WO2015145204A1 - Hydromechanical heat generator - Google Patents

Hydromechanical heat generator Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015145204A1
WO2015145204A1 PCT/IB2014/060148 IB2014060148W WO2015145204A1 WO 2015145204 A1 WO2015145204 A1 WO 2015145204A1 IB 2014060148 W IB2014060148 W IB 2014060148W WO 2015145204 A1 WO2015145204 A1 WO 2015145204A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
chamber
arranged
fluid
heating
heat generator
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PCT/IB2014/060148
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French (fr)
Inventor
Gintaras JOCYS
Olegas SAVICKIS
Aleksei NAVARKIN
Yury PARAMENOV
Original Assignee
Jocys Gintaras
Savickis Olegas
Navarkin Aleksei
Paramenov Yury
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Application filed by Jocys Gintaras, Savickis Olegas, Navarkin Aleksei, Paramenov Yury filed Critical Jocys Gintaras
Priority to PCT/IB2014/060148 priority Critical patent/WO2015145204A1/en
Publication of WO2015145204A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015145204A1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24VCOLLECTION, PRODUCTION OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F24V40/00Production or use of heat resulting from internal friction of moving fluids or from friction between fluids and moving bodies

Abstract

A hydromechanical heat generator that is designed to heat a fluid by facilitating the appearance of a turbulent vortex inside a working fluid, where heating occurs due to a process of continuous cavitation. The hydromechanical heat generator comprises a housing assembly (1-3), preferably cast, having at least three interconnecting chambers (4-6), whereas one chamber is a hopper, funnel or a similarly shaped fluid inflow chamber (4) with at least one fluid inflow inlet (7), the second chamber is the heating chamber (5) arranged with a multiple smooth disk (8) rotor (8-10), mounted on an axis, fitted with a special tip (10) for controlling the currents forming above central part of the rotor, which in turn is coupled with an actuator (12), the third chamber is an outflow chamber (6) arranged with at least one fluid outflow holes or nozzles (outlets) (13). The generator is arranged is such a way that it can accommodate rotational movement of a liquid leading to formation of toroidal vortices characterized in the rational movement along the perimeter of the torus and around the axis of symmetry and controlled appearance of cavitation bubbles that are responsible for heating the liquid.

Description

HYDROMECHANICAL HEAT GENERATOR FIELD OF INVENTION

This invention relates to heating devices, and more specifically to a fluid vortex-cavitation heating system.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

Commonly, fluids are heated by burning fossil fuels or by using electricity (which is often created by burning fossil fuels). Burning fossil fuels has the disadvantage of releasing carbon dioxide, which is currently believed to be the most contributing greenhouse gas to global warming and ocean acidification. Therefore, there is a need for more efficient fluid heating solutions that would circumvent the need for using fossil fuel derived electricity or optimize electricity to heat conversion processes. Such a solution is cavitation based heating devices.

A cavitation heater is in the simplest case a device that converts mechanical energy into heat in a working fluid. For example, a very inefficient centrifugal pump can be considered a cavitation heater. Efficient mechanical work to heat conversion due to cavitation would have advantages in industrial applications where the working fluid can be adversely damaged, especially when coming into contact with heating elements in a steep temperature gradient conditions (food and chemical processing applications), where some constituents of the fluid may come out of solution on a heat transfer surface (mineralization in water heaters and boilers) or where on-demand heating is needed (water heating for residential or commercial uses).

Cavitation is the development of vapor structures in an originally liquid flow. Contrary to boiling, the phase change takes place at almost constant temperature and is due to a local drop in pressure generated by the flow itself, especially, where turbulence occurs. A detailed description of fundamental process regarding cavitation can be found in “Fluid dynamics of cavitation and cavitating turbopumps” by L. d’Agostino and M. V. Salvetti (ISBN 978-3-211-76668-2).

Generally, cavitation is a process to be avoided in common hydrodynamic devices, such as pumps, since cavitation erosion causes damages to the device, but achieving cavitation inside complex vortex type currents inside the fluid itself, without enabling cavitation bubbles to appear or collapse in contact with any solid surface of the device, can allow for hybrid pump-heater devices. Such devices have been proposed as potential heating devices and systems.

It should be noted that such devices commonly incorporate elements used is centrifugal pumps to impart rotodynamic force onto a fluid. A typical design of centrifugal pumps involves an axially rotating impeller housed inside a radially spiraling volute casing. Fluid enters the pump through an inlet. The inlet is located along the rotating axis of an impeller. The fluid exits the pump through the outlet, which directs the fluid radially outward from the pump. A more in depth overview of the typical designs can be found in “Forsthoffer's Rotating Equipment Handbooks Vol 2: Pumps” by W. E Forsthoffer (Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2005, ISBN 1856174689).

A Russian Federation patent application No. RU2338130, published on 10-11-2008, discloses a vortex generator, comprising an enclosed impeller made as centrifugal pump runner and having an outlet closed with a rim. The rim forms high-pressure zone at impeller periphery. The high-pressure zone is provided with working throttling orifices located off the impeller ends. The throttling orifices are made as profiled slots, holes or slots and adapted for high-velocity liquid discharge in tangential direction at a given angle to angular velocity vector into toroidal vortex chambers located from impeller ends. The toroidal vortex chambers are communicated with inlet impeller blade zone through additional throttling channels. Working heat-generator cavities are hydraulically communicated with outer heat extraction system through outlet annular channel arranged around impeller rim and outlet channel coaxial to central inlet impeller orifice. The toroidal vortex chambers are provided with additional high-frequency liquid exciting sources.

Another Russian Federation patent application No. RU2282114, published on 20-08-2006, discloses a toroidal heat-generator, working on a principle of heating fluid through the vortex-cavitation processes. The generator can be used for heating fluid and for the intensification of particular processes hydraulic systems. The said vortex heat generator comprises a closed impeller type centrifugal pump wheel, an output which is covered by a rim at the periphery of the impeller high pressure zone, which ends with a wheel provided with throttling working channels (in the form of shaped grooves, holes, slots). Liquid ejection occurs at high speeds in a tangential direction at a predetermined angle to the angular velocity vector with the ends located in the impeller toroidal vortex chambers, communicated via an additional throttling area with the inlet channels of the blades of the impeller. Hydraulic connection between the generator working cavities with external hydraulic heat extraction is claimed to be carried out through the outlet annulus located around the rim of the impeller and the inlet channel coaxial input central opening of the said impeller, where the toroidal vortex chambers are equipped with additional sources of high-frequency excitation of the liquid.

The first main disadvantage of the mentioned inventions is the utilization of a single stage for the heating of the fluid, where no secondary stage heating chambers are provided, as this can limit the maximum efficiency of the device. The other disadvantage stems from the paddled, vaned or bladed impellers that are subject to considerable wear during operation and impose limitations for the impellers as measures to avoid cavitation erosion must be taken and that imposes characteristic limitations on the assembly and requires special maintenance. The third considerable disadvantage is the use of normal surfaces to the flow average attack angles, this can create additional wear of the said surfaces and introduce additional erosion.

SUMMARY

In order to eliminate the drawbacks indicated above, this invention provides a hydromechanical heat generator that is designed to heat fluid, preferably water. Heating is achieved transferring the torque of one or more actuator to the liquid circulating in the generator to initiate the appearance and successive collapse of cavitation bubbles inside torus type turbulent vortices.

The hydromechanical heat generator comprises a housing assembly (1-3), preferably cast, having at least three interconnecting chambers (4-6), whereas one chamber is a hopper, funnel or similarly shaped fluid inflow (4) chamber with at least one fluid inflow inlet (7), the second chamber is the heating chamber (5) arranged with a multiple smooth disk (8) rotor (8-10), spaced along a shaft (9), fitted with a special tip (10) (cap or similar element, henceforth referred to as ‘tip’) for controlling the flow above (11) the central part of the rotor (8-10), which in turn is coupled with an actuator (12), the third chamber is a outflow chamber (6) arranged with at least one fluid outflow holes or nozzles (outlets) (13). The generator is arranged in such a way that it can accommodate rotational movement of a fluid leading to formation of toroidal vortices (14,15) characterized in the rational movement along the perimeter (14) of the torus (14, 15) and around the axis of symmetry (16) of the chamber and controlled appearance of cavitation bubbles that are responsible for heating the liquid.

The inflow chamber (4) is connected to a source or either circulatory system of a fluid to be heated. The liquid is supplied to the inflow chamber (4) through a pipe or hose connected to at least one inlet (7) or inflow channels (7) arranged to accommodate liquid injection parallel (17) to the chamber (4) wall. Such a configuration allows the injection process to contribute the angular momentum of the liquid. Rotating liquid in the inflow chamber (4) is guided towards the tube-like extending part (18) of the inflow chamber due to gravity and/or the pressure difference in different parts of the device forming a downward spiralling (vortex) current. The current exits the tube-like extension (18) and strikes the rotor tip (10) (cap on the shaft) that is arranged to distribute and direct the flow into special intake holes (19) arranged on the rotor disks (8), where the liquid is sucked in due to a low drop in pressure generated by the rotation of the rotor (8-10). A spiral flow of the fluid between each disk will result an exchange in momentum between fluid and disks (8), governed by the boundary layer effect, then exits at the periphery of the disks (20). Due to a fast ejection at periphery of the disks a high pressure zone (20) is created. The heating chamber (5) wall portions (21, 22), henceforth referred to as ‘walls’, are arranged in such a way that the fluid leaving the high pressure zone (20) is directed by the parabolic wall (21) into torus shaped turbulence region (14, 15) that is formed due to the fluid leaving the lower pressure zone (11) along the surface of the upper disk. Intense cavitation occurs inside the turbulent region (zone) (14, 15). In the turbulent region (14, 15) fluid flow occurs in a rotational manner around the device’s axis (16) and along the heating chamber wall (22) forming a torus shaped vortex (14,15). Cavitation occurs inside the inner volume of the vortex (14, 15), thus preventing cavitation damage of the walls (21, 22) of the device. Cavitation by itself and by potentially catalyzing exothermic chemical reactions inside the working fluid results in release of heat. A heated fluid (lower density) flow (23) is pushed up along the exponentially narrowing wall (22) of the heating chamber into the outflow chamber (6). In the outflow chamber (6), any cavitation bubbles that have yet to collapse, collapse after flow travels along the upper wall (see Fig. 1), releasing additional heat. The fluid exits the device through the outlets (13) arranged on the walls of the outflow chamber and is directed to a reserve, circulatory systems or devices utilizing heat.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

In order to understand the invention better, and appreciate its practical applications, the following pictures are provided and referenced hereafter. Figures are given as examples only and in no way shall limit the scope of the invention.

Figure 1
illustrates the schematic cross-section view of a preferred configuration of the hydromechanical heat generator; dashed lines show directions of the fluid flow and schematically illustrate areas of interest;
Figure 2
illustrates a schematic top view of the hydromechanical heat generator;
Figure 3
illustrates a top view of the disks comprising the centrifugal rotor.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

This invention provides a hydromechanical heat generator that is designed to heat a fluid by facilitating the appearance of a turbulent vortex inside a working fluid, where heating occurs due to the process of continuous cavitation.

In the most preferred embodiment, the hydromechanical heat generator comprises a housing assembly (1-3) or hull that is arranged to have at least three internal operating chambers (4-6) that are arranged to produce a torus type vortex turbulent zone (14, 15) and arranged to accommodate a centrifugal pump rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) mounted in the heating chamber (5). Water is used as the operating fluid. It should be apparent to a person skilled in the art that different assembly configurations can be employed as long as the essential features of the device’s inner geometry are maintained, as shown in Fig. 1. For example, the main body can be formed from three separate parts, preferably cast: an upper sealing cap (1), vortex forming hull (2) (which’s function is to direct jets and flow inside the device, in order to form a torus shaped turbulent zone (14, 15)), a centrifugal rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) accommodating seal (3). The said hull assembly (1-3) and the rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) is manufactured from a material capable of withstanding the generators operational temperature and pressures, also being nonreactive with the operational fluid (at least on the contact surface). The body can be made preferably, but not limited to, from either brass, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, water resistant polymers or similar. The three chambers (4-6) neglecting the positions of inlets (7) arranged in the inflow (4) chamber and outlets (13) in the outflow chamber (6) have a rational symmetry around the device’s symmetry axis (16).

The first chamber (4) is arranged to have a funnel shape with a longer protruding tube-type extension (18), henceforth referred as ‘tube’. The inflow chamber (4) comprises one or more water injection channels or inlets (7) arranged parallel to the outer wall of the chamber (4) so that upon injection the working fluid rotates around the axis of the chamber (schematically shown as the line (17)). The tube (18) is arranged to guide the rotating fluid to the heating (5) chamber and also provide the inner most wall to the heating (5) and outflow (6) chambers.

The heating chamber comprises at least one impeller assembly (8-10, 19, 24) and is arranged to have 4 operational zones (11, 14, 20) determined by the chambers’ (4-6) geometry and the rotor (11, 14, 20) design.

The inflow chamber tube (18), the rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) and the heating chamber (5) are arranged in such a way that after the inflow exits the tube-like extension (18) it is redirected by the rotor tip (10).

In the most preferred embodiment, the said centrifugal rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) is arranged from multiple smooth circular disks (8) keyed to a shaft (9), with a gap between each disk. The shaft is connected to an actuator assembly (12, 24-26). The multi-disk rotor preferably comprises 5 disks (8) mounted parallel to each other on the said shaft (9). The distances between the disks are in the range of a few millimeters, depending on the properties of the fluid. The disks are preferably separated by spacers (27) as thick as the disks. The shaft is held in place by retaining sleeves (28) or similar means that are arranged together with appropriate sealing means (not shown in figures) to allow stable rotation of the axis without instabilities.

The rotor (8-10, 19, 24) is arranged in the lower part of the heating chamber (5) with its center corresponding to device’s symmetry axis (mounted coaxially). The shaft (9) is preferably arranged from a bolt with a cone shaped tip (10). The said tip (10) is arranged in such a way that it distributes and guides the flow exiting the inflow chamber tube (18) into the intake holes (19) arranged on the impeller’s disks (8). During the operation the inflow chamber tube (18) and the rotor (8-10, 19, 24) form a low pressure zone (11) inside the central part of the heating chamber (5).

During operation due to the fast rotation of the rotor (8-10, 19, 24) the fluid, entering through the intake holes (19), is rapidly propelled (commonly at about 50 meters per second) to the periphery of the heating chamber creating a high pressure zone (18 bar) (20). Due to the pressure differential between the low pressure zone (11) and the high pressure zone (20) and the constant flow through the rotor’s gaps, fluid exits the high pressure zone (20) along the walls (characterized by the geometry) of the heating chamber (21, 22) that are arranged to be preferably parabolic or of similar curvature along the high pressure zone (20) and to have a decreasing transversal radius (here by ‘radius’ it is referred to the shortest distance between the point on heating chambers wall and the axis (16) of the device), preferably exponential, along the vertical direction (22). As the flow leaving the high pressure zone (20) meets the flow along the top disk directed from the low pressure zone (11) a turbulent vortex (14, 15) is created and maintained. The space arranged for the appearance of the said vortex is referred to as the ‘turbulent zone’.

The torus shaped vortex (14, 15) that encompasses fluid rotation along the effective surface of the region (14) and a rotation directed along the parallel path to the heating chamber walls (wall portion) (21, 22), around the symmetry axis (16) of the chamber (16) through the inner part on the vortex corresponding the rotational flow (15) of the inflow chamber (4, 11) and direction of rotation of the actuator (12). Inside the turbulent region the cavitation process occurs. During the successive appearance and collapse of cavitation bubbles local increases in temperature and pressure produce heat, also potentially ionizing the liquid, catalyzing chemical reactions between additives or contaminations inside the liquid. The reactions may be exothermic therefore releasing additional heat.

The outflow chamber (6) is arranged above the heating (5) chamber. It is arranged in such a way that heated fluid rapidly enters it (as laminar current) (23) as it leaves the turbulent zone (14, 15) due to convection and pressure differences. As a result of the geometry of the chamber (6) remaining cavitation bubbles collapse without degrading the wall of the chamber, since there are no surfaces normal to the hot fluid flow (23) upon entering. The outflow chamber (6) further comprises one or more outlets, outflow channels or ejection nozzles (13) that are arranged facing outward radially on the chamber’s (6) wall.

In the preferred embodiment, the actuation assembly (12, 24-26) comprises a magnetic clutch (24-26) and an actuator (12). The magnetic clutch (24-26) comprises a housing (24) two aluminium plates (25) (a first plate connected the hydrodynamic generators rotor (8-10, 19, 24) shaft (9), a second plate connect to the actuator’s (12) shaft) fitted with strong rare-earth magnets (26). Such an assembly ensures that the angular momentum of the actuator (12) is smoothly transfer to the rotor (8-10, 19, 24) and reduces the risk of rotor shaft (9) deformation due to the displacement of the actuator (12). Preferably, an asynchronous electric motor (12) is arranged as the actuator (12). It should be apparent to a person skilled in the art that other configurations and other types of actuators can be employed depending on the technical circumstances to achieve sufficient rotation of the rotors shaft (9).

It should be noted that the best results are achieved when the generator is in a vertical position, with the inflow chamber (4) facing upward. The lowest disk (8) of the rotor (8-10, 19, 24) may feature no suction holes or perforations. Such a configuration reduces the strain and increases the durability of the moving marts. For example, such a configuration reduces the fluid pressure exerted on the sealing means (not shown in figures) and the accommodating seal (3).

In another embodiment, a different operational fluid is used, such as mineral oil, melted salts or other.

Yet in another embodiment, the operational fluid can be replaced with a two-phase gas-liquid mix operating agent.

Yet in another embodiment, the inflow chamber is arranged without the tube (18) part, but with the inflow chamber’s exit arranged above the rotor tip (10).

Yet in another embodiment, the inflow chamber’s tube (18) is arranged with thread to produce a rotating current.

Yet in another embodiment, a different type of rotor is used, such as any centrifugal impellers known in the art, or the gaps between the disks, plates instead of disks with non-flat surfaces can be selected for the rotor assembly in order optimize the device for particular type of applications.

Yet in another embodiment, the said shaft (9), tip (10), disks (8) and/or other rotating rotor assembly elements are arranged as a monolithic part.

Yet in another embodiment, the device is arranged with at least one inflow chamber above a upper heating chamber and at least one inflow tube below a lower heating chamber. The heating chambers arranged with one or two rotors, with two or more outflow chambers arranged in single stage double flow between bearing configuration as it should be apparent to person skilled in the art.

Claims (7)

  1. A hydromechanical heat generator, comprising a housing assembly having at least one inlet for the fluid to be heated and at least one heated fluid outlet (13), at least one centrifugal rotor assembly, characterized in that said housing assembly comprises one or more inflow chamber (4) arranged to produce rotation of the fluid upon injection, at least one heating (5) and outflow (6) chambers arranged coaxially with one or more multiple disk centrifugal rotor assemblies (8-10, 19, 24) arranged in at least one of the said heating chambers (5) in such a way that during operation of said generator at least a two directional flow turbulent torus shaped vortex (14, 15) for releasing cavitation derived heat is produced inside the heating chamber (5).
  2. A hydromechanical heat generator according to claim 1, characterizedin that the outer wall (21, 22) of said heating chamber (5) is provided with a parabolic or similar curvature wall portion in the radial direction (21) at the periphery (20) of the said centrifugal rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24) with a wall portion (21) with exponentially or similarly decreasing radius along the vertical direction.
  3. A hydromechanical heat generator according to one of the claims 1 to 2, characterizedin that said centrifugal rotor (8-10, 19, 24) assembly is arranged from one or more smooth disks (8) with gaps between the said disks (8), arranged on a shaft (9) featuring a tip or similar element (10) arranged to guide the fluid flow leaving the inflow chamber into suction holes (19) arranged on the said disks (8).
  4. A hydromechanical heat generator according to one of the claims 1 to 3, characterizedin that said at least one inflow chamber (4) has a funnel type or similar geometry with an extruding tube-like element (18) that is arranged to guide the inflow current into the heating chamber (5) above the said rotor assembly (8-10, 19, 24).
  5. A hydromechanical heat generator according to one of the claims 1 to 4, characterizedin that said inflow inlets (7) are arranged parallel to wall of the inflow chamber (4) in such a way that upon injection of the fluid to be heated, fluid rotation occurs along the wall of the inflow chamber (4).
  6. A hydromechanical heat generator according to one of the claims 1 to 5, characterizedin that said at least one outflow chamber (6) is arranged above the heating chamber (5) in such a way that the heated fluid enters the chamber along a curved wall of the said outflow chamber (6) remaining cavitation bubbles collapse.
  7. A hydromechanical heat generator according to one of the claims 1 to 6, characterizedin that said one or more outlets (13) are arranged in the radial direction of the said one or more outflow chamber (6).
PCT/IB2014/060148 2014-03-25 2014-03-25 Hydromechanical heat generator WO2015145204A1 (en)

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4388915A (en) * 1980-09-11 1983-06-21 Dimitry Shafran Heat generator for a circulating heating system
WO1997017219A1 (en) * 1995-11-06 1997-05-15 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokki Seisakusho Heating system for vehicles
US5765545A (en) * 1996-03-22 1998-06-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokk Seisakusho Viscous fluid type heat generator with heat-generation performance changing unit
US7040545B2 (en) * 2002-10-16 2006-05-09 Borgwarner Inc. Heat generator
RU2282114C2 (en) 2004-11-09 2006-08-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственная фирма "ТГМ" Vortex heat-generator
WO2007061332A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-05-31 Zakrytoe Aktsionernoe Obschestvo 'korporatsia 'eto' Electrically driven vertical heat generator
RU2338130C2 (en) 2006-11-27 2008-11-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственная фирма ТГМ" Toroidal heat-generator
US20100059600A1 (en) * 2008-09-10 2010-03-11 Vortex Co., Ltd. High efficiency heater using spatial energy

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4388915A (en) * 1980-09-11 1983-06-21 Dimitry Shafran Heat generator for a circulating heating system
WO1997017219A1 (en) * 1995-11-06 1997-05-15 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokki Seisakusho Heating system for vehicles
US5765545A (en) * 1996-03-22 1998-06-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokk Seisakusho Viscous fluid type heat generator with heat-generation performance changing unit
US7040545B2 (en) * 2002-10-16 2006-05-09 Borgwarner Inc. Heat generator
RU2282114C2 (en) 2004-11-09 2006-08-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственная фирма "ТГМ" Vortex heat-generator
WO2007061332A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-05-31 Zakrytoe Aktsionernoe Obschestvo 'korporatsia 'eto' Electrically driven vertical heat generator
RU2338130C2 (en) 2006-11-27 2008-11-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственная фирма ТГМ" Toroidal heat-generator
US20100059600A1 (en) * 2008-09-10 2010-03-11 Vortex Co., Ltd. High efficiency heater using spatial energy

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
L. D'AGOSTINO; M. V. SALVETTI, FLUID DYNAMICS OF CAVITATION AND CAVITATING TURBOPUMPS
W. E FORSTHOFFER: "Forsthoffer's Rotating Equipment Handbooks Vol 2: Pumps", vol. 2, 2005, ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY BOOKS

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