TELESCOPIC TOWER CRANE AND SCAFFOLD
The present invention relates to a telescopic tower wherein quadrangular steel cages are produced to operate telescopically and are elevated by the help of pulleys by means of steel rope wound around a drum. It is an equipment which may be used as a tower crane when a rotary table and boom are mounted onto the innermost cage, and as a scaffold when a working platform is mounted onto the same. Tower crane is accepted to be an indispensable equipment for multi-storey constructions in the present day. With the increase in the land prices, the requirement of building multi-storey buildings arose, and thus a great need arose for tower cranes for lifting and carrying formwork accessory and construction materials rapidly and safely.
Tower cranes, which currently cannot be manufactured in our country, are imported from abroad. A great majority of the tower cranes that are imported are rented by intermediary firms. Due to the fact that their prices and rents are high, not all construction companies can purchase or rent them. We have designed a telescopic tower crane that may be used at constructions as tall as 25-30 meters, with the purpose of satisfying this need that causes a major currency loss for our country and producing it at a price that can be afforded by small and medium scale constructors. Although tower cranes provide great convenience since they serve a wide area and they rapidly carry hundreds of kilograms of load, in fact, depending on the closeness to the tower, thousands of kilograms of load to the intended location; transportation, assembly and disassembly thereof is a time consuming and difficult process. Assembly and disassembly thereof should only be performed by experts who are trained for this process.
Since the tower crane of our project, which we have developed taking into consideration these difficulties in the present tower cranes, has a telescopic tower; when its tower is lowered and boom is dismantled, its trailer on which the tower is mounted can be taken to the new working area by being pulled by a suitable vehicle. When it is maximum 3-4 meters high in its lowered state, the load on its wheels are removed by its lifter legs with shoe and brought to the bascule. Upon mounting its boom and its weights, the tower is elevated. The steel cages, which ascend telescopically and are wedged to each other; are seated on four steel pins that are fixed on an outer cage with a second simple operation, and the loads on the ropes are removed and our tower crane is made ready for operation.
The telescopic tower which is raised by the worm gear reducer and the steel ropes from two opposite sides is comprised of telescopically operating steel cages which are 2-3 meters or (if a hydraulic arrangement that will be rested on the trailer during transportation is made) 4-5 meters tall. For the boom that is mounted on the tower, the available booms in the state of the art are made use of and the one that is suitable for the construction is selected. The most suitable arrangement to rotate the boom will be worm gear. Since our telescopic tower crane can vertically move a working platform, which is coupled to its boom, as it is seen in drawing (3/10), thanks to the fact that the tower thereof is moveable; it is seen that it can also be used as a scaffold. This feature thereof may be very essential for places whose ground is not suitable for or which have a state that obstructs installing a scaffold.
The Telescopic Tower Scaffold is the tower crane wherein a working platform is mounted in place of the boom and the rotary table. There is provided a working platform on the telescopic tower for facade and ceiling works, which platform is connected in the middle and suspended by guy ropes, is comprised of two parts and wide enough to provide working convenience and has a safety rail, and whose floor is covered with a perforated sheet metal or grid.
Our invention that we have named as "Telescopic Tower Crane" or "Telescopic Tower Scaffold" which are designed to be used for different services are identical in terms of the tower, trailer, lifter legs, rope drums and safety lock systems, besides the "boom" in the tower crane and the "working platform" in the tower scaffold.
Although the telescopic tower crane illustrated in figure (2/10) and designed to be used in works of facades and ceilings, which are not very high and are located only on flat grounds, is the same in terms of the working principles, it is operated with a single rope. It either has a car which is suitable to be carried by being pulled by a vehicle or is mounted on a car with small castering wheels having brakes that is to be carried upon being loaded on a vehicle. For wide area ceiling works or works under domes in closed places; the single rope scaffold can also be manufactured as being comprised of four towers such that two of them oppose the other two, having a square or rectangular working platform seated on the four towers, having a single reducer with two drums and transmission shafts. Since it is not very high, it is possible to incorporate an electrically driven (chargeable) remote control traveling unit to our single rope telescopic tower scaffold.
The most significant features of our invention titled telescopic tower crane and scaffold which are different from the scaffolds and tower cranes being used in the state of the art are that it does not have any assembly, disassembly or elevation problems, it is able to ascend by itself and when it is folded, instead of being loaded onto a vehicle, it can be pulled by a vehicle to the desired location by means of the trailer that is provided underneath thereof.
Ascending of our tower crane and tower scaffold telescopically is realized by steel ropes and pulleys. Since one of two pulleys that are operating when ascending is moveable, the load acting on the reducer is reduced by 50%. The reducer that is to be used should be worm gear (as a two coupled worm gear reducer). The threads and gear teeth of the reducer that rotate the drum should posses the power to carry the load that it will lift and should be fixed upon calculating the required safety coefficient. Although, when the rope is broken or it comes loose because of the reducer, the safety locks are automatically enabled and they prevent the cages from falling down by locking them at their positions; by means of a second system, when the ascending cages are wedged by an outer cage and raise the outer cage by 8-10 cm, the spring steel pins provided on the outer cage hold the inner cage from four corners and thereby prevent descending thereof. When the tower crane that we will operate or the tower scaffold that we will work on is stopped at the height that we desire, they are supported by a second safety system wherein we fix the undermost elevated cage at its current position, lock all of the elevated cages and completely receive the load on the steel ropes. As a result of our works aiming to eliminate the deficiencies that we have encountered in the prototype production of the system for which we have previously applied for a patent on June 1 , 2009 with the title "Telescopic moveable facade and ceiling scaffold" no. 2009/04247; it is seen that both the material to be used and the lock system, fixing way and the positions of the cages in their telescopic operation should be changed and they should be supported from outside and inside in order to prevent friction and to avoid any space to be left therebetween.
The fact that our telescopic tower has the feature of being able to be fixed after it is elevated shows that the tower can also be used as a crane. In this respect, our telescopic tower will be used as a crane when we mount a rotary table and boom
thereon, and will be used as a scaffold when we mount a working platform thereon.
The tower crane and scaffolds of our invention titled "Telescopic tower crane and scaffold" are illustrated with the drawings and figures provided in the following 10 pages.
Figure: 1/10 - Telescopic facade scaffold with double ropes.
Figure: 2/10 - Telescopic ceiling and facade scaffold with single rope.
Figure: 3/10 - Telescopic tower crane.
Figure: 4/10 - Telescoped appearance of telescopic steel cages and positions of the lifting and transfer pulleys.
Figure: 5/10 - Inner and outer pulleys that enable steel cages to operate without any space therebetween.
Figure: 6/10 - Open position of the safety lock when the there is load acting on the rope.
Figure: 7/10 - The view wherein the safety lock has locked the steel cages when the rope is broken.
Figure: 8/10 - The mechanism which unloads the rope by fixing the steel cages of the raised tower.
Figure: 9/10 - Retracted state of the spring pin that fixes the steel cages.
Figure: 10/10 - Position of the drums of the double rope tower and the connection form of its lifter legs. Part: - 1 - Working platform of the double rope tower.
Part: - 2 - Steel cages.
Part: - 3 - Lifter legs.
Part: - 4 - Drums disposed under the double rope tower.
Part: - 5 - Reducer.
Part: - 6 - Single rope ceiling scaffold platform.
Part: - 7 - Pneumatic tire.
Part: - 8 -
Part: - 9 -
Part: - 10 -
Part: - 1 1 -
Part: - 12 -
Part: - 13 -
Part: - 14 -
Part: - 15 -
Part: - 16 -
Part: - 17 -
Part: - 18 -
Part: - 19 -
Part: - 20 -
Part: - 21 -
Part: - 22 -
Part: - 23
wedged by the outer
Part - 24 - Steel pin that locks when the cages are wedged.
Part - 25 - Lock pin spring.
Part - 26 - Bevel gears that convey the movement of the reducer to the drums. Part - 27 - Drums that are rotated by the bevel gears which are placed on the sides of the double rope tower.
Out telescopic tower crane and scaffold which we have tried to illustrate above with the numbered figures and parts is comprised of a tower whose system operation principle is the same. A steel rope is fastened under the innermost of the telescopic cages wherein support pulleys are provided on the inside of the upper part (16) and the outside of the lower part (17) thereof. The steel rope; which is wound around the spring pulley (10) that is located on the upper part of the outer cage, and wound around the transfer pulley (1 1) located on the lower part of the same cage, then transferred to the outer part and is wound around the outer upper
spring pulley (10), then wound around the transfer pulley (1 1 ) under the same cage and is wound this way until the outermost cage; is tied to the lower drum (4) after the upper spring pulley of the outermost cage. The rope, which is pulled by the worm gear reducer, elevates the cages upwards, starting from the innermost cage. This elevation continues until the wedging part located at the bottom of the cage reaches the wedge block (22) located on the outer cage. Since the function of the transfer pulley located under the inner cage wedged with an outer cage is finished, the wedged cages start to ascend together by means of the outer upper spring pulley. Unless the ascending process is not stopped, it continues until the cage inside the outermost fixed cage is wedged.
The necessary safety and locking precautions are taken for our telescopic tower, whose operation i.e. elevation system is described above, against any adverse events that might occur during elevation or operation. In our tower crane or scaffold that is raised by means of winding the steel ropes around the drum by the worm gear reducer; since the spring lock control (18) that will ascend in the event of a rope (20) breakage will release the eccentric spring lock puller (21), the spring lock pin ( 19) will be fastened to the nearest lock rib and thereby lock each cage from four corners thereof and prevent them from descending. This arrangement will be enabled in cases where the rope comes loose, as in the case of rope breakage, or the reducer gear tooth is abraded, or the drum runs idle.
When the cages, which ascend starting from the innermost cage, are lifted 8-10 cm upon being wedged by the outer cage; the spring pin (24), which is deployed on the upper part of the outer cage by being aligned with the bottom of the inner cage, proceeds and holds the inner cage from four corners thereof. The cages will be locked to each other until the steel pin roller tappet (23) retracts the steel pin (24) due to the pressure it is exposed to when an outer cage fits into its place. Since when the cages are descending they start from the bottom, when our cage which has ascended from the bottom to a certain point descends and exposes the steel pin roller tappet (23) to a pressure and we do not have the steel pin (24)
retracted (when we fix the two cages by means of the wedges that we introduce in between them from outside), all of the cages will be locked and there will not remain any load on the rope. In this situation, when we reverse the drum a little and thereby enable the fixed pulley holder and the spring lock control (18) to rise, we allow the spring lock pins to be enabled as well and to perform locking operation.
Since we also have to lock the tower that we will use as a scaffold at the working height, an elevator that will serve for carrying materials should be mounted to the top of the tower.
Upon dismantling of the boom and platform, our nested (lowered) telescopic tower will have the height suitable to be carried by the trailer provided thereunder. Our telescopic tower, which is brought to the working area by being pulled, is brought to the bascule upon opening the foldable lifter legs (3) thereof and its load on the carrying tires is unloaded. In addition to providing studs from the legs to the fixed cage at the bottom, the necessary precautions are taken to prevent it from falling off by putting weights on the legs.