WO2015018093A1 - Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and protection method therefor - Google Patents

Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and protection method therefor Download PDF

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WO2015018093A1
WO2015018093A1 PCT/CN2013/081238 CN2013081238W WO2015018093A1 WO 2015018093 A1 WO2015018093 A1 WO 2015018093A1 CN 2013081238 W CN2013081238 W CN 2013081238W WO 2015018093 A1 WO2015018093 A1 WO 2015018093A1
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voltage
unit
overvoltage
charger
output
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PCT/CN2013/081238
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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向智勇
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吉瑞高新科技股份有限公司
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Priority to PCT/CN2013/081238 priority Critical patent/WO2015018093A1/en
Publication of WO2015018093A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015018093A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0029Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with safety or protection devices or circuits
    • H02J7/0031Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with safety or protection devices or circuits using battery or load disconnect circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2207/00Indexing scheme relating to details of circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J2207/20Charging or discharging characterised by the power electronics converter
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

Abstract

A charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and a protection method therefor, comprising a first interface (100), a second interface (300), a voltage stabilizing unit (400), a control unit (600), an input voltage sampling unit (500), a switch unit (200) and a current sampling unit (700), wherein the voltage stabilizing unit (400) is used for receiving an input voltage from an external power supply and providing a constant operating voltage for the control unit (600), and the control unit (600) is used for controlling the OFF or ON state of the switch unit (200) according to whether an input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit (500) is an overvoltage or whether a real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit (700) is an overcurrent, thereby realizing a protective action on a circuit. The charger of the present invention uses a voltage stabilizing unit to provide a constant operating voltage to a control unit when in overvoltage or overcurrent so as to guarantee the normal operation of the control unit, thereby using the control unit to disconnect the charging of a battery rod and protecting a power supply and the battery rod from burning or failure.

Description

具有过压过流保护的充电器及其保护方法  Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and protection method thereof 技术领域  Technical field
本发明涉及电子烟领域,尤其涉及一种具有过压过流保护的充电器及其保护方法。  The invention relates to the field of electronic cigarettes, in particular to a charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and a protection method thereof.
背景技术Background technique
目前市面上大部分电子烟的电池杆的USB充电器对输入端的过压和输出端的过流的保护能力薄弱。At present, the USB charger of the battery rod of most electronic cigarettes on the market has weak protection against overvoltage at the input end and overcurrent at the output end.
输入端的过压保护脆弱表现在:常见的USB充电器,过压保护能力只有6V,更高的输入电压(大于6V)将会过压烧坏USB充电器,继而烧毁充电中的电子烟电池杆;The overvoltage protection at the input end is fragile: the common USB charger, the overvoltage protection capability is only 6V, the higher input voltage (greater than 6V) will overburn the USB charger, and then burn the charged e-cigarette battery rod ;
输出端的过流保护脆弱表现在:当USB充电器输出端过流或短路时,没有相应的保护措施,较大的输出电流会烧坏USB充电器。The overcurrent protection at the output is fragile: when the output of the USB charger is overcurrent or short circuited, there is no corresponding protection measure, and a large output current will burn out the USB charger.
市面上也有一些USB充电器甚至完全没有过压或过流保护功能,当较高的电压加在USB充电器输入端时,USB充电器不对过压进行控制,直接将输入电压传递到输出端,这样就会烧坏充电中的电子烟电池杆;或者当USB充电器输出端短路时,由于没有短路保护,导致供电电源存在失效或烧坏的风险。There are also some USB chargers on the market that do not even have overvoltage or overcurrent protection. When a higher voltage is applied to the USB charger input, the USB charger does not control the overvoltage and directly passes the input voltage to the output. This will burn out the charging e-cigarette battery rod; or when the USB charger output is short-circuited, there is no risk of failure or burnout of the power supply due to no short-circuit protection.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明要解决的技术问题在于,针对现有技术的上述利用USB充电器对电池杆进行充电时,输入端的过压和输出端的过流的保护能力薄弱或者完全没有过压过流保护的缺陷,提供一种具有过压过流保护的充电器及其保护方法。The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is that when the battery rod is charged by the USB charger in the prior art, the overvoltage of the input end and the overcurrent protection of the output end are weak or there is no defect of overvoltage and overcurrent protection. A charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and a protection method thereof are provided.
本发明解决其技术问题所采用的技术方案是:构造一种具有过压过流保护的充电器,用于对电子烟电池杆充电,所述充电器包括用于连接外接电源的第一接口和用于连接电池杆的第二接口,还包括稳压单元、控制单元、输入电压采样单元、开关单元、电流采样单元;The technical solution adopted by the present invention to solve the technical problem is: constructing a charger with over-voltage and over-current protection for charging the electronic cigarette battery rod, the charger comprising a first interface for connecting an external power source and a second interface for connecting the battery rod, further comprising a voltage stabilizing unit, a control unit, an input voltage sampling unit, a switch unit, and a current sampling unit;
所述控制单元分别与所述稳压单元、输入电压采样单元、电流采样单元以及开关单元相连接;所述第一接口分别与所述稳压单元、输入电压采样单元以及开关单元相连接;所述第二接口分别与所述开关单元相连接和电流采样单元相连接;The control unit is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit, the input voltage sampling unit, the current sampling unit and the switch unit; the first interface is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit, the input voltage sampling unit and the switch unit; The second interface is respectively connected to the switch unit and connected to the current sampling unit;
所述稳压单元用于接收所述外接电源的输入电压并为所述控制单元提供恒定工作电压;The voltage stabilizing unit is configured to receive an input voltage of the external power source and provide a constant operating voltage for the control unit;
所述输入电压采样单元用于实时检测所述输入电压;The input voltage sampling unit is configured to detect the input voltage in real time;
所述电流采样单元用于实时检测所述电池杆的实时充电电流;The current sampling unit is configured to detect a real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
所述控制单元用于根据所述输入电压采样单元检测到的所述输入电压是否超压或者所述电流采样单元检测到的所述实时充电电流是否过流控制所述开关单元的关断或导通;The control unit is configured to control whether the switching voltage is turned off or guided according to whether the input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit is overvoltage or whether the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit is over-current through;
所述开关单元用于在所述控制单元的控制下导通时接收所述输入电压并输出输出电压至所述第二接口,实现对所述电池杆的充电。The switch unit is configured to receive the input voltage when the control unit is turned on, and output an output voltage to the second interface to implement charging of the battery rod.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述充电器还包括报警单元;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the charger further includes an alarm unit;
所述报警单元分别与所述稳压单元和控制单元相连接;The alarm unit is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit and the control unit;
所述报警单元用于在所述控制单元的控制下在所述输入电压超压或者所述实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。The alarm unit is configured to issue an alarm message when the input voltage is overvoltage or the real-time charging current is over-current under the control of the control unit.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述充电器还包括输出电压采样单元;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the charger further includes an output voltage sampling unit;
所述输出电压采样单元分别与所述第二接口和控制单元相连接;The output voltage sampling unit is respectively connected to the second interface and the control unit;
所述输出电压采样单元用于采样所述输出电压;所述控制单元还用于在所述输入电压超过预设电压时根据所述输出电压采样单元采样的所述输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至所述开关单元以控制保持所述输出电压恒定。The output voltage sampling unit is configured to sample the output voltage; the control unit is further configured to adjust a duty ratio according to the output voltage sample sampled by the output voltage sampling unit when the input voltage exceeds a preset voltage A PWM signal is applied to the switching unit to control to maintain the output voltage constant.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述控制单元包括一微处理器;所述微处理器的型号为SN8P2711。In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the control unit includes a microprocessor; the model of the microprocessor is SN8P2711.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述稳压单元包括三端稳压器和第一滤波电容; In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the voltage stabilizing unit comprises a three-terminal voltage regulator and a first filter capacitor;
所述三端稳压器的输入端连接至所述第一接口的电压输出端;所述三端稳压器的输出端连接至所述微处理器的VDD引脚,所述三端稳压器的接地端连接至所述第一接口的接地端;An input end of the three-terminal regulator is connected to a voltage output end of the first interface; an output end of the three-terminal regulator is connected to a VDD pin of the microprocessor, the three-terminal voltage regulator The ground end of the device is connected to the ground end of the first interface;
所述第一滤波电容一端连接至所述三端稳压器的输出端,所述第一滤波电容的另一端接地。One end of the first filter capacitor is connected to an output end of the three-terminal regulator, and the other end of the first filter capacitor is grounded.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述稳压单元包括第一电阻、第一三极管、第一滤波电容和稳压二极管;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the voltage stabilizing unit includes a first resistor, a first triode, a first filter capacitor, and a Zener diode;
所述第一三极管的集电极连接至所述第一接口的电压输出端;所述第一三极管的基极连接至所述稳压二极管的阴极,所述稳压二极管的阳极接地;所述第一三极管的发射极连接至所述微处理器的VDD引脚;a collector of the first transistor is connected to a voltage output terminal of the first interface; a base of the first transistor is connected to a cathode of the Zener diode, and an anode of the Zener diode is grounded The emitter of the first transistor is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor;
所述第一滤波电容一端连接至所述第一三极管的发射极,所述第一滤波电容的另一端接地;所述第一电阻一端连接至所述第一三极管的基极,所述第一电阻的另一端连接至所述第一三极管的集电极。One end of the first filter capacitor is connected to the emitter of the first transistor, and the other end of the first filter capacitor is grounded; one end of the first resistor is connected to the base of the first transistor, The other end of the first resistor is connected to the collector of the first transistor.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述输入电压采样单元包括第一分压电阻和第二分压电阻;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the input voltage sampling unit includes a first voltage dividing resistor and a second voltage dividing resistor;
所述第一分压电阻一端连接至所述第一接口的电压输出端,所述第一分压电阻的另一端分别连接至所述第二分压电阻的一端和所述微处理器的9号引脚;所述第二分压电阻的另一端接地。One end of the first voltage dividing resistor is connected to the voltage output end of the first interface, and the other end of the first voltage dividing resistor is respectively connected to one end of the second voltage dividing resistor and the microprocessor 9 No. pin; the other end of the second voltage dividing resistor is grounded.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述输入电压采样单元还包括第二滤波电容;所述第二滤波电容并联在所述第二分压电阻的两端。In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the input voltage sampling unit further includes a second filter capacitor; and the second filter capacitor is connected in parallel at both ends of the second voltage dividing resistor.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述电流采样单元包括电流采样电阻;所述电流采样电阻的一端分别连接至所述第二接口的负输出端和所述微处理器的7号引脚;所述电流采样电阻的另一端接地。In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the current sampling unit includes a current sampling resistor; one end of the current sampling resistor is respectively connected to a negative output end of the second interface and the micro Pin 7 of the processor; the other end of the current sampling resistor is grounded.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述开关单元包括第二三极管、第三三极管、第二电阻、第三电阻;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the switch unit includes a second triode, a third triode, a second resistor, and a third resistor;
所述第二三极管的发射极连接至所述第一接口的电压输出端;所述第二三极管的集电极连接至所述第二接口的正输出端;所述第二三极管的基极连接至所述第三三极管的集电极;所述第三三极管的基极通过所述第三电阻连接至所述微处理的4号引脚;所述第三三极管的发射极接地;所述第二电阻的一端连接至所述第二三极管的基极,所述第二电阻的另一端连接至所述第二三极管的发射极。 An emitter of the second transistor is connected to a voltage output end of the first interface; a collector of the second transistor is connected to a positive output end of the second interface; the second three pole a base of the tube is connected to the collector of the third transistor; a base of the third transistor is connected to the micro-processed pin 4 through the third resistor; The emitter of the pole tube is grounded; one end of the second resistor is connected to the base of the second transistor, and the other end of the second resistor is connected to the emitter of the second transistor.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述开关单元还包括第三滤波电容;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the switch unit further includes a third filter capacitor;
所述第三滤波电容的一端连接至所述第二三极管的集电极,所述第三滤波电容的另一端接地。One end of the third filter capacitor is connected to the collector of the second transistor, and the other end of the third filter capacitor is grounded.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述控制单元包括一微处理器;所述微处理器的型号为SN8P2711;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the control unit includes a microprocessor; the model of the microprocessor is SN8P2711;
所述报警单元包括至少一LED灯;The alarm unit includes at least one LED light;
所述LED灯的阴极连接至所述微处理器的6号引脚;所述LED灯的阳极连接至所述微处理器的VDD引脚。The cathode of the LED lamp is connected to pin 6 of the microprocessor; the anode of the LED lamp is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述控制单元包括一微处理器;所述微处理器的型号为SN8P2711;In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the control unit includes a microprocessor; the model of the microprocessor is SN8P2711;
所述输出电压采样单元包括第三分压电阻和第四分压电阻;The output voltage sampling unit includes a third voltage dividing resistor and a fourth voltage dividing resistor;
所述第三分压电阻一端连接至所述第二接口的正输出端,所述第三分压电阻的另一端分别连接至所述第四分压电阻的一端和所述微处理器的8号引脚;所述第四分压电阻的另一端接地。One end of the third voltage dividing resistor is connected to a positive output end of the second interface, and the other end of the third voltage dividing resistor is respectively connected to one end of the fourth voltage dividing resistor and 8 of the microprocessor No. pin; the other end of the fourth voltage dividing resistor is grounded.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器中,所述输出电压采样单元还包括一第四滤波电容,所述第四滤波电容并联在所述第四分压电阻的两端。In the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention, the output voltage sampling unit further includes a fourth filter capacitor, and the fourth filter capacitor is connected in parallel at both ends of the fourth voltage dividing resistor.
本发明还提供一种具有过压过流保护的充电器的保护方法,在充电状态下,所述方法包括以下步骤:The invention also provides a protection method for a charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection. In the charging state, the method comprises the following steps:
S1、稳压单元接收外接电源的输入电压并为控制单元提供恒定工作电压;S1, the voltage stabilizing unit receives an input voltage of the external power supply and provides a constant working voltage for the control unit;
S2、输入电压采样单元实时检测所述输入电压;电流采样单元实时检测电池杆的实时充电电流;S2, the input voltage sampling unit detects the input voltage in real time; the current sampling unit detects the real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
S3、所述控制单元根据所述输入电压采样单元检测到的所述输入电压是否超压或者所述电流采样单元检测到的所述实时充电电流是否过流控制开关单元的关断或导通;S3. The control unit controls whether the input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit is overvoltage or whether the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit is over-current controlled to be turned off or on;
S4、所述开关单元在所述控制单元的控制下导通时接收所述输入电压并输出输出电压至所述第二接口,实现对所述电池杆的充电。S4. The switch unit receives the input voltage when the control unit is turned on, and outputs an output voltage to the second interface to implement charging of the battery rod.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器的保护方法中,In the protection method of the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention,
所述步骤S4还包括:报警单元在所述控制单元的控制下在所述输入电压超压或者所述实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。The step S4 further includes: the alarm unit sends an alarm message when the input voltage is over-voltage or the real-time charging current is over-current under the control of the control unit.
在本发明所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器的保护方法中,In the protection method of the charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention,
在正常充电状态下,所述方法还包括如下步骤:In a normal state of charge, the method further includes the following steps:
通过输出电压采样单元采样所述输出电压,并将所述输出电压传送至所述控制单元,所述控制单元判断所述输入电压是否超过预设电压,如是,则所述控制单元根据所述输出电压采样单元采样的所述输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至所述开关单元以控制保持所述输出电压恒定。Sampling the output voltage by an output voltage sampling unit and transmitting the output voltage to the control unit, the control unit determining whether the input voltage exceeds a preset voltage, and if so, the control unit is configured according to the output The output voltage sampled by the voltage sampling unit outputs a PWM signal that adjusts the duty cycle to the switching unit to control to keep the output voltage constant.
实施本发明的具有过压过流保护的充电器及其保护方法,具有以下有益效果:稳压单元可以一直为微控制单元提供恒定工作电压,微控制单元在判断出输入电压采样单元检测到的输入电压超压或者电流采样单元检测到的实时充电电流过流时控制关断开关单元,进而断开对电池杆的充电,保护供电电源以及电池杆不会被烧坏或失效。且本发明还增加了输出电压采样单元,微控制单元在判断出输入电压超过预设电压时,输出PWM信号至开关单元以保持输出电压恒定,本发明还增加了报警电路,在充电器处于保护状态时,提醒用户,用户可以根据报警信号采取相应的措施消除可能存在的隐患。The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and the protection method thereof for implementing the invention have the following beneficial effects: the voltage stabilization unit can always provide a constant working voltage for the micro control unit, and the micro control unit determines the detection of the input voltage sampling unit. When the input voltage is over-voltage or the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit is over-current, the switch unit is turned off, thereby charging the battery rod, protecting the power supply and the battery rod from being burned out or failing. The invention also adds an output voltage sampling unit. When the micro control unit determines that the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage, the PWM signal is output to the switch unit to keep the output voltage constant. The invention also adds an alarm circuit, and the charger is protected. In the state, the user is reminded that the user can take corresponding measures according to the alarm signal to eliminate possible hidden dangers.
附图说明DRAWINGS
下面将结合附图及实施例对本发明作进一步说明,附图中:The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiments, in which:
图1是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器的结构示意图;1 is a schematic structural view of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
图2是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器第一实施例的电路图;2 is a circuit diagram of a first embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
图3是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器第二实施例的电路图;3 is a circuit diagram of a second embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
图4是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器第三实施例的电路图。4 is a circuit diagram of a third embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention.
具体实施方式detailed description
为了对本发明的技术特征、目的和效果有更加清楚的理解,现对照附图详细说明本发明的具体实施方式。For a better understanding of the technical features, objects and effects of the present invention, the embodiments of the present invention are described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
现有技术的上述利用USB充电器对电池杆进行充电时,输入端的过压和输出端的过流的保护能力薄弱或者完全没有过压过流保护的缺陷,提供一种具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器。In the prior art, when the battery rod is charged by the USB charger, the overvoltage of the input end and the overcurrent protection of the output end are weak or there is no defect of overvoltage and overcurrent protection at all, and an overvoltage and overcurrent protection is provided. Electronic cigarette USB charger.
参考图1,是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器的结构示意图;1 is a schematic structural view of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
本发明的具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器包括第一接口100、第二接口300、稳压单元400、控制单元600、输入电压采样单元500、开关单元200、电流采样单元700、输出电压采样单元800和报警单元900。The electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection of the present invention comprises a first interface 100, a second interface 300, a voltage stabilizing unit 400, a control unit 600, an input voltage sampling unit 500, a switching unit 200, a current sampling unit 700, The voltage sampling unit 800 and the alarm unit 900 are output.
控制单元600分别与稳压单元400、输入电压采样单元500、电流采样单元700以及开关单元200相连接;第一接口100分别与稳压单元400、输入电压采样单元500以及开关单元200相连接;第二接口300分别与开关单元200相连接和电流采样单元700相连接;报警单元900分别与稳压单元400和控制单元600相连接;输出电压采样单元800分别与第二接口300和控制单元600相连接;The control unit 600 is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit 400, the input voltage sampling unit 500, the current sampling unit 700, and the switch unit 200; the first interface 100 is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit 400, the input voltage sampling unit 500, and the switch unit 200; The second interface 300 is connected to the switch unit 200 and the current sampling unit 700 respectively; the alarm unit 900 is connected to the voltage stabilization unit 400 and the control unit 600 respectively; the output voltage sampling unit 800 is respectively connected to the second interface 300 and the control unit 600. Connected
第一接口100用于连接外接电源;The first interface 100 is used for connecting an external power source;
第二接口300用于连接电池杆;The second interface 300 is used to connect the battery rod;
稳压单元400用于接收外接电源的输入电压并为控制单元600提供恒定工作电压;本发明的稳压单元400可提供高输入输出压差比大于5倍,而现有技术输入电压/输出电压一般在1.5左右,如过高的电压输入其保护电路本身会烧坏起不到保护作用,本发明高过压输入时通过稳压单元400的调节,控制单元600仍可正常工作使保护电路动作。The voltage stabilizing unit 400 is configured to receive an input voltage of the external power source and provide a constant operating voltage for the control unit 600. The voltage stabilizing unit 400 of the present invention can provide a high input/output voltage difference ratio greater than 5 times, and the prior art input voltage/output voltage Generally, it is around 1.5. If the voltage is too high, the protection circuit itself will burn out and it will not protect. When the high voltage input is high, the control unit 600 can still work normally to make the protection circuit operate. .
输入电压采样单元500用于实时检测输入电压;The input voltage sampling unit 500 is configured to detect an input voltage in real time;
电流采样单元700用于实时检测电池杆的实时充电电流;The current sampling unit 700 is configured to detect the real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
输出电压采样单元800用于采样输出电压;The output voltage sampling unit 800 is configured to sample the output voltage;
控制单元600用于根据输入电压采样单元500检测到的输入电压是否超压或者电流采样单元700检测到的实时充电电流是否过流控制开关单元200的关断或导通;控制单元600还用于在输入电压超过预设电压时根据输出电压采样单元800采样的输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至开关单元200以控制保持输出电压恒定。The control unit 600 is configured to control whether the input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit 500 is overvoltage or the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit 700 is over-current controlled to turn off or on the switch unit 200; the control unit 600 is further used to The PWM signal of the adjusted duty ratio is output to the switching unit 200 according to the output voltage sampled by the output voltage sampling unit 800 when the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage to control to keep the output voltage constant.
开关单元200用于在控制单元600的控制下导通时接收输入电压并输出输出电压至第二接口300,实现对电池杆的充电。The switch unit 200 is configured to receive an input voltage when the control unit 600 is turned on and output an output voltage to the second interface 300 to implement charging of the battery rod.
报警单元900用于在控制单元600的控制下在输入电压超压或者实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。The alarm unit 900 is configured to issue an alarm message when the input voltage is overvoltage or the real-time charging current is over-current under the control of the control unit 600.
参考图2,是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器第一实施例的电路图;2 is a circuit diagram of a first embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
第一实施例中,第一接口100为USB接口J1。In the first embodiment, the first interface 100 is a USB interface J1.
第二接口300包括正输出端OUT+和负输出端OUT-;The second interface 300 includes a positive output terminal OUT+ and a negative output terminal OUT-;
第一实施例中,控制单元600包括一微处理器U1,微处理器U1的型号为SN8P2711。微处理器U1的VDD引脚用于接收芯片的工作电压,微处理器U1的4号引脚用于控制开关单元200的导通和断开,微处理器U1的5和6号引脚用于控制报警单元900的工作,微处理器U1的7号引脚用于接收电流采样单元700的输入信号,微处理器U1的9号引脚用于接收输入电压采样单元500的输入信号,微处理器U1的8号引脚用于接收输出电压采样单元800的输入信号,本实施例中没有涉及输出电压采样单元800,因此8号引脚悬空。In the first embodiment, the control unit 600 includes a microprocessor U1, and the model number of the microprocessor U1 is SN8P2711. The VDD pin of the microprocessor U1 is used to receive the operating voltage of the chip, the pin 4 of the microprocessor U1 is used to control the on and off of the switch unit 200, and the pins 5 and 6 of the microprocessor U1 are used. In the operation of the control alarm unit 900, the pin 7 of the microprocessor U1 is used to receive the input signal of the current sampling unit 700, and the pin 9 of the microprocessor U1 is used to receive the input signal of the input voltage sampling unit 500. The pin 8 of the processor U1 is used to receive the input signal of the output voltage sampling unit 800. In this embodiment, the output voltage sampling unit 800 is not involved, so the pin 8 is suspended.
上述稳压单元400包括三端稳压器U2和滤波电容C1;三端稳压器U2的型号可以为78L05、HT7150、HT7550或者LM1117等,本实施例中优选的78L05。The voltage stabilizing unit 400 includes a three-terminal regulator U2 and a filter capacitor C1. The three-terminal regulator U2 may be 78L05, HT7150, HT7550 or LM1117, etc., which is preferably 78L05 in this embodiment.
三端稳压器U2的输入端Vin连接至USB接口J1的5V电压输出端Vin;三端稳压器U2的输出端Vout连接至微处理器U1的VDD引脚,提供给微处理器U1恒定工作电压,因此,在USB接口J1接入的外接电源的输出电压过压时,微处理器U1依然可以正常工作,以使保护动作。三端稳压器U2的接地端Vss连接至USB接口J1的接地端,与外接电源共一个接地端。滤波电容C1一端连接至三端稳压器U2的输出端,滤波电容C1的另一端接地。The input terminal Vin of the three-terminal regulator U2 is connected to the 5V voltage output terminal Vin of the USB interface J1; the output terminal Vout of the three-terminal regulator U2 is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor U1, and is supplied to the microprocessor U1 constant. The operating voltage, therefore, when the output voltage of the external power supply connected to the USB interface J1 is overvoltage, the microprocessor U1 can still work normally to protect the action. The ground terminal Vss of the three-terminal regulator U2 is connected to the ground terminal of the USB interface J1, and has a ground terminal with the external power supply. One end of the filter capacitor C1 is connected to the output end of the three-terminal regulator U2, and the other end of the filter capacitor C1 is grounded.
采用三端稳压器U2,本发明的USB充电器的最大输入电压可以达到15V~30V ,本发明中为25V。With the three-terminal regulator U2, the maximum input voltage of the USB charger of the present invention can reach 15V~30V, which is 25V in the present invention.
上述输入电压采样单元500包括分压电阻R4和分压电阻R5;The input voltage sampling unit 500 includes a voltage dividing resistor R4 and a voltage dividing resistor R5;
分压电阻R4一端连接至USB接口J1的5V电压输出端Vin,分压电阻R4的另一端分别连接至分压电阻R5的一端和微处理器U1的9号引脚;分压电阻R5的另一端接地。本实施例中分压电阻R4和分压电阻R5的阻值分别为10KΩ和2KΩ。One end of the voltage dividing resistor R4 is connected to the 5V voltage output terminal Vin of the USB interface J1, and the other end of the voltage dividing resistor R4 is respectively connected to one end of the voltage dividing resistor R5 and the pin 9 of the microprocessor U1; the other of the voltage dividing resistor R5 One end is grounded. In the present embodiment, the resistance values of the voltage dividing resistor R4 and the voltage dividing resistor R5 are 10 KΩ and 2 KΩ, respectively.
电阻R4和R5组成分压电路,微处理器U1的9号引脚接收的实际上是电阻R5上的压降,根据此压降与电阻R4以及R5的阻值即可计算输入电压。Resistors R4 and R5 form a voltage divider circuit. The pin 9 of microprocessor U1 receives the voltage drop across resistor R5. The input voltage can be calculated based on the voltage drop and the resistance of resistors R4 and R5.
上述电流采样单元700包括电流采样电阻R1;电流采样电阻R1的一端分别连接至USB接口J1的负输出端OUT-和微处理器U1的7号引脚;电流采样电阻R1的另一端接地。电流采样电阻R1的阻值比较小,本实施例中优选的2.2Ω。The current sampling unit 700 includes a current sampling resistor R1; one end of the current sampling resistor R1 is respectively connected to the negative output terminal OUT of the USB interface J1 and the seventh pin of the microprocessor U1; the other end of the current sampling resistor R1 is grounded. The resistance of the current sampling resistor R1 is relatively small, and is preferably 2.2 Ω in this embodiment.
电流采样电阻R1采样实时充电电流流过电阻R1所产生的压降并发送至微处理器U1的7号引脚,微处理器U1根据此压降与电阻R1的阻值即可计算实时充电电流。The current sampling resistor R1 samples the voltage drop generated by the real-time charging current flowing through the resistor R1 and sends it to the 7th pin of the microprocessor U1. The microprocessor U1 can calculate the real-time charging current according to the voltage drop and the resistance of the resistor R1. .
上述开关单元200包括三极管Q2、三极管Q3、电阻R7、电阻R6;三极管Q2为NPN型,三极管Q3为PNP型。The switching unit 200 includes a transistor Q2, a transistor Q3, a resistor R7, and a resistor R6. The transistor Q2 is of an NPN type, and the transistor Q3 is of a PNP type.
三极管Q2的发射极连接至USB接口J1的5V电压输出端Vin;三极管Q2的集电极连接至USB接口J1的正输出端OUT+;三极管Q2的基极连接至三极管Q3的集电极;三极管Q3的基极通过电阻R6连接至微处理的4号引脚;三极管Q3的发射极接地;电阻R7的一端连接至三极管Q2的基极,电阻R7的另一端连接至三极管Q2的发射极。The emitter of the transistor Q2 is connected to the 5V voltage output terminal Vin of the USB interface J1; the collector of the transistor Q2 is connected to the positive output terminal OUT+ of the USB interface J1; the base of the transistor Q2 is connected to the collector of the transistor Q3; the base of the transistor Q3 The pole is connected to the microprocessor-treated pin 4 through the resistor R6; the emitter of the transistor Q3 is grounded; one end of the resistor R7 is connected to the base of the transistor Q2, and the other end of the resistor R7 is connected to the emitter of the transistor Q2.
正常工作时,微处理器U1的4号引脚输出高电平信号至三极管Q1的基极,三极管Q1导通,导致三极管Q2的基极接地,于是三极管Q2也导通,外接电源直接对电池杆供电;一旦微处理器U1判断出上述输入电压过压或者实时充电电流过流,微处理器U1的4号引脚输出低电平信号至三极管Q1的基极,三极管Q1导通,导致三极管Q2的基极接地,于是三极管Q2也导通,外接电源不再对电池杆供电,以保护外接电源以及电池杆。During normal operation, the 4th pin of the microprocessor U1 outputs a high level signal to the base of the transistor Q1, and the transistor Q1 is turned on, causing the base of the transistor Q2 to be grounded, so the transistor Q2 is also turned on, and the external power supply directly contacts the battery. The pole is powered; once the microprocessor U1 determines that the input voltage is overvoltage or the real-time charging current is overcurrent, the pin 4 of the microprocessor U1 outputs a low level signal to the base of the transistor Q1, and the transistor Q1 is turned on, resulting in a triode The base of Q2 is grounded, so the transistor Q2 is also turned on, and the external power supply no longer supplies power to the battery rod to protect the external power supply and the battery rod.
上述报警单元900包括至少一LED灯LED1;本实施例中优选的两个LED灯:LED灯LED1和LED灯LED2,还包括降压电阻R2和R3,The above alarm unit 900 includes at least one LED lamp LED1; two LED lamps preferred in the embodiment: LED lamp LED1 and LED lamp LED2, further including step-down resistors R2 and R3,
LED灯LED1的阴极连接至微处理器U1的6号引脚; LED灯LED1的阳极通过降压电阻R2连接至微处理器U1的VDD引脚。同样的,LED灯LED2的阴极连接至微处理器U1的5号引脚,LED灯LED2的阳极通过降压电阻R3连接至微处理器U1的VDD引脚。The cathode of the LED lamp LED1 is connected to the pin 6 of the microprocessor U1; The anode of the LED lamp LED1 is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor U1 through a step-down resistor R2. Similarly, the cathode of the LED lamp LED2 is connected to the pin 5 of the microprocessor U1, and the anode of the LED lamp LED2 is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor U1 through the step-down resistor R3.
当输入过压或输出过流时, LED灯会闪烁提示用户处于保护状态。其中,LED灯LED1可以用于在输入电压过压时报警,此时微处理器U1的6号引脚间隔输出低电平信号,LED灯LED2可以用于在实时充电电流过流时报警,此时微处理器U1的5号引脚间隔输出低电平信号。用户根据相应的报警信息,可以对电路进行排查,消除隐患。When input overvoltage or output overcurrent, The LED will flash to indicate that the user is in a protected state. Among them, the LED light LED1 can be used to alarm when the input voltage is overvoltage. At this time, the pin 6 of the microprocessor U1 outputs a low level signal, and the LED light LED2 can be used for alarming when the real-time charging current is over-current. When the U1 pin of the microprocessor U1 is intermittently output a low level signal. According to the corresponding alarm information, the user can check the circuit to eliminate hidden dangers.
结合上述各个单元的工作原理,整个充电过程的保护过程如下:Combined with the working principle of each of the above units, the protection process of the entire charging process is as follows:
充电过程中正常工作时:三端稳压器U2的输出端Vout输出恒定工作电压给微处理器U1的VDD引脚,微处理器U1正常工作。电阻R1采样实时充电电流流过电阻R1所产生的压降并发送至微处理器U1的7号引脚,微处理器U1根据此压降计算实时充电电流,同时电阻R4和R5组成分压电路,微处理器U1根据电阻R5上的压降计算输入电压。微处理器U1判断实时充电电流没有过流和输入电压没有过压,于是微处理器U1的4号引脚保持输出高电平信号至三极管Q1的基极,三极管Q1保持导通,导致三极管Q2的基极接地,于是三极管Q2也保持导通,外接电源保持对电池杆供电。During normal operation during charging: the output terminal Vout of the three-terminal regulator U2 outputs a constant operating voltage to the VDD pin of the microprocessor U1, and the microprocessor U1 operates normally. The resistor R1 samples the voltage drop generated by the real-time charging current flowing through the resistor R1 and sends it to the 7th pin of the microprocessor U1. The microprocessor U1 calculates the real-time charging current according to the voltage drop, and the resistors R4 and R5 form a voltage dividing circuit. The microprocessor U1 calculates the input voltage based on the voltage drop across the resistor R5. The microprocessor U1 determines that there is no overcurrent in the real-time charging current and no overvoltage in the input voltage, so the pin 4 of the microprocessor U1 keeps outputting a high level signal to the base of the transistor Q1, and the transistor Q1 remains turned on, resulting in the transistor Q2. The base is grounded, so the transistor Q2 is also kept on, and the external power supply keeps the battery rod powered.
充电过程中输入电压过压时:三端稳压器U2的输出端Vout依旧输出恒定工作电压给微处理器U1的VDD引脚,微处理器U1保持正常工作。此时,微处理器U1根据上述同样的方法获取得到实时充电电流和输入电压,并判断出输入电压过压,于是微处理器U1的4号引脚改为输出低电平信号至三极管Q1的基极,三极管Q1截止,导致三极管Q2的基极悬空,于是三极管Q2也截止,外接电源断开对电池杆供电。同时,微处理器U1的6号引脚间隔输出低电平信号, LED灯LED1闪烁报警,用户由此可知道外接电源过压。When the input voltage is overvoltage during charging: the output terminal Vout of the three-terminal regulator U2 still outputs a constant operating voltage to the VDD pin of the microprocessor U1, and the microprocessor U1 remains in normal operation. At this time, the microprocessor U1 obtains the real-time charging current and the input voltage according to the same method as described above, and determines the input voltage overvoltage, so the pin 4 of the microprocessor U1 is changed to output the low-level signal to the transistor Q1. The base and the transistor Q1 are cut off, causing the base of the transistor Q2 to be suspended, so that the transistor Q2 is also turned off, and the external power supply is disconnected to supply power to the battery rod. At the same time, the pin 6 of the microprocessor U1 outputs a low level signal at intervals. The LED light LED1 flashes an alarm, and the user can know the external power supply overvoltage.
充电过程中实时充电电流过流时:微处理器U1一方面与上述过压的处理一样,通过控制三极管Q1截止,导致三极管Q2截止,继而断开外接电源断开对电池杆供电。另一方面,微处理器U1的5号引脚间隔输出低电平信号, LED灯LED1闪烁报警,用户由此可知道充电电流过流,因此可推断输出可能短路。During the charging process, the real-time charging current is over-current: on the one hand, the microprocessor U1 is turned off by the control transistor Q1 on the one hand, and the triode Q2 is turned off, and then the external power supply is disconnected to supply power to the battery rod. On the other hand, the pin 5 of the microprocessor U1 outputs a low level signal, The LED light LED1 flashes an alarm, and the user can know the overcurrent of the charging current, so it can be inferred that the output may be short-circuited.
参考图3,是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器第二实施例的电路图;3 is a circuit diagram of a second embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to the present invention;
与第一实施例不同的是,第二实施例的稳压单元400包括电阻R8、三极管Q1、滤波电容C1和稳压二极管ZD1;Different from the first embodiment, the voltage stabilizing unit 400 of the second embodiment includes a resistor R8, a transistor Q1, a filter capacitor C1, and a Zener diode ZD1;
三极管Q1的集电极连接至USB接口J1的电压输出端;三极管Q1的基极连接至稳压二极管ZD1的阴极,稳压二极管ZD1的阳极接地;三极管Q1的发射极连接至微处理器U1的VDD引脚;The collector of the transistor Q1 is connected to the voltage output terminal of the USB interface J1; the base of the transistor Q1 is connected to the cathode of the Zener diode ZD1, the anode of the Zener diode ZD1 is grounded; and the emitter of the transistor Q1 is connected to the VDD of the microprocessor U1. Pin
滤波电容C1一端连接至三极管Q1的发射极,滤波电容C1的另一端接地;电阻R8一端连接至三极管Q1的基极,电阻R8的另一端连接至三极管Q1的集电极。One end of the filter capacitor C1 is connected to the emitter of the transistor Q1, and the other end of the filter capacitor C1 is grounded; one end of the resistor R8 is connected to the base of the transistor Q1, and the other end of the resistor R8 is connected to the collector of the transistor Q1.
三极管Q1作为调节三极管,电源通过电阻R8和稳压二极管ZD1接地,稳压二极管ZD1的电压给三极管Q1基极提供电压使三极管Q1导通,调节Q1的工作状态,同样可以输出稳定电压给微处理器U1的VDD引脚作为微处理器U1的恒定工作电压。Transistor Q1 acts as a regulating triode. The power supply is grounded through resistor R8 and Zener diode ZD1. The voltage of Zener diode ZD1 supplies voltage to the base of transistor Q1 to turn on transistor Q1, adjust the working state of Q1, and also output stable voltage for micro processing. The VDD pin of U1 is the constant operating voltage of microprocessor U1.
参考图4,是本发明具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器的第三实施例的电路图。Referring to Figure 4, there is shown a circuit diagram of a third embodiment of an electronic cigarette USB charger having overvoltage and overcurrent protection of the present invention.
第三实施例与上述第二实施例行相比,增加了输出电压采样单元800,输出电压采样单元800包括分压电阻R10、分压电阻R11以及滤波电容C4、C5。Compared with the second embodiment, the third embodiment adds an output voltage sampling unit 800. The output voltage sampling unit 800 includes a voltage dividing resistor R10, a voltage dividing resistor R11, and filter capacitors C4 and C5.
分压电阻R10一端连接至USB接口J1的正输出端OUT+,分压电阻R10的另一端分别连接至分压电阻R11的一端和微处理器U1的8号引脚;分压电阻R11的另一端接地,滤波电容C5并联在分压电阻R11的两端;滤波电容C4一端连接至三极管Q2的集电极,滤波电容C4的另一端接地。One end of the voltage dividing resistor R10 is connected to the positive output terminal OUT+ of the USB interface J1, and the other end of the voltage dividing resistor R10 is respectively connected to one end of the voltage dividing resistor R11 and the pin 8 of the microprocessor U1; the other end of the voltage dividing resistor R11 Grounding, the filter capacitor C5 is connected in parallel across the voltage dividing resistor R11; one end of the filter capacitor C4 is connected to the collector of the transistor Q2, and the other end of the filter capacitor C4 is grounded.
一旦微处理器U1判断出输入电压没有超压,但是输入电压超过了预设电压,则微处理器U1根据8号引脚获取的电阻R11的压降计算出输出电压,再通过4号引脚输出PWM信号至三极管Q1,导致三极管Q1和Q2的导通和截止时间改变,直至采样到的输出电压为预设的恒定值。Once the microprocessor U1 determines that the input voltage is not overvoltage, but the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage, the microprocessor U1 calculates the output voltage according to the voltage drop of the resistor R11 obtained on the pin 8, and then passes the 4th pin. Outputting the PWM signal to transistor Q1 causes the turn-on and turn-off times of transistors Q1 and Q2 to change until the sampled output voltage is at a predetermined constant value.
另外,考虑到第三实施例中在输入电压超过预设电压时,微处理器U1的4号引脚需要输出PWM信号以控制输出电压的恒定,因此第三实施例中的所有的电压采样电路和电流采样电路都设计了滤波电路。上述输入电压采样单元500还包括滤波电容C2,滤波电容C2并联在分压电阻R5的两端。上述电流采样单元700还包括由电阻R9和电容C3组成的滤波电路。其中,电阻R9一端连接至采样电阻R1和负输出端OUT-之间,电阻R9另一端分别连接至微处理器U1的7号引脚和电容C3的一端,电容C3的另一端接地。In addition, considering that in the third embodiment, when the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage, the pin 4 of the microprocessor U1 needs to output a PWM signal to control the constant of the output voltage, so all the voltage sampling circuits in the third embodiment And the current sampling circuit is designed with a filter circuit. The input voltage sampling unit 500 further includes a filter capacitor C2, and the filter capacitor C2 is connected in parallel across the voltage dividing resistor R5. The current sampling unit 700 further includes a filter circuit composed of a resistor R9 and a capacitor C3. Wherein, one end of the resistor R9 is connected between the sampling resistor R1 and the negative output terminal OUT-, and the other end of the resistor R9 is respectively connected to the pin 7 of the microprocessor U1 and one end of the capacitor C3, and the other end of the capacitor C3 is grounded.
总而言之,正常情况下,如果输入电压超过预设电压,则输出电压会相应升高,但是第三实施例中通过增加输出电压采样单元800,可以实时采集输出电压,微处理器U1一旦检测到输入电压超过预设电压,则为了使得输出电压依旧保持恒定,微处理器U1会根据输出电压采样单元800实时采集的输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至三极管Q1,以保持输出电压恒定,如此可以在输入电压并未超压而又超出预设电压时,输出电压还是保持正常情况下的恒定值,继续对电池杆充电,而不会因为电压过高影响电池杆的工作。In summary, under normal circumstances, if the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage, the output voltage will increase accordingly, but in the third embodiment, by increasing the output voltage sampling unit 800, the output voltage can be collected in real time, and the microprocessor U1 detects the input once it is detected. When the voltage exceeds the preset voltage, in order to keep the output voltage constant, the microprocessor U1 outputs the PWM signal of the duty ratio to the transistor Q1 according to the output voltage collected by the output voltage sampling unit 800 in real time, so as to keep the output voltage constant. When the input voltage is not over-voltage and exceeds the preset voltage, the output voltage remains at a constant value under normal conditions, and the battery rod is continuously charged without affecting the operation of the battery rod due to excessive voltage.
本发明还公开了一种具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器的保护方法,在充电状态下,方法包括以下步骤:The invention also discloses a protection method for an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection. In the charging state, the method comprises the following steps:
S1、稳压单元400接收外接电源的输入电压并为控制单元600提供恒定工作电压;S1, the voltage stabilizing unit 400 receives an input voltage of the external power source and provides a constant operating voltage for the control unit 600;
S2、输入电压采样单元500实时检测输入电压;电流采样单元700实时检测电池杆的实时充电电流;S2, the input voltage sampling unit 500 detects the input voltage in real time; the current sampling unit 700 detects the real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
S3、控制单元600根据输入电压采样单元500检测到的输入电压是否超压或者电流采样单元700检测到的实时充电电流是否过流控制开关单元200的关断或导通;S3. The control unit 600 controls whether the input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit 500 is overvoltage or whether the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit 700 is over-current controlled to be turned off or on;
S4、开关单元200在控制单元600的控制下导通时接收输入电压并输出输出电压至第二接口300,实现对电池杆的充电。S4. The switch unit 200 receives an input voltage when the control unit 600 is turned on, and outputs an output voltage to the second interface 300 to implement charging of the battery rod.
步骤S4还包括:报警单元900在控制单元600的控制下在输入电压超压或者实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。Step S4 further includes: the alarm unit 900 issues an alarm message under the control of the control unit 600 when the input voltage is over-voltage or the real-time charging current is over-current.
在正常充电状态下,方法还包括如下步骤:In the normal state of charge, the method further includes the following steps:
通过输出电压采样单元800采样输出电压,并将输出电压传送至控制单元600,控制单元600判断输入电压是否超过预设电压,如是,则控制单元600根据输出电压采样单元800采样的输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至开关单元200以控制保持输出电压恒定。The output voltage is sampled by the output voltage sampling unit 800, and the output voltage is transmitted to the control unit 600. The control unit 600 determines whether the input voltage exceeds the preset voltage. If so, the control unit 600 adjusts the output voltage output according to the output voltage sampling unit 800. The PWM signal of the duty cycle is supplied to the switching unit 200 to control to keep the output voltage constant.
上面结合附图对本发明的实施例进行了描述,但是本发明并不局限于上述的具体实施方式,上述的具体实施方式仅仅是示意性的,而不是限制性的,本领域的普通技术人员在本发明的启示下,在不脱离本发明宗旨和权利要求所保护的范围情况下,还可做出很多形式,这些均属于本发明的保护之内。The embodiments of the present invention have been described above with reference to the drawings, but the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments described above, and the specific embodiments described above are merely illustrative and not restrictive, and those skilled in the art In the light of the present invention, many forms may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed.

Claims (17)

  1. 一种具有过压过流保护的充电器,用于对电子烟电池杆充电,所述充电器包括用于连接外接电源的第一接口(100)和用于连接电池杆的第二接口(300),其特征在于,还包括稳压单元(400)、控制单元(600)、输入电压采样单元(500)、开关单元(200)、电流采样单元(700);A charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection for charging an electronic cigarette battery rod, the charger comprising a first interface (100) for connecting an external power source and a second interface (300 for connecting a battery rod) The method further includes a voltage stabilizing unit (400), a control unit (600), an input voltage sampling unit (500), a switching unit (200), and a current sampling unit (700);
    所述控制单元(600)分别与所述稳压单元(400)、输入电压采样单元(500)、电流采样单元(700)以及开关单元(200)相连接;所述第一接口(100)分别与所述稳压单元(400)、输入电压采样单元(500)以及开关单元(200)相连接;所述第二接口(300)分别与所述开关单元(200)相连接和电流采样单元(700)相连接;The control unit (600) is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit (400), the input voltage sampling unit (500), the current sampling unit (700), and the switch unit (200); the first interface (100) respectively Connected to the voltage stabilizing unit (400), the input voltage sampling unit (500), and the switching unit (200); the second interface (300) is respectively connected to the switching unit (200) and a current sampling unit ( 700) connected;
    所述稳压单元(400)用于接收所述外接电源的输入电压并为所述控制单元(600)提供恒定工作电压;The voltage stabilizing unit (400) is configured to receive an input voltage of the external power source and provide a constant operating voltage for the control unit (600);
    所述输入电压采样单元(500)用于实时检测所述输入电压;The input voltage sampling unit (500) is configured to detect the input voltage in real time;
    所述电流采样单元(700)用于实时检测所述电池杆的实时充电电流;The current sampling unit (700) is configured to detect a real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
    所述控制单元(600)用于根据所述输入电压采样单元(500)检测到的所述输入电压是否超压或者所述电流采样单元(700)检测到的所述实时充电电流是否过流控制所述开关单元(200)的关断或导通;The control unit (600) is configured to: according to whether the input voltage detected by the input voltage sampling unit (500) is overvoltage or the current sampling unit (700) detects whether the real-time charging current is over-current controlled Turning off or turning on the switch unit (200);
    所述开关单元(200)用于在所述控制单元(600)的控制下导通时接收所述输入电压并输出输出电压至所述第二接口(300),实现对所述电池杆的充电。The switch unit (200) is configured to receive the input voltage and output an output voltage to the second interface (300) when being turned on under the control of the control unit (600), to implement charging of the battery rod .
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述充电器还包括报警单元(900);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 1, wherein the charger further comprises an alarm unit (900);
    所述报警单元(900)分别与所述稳压单元(400)和控制单元(600)相连接;The alarm unit (900) is respectively connected to the voltage stabilizing unit (400) and the control unit (600);
    所述报警单元(900)用于在所述控制单元(600)的控制下在所述输入电压超压或者所述实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。The alarm unit (900) is configured to issue an alarm message when the input voltage is overvoltage or the real-time charging current is over-current under the control of the control unit (600).
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述充电器还包括输出电压采样单元(800);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 1, wherein the charger further comprises an output voltage sampling unit (800);
    所述输出电压采样单元(800)分别与所述第二接口(300)和控制单元(600)相连接;The output voltage sampling unit (800) is respectively connected to the second interface (300) and the control unit (600);
    所述输出电压采样单元(800)用于采样所述输出电压;所述控制单元(600)还用于在所述输入电压超过预设电压时根据所述输出电压采样单元(800)采样的所述输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至所述开关单元(200)以控制保持所述输出电压恒定。The output voltage sampling unit (800) is configured to sample the output voltage; the control unit (600) is further configured to sample according to the output voltage sampling unit (800) when the input voltage exceeds a preset voltage The output voltage outputs a PWM signal that adjusts the duty cycle to the switching unit (200) to control to keep the output voltage constant.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述控制单元(600)包括一微处理器(U1);所述微处理器(U1)的型号为SN8P2711。A charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 1, wherein said control unit (600) comprises a microprocessor (U1); said microprocessor (U1) is of the type SN8P2711.
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述稳压单元(400)包括三端稳压器(U2)和第一滤波电容(C1); The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 4, wherein the voltage stabilizing unit (400) comprises a three-terminal regulator (U2) and a first filter capacitor (C1);
    所述三端稳压器(U2)的输入端连接至所述第一接口(100)的电压输出端;所述三端稳压器(U2)的输出端连接至所述微处理器(U1)的VDD引脚,所述三端稳压器(U2)的接地端连接至所述第一接口(100)的接地端;An input of the three-terminal regulator (U2) is connected to a voltage output of the first interface (100); an output of the three-terminal regulator (U2) is connected to the microprocessor (U1) a VDD pin, the ground terminal of the three-terminal regulator (U2) is connected to the ground of the first interface (100);
    所述第一滤波电容(C1)一端连接至所述三端稳压器(U2)的输出端,所述第一滤波电容(C1)的另一端接地。One end of the first filter capacitor (C1) is connected to an output end of the three-terminal regulator (U2), and the other end of the first filter capacitor (C1) is grounded.
  6. 根据权利要求4所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述稳压单元(400)包括第一电阻(R8)、第一三极管(Q1)、第一滤波电容(C1)和稳压二极管(ZD1);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 4, wherein the voltage stabilizing unit (400) comprises a first resistor (R8), a first transistor (Q1), and a first filter capacitor. (C1) and Zener diode (ZD1);
    所述第一三极管(Q1)的集电极连接至所述第一接口(100)的电压输出端;所述第一三极管(Q1)的基极连接至所述稳压二极管(ZD1)的阴极,所述稳压二极管(ZD1)的阳极接地;所述第一三极管(Q1)的发射极连接至所述微处理器(U1)的VDD引脚;a collector of the first transistor (Q1) is connected to a voltage output terminal of the first interface (100); a base of the first transistor (Q1) is connected to the Zener diode (ZD1) a cathode, an anode of the Zener diode (ZD1) is grounded; an emitter of the first transistor (Q1) is connected to a VDD pin of the microprocessor (U1);
    所述第一滤波电容(C1)一端连接至所述第一三极管(Q1)的发射极,所述第一滤波电容(C1)的另一端接地;所述第一电阻(R8)一端连接至所述第一三极管(Q1)的基极,所述第一电阻(R8)的另一端连接至所述第一三极管(Q1)的集电极。One end of the first filter capacitor (C1) is connected to the emitter of the first transistor (Q1), the other end of the first filter capacitor (C1) is grounded; and the first resistor (R8) is connected at one end. To the base of the first transistor (Q1), the other end of the first resistor (R8) is connected to the collector of the first transistor (Q1).
  7. 根据权利要求4所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述输入电压采样单元(500)包括第一分压电阻(R4)和第二分压电阻(R5);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 4, wherein the input voltage sampling unit (500) comprises a first voltage dividing resistor (R4) and a second voltage dividing resistor (R5);
    所述第一分压电阻(R4)一端连接至所述第一接口(100)的电压输出端,所述第一分压电阻(R4)的另一端分别连接至所述第二分压电阻(R5)的一端和所述微处理器(U1)的9号引脚;所述第二分压电阻(R5)的另一端接地。One end of the first voltage dividing resistor (R4) is connected to a voltage output end of the first interface (100), and the other end of the first voltage dividing resistor (R4) is respectively connected to the second voltage dividing resistor ( One end of R5) and the pin 9 of the microprocessor (U1); the other end of the second voltage dividing resistor (R5) is grounded.
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述输入电压采样单元(500)还包括第二滤波电容(C2);所述第二滤波电容(C2)并联在所述第二分压电阻(R5)的两端。The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 7, wherein said input voltage sampling unit (500) further comprises a second filter capacitor (C2); said second filter capacitor (C2) is connected in parallel At both ends of the second voltage dividing resistor (R5).
  9. 根据权利要求4所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述电流采样单元(700)包括电流采样电阻(R1);所述电流采样电阻(R1)的一端分别连接至所述第二接口(300)的负输出端(OUT-)和所述微处理器(U1)的7号引脚;所述电流采样电阻(R1)的另一端接地。The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 4, wherein the current sampling unit (700) comprises a current sampling resistor (R1); one end of the current sampling resistor (R1) is respectively connected to The negative output terminal (OUT-) of the second interface (300) and the 7th pin of the microprocessor (U1); the other end of the current sampling resistor (R1) is grounded.
  10. 根据权利要求4所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述开关单元(200)包括第二三极管(Q2)、第三三极管(Q3)、第二电阻(R7)、第三电阻(R6);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 4, wherein the switching unit (200) comprises a second triode (Q2), a third triode (Q3), and a second resistor. (R7), third resistor (R6);
    所述第二三极管(Q2)的发射极连接至所述第一接口(100)的电压输出端;所述第二三极管(Q2)的集电极连接至所述第二接口(300)的正输出端(OUT+);所述第二三极管(Q2)的基极连接至所述第三三极管(Q3)的集电极;所述第三三极管(Q3)的基极通过所述第三电阻(R6)连接至所述微处理的4号引脚;所述第三三极管(Q3)的发射极接地;所述第二电阻(R7)的一端连接至所述第二三极管(Q2)的基极,所述第二电阻(R7)的另一端连接至所述第二三极管(Q2)的发射极。 An emitter of the second transistor (Q2) is connected to a voltage output end of the first interface (100); a collector of the second transistor (Q2) is connected to the second interface (300) a positive output terminal (OUT+); a base of the second transistor (Q2) is connected to a collector of the third transistor (Q3); a base of the third transistor (Q3) a pole connected to the micro-processed pin 4 through the third resistor (R6); an emitter of the third transistor (Q3) is grounded; one end of the second resistor (R7) is connected to the The base of the second transistor (Q2) is connected to the emitter of the second transistor (Q2).
  11. 根据权利要求10所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述开关单元(200)还包括第三滤波电容(C4);The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 10, wherein the switching unit (200) further comprises a third filter capacitor (C4);
    所述第三滤波电容(C4)的一端连接至所述第二三极管(Q2)的集电极,所述第三滤波电容(C4)的另一端接地。One end of the third filter capacitor (C4) is connected to the collector of the second transistor (Q2), and the other end of the third filter capacitor (C4) is grounded.
  12. 根据权利要求2所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述控制单元(600)包括一微处理器(U1);所述微处理器(U1)的型号为SN8P2711;The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 2, wherein said control unit (600) comprises a microprocessor (U1); said microprocessor (U1) is of the type SN8P2711;
    所述报警单元(900)包括至少一LED灯(LED1);The alarm unit (900) includes at least one LED light (LED1);
    所述LED灯(LED1)的阴极连接至所述微处理器(U1)的6号引脚;所述LED灯(LED1)的阳极连接至所述微处理器(U1)的VDD引脚。The cathode of the LED lamp (LED1) is connected to pin 6 of the microprocessor (U1); the anode of the LED lamp (LED1) is connected to the VDD pin of the microprocessor (U1).
  13. 根据权利要求3所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述控制单元(600)包括一微处理器(U1);所述微处理器(U1)的型号为SN8P2711;The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 3, wherein said control unit (600) comprises a microprocessor (U1); said microprocessor (U1) is of the type SN8P2711;
    所述输出电压采样单元(800)包括第三分压电阻(R10)和第四分压电阻(R11);The output voltage sampling unit (800) includes a third voltage dividing resistor (R10) and a fourth voltage dividing resistor (R11);
    所述第三分压电阻(R10)一端连接至所述第二接口(300)的正输出端(OUT+),所述第三分压电阻(R10)的另一端分别连接至所述第四分压电阻(R11)的一端和所述微处理器(U1)的8号引脚;所述第四分压电阻(R11)的另一端接地。One end of the third voltage dividing resistor (R10) is connected to a positive output end (OUT+) of the second interface (300), and the other end of the third voltage dividing resistor (R10) is respectively connected to the fourth point One end of the voltage resistor (R11) and the No. 8 pin of the microprocessor (U1); the other end of the fourth voltage dividing resistor (R11) is grounded.
  14. 根据权利要求13所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器,其特征在于,所述输出电压采样单元(800)还包括一第四滤波电容(C5),所述第四滤波电容(C5)并联在所述第四分压电阻(R11)的两端。The charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 13, wherein the output voltage sampling unit (800) further comprises a fourth filter capacitor (C5), and the fourth filter capacitor (C5) Parallel to both ends of the fourth voltage dividing resistor (R11).
  15. 一种具有过压过流保护的充电器的保护方法,其特征在于,在充电状态下,所述方法包括以下步骤:A method for protecting a charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection, characterized in that, in a state of charge, the method comprises the following steps:
    S1、稳压单元(400)接收外接电源的输入电压并为控制单元(600)提供恒定工作电压;S1, the voltage stabilizing unit (400) receives an input voltage of the external power source and provides a constant operating voltage for the control unit (600);
    S2、输入电压采样单元(500)实时检测所述输入电压;电流采样单元(700)实时检测电池杆的实时充电电流;S2, the input voltage sampling unit (500) detects the input voltage in real time; the current sampling unit (700) detects the real-time charging current of the battery rod in real time;
    S3、所述控制单元(600)根据所述输入电压采样单元(500)检测到的所述输入电压是否超压或者所述电流采样单元(700)检测到的所述实时充电电流是否过流控制开关单元(200)的关断或导通;S3. The control unit (600) controls whether the input voltage is overvoltage according to the input voltage sampling unit (500) or whether the real-time charging current detected by the current sampling unit (700) is over-current controlled. Turning off or turning on the switch unit (200);
    S4、所述开关单元(200)在所述控制单元(600)的控制下导通时接收所述输入电压并输出输出电压至所述第二接口(300),实现对所述电池杆的充电。S4. The switch unit (200) receives the input voltage when the control unit (600) is turned on, and outputs an output voltage to the second interface (300) to implement charging of the battery rod. .
  16. 根据权利要求15所述的具有过压过流保护的充电器的保护方法,其特征在于,A method of protecting a charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 15, wherein
    所述步骤S4还包括:报警单元(900)在所述控制单元(600)的控制下在所述输入电压超压或者所述实时充电电流过流时发出报警信息。The step S4 further includes: the alarm unit (900) issues an alarm message under the control of the control unit (600) when the input voltage is over-voltage or the real-time charging current is over-current.
  17. 根据权利要求15所述的具有过压过流保护的电子烟USB充电器的保护方法,其特征在于,在正常充电状态下,所述方法还包括如下步骤:The method for protecting an electronic cigarette USB charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection according to claim 15, wherein in the normal state of charge, the method further comprises the following steps:
    通过输出电压采样单元(800)采样所述输出电压,并将所述输出电压传送至所述控制单元(600),所述控制单元(600)判断所述输入电压是否超过预设电压,如是,则所述控制单元(600)根据所述输出电压采样单元(800)采样的所述输出电压输出调整占空比的PWM信号至所述开关单元(200)以控制保持所述输出电压恒定。Sampling the output voltage by an output voltage sampling unit (800) and transmitting the output voltage to the control unit (600), the control unit (600) determining whether the input voltage exceeds a preset voltage, and if so, Then the control unit (600) outputs a PWM signal of the adjusted duty ratio to the switching unit (200) according to the output voltage sampled by the output voltage sampling unit (800) to control to keep the output voltage constant.
PCT/CN2013/081238 2013-08-09 2013-08-09 Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection and protection method therefor WO2015018093A1 (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1881736A (en) * 2006-04-30 2006-12-20 方金 Charge connector with USB interface
CN200973024Y (en) * 2006-08-22 2007-11-07 夏新电子股份有限公司 Charger for hand-held equipment using windows process system
CN201207572Y (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-03-11 苏州宇达电通有限公司 USB charging device
CN101394094A (en) * 2007-09-20 2009-03-25 李仕清 Full automatic high efficient voltage step-up step-down circuit
CN101524187A (en) * 2009-02-04 2009-09-09 万佳通达科技(北京)有限公司 Electronic cigarette and electronic smoking set
CN203368107U (en) * 2013-08-09 2013-12-25 向智勇 Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection function

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1881736A (en) * 2006-04-30 2006-12-20 方金 Charge connector with USB interface
CN200973024Y (en) * 2006-08-22 2007-11-07 夏新电子股份有限公司 Charger for hand-held equipment using windows process system
CN101394094A (en) * 2007-09-20 2009-03-25 李仕清 Full automatic high efficient voltage step-up step-down circuit
CN201207572Y (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-03-11 苏州宇达电通有限公司 USB charging device
CN101524187A (en) * 2009-02-04 2009-09-09 万佳通达科技(北京)有限公司 Electronic cigarette and electronic smoking set
CN203368107U (en) * 2013-08-09 2013-12-25 向智勇 Charger with overvoltage and overcurrent protection function

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