WO2011092370A1 - Coordinating contention access between wireless networks - Google Patents

Coordinating contention access between wireless networks Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011092370A1
WO2011092370A1 PCT/FI2010/050054 FI2010050054W WO2011092370A1 WO 2011092370 A1 WO2011092370 A1 WO 2011092370A1 FI 2010050054 W FI2010050054 W FI 2010050054W WO 2011092370 A1 WO2011092370 A1 WO 2011092370A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
station
wireless
wireless node
interference report
report message
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Application number
PCT/FI2010/050054
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Juha Salokannel
Jari Junell
Jarkko Kneckt
Original Assignee
Nokia Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Application filed by Nokia Corporation filed Critical Nokia Corporation
Priority to PCT/FI2010/050054 priority Critical patent/WO2011092370A1/en
Publication of WO2011092370A1 publication Critical patent/WO2011092370A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/14Spectrum sharing arrangements between different networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/0406Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes
    • H04W72/0426Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes between access points
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • H04W84/10Small scale networks; Flat hierarchical networks
    • H04W84/12WLAN [Wireless Local Area Networks]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W92/00Interfaces specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W92/16Interfaces between hierarchically similar devices
    • H04W92/20Interfaces between hierarchically similar devices between access points

Abstract

Various example embodiments are disclosed. According to an example embodiment, a method may include determining, by a first wireless node (104) serving a first wireless network (102), that a station (114) served by a second wireless network (108) is interfering with communication in the first wireless network (102), and sending an interference report message to a second wireless node (1 10) serving the second wireless network (108) based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network (102).

Description

COORDINATING CONTENTION ACCESS BETWEEN WIRELESS NETWORKS

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001 ] This description relates to wireless networks.

BACKGROUND

[0002] In wireless communication, spectral resources may be limited. Wireless stations from different networks may interfere with each others' attempts to access the spectral resources.

SUMMARY

[0003] According to an example embodiment, a method may include

determining, by a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and sending an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.

[0004] According to another example embodiment, a method may include receiving, from a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message at a second wireless node serving a wireless network, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the second wireless node is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.

[0005] According to another example embodiment, a method may include determining, by a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, sending an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, receiving the interference report message at the second wireless node serving the wireless network, and in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.

[0006] According to another example embodiment, an apparatus may include at least one processor and at least one memory including computer program code. The at least one memory and the computer program code may be configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to perform determining, in a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and sending an interference report message to a wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.

[0007] According to another example embodiment, an apparatus may include at least one processor, and at least one memory including computer program code. The at least one memory and the computer program code may be configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to perform receiving, from a wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message at the apparatus serving a wireless network, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the apparatus is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and in response to receiving the interference report message from the wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.

[0008] According to another example embodiment, a system may include a first wireless node serving a first wireless network and configured to determine that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network and send an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network. The system may also include the second wireless node configured to receive, from the first wireless node, the interference report message, and in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, send a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.

[0009] According to another example embodiment, a computer readable storage medium may comprise computer readable code stored thereon that, when executed by a processor, is configured to cause a first wireless node serving a first wireless network to determine that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and send an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.

[0010] According to another example embodiment, a computer readable storage medium may comprise computer readable code stored thereon that, when executed by a processor, is configured to cause a second wireless node serving a second wireless network to receive, from a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the second wireless node is interfering with communication in the first wireless network, and in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, send a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.

[0011] The details of one or more implementations are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] FIG. 1 is a diagram of two wireless (or unguided) networks according to an example embodiment.

[0013] FIG. 2 is a vertical time-sequence diagram showing messages sent within the two wireless networks shown in FIG. 1 according to an example embodiment.

[0014] FIG. 3 A is a block diagram of a message sent according to the examples shown in FIGs. 1 and 2.

[0015] FIG. 3B is a block diagram of a payload of an interference report message according to an example embodiment.

[0016] FIG. 3C is a block diagram of a payload of a channel access configuration message according to an example embodiment.

[0017] FIG. 4 is a timing diagram of contention by a wireless station for the medium or channel according to an example embodiment.

[0018] FIG. 5 is a flowchart showing a method according to an example embodiment.

[0019] FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing a method according to another example embodiment.

[0020] FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a wireless station (or wireless node) according to an example embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0021] Referring to the Figures in which like numerals indicate like elements, FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating two wireless (or unguided) networks according to an example embodiment. A first wireless network 102 may include a number of wireless nodes or stations, such as first wireless node 104 and one or more wireless stations, mobile stations, or subscriber stations, such as stations 106 A, 106B, 106C served by the first wireless node 104. The first wireless node 102 may include, a wireless infrastructure node, such as, for example, an access point, base station, relay station, node B, or may include an ad hoc network terminal, according to example embodiments. While only three stations 106A, 106B, 106C are shown in wireless network 102, any number of stations may be provided. The stations 106A, 106B, 106C may include, for example, laptop, notebook, netbook, or desktop computers configured for wireless access, cellphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or smartphones, according to example embodiments. Each station 106A, 106B, 106C in first wireless network 102 may be in wireless communication with the first wireless node 104, and may even be in direct communication with each other. Although not shown, first wireless node 104 may be coupled to a fixed, wired, or guided network, such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), the Internet, etc., and may also be coupled to other wireless networks.

[0022] A second wireless network 108 may also include a number of wireless nodes or stations, such as second wireless node 1 10 and one or more wireless stations, mobile stations, or subscriber stations, such as stations 1 12A, 1 12B, 1 14 served by the second wireless node 1 10. The second wireless node 110 may include, for example, an access point, base station, relay station, or node B, according to example embodiments. While only three stations 112A, 112B, 1 14 are shown in wireless network 108, any number of stations may be provided. The stations 112 A, 1 12B, 114 may include, for example, laptop, notebook, netbook, or desktop computers configured for wireless access, cellphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or smartphones, according to example embodiments. Each station 112A, 1 12B, 1 14 in second wireless network 114 may be in wireless communication with the second wireless node 108, and may even be in direct communication with each other. Although not shown, second wireless node 1 10 may be coupled to a fixed, wired, or guided network, such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), the Intemet, etc., and may also be coupled to other wireless networks, such as the first wireless network 102. For example, the second wireless node 1 10 may be coupled to or in communication with the first wireless node 104 via, for example a shared or common wireless communication protocol, or via a wired network, such as via a backhaul network and/or the Internet.

[0023] The various embodiments described herein may be applicable to a wide variety of networks and technologies, such as WLAN networks (e.g., IEEE 802.1 1 type networks), IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks, WiMedia networks, Ultra Wide Band networks, cellular networks, radio networks, or other wireless networks. The first and second wireless networks 102, 108 and/or wireless nodes 104, 110 may operate according to a same protocol or radio technology, or may operate according to different protocols or radio technologies, and may share only a protocol for identifying and/or describing interfering stations, according to example embodiments. In another example

embodiment, the various examples and embodiments may be applied, for example, to a mesh wireless network, where a plurality of mesh points (e.g., Access Points) may be coupled together via wired or wireless links. The various embodiments described herein may be applied to wireless networks, both in an infrastructure mode where an

infrastructure node such as an access point or base station may communicate with a station (e.g., communication occurs through infrastructure nodes or access points), as well as an ad-hoc mode in which wireless stations may communicate directly via a peer- to-peer network, for example.

[0024] In another example embodiment, the first and second networks 102, 108 may include cognitive radio networks, such as IEEE 802.19 networks. The cognitive radio networks may either use a same or different protocol or radio technology, and may, for example, operating on a television (TV) white space spectrum. In an example embodiment, first and second wireless nodes 104, 110 may belong to a same cognitive control radio (CCR) network. The CCR network may, for example, include both the first wireless network 102 and the second wireless network 108; in an example embodiment, control messages, such as interference report messages described below, may be transmitted within the CCR network and between the first and second wireless networks 102, 108, but data messages may not be transmitted within the CCR network and between the first and second wireless networks 102, 108.

[0025] In the example shown in FIG. 1 , a station, which may be considered an "interfering station" 114, within the second wireless network 108 and/or served by the second wireless node 1 10, may be within range of the first wireless node 104 and/or occupy a location within the first wireless network 102. The interfering station 1 14 may interfere with communications by the stations 106A, 106B, 106C with the first wireless node 104 within the first wireless network 102.

[0026] In a contention-based access system, such as carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA), the stations 106A, 106B, 106C within the first wireless network 102 (as well as the stations 112A, 1 12B, 114 within the second wireless network 108) may "listen" to the wireless channel to determine whether any other stations 106A, 106B, 106C, 114 are transmitting or sending in the wireless medium or channel. If the station 106A, 106B, 106C determines by the listening that no other station 106A, 106B, 106C, 1 14 is transmitting, then the listening station 106A, 106B, 106C may transmit or send a message to the first wireless node 104. However, if the listening station 106A, 106B, 106C determines by listening that another station 106A, 106B, 106C, 114 is transmitting, then the listening station 106A, 106B, 106C may wait until after the transmission to transmit its own message to the first wireless node 104. The waiting period, which may be considered an Access Interframe Space (AIFS), may be the same whether or not the station 106A, 106B, 106C was previously able to transmit its message to the first wireless node 104, or the waiting period may be longer if the station 106A, 106B, 106C was previously unable to transmit its message and/or shorter if the station 106A, 106B, 106C was previously able to transmit its message. In an example embodiment, all of the stations 106A, 106B, 106C, 1 12A, 112B, 114 may initially have the same AIFS; the AIFS for a given station 106 A, 106B, 106C, 1 12 A, 1 12B, 1 14 may be increased based on the channel or medium being busy and/or based on receiving a delay instruction from the node which serves the respective station.

[0027] According to an example embodiment, a relinquish mechanism may be provided to determine interference by the interfering station 114. A wireless node, such as the first wireless node 104, may, in one example of the relinquish mechanism, monitor past usage of the medium or channel by a station outside the first wireless network 102 (such as by the interfering station 1 14), such as a percentage of previous channel usage over a specific measurement period or averaging time. In other examples of the relinquish mechanism, the first wireless node 104 may determine that the interfering station 114 is interfering with communication in the first wireless network 102 based on a signal strength of messages sent by the interfering station 114, or based on a timing of transmission(s) by the interfering station 1 14; the first wireless station 104 may determine that the interfering station 114 is interfering by comparing the timing of the interfering station's messages to timing of the first wireless node's 104 beacons, and/or based on the interfering station's 114 messages interfering with the first wireless node's 104 beacons, for example. The first wireless node 104 may determine that messages sent by the interfering station 1 14 were sent by a station not belonging to or trying to access the first wireless network 102 based, for example, on the message including a destination address which is not the address of the first wireless node 104; the destination address of the message may, for example, be the address of the second wireless node 110. If the interfering station's amount of previous channel usage is greater than a threshold value, then the first wireless node 104 may send an interference report message to the second wireless node 110 which serves the interfering station 114.

[0028] In an example in which the first and second networks 102, 108 (and/or first and second wireless nodes 104, 110) are operating according to a same protocol or standard, the first wireless node 104 may send the interference report message to the second wireless node 110 according to this standard. In an example in which the first and second wireless nodes 104, 110 are members of a control network (such as a cognitive control radio network), which may exist separately from the first and second wireless networks 102, 108 for the purpose of sending control messages rather than data messages, the first wireless node 104 may send the interference report message to the second wireless node 1 10 according to a communication protocol or standard of the control network; in this example, the communication protocol or standard of the control network by which the first wireless node 104 sends the interference report message to the second wireless node 1 10 may be different than a communication protocol or standard used to transmit data in either the first wireless network 102 or the second wireless network 108. The first wireless node 104 and second wireless node 110 may be directly or physically coupled, such as by a wired or guided connection such as twisted pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber, or may be logically connected, such as via a Web server or the Internet, according to example embodiments.

[0029] In response to receiving the interference report message, the second wireless node 1 10 may send a channel access configuration message to the interfering station 1 14. The interfering station 1 14 may, based on the channel access configuration message, delay a start of its backoff time counter (and/or increase its AIFS) by a delay period, described in this disclosure as a relinquish inter-frame space (RIFS), although the particular name for this additional delay period is not important since it may be implemented using different names in various technologies or standards. A different value for RIFS may be provided for each access category, for example. A longer delay and/or RIFS may reduce a station's likelihood of interfering with other stations, but may also reduce the likelihood of accessing the channel and/or reduce the station's throughput.

[0030] In an example embodiment, the measurement period may be, for example, a predefined measurement period, or may be a measurement period based on an access category (or class of traffic), such as a different measurement period for each access category. Likewise, in an example embodiment, the threshold value may be a predefined threshold value, or may be a threshold value based on an access category, such as a different threshold value for each access category. Also, the measurement period and threshold values may be measured in different units. For example, the measurement period and threshold values may be measured or provided in time, such as seconds, or timer units, or in bits or packets, such as a number of received bits or frames or packets, for example.

[0031] FIG. 2 is a vertical time-sequence diagram showing messages sent within the two wireless networks 102, 108 shown in FIG. 1 according to an example

embodiment. As discussed with reference to FIG. 2, the station 106 shown in FIG. 2 may include any of the stations 106A, 106B, 106C in the first wireless network 102 shown in FIG. 1. According to the CSMA system, a station 106, 114 may, for example, prepare to transmit a message, such as by starting its backoff time counter, after detecting an idle channel for at least a predetermined time, such as an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS) of the station 106, 114. However, if a station, such as the interfering station 1 14, has received a channel access configuration message (described below) instructing the interfering station 1 14 to increase its delay in sending messages, the interfering station 114 may delay sending its message, such as by starting its backoff time counter after AIFS plus RIFS if the station's 114 previous channel usage is greater than the threshold value. In such a case, the station 114 may extend its AIFS by a delay period RIFS before, for example, starting the decrementing of the station's 114 backoff time counter in order to increase the likelihood that other stations 106 will successfully contend for channel access or win the transmission opportunity (TXOP), according to an example

embodiment. The use of the additional delay period, RIFS, may allow a station (such as the interfering station 114) to effectively relinquish the channel to another station 106 that may be attempting to access the channel, for example.

[0032] In the example shown in FIG. 2, the interfering station 114 may send a message 202 to the second wireless node 110, which message 202 may be received by both the first wireless node 104 and the second wireless node 110. The messages sent and/or received which are shown in FIG. 2 may have a format similar to that shown in FIG. 3A.

[0033] FIG. 3 A is a block diagram of a message 300 sent according to the examples shown in FIGs. 1 and 2. In this example, the message 300 may include a header, which may include a destination address 302 and a source address 304. The destination address 304 may be an address of the intended recipient of the message 300, and the source address 302 may be an address of the sending station 106, 1 14 or node 104, 1 10. The message 300 may include a payload 306, which may include data and/or instructions. The message 300 may also include a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), which may include bits and/or data which allow the recipient of the message 300 to determine if the message 300 was correctly and/or successfully received, according to an example embodiment.

[0034] Returning to FIG. 2, the first wireless node 104 may determine that the message 202 was sent by a station 1 14 outside the first wireless network 102. The first wireless node 104 may determine that the message 202 was sent by a station 114 outside the first wireless network 102 based, for example, on the destination address 304 including an address other than the address of the first wireless node 104. The first wireless node 104 may record and/or store information relating to the message 202 for the purpose of determining whether the station 114 is interfering with the first network 102; the recorded and/or stored information may include, for example, the source address and/or destination address of the message 202, a time of receipt and/or time interval during which the message 202 was received, and/or a time or length of the message 202.

[0035] The station 106 may listen to the station's 114 message 202, and/or wait until after the message 202 to transmit its own message 204 to the first wireless node 104. The station 106 may, for example, wait a predetermined and/or random period after the end of the message 202 to send its own message 204. An example of the station 106 waiting until after the end of the message 202 to transmit its own message 204 is shown in FIG. 4.

[0036] FIG. 4 is a timing diagram of contention by a wireless station for the medium or channel according to an example embodiment. A lower portion 402 illustrates timing for a station 106, 114 which has not received a delay instruction and/or a channel access configuration message. The upper portion 404 of FIG. 4 illustrates timing for a station 106, 114 which has received a delay instruction and/or channel access configuration message based on the station 106, 114 having a previous channel usage that has exceeded the threshold value. In lower portion 402, a medium or channel is busy at 406. The medium or channel may be busy based, for example, on the station 1 14 transmitting the message 202. At 407, which may, for example, be after the message 202 has been transmitted, the channel is idle. The channel may be idle for at least an arbitration inter- frame space, or AIFS[AC] 408, up until point 409. A contention window 410 is shown, and may include one or more backoff slots 412.

[0037] A station 106, 1 14 with a packet to transmit may monitor and/or listen to the channel (medium). Initially, the channel may be busy at 406, such as because the station 1 14 is transmitting its message 202. However, at 407 after the message 202 is over, the channel becomes idle. If the channel is idle for a period of time equal to an arbitration inter- frame space AIFS[AC], the station 106 may generate a backoff time to decrease the probability of collision. The backoff time may be selected, for example, as a random value in the range [0, CW], where CW identifies the contention window size. The backoff time may typically be an integer indicating a number of backoff slots, for example.

[0038] According to an example embodiment, CW may initially be set to CWmin or the minimum contention window size. Thus, depending on the CWmin, the backoff time may be set to zero, or some other value, for example. The backoff time counter may be set to this backoff time. The contention window and random backoff time counter may use a discrete scale, measured in backoff slots, for example. If an attempt to access a channel is unsuccessful due to collisions, then the node may increase the CW (e.g., up to CWmax), select a new random backoff time between [0, CW] for the backoff time counter, and then may re-attempt to access the channel. This process may be repeated, with CW increasing after each collision or unsuccessful attempt, for example.

[0039] If the station 106, 1 14 has not been determined to be interfering, and/or received an instruction to increase a delay in sending messages, then the station 106, 1 14 may use the timing as shown in lower portion 402 of FIG. 4, as an example. Referring to lower portion 402 of FIG. 4, because the station 106, 114 has not been determined to be interfering (such as because previous channel usage for the node does not exceed a threshold value, as described below), the station 106, 1 14 may start (e.g., start decrementing) its backoff time counter after detecting an idle channel for at least AIFS[AC] 408. According to an example embodiment, during this random backoff, a random backoff time counter is decremented so long as the channel is sensed idle, is frozen when a transmission is detected on the channel, and is restarted or continues decrementing when the channel is again sensed idle for a period of at least AIFS[AC]. The wireless station may then transmit over the channel when its backoff time counter reaches zero, for example. A station may transmit at the beginning of a backoff slot. The contention window size, CW, may be set to zero or some other value, as noted.

[0040] Therefore, in the case shown as lower portion 402, the station 106, 114 may start transmission over the channel after detecting an idle channel for at least an AIFS[AC] if the previous channel usage for the station is not greater than the threshold value. There may be a random backoff period provided as well, e.g., zero or more slots, before transmission.

[0041] Returning to FIG. 2, after the backoff time, the station 106 may send its message 204 to the first wireless node 104. During the station's 106 transmission of the message 204, the station 114 may monitor and/or listen to the channel, and may send its own message 206 after a backoff time has expired after the station 106 sent its message 204 to the first wireless node 104. The station 114 may monitor and/or listen to the channel and send its message 206 after the backoff time in a similar manner to that described above with respect to the station 106 sending its message 204. The message 206 may be intended for the second wireless node 110, but may also be received by the first wireless node 104. The first wireless node 104 may record and/or store information regarding the message 206 for the purpose of determining whether the station 114 is interfering with the first wireless network 102. In a similar manner, the station 106 may send another message 208.

[0042] The first wireless node 104 may determine whether the station 114 is interfering with communication in the first wireless network 102 based on messages and/or transmissions from the station 114 over a predetermined time interval, such as a time interval 210 shown in FIG. 2. The first wireless node 104 may determine whether the station 1 14 is interfering based on the messages and/or transmissions occupying at least a threshold amount of time within the time interval 210, and/or based on the number of messages and/or transmissions meeting or exceeding a threshold, according to example embodiments. The determination may be based on the information that the first wireless node 104 stored based on receiving the messages 202, 206, as discussed above in paragraph [0034]. In the example shown in FIG. 2, the first wireless node 104 may determine that the messages 202, 206 sent by the station 114 within the time interval 210 are not enough to consider the station 114 to be "interfering" with communication in the first wireless network 102.

[0043] In the example shown in FIG. 2, the station 114 may send messages 212, 214, 216, 218, 222 to the second wireless node 110 which is serving the station. The messages 212, 214, 216, 218, 222 may also be received by the first wireless node 104. The messages 212, 214, 216, 218, 222 may either collide with messages sent by the station 106 to the first wireless node 104, or the station 106 may not send messages to the first wireless node 104 because the station 106 senses that the channel or medium is busy. The station 106 may, for example, have a larger backoff time, contention window, or AIFS than the station 114 based on the station 114 having previously sent messages 212, 214, 216, 218. Thus, the transmission of the messages 212, 214, 216, 218, 222 by the station 114 to the second wireless node 110 may prevent the station 106 from transmitting messages to the first wireless node 104 because the station 106 continually determines that the channel or medium is busy or occupied.

[0044] In the example shown in FIG. 2, the first wireless node 104 may determine that the station 114 is interfering with the first wireless network 102 (224). The first wireless node 104 may determine that the station 114 is interfering based on the information that the first wireless node 104 stored based on receiving the messages 212, 214, 216, 218 within the time interval 220, as discussed above in paragraph [0034]. In the example shown in FIG. 2, the first wireless node 104 may determine that the messages 212, 214, 216, 218 sent by the station 1 14 within the time interval 220 are enough to consider the station 114 to be "interfering" with communication in the first wireless network 102.

[0045] According to an example embodiment, the first wireless node 104 may monitor the channel usage by the station 1 14, or any other stations outside the first wireless network 102 and/or not served by the first wireless node 104, over a

measurement period or averaging time, such as the time interval 220, to determine its amount of previous channel usage over the measurement period, e.g., a total amount of time of usage or as a percentage of the measurement period. If the previous channel usage for the wireless node over the measurement period has exceeded a threshold value, such as 43.75% for example, the first wireless node 104 may send the second wireless node 110 a message, such as an interference report message 226, requesting the second wireless node 110 to instruct the station 114 to delay its transmission or the start of its backoff time counter by an additional delay period, such as a relinquish inter- frame space (RIFS). The first wireless node 104 may send the message such as the interference report message 226 to the second wireless node 1 10 via a wireless communications protocol shared by both the first wireless node 104 and the second wireless node 110, such as IEEE 802.1 1, IEEE 802.16, or any other cellular or wireless communications protocol, or via a wired or guided medium, such as via a backhaul Internet network, according to example embodiments. The number 43.75% for the threshold value is merely an example, and any number may be used. By using the additional delay period or RIFS, this may in some cases increase the likelihood that another station, such as the station 106, will win or obtain the transmission opportunity. The threshold value may be provided per access channel (AC), or a different threshold value for each AC, and the threshold values may vary based on a number of users of a channel or other conditions, according to example embodiments.

[0046] FIG. 3B is a block diagram of a payload 306A of an interference report message 226 according to an example embodiment. The payload 306Amay include information that the first wireless node 104 stored and/or recorded based on receiving the messages 212, 214, 216, 218, as discussed above in paragraph [0034]. The payload 306A may include, for example, a station ID field 310 identifying the address of the station 114 based on the source address field 304 included in the messages 212, 214, 216, 218. The payload 306A may also include an occupation time 312 indicating a time within the time interval 220 during which the messages 212, 214, 216, 218 occupied the transmission time or channel. The occupation time may be expressed as an absolute time indication, or as a fraction of the time interval 220, such as a percentage, according to example embodiments. The payload 306A may also include a number of messages field 314. The number of messages field 314 may indicate a number of the messages 212, 214, 216, 218 received by the first wireless node 104 from the station 114 identified by the station ID field 310 during the time interval 220. The payload 306Amay also include an interference time field 316. The interference time field 316 may indicate a total time that the station 1 14 has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network 102, such as from a beginning of transmission of a first interfering message 212 to an end of transmission of a last interfering message 218 (or message 222). The payload 306Amay also include a number of stations field 318. The number of stations field 318 may indicate a number of wireless stations 106A, 106B, 106C which are in the first wireless network 102 and/or served by the first wireless node 104. While five fields 310, 312, 314, 316, 318 have been described as being included in the interference report payload 306A, these are merely examples, and any or all of these fields, 310, 312, 314, 316, 318, or any combination of these or additional fields may be included in the interference report payload 306A.

[0047] In response to receiving the interference report message 226, the second wireless node 1 10 may send a message, such as a channel access configuration message 228, to the station 1 14 identified by the interference report message 226, instructing the station 114 to increase a delay and/or backoff time in sending messages. The channel access configuration message 228 may be sent to the station 114 as a unicast message, or may be sent as a broadcast message.

[0048] The second wireless node 110 may base the delay, for example, on traffic loads of neighboring nodes or access points (for example, the higher the load is, the shorter delay values could be used by the stations associated with that node); a number or density of stations in the second wireless network 108; a combination of the traffic load(s) and number of stations; channel time usage history (for example, the success of the stations 112 A, 112B, 114 associated with the second wireless node 1 10 could be balanced by giving better (shorter) RIFS/AIFS values for stations 106A, 106B, 106C associated to other nodes such as the first wireless node 104 or worse values for the interfering station 1 14 associated with or served by the second wireless node 110);

topology and/or location related information regarding the stations 112A, 112B, 114 and/or second wireless node 110 (for example, some stations may be located so that they cause more interference for other stations or nodes than some others, and the node 110 may assign different RIFS/AIFS values for such interfering stations 1 14); and/or based on a contract of the station or node, for example, a network operator may affect the value selections.

[0049] FIG. 3C is a block diagram of a payload 306B of a channel access configuration message 228 according to an example embodiment. In the example in which the channel access configuration message 228 is sent as a broadcast message, the payload 306B may include an identifier field 320 identifying the station 114 as the station which the channel access configuration message 228 instructs to increase its delay. In an example in which the channel access configuration message 228 is sent as a unicast message, the identifier field 320 may be unnecessary because the station 114 may already have been identified by the destination address field 302. The payload 306B may also include in inter- frame space field 322 with an updated inter-frame space that is greater than the station's 114 previous inter- frame space, an increase inter- frame space field 324 (or RIFS field) instructing the station 114 to increase its inter- frame space (and optionally indicating an amount by which to increase the inter- frame space), or a delay instruction field 326 instructing the station 114 to increase its delay (such as by delaying a start of a backoff time counter for an additional delay period after an AIFS or after an AIFS plus an additional delay period (such as RIFS) after an end of a beacon period). In an example embodiment, the payload 306B may include a traffic class delay values field 328. The traffic class delay values field 328 may include a plurality of AIFS values, RIFS values, or delay values, each corresponding to a different traffic class, according to an example embodiment. In an example embodiment, the traffic class delay value field 328 may include delay values for each traffic class as shown in the following table: RIFS value RIFS value RIFS value RIFS value

for TCI for TC2 for TC3 for TC4

Hold Hold Hold Hold

parameter parameter parameter parameter

value for value for value for value for

traffic class 1 traffic class traffic class traffic class

2 3 4

[0050] In response to receiving the channel access configuration message 228, the station 114 may increase its delay (230) in sending messages. This delay may allow stations 106 in the first wireless network 102 to transmit messages to the first wireless node 104.

[0051 ] Returning to FIG. 4, after the station 1 14 has received the channel access configuration message 228 instructing the station 1 14 to delay sending its messages, the station 114 may use the timing as shown in upper portion 404 of FIG. 4; for example, in the upper portion 404, the channel is busy at 406, and the channel becomes idle at point 407. A contention window 414 is provided beginning at point 413, and may include one or more backoff slots 416.

[0052] The station 1 14 may start (e.g., start decrementing) the backoff time counter after detecting an idle channel for at least AIFS[AC] 408 plus RIFS [AC] 418; the RIFS [AC] 418 may be considered the time by which the station 1 14 increases its delay in transmitting messages. The station 1 14 may begin transmitting when its backoff time counter reaches zero. Thus, as compared to the case of the lower portion of FIG. 4 (402), in this case 404 the start of the backoff time counter is delayed by an additional delay, RIFS[AC] 418, e.g., to allow other stations an improved opportunity to access the channel. Thus, in an example embodiment, the AIFS[AC] may be extended by

RIFS[AC] if the first wireless node 104 has determined that the previous channel usage for the station 1 14 is greater than the threshold value.

[0053] According to an example embodiment, as shown in upper portion 404, the station 1 14 may start transmission over the channel after detecting an idle channel or medium for at least AIFS[AC] plus RIFS[AC] if the previous channel usage for the node is greater than the threshold value. There may be a random backoff period provided as well, e.g., zero or more slots, before transmission. [0054] Returning to FIG. 2, the delay by the station 1 14 may allow the station 106 to transmit message 232, 236 as described above with reference to the lower portion of FIG. 4. The station 114 may transmit messages 234, 238 as described with reference to the upper portion of FIG. 4. The station 114 may transmit messages with the delay as described with reference to the upper portion of FIG. 4 for a predetermined time period after receiving the channel access configuration message 228, or for a time period after receiving the channel access configuration message 228 indicated by the channel access configuration message 228, according to example embodiments.

[0055] According to an example embodiment, a different RIFS[AC] may be provided for each AC. The RIFS may be a silent period, the length of which may enable other nodes with backoff counters of a same AC to access the channel, or to at least increase the probability that these other nodes will be able to access the channel.

RIFS [AC] may be defined with the resolution of a clock or in steps such as backoff slots, etc.

[0056] There may be an efficiency penalty in some cases for the additional RIFS delay, especially in cases where the station adds the RIFS delay, but there is no other station attempting to use the channel, thereby introducing unnecessary delay. The efficiency penalty may be calculated or estimated as RIFS/Measurement period, for example. The measurement period may be decreased to allow relinquishment through additional RIFS delay to be performed more frequently. Thus, if there are a higher number of nodes competing for the channel or a significant number of collisions, for example, then the threshold value may be decreased, and/or the measurement period may be decreased, and/or the RIFS[AC] may be increased to better allow other stations to obtain access to the channel. According to an example embodiment, selecting a

RIFS [AC] delay period that is shorter than a maximum wait time, such as CWmax, may decrease the likelihood of another node successfully obtaining the TXOP, but provides a lower efficiency cost or network delay in case other nodes are not trying to access the channel.

[0057] As noted above, nodes may increase a contention window size after each collision or unsuccessful attempt to access a channel, for example. Similarly, according to another example embodiment, a node may increase RIFS [AC] after each unsuccessful attempt to relinquish the channel to another node. Once another node has obtained the TXOP, then RIFS[AC] may be reset to initial values, for example.

[0058] FIG. 5 is a flowchart showing a method 500 according to an example embodiment. In an example embodiment, the method 500 may include determining, by a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network (502). The method 500 may also include sending an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network (504).

[0059] In an example embodiment, the first wireless node may include a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node may include a second wireless infrastructure node.

[0060] In an example embodiment, the first wireless node may include an IEEE 802.11 access point.

[0061] In an example embodiment, the determining may include determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.

[0062] In an example embodiment, the determining may include determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address of the second wireless node.

[0063] In an example embodiment, the determining may include determining that the station is interfering based on successfully receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.

[0064] In an example embodiment, the determining may include determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node, the messages occupying at least a threshold amount of time within a predetermined time interval.

[0065] In an example embodiment, the determining may include determining that the station is interfering based on receiving, within a predetermined time interval, at least a threshold number of messages from the station, the messages including a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.

[0066] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.

[0067] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.

[0068] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.

[0069] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.

[0070] In an example embodiment, the first wireless node may send the interference report message to the second wireless node via a wireless communications protocol shared by both the first wireless node and the second wireless node.

[0071 ] In an example embodiment, the first wireless node may send the interference report message to the second wireless node via a backhaul Intemet network.

[0072] FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing a method 600 according to another example embodiment. According to this example, the method 600 may include receiving, from a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message at a second wireless node serving a wireless network, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the second wireless node is interfering with communication in the first wireless network (602). The method 600 may also optionally include determining a delay based on the interference report message (604). The method 600 may also include, in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages (606). [0073] In an example embodiment, the first wireless node may include a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node may include a second wireless infrastructure node.

[0074] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.

[0075] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.

[0076] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.

[0077] In an example embodiment, the interference report message may identify the station and indicate how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.

[0078] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may be a unicast message sent to the station.

[0079] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may be included in a broadcast message, the channel access configuration message including an identifier of the station which will increase its delay.

[0080] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may include an inter- frame space instruction with an updated inter-frame space that is greater than a previous inter- frame space.

[0081] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may include an instruction to increase an inter-frame space.

[0082] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may instruct the station to increase the delay by delaying a start of a backoff time counter for an additional delay period after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS).

[0083] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may instruct the station to increase the delay by starting a backoff time counter after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS) plus an additional delay period after an end of a beacon period.

[0084] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may include a plurality of delay values for the station, each of the delay values corresponding to a traffic class, at least one of the delay values being greater than a previous delay value for the respective traffic class.

[0085] In an example embodiment, the channel access configuration message may be based on the determined delay.

[0086] In an example embodiment, the delay may be determined based on the interference report message and a traffic load of at least one neighboring wireless node, and the channel access configuration message may be based on the determined delay.

[0087] In an example embodiment, the delay may be determined based on the interference report message and a number of other wireless stations served by the second wireless node, and the channel access configuration message may be based on the determined delay.

[0088] In an example embodiment, the delay may be determined based on the interference report message and a number of successful messages received by the second wireless node from other wireless stations served by the second wireless node, and the channel access configuration message may be based on the determined delay.

[0089] In an example embodiment, the delay may be determined based on the interference report message and a topology of the second wireless network, and the channel access configuration message may be based on the determined delay.

[0090] FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a wireless station (or wireless node) 700 according to an example embodiment. The wireless station 700 (e.g., wireless node 104, 110 or station 106A, 106B, 106C, 112A, 112B, 112C, 114) may include, for example, an RF (radio frequency) or wireless transceiver 702, including a transmitter to transmit signals and a receiver to receive signals, at least one processor 704 to execute instructions or software and control transmission and receptions of signals, and at least one memory 706 to store data and/or instructions.

[0091] The at least one processor 704 may also make decisions or determinations, generate frames or messages for transmission, decode received frames or messages for further processing, and other tasks or functions described herein. Processor 704, which may be a baseband processor, for example, may generate messages, packets, frames or other signals (such as those described above) for transmission via wireless transceiver 702. Processor 704 may control transmission of signals or messages over a wireless network, and may receive signals or messages, etc., via a wireless network (e.g., after being down-converted by wireless transceiver 702, for example). Processor 704 may be programmable and capable of executing software or other instructions stored in memory or on other computer media to perform the various tasks and functions described above, such as one or more of the tasks or methods described above. Processor 704 may be (or may include), for example, hardware, programmable logic, a programmable processor that executes software or firmware, and/or any combination of these. Using other terminology, processor 704 and transceiver 702 together may be considered as a wireless transmitter/receiver system, for example.

[0092] In addition, referring to FIG. 7, a controller (or processor) 708 may execute software and instructions, and may provide overall control for the station 700, and may provide control for other systems not shown in FIG. 7, such as controlling input/output devices (e.g., display, keypad), and/or may execute software for one or more applications that may be provided on wireless station 700, such as, for example, an email program, audio/video applications, a word processor, a Voice over IP application, or other application or software.

[0093] In addition, a storage medium such as the at least one memory 706 may be provided that includes stored instructions, which when executed by a controller or processor may result in the processor 704, or other controller or processor, performing one or more of the functions or tasks described above.

[0094] Implementations of the various techniques described herein may be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, or in computer hardware, firmware, software, or in combinations of them. Implementations may implemented as a computer program product, i.e., a computer program tangibly embodied in an information carrier, e.g., in a machine-readable storage device, for execution by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatus, e.g., a programmable processor, a computer, or multiple computers. A computer program, such as the computer program(s) described above, can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, and can be deployed in any form, including as a stand-alone program or as a module, component, subroutine, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment. A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network.

[0095] Method steps may be performed by one or more programmable processors executing a computer program to perform functions by operating on input data and generating output. Method steps also may be performed by, and an apparatus may be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit).

[0096] Processors suitable for the execution of a computer program include, by way of example, both general and special purpose microprocessors, and any one or more processors of any kind of digital computer. Generally, a processor will receive instructions and data from a read-only memory or a random access memory or both. Elements of a computer may include at least one processor for executing instructions and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer also may include, or be operatively coupled to receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, e.g., magnetic, magneto-optical disks, or optical disks. Information carriers suitable for embodying computer program instructions and data include all forms of non-volatile memory, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, e.g., EPROM, EEPROM, and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, e.g., internal hard disks or removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks. The processor and the memory may be supplemented by, or incorporated in special purpose logic circuitry.

[0097] To provide for interaction with a user, implementations may be implemented on a computer having a display device, e.g., a cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor, for displaying information to the user and a keyboard and a pointing device, e.g., a mouse or a trackball, by which the user can provide input to the computer. Other kinds of devices can be used to provide for interaction with a user as well; for example, feedback provided to the user can be any form of sensory feedback, e.g., visual feedback, auditory feedback, or tactile feedback; and input from the user can be received in any form, including acoustic, speech, or tactile input.

[0098] Implementations may be implemented in a computing system that includes a back-end component, e.g., as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, e.g., an application server, or that includes a front-end component, e.g., a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation, or any combination of such back-end, middleware, or front-end components. Components may be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e.g., a communication network. Examples of

communication networks include a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN), e.g., the Internet.

[0099] While certain features of the described implementations have been illustrated as described herein, many modifications, substitutions, changes and equivalents will now occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the scope of the embodiments.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method comprising:
determining, by a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
sending an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first wireless node includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first wireless node includes an IEEE 802.1 1 access point.
4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
5. The method of claim 1 , wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address of the second wireless node.
6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on successfully receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
7. The method of claim 1 , wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node, the messages occupying at least a threshold amount of time within a predetermined time interval.
8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving, within a predetermined time interval, at least a threshold number of messages from the station, the messages including a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
10. The method of claim 1 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
1 1. The method of claim 1 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.
12. The method of claim 1 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
13. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first wireless node sends the interference report message to the second wireless node via a wireless communications protocol shared by both the first wireless node and the second wireless node.
14. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first wireless node sends the interference report message to the second wireless node via a backhaul Intemet network.
15. A method comprising:
receiving, from a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message at a second wireless node serving a wireless network, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the second wireless node is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the first wireless node includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
17. The method of claim 15, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
19. The method of claim 15, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.
20. The method of claim 15, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
21. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message is a unicast message sent to the station.
22. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message is included in a broadcast message, the channel access configuration message including an identifier of the station which will increase its delay.
23. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message includes an inter- frame space instruction with an updated inter-frame space that is greater than a previous inter- frame space.
24. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message includes an instruction to increase an inter- frame space.
25. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by delaying a start of a backoff time counter for an additional delay period after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS).
26. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by starting a backoff time counter after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS) plus an additional delay period after an end of a beacon period.
27. The method of claim 15, wherein the channel access configuration message includes a plurality of delay values for the station, each of the delay values corresponding to a traffic class, at least one of the delay values being greater than a previous delay value for the respective traffic class.
28. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
determining the delay based on the interference report message,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
29. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
determining the delay based on the interference report message and a traffic load of at least one neighboring wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
30. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
determining the delay based on the interference report message and a number of other wireless stations served by the second wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
31. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
determining the delay based on the interference report message and a number of successful messages received by the second wireless node from other wireless stations served by the second wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
32. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
determining the delay based on the interference report message and a topology of the second wireless network,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
33. A method comprising:
determining, by a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network;
sending an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network;
receiving the interference report message at the second wireless node serving the wireless network; and
in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.
34. An apparatus comprising:
at least one processor; and
at least one memory including computer program code;
the at least one memory and the computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to perform:
determining, in a first wireless network, that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and sending an interference report message to a wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the apparatus includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the wireless node includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
36. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the apparatus includes an IEEE 802.11 access point.
37. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address which is different than an address of the apparatus.
38. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address of the wireless node.
39. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on successfully receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the apparatus.
40. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the apparatus, the messages occupying at least a threshold amount of time within a predetermined time interval.
41. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving, within a predetermined time interval, at least a threshold number of messages from the station, the messages including a destination address which is different than an address of the apparatus.
42. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
43. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
44. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the apparatus.
45. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
46. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the at least one memory and computer program code are configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to send the interference report message to the second wireless node via a wireless communications protocol shared by both the first wireless node and the second wireless node.
47. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the at least one memory and computer program code are configured to, with the processor, cause the apparatus to send the interference report message to the second wireless node via a backhaul Intemet network.
48. An apparatus comprising:
at least one processor; and
at least one memory including computer program code;
the at least one memory and the computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to perform:
receiving, from a wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message at the apparatus serving a wireless network, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the apparatus is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
in response to receiving the interference report message from the wireless node, sending a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.
49. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the wireless node includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the apparatus includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
50. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
51. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
52. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the wireless node.
53. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
54. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is a unicast message sent to the station.
55. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is included in a broadcast message, the channel access configuration message including an identifier of the station which will increase its delay.
56. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message includes an inter- frame space instruction with an updated inter-frame space that is greater than a previous inter- frame space.
57. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message includes an instruction to increase an inter- frame space.
58. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by delaying a start of a backoff time counter for an additional delay period after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS).
59. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by starting a backoff time counter after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS) plus an additional delay period after an end of a beacon period.
60. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message includes a plurality of delay values for the station, each of the delay values corresponding to a traffic class, at least one of the delay values being greater than a previous delay value for the respective traffic class.
61. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay, and the at least one memory and computer program code are further configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to determine the delay based on the interference report message.
62. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay, and the at least one memory and computer program code are further configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to determine the delay based on the interference report message and a traffic load of at least one neighboring wireless node.
63. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay, and the at least one memory and computer program code are further configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to determine the delay based on the interference report message and a number of other wireless stations served by the second wireless node.
64. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay, and the at least one memory and computer program code are further configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to determine the delay based on the interference report message and a number of successful messages received by the second wireless node from other wireless stations served by the second wireless node.
65. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay, and the at least one memory and computer program code are further configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to determine the delay based on the interference report message and a topology of the second wireless network.
66. A system comprising:
a first wireless node serving a first wireless network and configured to:
determine that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
send an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
the second wireless node configured to:
receive, from the first wireless node, the interference report message; and in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, send a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.
67. A computer readable storage medium comprising computer readable code stored thereon that, when executed by a processor, is configured to cause a first wireless node serving a first wireless network to:
determine that a station served by a second wireless network is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
send an interference report message to a second wireless node serving the second wireless network based on the determining, the interference report message identifying the station and indicating that the station is interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
68. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the first wireless node includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
69. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the first wireless node includes an IEEE 802.11 access point.
70. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
71. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station with a destination address of the second wireless node.
72. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on successfully receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
73. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving messages from the station, the messages comprising a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node, the messages occupying at least a threshold amount of time within a predetermined time interval.
74. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the determining includes determining that the station is interfering based on receiving, within a predetermined time interval, at least a threshold number of messages from the station, the messages including a destination address which is different than an address of the first wireless node.
75. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
76. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
77. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.
78. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
79. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the first wireless node sends the interference report message to the second wireless node via a wireless communications protocol shared by both the first wireless node and the second wireless node.
80. The computer readable storage medium of claim 67, wherein the first wireless node sends the interference report message to the second wireless node via a backhaul Internet network.
81. A computer readable storage medium comprising computer readable code stored thereon that, when executed by a processor, is configured to cause a second wireless node serving a second wireless network to:
receive, from a first wireless node serving a first wireless network, an interference report message, the interference report message indicating that a wireless station served by the second wireless node is interfering with communication in the first wireless network; and
in response to receiving the interference report message from the first wireless node, send a channel access configuration message to the station, the channel access configuration message instructing the station increase a delay in sending messages.
82. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the first wireless node includes a first wireless infrastructure node and the second wireless node includes a second wireless infrastructure node.
83. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, an amount of time occupied by messages sent by the station.
84. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates, for a predetermined time interval, a number of messages sent by the station.
85. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates a number of first wireless network stations served by the first wireless node.
86. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the interference report message identifies the station and indicates how long the station has been interfering with communication in the first wireless network.
87. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message is a unicast message sent to the station.
88. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message is included in a broadcast message, the channel access configuration message including an identifier of the station which will increase its delay.
89. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message includes an inter- frame space instruction with an updated inter- frame space that is greater than a previous inter- frame space.
90. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message includes an instruction to increase an inter-frame space.
91. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by delaying a start of a backoff time counter for an additional delay period after an arbitration inter- frame space (AIFS).
92. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message instructs the station to increase the delay by starting a backoff time counter after an arbitration inter-frame space (AIFS) plus an additional delay period after an end of a beacon period.
93. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , wherein the channel access configuration message includes a plurality of delay values for the station, each of the delay values corresponding to a traffic class, at least one of the delay values being greater than a previous delay value for the respective traffic class.
94. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , further configured to cause the second wireless node to:
determine the delay based on the interference report message,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
95. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , further configured to cause the second wireless node to:
determine the delay based on the interference report message and a traffic load of at least one neighboring wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
96. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , further configured to cause the second wireless node to:
determine the delay based on the interference report message and a number of other wireless stations served by the second wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
97. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , further configured to cause the second wireless node to: determine the delay based on the interference report message and a number of successful messages received by the second wireless node from other wireless stations served by the second wireless node,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
98. The computer readable storage medium of claim 81 , further configured to cause the second wireless node to:
determine the delay based on the interference report message and a topology of the second wireless network,
wherein the channel access configuration message is based on the determined delay.
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