1.0 % by weight (relative to the total amount of the compound) glycerol mono stearate were added.
Isobutane was blowing agent during foaming of said compounds at a foam extrusion line comprising a direct-gassed single screw extruder with fluid cooled extension barrel with a metering unit for blowing agents, fluid cooled static mixer and melt pump. Temperature setup of the foam extrusion line was 50-160-180-180-180- 167-147-140-115 °C.
Table 1 shows the densities of the foam based on Compound I, Compound A and Compound B.
TABLE 1
Density kg/m3
Compound I 196
Compound A 180
Compound B 163
The density of the foam was determined by the method wherein sample weight was divided by sample volume. Sample volume was calculated by the formula: height x π (diameter)2.
Table 2 shows the open cell content of the foam based on Compound I, Compound A and Compound B.
TABLE 2
Open Cell content %
Compound I < 1
Compound A < 1
Compound B < 1 The open cell content was determined by the method wherein a (weight) piece of foam is submerged in a solution of 95 wt % water / 5 wt% ethylene glycol at a pressure of 540 mbar. After 10 minutes samples were taken out of the solution and submerged for 5 seconds in methanol to remove the excess of water, followed by 5 min at 60°C in an oven. The weight of the piece of foam was determined again. Open cell content was calculated by (weight start - weight end) / (weight start/density)*100%. Table 3 shows the results of the permeability tests which were performed by cutting foamed sheets. The results were calculated for 1 mm foam.
TABLE 3
Density Carbon dioxide Oxygen transmission rate
transmission rate ASTM D3985
DIN 53380-4
23.0°C/0 % r.h. 23°C/0% r.h. 23°C/50% r.h. cm3/(m2.d.bar) cm3/(m2.d.bar) cm3/(m2.d.bar)
Compound I 196 3768 1007 1021 Compound A 180 4737 1090 not tested Compound B 163 5042 1414 not tested Table 3 shows that the carbon dioxide transmission decreases more than 20% in the compound which contains wood fibers.
Table 3 shows that oxygen transmission rate decrease more than 8% in the compound which contains wood fibers.
The combination of a decrease of carbon dioxide- and oxygen transmission rate is excellent.
Figure 1 shows the results of the tensile strength tests (according to ISO 1926) on foamed sheets based on Compounds I, A and B.
The foam based on Compound I shows a maximum force of 1.3 MPa at an elongation of 32%.
The foam based on Compound A shows a maximum force of 0.9 MPa at an elongation of 64%.
The foam based on Compound B shows a maximum force of 1.1 MPa at an elongation of 83%.
SEM images of Fig 2, Fig 3 and Fig 4 are the results of samples cut out of the foamed sheets with a razor blade (at room temperature) and fixed onto a SEM sample holder. The samples were coated with a conductive Au/Pd-layer (5 nm) before imaging.
Figure 2 shows the cell structure of foam based on Compound I,
Figure 3 shows the cell structure of foam based on Compound A and
Figure 4 shows the cell structure of foam based on Compound B.
In comparison with foam based on Compound I, the foam based on Compound A and Compound B have more compression of the cells. The cells are oval shaped. Foam based on Compound I has a cell size d50 of 300 pm and foam based on Compound A has a cell size d50 of 200 pm (determined via Image analyzing).

Claims

1. Packaging material comprising polyethylene foam obtained by foaming a
composition comprising low density polyethylene and a cellulose based component wherein the foam is obtained is produced via a physically blowing process.
2. Packaging material according to Claim 1 wherein low density polyethylene has a density between 910 kg/m3 and 935 kg/m3 (according to ISO 1183) and a melt index between 0.10 and 100 dg/minute (according to ASTM D1133).
3. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-2 wherein the low density polyethylene is obtained via a high pressure polymerisation process in a tubular reactor.
4. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-3 wherein the L/D ratio of the cellulose component ranges between 1 and 1000.
5. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-4 wherein the cellulose component is selected from cellulose, paper pulp, recycled paper,
mycrocristalline cellulose, nanocellulose, cotton, ramie, jute, and aflax (bast fibers), sisal , abaca (leaf fibers), sawdust, alfalfa, wheat pulp, wood fibers, wood chips, wood particles, ground wood, wood flour, wood flakes, wood veneers, wood laminates, paper, cardboard, straw, cotton, peanut shells, bagass, plant fibers, bamboo fiber, palm fibers, bast, leaves, newspaper, coconut shells and seed fibers.
6. Packaging material according to Claim 5 wherein the cellulose component is
selected from wood fiber and wood flour.
7. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-6 wherein the composition comprises a compatibiliser.
8. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-7 wherein the cellulose based component is present in an amount between 0.1 and 30 % by weight of the total composition.
9. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-8 wherein the amount of polyethylene in the foam composition is at least 70 % by weight of the total composition.
10. Packaging material according to any one of Claims 1-9 wherein the carbon
dioxide transmission rate decreases more than 20% and the oxygen transmission rate decrease more than 8% in comparison with a compound comprising no cellulose based component.
PCT/EP2016/054239 2015-03-24 2016-02-29 Packaging material comprising polyethylene foam WO2016150657A1 (en)

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JP2018080298A (en) * 2016-11-18 2018-05-24 三和化工株式会社 Method for producing polyolefin foam, and polyolefin foam
CN109251388A (en) * 2018-07-04 2019-01-22 湖北祥源新材科技股份有限公司 With cross-linked foam polyolefin material resistant to high temperature and preparation method thereof
CN109734987A (en) * 2019-01-15 2019-05-10 广东金特环保股份有限公司 A kind of bamboo fibre microcellular foam material and its manufacturing method
WO2019212460A1 (en) * 2018-04-30 2019-11-07 Owens Corning Intellectual Capital, Llc Polymer foam including nano-crystalline cellulose
CN112961394A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-06-15 浙江省林业科学研究院 Preparation method of degradable bamboo fiber straw
CN113308053A (en) * 2021-06-18 2021-08-27 万华化学(宁波)有限公司 Self-foaming plant fiber modified polypropylene material and preparation method thereof

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2018080298A (en) * 2016-11-18 2018-05-24 三和化工株式会社 Method for producing polyolefin foam, and polyolefin foam
WO2019212460A1 (en) * 2018-04-30 2019-11-07 Owens Corning Intellectual Capital, Llc Polymer foam including nano-crystalline cellulose
CN109251388A (en) * 2018-07-04 2019-01-22 湖北祥源新材科技股份有限公司 With cross-linked foam polyolefin material resistant to high temperature and preparation method thereof
CN109734987A (en) * 2019-01-15 2019-05-10 广东金特环保股份有限公司 A kind of bamboo fibre microcellular foam material and its manufacturing method
CN112961394A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-06-15 浙江省林业科学研究院 Preparation method of degradable bamboo fiber straw
CN112961394B (en) * 2021-04-20 2022-05-13 浙江省林业科学研究院 Preparation method of degradable bamboo fiber straw
CN113308053A (en) * 2021-06-18 2021-08-27 万华化学(宁波)有限公司 Self-foaming plant fiber modified polypropylene material and preparation method thereof

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