WO2011063939A1 - Image acquisition device, image-generating device and spectroscope for spatially resolved spectroscopy - Google Patents

Image acquisition device, image-generating device and spectroscope for spatially resolved spectroscopy Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2011063939A1
WO2011063939A1 PCT/EP2010/007109 EP2010007109W WO2011063939A1 WO 2011063939 A1 WO2011063939 A1 WO 2011063939A1 EP 2010007109 W EP2010007109 W EP 2010007109W WO 2011063939 A1 WO2011063939 A1 WO 2011063939A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
color
light
elements
element
image
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2010/007109
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Albrecht Geist
Eberhard Derndinger
Original Assignee
Carl Zeiss Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/46Colour picture communication systems
    • H04N1/48Picture signal generators
    • H04N1/486Picture signal generators with separate detectors, each detector being used for one specific colour component
    • H04N1/488Picture signal generators with separate detectors, each detector being used for one specific colour component using beam-splitters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/28Investigating the spectrum
    • G01J3/2823Imaging spectrometer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • G01J3/465Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters taking into account the colour perception of the eye; using tristimulus detection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • G01J3/50Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/46Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters
    • G01J3/50Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J3/502Measurement of colour; Colour measuring devices, e.g. colorimeters using electric radiation detectors using a dispersive element, e.g. grating, prism
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/10Beam splitting or combining systems
    • G02B27/1086Beam splitting or combining systems operating by diffraction only
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/10Beam splitting or combining systems
    • G02B27/12Beam splitting or combining systems operating by refraction only
    • G02B27/126The splitting element being a prism or prismatic array, including systems based on total internal reflection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength, or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14601Structural or functional details thereof
    • H01L27/1462Coatings
    • H01L27/14621Colour filter arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength, or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14643Photodiode arrays; MOS imagers
    • H01L27/14645Colour imagers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N9/00Details of colour television systems
    • H04N9/04Picture signal generators
    • H04N9/045Picture signal generators using solid-state devices

Abstract

The invention relates to an image acquisition device for the digital acquisition of a two-dimensional colour image comprising a plurality of light-sensitive sensor pixels (26) and a plurality of juxtaposed colour splitter elements (24), wherein at least two sensor pixels (26) are assigned to each colour splitter element (24). Furthermore, each colour splitter element (24) is designed such that it distributes polychromatic light (34) impinging thereon to the sensor pixels (26) assigned thereto at a distribution ratio that is dependent on the spectral composition of the impinging light. According to the invention, the colour splitter elements (24) are arranged in a two-dimensional pattern.

Description

Imager, IMAGING DEVICE

AND SPECTROSCOPE FOR LOCAL RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The invention relates to an image sensor (also called image sensor) for the digital recording of a two-dimensional color image 5, an image forming means for reproducing a two-dimensional color image and a spectroscope for the two-dimensional spatially-resolved spectroscopy.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Image sensor for the digital recording of a two-dimensional) len color image, such as those commonly used in photographic or video cameras usually have a matrix-like array of light sensitive sensor pixels. The sensor pixels are provided with a color filter that only light of a spectral component, z. As red, green or blue light permeable are 15 °. Contains incident light, for example, a green spectral component, and applies that light to a sensor pixel on, the color filter is transparent to green light, the sensor pixel produces an electrical output signal dependent on the intensity of the green spectral component. A transmitter 20 of the image sensor obtained from the output signals of all sensor pixels provided with color filters, the color information of the image to be recorded.

A disadvantage of this known type of image sensors, however, is that is absorbed by the color filters, a large portion of light incident on the sensor 25 pixel light. Therefore, such image sensor have a relatively low light sensitivity.

CONFIRMATION COPY A higher photosensitivity have image sensor, in which not all, but only part of the sensor pixels is provided with color filters. The remaining pixel sensor detect the intensity of the incident light independent of color, that is for all wavelengths within the visible spectrum. The gain in sensitivity to light but bought in this variant with a loss of color information.

A substantially complete utilization of the incident light is possible in imagers in which the incident light is distributed using a dichroic prism or a different color divider to several (usually three) image sensor which detect the intensity of the light incident wavelength independent. However, such imagers require significantly more construction cavities, requiring a high adjustment effort and are therefore relatively expensive.

From EP 0383308 A2 an image sensor for use in scanners according to the preamble of claim 1 is known in which color separation elements, which are arranged along a single line and are formed as diffractive optical elements, the incident polychromatic light on three lines split of sensor pixels. The color separator elements are in this case arranged in the vicinity of an image plane of an imaging optics, in which an image of the illuminated scanner slot is formed. The allocation to the associated elements Farbteiler- the sensor pixels is carried out along the scan direction. Since no absorbing color filters are used, this known scanner is very sensitive to light.

To accommodate this known scanning a two-dimensional color image, it must be scanned line by line. This will, however, always exploited by the total available amount of light only a small fraction at a given time, which ultimately even lost even more light than the initially described image sensor with color filters.

Similar scanner with color-splitter elements are constructed as diffrakti- ve optical elements are known from US

5,233,703 and US 5,481,381 known.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention is to provide a particularly light-sensitive image sensor for the digital recording of a two-dimensional color image. According to the invention this object is achieved by an image sensor having a plurality of light sensitive sensor pixels and a plurality of juxtaposed color splitter elements. Each color separation element are assigned least two sensor pixels. Further, each color separator element being trained det that incident thereon polychromatic light distributed to its associated sensor pixel with a Aufteilungsver- ratio, which depends on the spectral composition of the incident light. According to the invention the color separator elements are arranged in a two dimensional pattern. The inventors have realized that one can realize a very light-sensitive image sensor, when a plurality of small color separator elements in a two-dimensional pattern in or in the immediate vicinity of a receiving plane is arranged in the two-dimensional color image is to be incorporated. Each color separation element separates the incident light spectral distribution and the spectral components on its associated sensor pixels. Since the spectral decomposition of the incident colored light is carried out using diffractive or refrakti- ver optical elements largely loss-free, is virtually no light loss in determining the color information. Therefore, the image sensor according to the invention has a very high sensitivity to light. Where usually provided with color filters sensor pixels are arranged, are according to the invention Farbteiler- elements which divide the incident light spectrally and align the sensor pixels. Since the color divider elements are not arranged as a single line, but in a two-dimensional pattern, the color image need not be scanned so that the image sensor is suitable for example for video cameras.

Under a two-dimensional pattern is meant here is that each color-splitter element, which is assigned at least two sensor pixels, at least one color splitter element in a first direction and a color divider member in a second direction orthogonal thereto are adjacent. The pattern is generally thereby be regular and can in particular have rows and columns. However, there are also irregular or over its area of ​​time-varying patterns into consideration. The entire pattern of Farbeilter- elements covers an area preferably, the aspect ratio is less than 5: 1. As mentioned above, the color separator elements are preferably arranged in a receiving plane in which the color image is to be incorporated and which can coincide with an image plane of a preceding imaging optics. Considering, however, the color separator elements is also slightly toward the object offset axially to arrange for such a receiving plane, in order to then - but at the expense of a lower image sharpness - exploit that emanating from the color divider elements light beams converge and thus more easily to the sensor pixel may be submitted. In general, the color separation element will be formed such that they deflect different spectral components of the incident polychromatic light in different directions, as is the case for example with the diffractive optical elements or prisms. Basically, however, it is contemplated that the color splitter elements make an allocation to the different spectral components in another way. For example, the wavelength dependence of certain birefringent elements could be used to encode the color information in the polarization state. In another, optionally also more distant point, the light may be distributed with the help of polarization-selective optical elements to the associated pixel sensor. Particularly suitable as a color separator elements are diffractive optical elements. Preferably, the zero order diffraction is thereby suppressed and only used the first diffraction order. To this end, the diffractive optical elements blazed diffraction structures may have. When used in transmission diffractive optical elements, the first diffraction order is always emitted obliquely. To compensate for this offset of the deflection angle, the diffractive structures can be supported by a wedge-shaped prism so that light of a particular wavelength, the color separator element can pass without deflection.

Instead of diffractive optical elements may also be refractive optical elements, in particular prisms or arrangements of several prisms can be used as color splitting elements. Particularly preferred is the appropriation of a Geradsichtprismas, since this has the property that light of a specific wavelength can pass the direct-vision prism without distraction.

In one embodiment of the invention, each color-splitter element is associated with a collection optical element with collecting action, is arranged between the color separation element and the sensor pixels, that it is exposed to all light beams from the respective color-splitting element to the this color splitter element associated sensor pixels are addressed. Such an optical collecting element, which is for himself. B. can be a lens or a diffractive optical element achromatized, can be used to focus the incident light and so to be directed to the sensor pixel that light of a wavelength falls only on more than one sensor pixel. This effect can be achieved even if the color separator elements themselves have a collective effect.

However, extraction of color information is possible even if the color splitter elements are constructed and arranged relative to the sensor pixels that light of a wavelength falls in at least two associated with the same sensor element Farbteiler- pixels. If the splitting ratio for the respective wavelength between the min- least two sensor pixels is known, it can be determined which spectral components even when impinging polychromatic light. Where there are ambiguities can be resolved by taking into account the output signals generated by sensor pixels which are assigned to a neighboring color splitter element. it allows that the light of a wavelength on a plurality of sensor pixels falls at the same time, there is less need to provide additional optical elements with collecting effect, which focus the light deflected and directed to individual sensor pixels.

Further simplifications are possible if at least one, but all associated with a color separation element pixels are not additionally associated with an adjacent color splitter element. In this case, divide it were loading neighboring color separator elements sensor pixels, so that their

Number can be significantly reduced. While thus a loss of resolution is accompanied inevitable but it can be partially offset by using a known interpolation algorithms, such as those developed for the widely used Bayer pattern.

If adjacent color separator elements at least one sensor pixel is assigned in common, so there must be at least one wavelength at which said at least deflect the color separator elements from the same direction incident light has a wavelength in a direction which is different for the two color-splitting elements , Generally, this will cause adjacent color divider elements are pairwise different. It is preferred in this context if the different directions are mirror symmetrical relative to a symmetry plane passing between the two color-splitting elements.

If it is at the adjacent color-splitter elements are diffractive optical elements with diffractive structures, which are supported by wedge-shaped prisms, so in this case are at adjacent color splitter elements, which is jointly associated with at least one sensor pixel, the wedge-shaped prisms alternating wedge angle. In another embodiment, each Farbteiler- element, a first, a second and a third sensor pixels are assigned. The first sensor pixel is additionally assigned to an adjacent to a side of color separation element, and the second sensor pixels is also assigned to a neighboring to another page color splitter element. In this case, it is favorable when the light falls on the third sensor pixels, having wavelengths that lie in the middle between the wavelengths of the light that falls on the first and the second sensor pixels. Generally, it will be there to light in the green spectral range.

In a further embodiment, each sensor pixel is an optical element with collecting or dissipating effect associated, which is arranged between the color separation element and the sensor pixels, that it is only exposed to the light beams from the associated respective Farbteiler- element to a single sensor pixel be judged. The optical element with collecting or decomposed scattering effect has the task to combine the light incident on the sensor pixel light individually or to dissipate and to achieve an adaptation to the size of the photosensitive surface of the sensor pixel and the numerical aperture in this manner, in the a maximum sensitivity is achieved ness. In particular, can be achieved in that no or less light is incident in the spaces between the sensor pixels.

In a further embodiment of an associated the Farbteiler- element refractive beam-displacing element is interposed between each color separation element and the sensor pixels arranged, which changes the split ratio with which the color separation element impinging on it polychromatic light distributed to its associated pixel, and the parallel optical surfaces having. Using such a beam displacement element, the split ratio can be modified to cause an optimal adaptation to the spectral sensitivity of the charge of the perception of color cones of the human eye is achieved. The optical surfaces of the beam displacement element can thereby be bent or curved.

The image sensor may comprise an electronic evaluation unit which is designed such that it links the output signals associated with a color separation element sensor pixels with spectral sensitivity functions and derives therefrom color values.

The invention is also a digital camera with an imaging optical system, with which an object is imaged on an image plane, and an image recorder according to the invention. Preferably, the color separator elements are then arranged in or in the immediate vicinity of an image plane of the imaging optics, as already mentioned above.

Preferably, it is also when the imaging optics is at least on the image side telecentric. In this way it is ensured that the incident on the color separation elements light beams pass through the image plane, which facilitates the interpretation of the color separator elements with vertical main beam. It is further preferred when the imaging optical system has a numerical aperture on both sides of less than 0.1 and preferably less than 0.05. Such a small numerical aperture is convenient because most eligible color separator elements deflect the spectrally dispersed light in addition, when the direction of incidence of the incident

Light changes. This incident directions change only slightly, as is the case with small image side numerical apertures of the imaging optics, as is the loss of color information, which results from the additional distraction 'as a result of varying the angle of incidence is low.

The invention can be used for the reproduction of color images, which essentially requires only a reversal of the direction of light propagation and vice versa for imaging facilities. A Bilderzeu- restriction device according to the invention comprises a plurality of switchable light pixels and a plurality of juxtaposed superimposition elements. Each overlay element associated with at least two light pixels that generate light of different color. Further, the overlay elements are arranged in a two-dimensional patterns, each overlay panel is formed so that it is superimposed on the light incident from different directions with different colors to form a common beam bundle. Each overlay member may be associated with collection efficiency, an optical collecting member which is disposed between the overlay element and the light-emitting pixels, that it is exposed to all light rays directed from the light emitting pixels on the associated overlay element.

Further, the overlay elements may be so constructed and arranged relative to the light-emitting pixels, that light of a wavelength of at least two illuminated pixels is generated and is incident on the associated with these overlay element.

At least one, but not all associated with a superposition element illuminated pixels may be additionally assigned to an adjacent overlay element.

In this case, adjacent overlay elements light incident with the same wavelength in one direction, which is different for the two adjacent overlay elements deflect in the same direction can. The different directions of the incident light are rieebene preferably mirror symmetrical relative to a Symmet- which extends between the two superimposed elements.

Each overlay member may be associated with a first, a second and a third light-emitting pixels, wherein the first light pixels additionally assigned to an adjacent to one side of the overlay element and the second light emitting pixels is additionally assigned to an adjacent to another side of the overlay element.

In this case, light that is generated from the third light pixels, preferably wavelengths see be- in agents are the wavelengths of light that are generated by the first and the second light-emitting pixels. Each light-emitting pixel may be associated with an optical element with collecting or dissipating effect, which is disposed between the overlay element and the light-emitting pixels, that it is only exposed to the light beams, which are generated by a single light-emitting pixels.

At least one overlay element may comprise a diffractive optical element. Preferably, then, the overlay element has a wedge-shaped prism having supported thereon diffracting structures. At adjacent overlay elements which are assigned in common at least one light-emitting pixels, the wedge-shaped prisms can have alternating wedge angle.

At least one overlay element may comprise a refractive optical element, in particular a prism, and more particularly, to a vision prism.

Each light-emitting pixels may include a diffractive optical element and a light switch. In the light switch can be, a switchable LCD element or a tiltable mirror, for example. The invention is also a digital image projector with an imaging optical system with an object on an image plane can be imaged, and with an inventive image forming means.

The overlay elements are preferably arranged in an image plane of the imaging optics, which may be at least on the object side telecentric and has a objektsei- term numerical aperture of less than 0.1 and more preferably less than 0.05.

The invention also relates to a spectroscope for the spatially resolved spectroscopy with a plurality of light-sensitive sensor pixels and having a plurality of juxtaposed color splitter elements. Each color divider element associated with at least four sensor pixels. Further, each color-splitter element is designed such that it distributes incident thereon polychromatic light on its associated pixel sensor with a splitting ratio which depends on the spectral composition of the incident light. According to the invention the color separator elements are arranged in a two dimensional pattern.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further characteristics and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of an embodiment with reference to the drawings. in which:

1 shows a color camera according to the invention according to a first

Nalschnitt embodiment in a simplified meridional;

Figure 2 shows an enlarged detail of an imager, which is part of the color camera shown in Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a plan view of the shown in Figure 2

imagers;

Figure 4 is a color camera according to the invention according to a second embodiment of the invention in a simplified meridian;

Figure 5 shows an enlarged detail of an imager, which is part of the color camera shown in Figure 4, with an optical path for light with a wavelength in the red spectral component;

Figure 6 is a view as in Figure 5, but for

Partial light having a wavelength in the blue Spektralan-; Figure 7 is a view as in Figure 5, but for

Light having a wavelength in the green spectral component;

Figure 8 is a plan view of the imager in the

Figure 4 shown color camera;

Figure 9 is an enlarged detail of an image recorder for the embodiment shown in Figure 4 color camera according to a first embodiment;

Figure 10 is an enlarged detail of a Bildaufneh- mer for the embodiment shown in Figure 4 color camera according to a second embodiment;

Figure 11 is a side sectional view of an image sensor, in which used as a color separator elements diffractive optical elements; Figures 12a and 12 b a section of the image sensor shown in Figure 6 with a beam path for vertical or oblique light incidence;

Figure 13 is a side view of an imager, in which used as a color separator elements Geradsichtprismen;

Figure 14 is an enlarged view of two adjacent

Geradsichtprismen with plotted beam path;

15 shows an image forming apparatus according to the invention

according to a first embodiment of the inventions dung in a simplified meridian;

16 shows an image forming apparatus according to the invention

according to a second embodiment of the invention in a simplified meridian; Figure 17 dionalschnitt an inventive spectroscope for the spatially resolved spectroscopy in a simplified Meri-.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

I. Color Camera

1. First Embodiment

1 shows an overall designated 10 color camera according to the invention in a schematically illustrated meridional. The color camera 10 has a housing 12 accommodating an imaging optical system 14 and an image recorder sixteenth The imaging optics 14 forms an AB at 18, indicated object that is located in an object plane 20 of the imaging optical system 14, in an image plane 22 of the imaging optics fourteenth In the figure 1, the imaging optical system 14 is simplified as a single convergent lens indicated; Of course, the imaging optics 14 may also include a plurality of lenses and other optical elements.

The image plane 22 of the imaging optical system 14 coincides with a pickup plane of the image recorder 16, in which it picks up the image formed by the imaging optical system 14 of the object 18; hereinafter, therefore, the same reference numeral 22 is used for the image plane and the receiving plane. In the capture plane 22 a plurality of color separation elements 24 are arranged in a two-dimensional regular pattern. The area covered by the color separator elements 24 in the capture plane 22 surface has an aspect ratio of at most 5: 1, and defines the maximum size of the image that can be picked up by the image pickup 16th

The color separator elements 24 have the task of polychromatic light emanating from the object 18 and is incident in the receiving plane 22 to the color splitter elements 24 spectrally decompose and to distribute the different spectral components on the sensor pixels 26 which are arranged on a support 28 are. The pixel sensor 26 detect possible independent of the wavelength, the intensity of light incident thereon and generate intensity-dependent electrical output signals. These output signals are supplied to a transmitter 30 of the imager 16, which calculates for each color separator elements 24 color values, for example, in an RGB color space. These color values ​​can then be stored in a memory 32 of the image recorder sixteenth

The spectral decomposition of the polychromatic light with the aid of the color separator elements 24 is explained below with reference to Figure 2 in more detail, which shows an enlarged section of a portion of the Page Up taker 16 shown in FIG. 1

The color separator elements 24 are formed such that they deflect different spectral components of the incident colored light 34 in different directions. For simplicity, here first be assumed that the collimated polychromatic light einfallen- 34 and is perpendicular to the color splitter elements 24th If this deflect the spectral components of the incident light 34 in different directions without affecting the parallelism of the light itself, then exit 24 from collimated beam exit surfaces of the color separator elements, dependent on their direction of propagation of the wavelength.

In the illustrated embodiment, the imager 16 includes a matrix-like arrangement of converging lenses 36, the divider between the color elements 24 and the sensor pixels are secured 26th Each color beam splitter element 24 is assigned a converging lens 36, the distance between the color splitter elements 24 and condenser lenses 36 is so small that all of a color splitter element passage 24 light passing through the respectively associated collecting lens 36th

In the illustrated embodiment, each color separation element 24 are associated with three sensor pixels 26, namely a first sensor pixels 26a for the blue spectral component, a second sensor pixel 26b for the green spectral component, and a third sensor pixel 26c for the red spectral component. The sensor pixels 26 are at least approximately in a focal plane of the condenser lenses 36 are arranged so that they focus the collimated, but propagating in different directions beam onto the sensor pixels 26, as shown in Figures 1 and 2 for three different wavelengths in the blue, green and red spectral component is indicated by dotted, solid and dashed lines. The converging lens 36 relies different

Propagation directions of the individual wavelengths around in places where the assigned to the blue, green and red spectral sensor pixels 26a, 26b and 26c are located.

The transmitter 30 may by evaluating the output signals of a color splitter element 24 associated sensor pixels 26a, 26b, determines 26c, how much light in the blue, green and red spectral range is incident on the color-splitting element 24, and therefrom a color value for the incident derived light. Each color separator element 24 thus represents a pixel which can be dissolved in the receiving plane 22nd The size and density of the color-splitting elements 24 thus determines the resolution of the imager sixteenth

In general, the color divider elements 24 generate at least over a greater range of wavelengths a continu- ierliches spectrum, so that light is incident in the spaces between the sensor pixels 26a, 26b and 26c. This light is lost for an evaluation by the image sensor 16, so the spaces between the sensor pixels 26a, 26b, 26c should be as small as possible.

3 shows a detail of the imager 16 in plan view. The indicated by thick black lines color separator members 24 each cover a converging lens 36 and three sensor pixels 26a, 26b, 26c. In this embodiment, each pixel to which a color separator element 24, a collecting lens 36 and three sensor pixels 26a, 26b are associated, 26c, constructed in an identical manner. Depending on the yet to be explained construction of the color separator elements used 24 it is even possible because of several color splitter elements 24 summarize component moderate to larger components and to subdivide only in functional terms about the assignment to the sensor pixels 26th In Figure 3 such a possible combination of several color separator elements is indicated by dashed lines are intended to indicate only a functional separation of adjacent color divider elements.

To the right of Figure 3, two alternative arrangements of the sensor pixels 26, and lenses 36 are shown. In the shown top right embodiment, the sensor pixel 26 have so that they have a hexagonal base area, with minimum distances, and - can be arranged three-fold geometry on the support 28 - in relation to a group of three one color splitter element 24 associated sensor pixels 26a, 26b, 26c , The corresponding color separation element must be designed such that it is able to deflect the different spectral components not only in a plane, but in two orthogonal planes in this case. In the illustrated bottom right of the Figure 3 variation, the rotationally symmetrical lens 36 is replaced by a cylindrical lens 136, which therefore has power only along one direction. Perpendicular to this direction, the sensor pixel 126 extend over the entire dimension of the associated color-splitter member 126 away.

At approximately lossless color separator elements 24 enables the image sensor 16 according to the illustrated in FIGS 1 through 3 embodiment, supplying almost 100% of the incident light in the receiving plane 22 to the sensor pixels 26th Therefore, the image sensor 16 of the color camera 10 has a very high light output. The color camera 10 can therefore achieve even excellent color resolutions, even in unfavorable light conditions.

2. Second Embodiment

4 shows in a style similar to the Figure 1 illustration, a color camera according to the invention, generally designated 10 'according to a second embodiment. Identical or corresponding components are designated with the same reference numerals.

In contrast to the embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 3 color camera 10, the color camera 10 'no collecting lenses 36 are provided in the image recorder 16, which focus ■ of the Farbtei- ler elements 24 deflected spectral components of the incident light on the individual sensor pixels 26th

Rather, it is deliberately allowed in this embodiment that each color separation element 24 is directed light of any wavelength is not only a single sensor pixel 26, but also on the two respective adjacent sensor pixels. To meet the in the figure 4 of a Farbteiler- member 24a outgoing light having a wavelength that is not distracted, not only to a sensor pixel 26b, but also partly to the adjacent sensor pixels 26a and 26c. The same applies to a light beam having a shorter wavelength, which is indicated by dotted lines, and a light beam having a longer wavelength, which is indicated by dashed lines. Thus, while in the illustrated in FIGS 1 through 3 embodiment, the split ratio for a particular wavelength 0: 0: 1, 0: 1: 0 or 1: 0: 0 was, in the illustrated in the Figure 4 embodiment is the split ratio a: b: c, a, b, c 0. The division ratio here will be different for each wavelength something. For those shown in Figure 4 wavelengths lying approximately in the middle of the blue, green and red spectral component, the split ratio, for example 2: 1: 1, 1: 2: 1 or 1: be 1: 2, so that just as much light on the spectrally "right" sensor pixels as the two "wrong" sensor pixel falls.

The division ratio depends particularly on the structure of color separator elements 24, but also on the arrangement of the transmitter sorpixel 26 from. Is the division ratio is known for all wavelengths, the transmitter 30 can be calculated from the pixels generated by the sensor 26 output electric signals, the color values ​​using well known algorithms. The operation is the extent to that of the human eye not unlike, in which the authorities responsible for color perception suppositories are also sensitive to all wavelengths and the color information is derived only from the differences in sensitivity to a specific wavelength. However, such a determination of the color values ​​is only possible if the split ratio for all wavelengths is 1: 1, that is, light of a certain wavelength equal parts falls on three adjacent sensor pixels:. 1 For the dimensions of the sensor pixels 26 in particular, this means that the width of which must not exceed one third of the width of a beam splitter element 24, in turn, corresponds approximately to the cross section of the emitted by the color separator elements 26 light beam of a specific wavelength. In the above described first embodiment, the width of the sensor pixel was smaller than this value; However, when the widths should be greater than this value, then can no longer each beamsplitter element 26 clearly three different sensor pixels 26a, 26b, 26c are associated.

Rather then have more (but not all) a color separator element 24 associated sensor pixel 26 may be additionally associated with an adjacent color-splitter element, as can be seen in FIG. 4 This double assignment in turn requires that adjacent color separator elements do not have to deflect in the same but in different directions 24 up light striking the same wavelength.

This will be explained below with reference to Figures 5 to 7 which show an enlarged section of FIG. 4 Illustrated are two adjacent color separator elements 24a, 24b, 24c and sensor pixels 26, which are in red, green and blue for better distinguishability with the initials of the primary colors.

In the figure 5 it is illustrated how light of a wavelength in the red spectral component is distracted by the color separator elements 24th The deflection is effected so that this light falls mainly on the associated one of said red spectral sensor pixels 26, which are designated by small letters r. As can be seen in Figure 5, each adjacent color separator 24 elements deflect light of that wavelength from each in opposite directions. The directions in which the light of this wavelength is deflected from adjacent elements Farbteiler-, thereby are mirror symmetrical relative to a plane of symmetry extending between the respective adjacent color splitter elements. Since the number assigned to the red spectral sensor pixel 26 is only half as large as the number of color-splitter elements 24, to pairs of adjacent color separator elements must share a sensor pixel 26 for the red spectral component, respectively. Since this sensor pixel 26 can not distinguish which directs Farbteiler- element of this light on it, this means that the resolution for the embodiment shown in Figure 5 wavelength in the red spectral range by a factor of 1/2 smaller than the resolution, the calculation is from the number of Farbteiler- elements 24 is obtained.

6 shows in a style similar to the Figure 5 illustration, the conditions for light whose wavelength is in the blue spectral component. The notes described above with respect to FIG 5 apply accordingly. 7 shows in a likewise style similar to the Figure 5 representation of a special case, hits in the light having a wavelength of the green spectral component of the sensor pixel 26 without being distracted by the color separator elements 24th Light of this wavelength does not overlap with light of the same wavelength that has passed through an adjacent Farbteiler- element. Consequently, each sensor pixel is assigned to g for the green spectral exactly one color splitter element 24 at this wavelength. twice the resolution of this light therefore, compared with red or blue light reaches, which is given by the number of Farbteiler- element 24th

In general, the light has a wavelength lying between the wavelengths whose distribution is shown on the sensor pixel 26 in Figures 5 to 7th the resolution is calculated between the minimum resolution which is shown in Figures 5 and 6, and the maximum resolution that is shown in the figure 7 for these wavelengths.

Figure 8 shows the imager 16, the color camera 10 'in a plan view. In the upper third being indicated by different hatchings che that the adjacent

Color-splitting elements 24 incident light of the same wavelength (apart from that shown in Figure 7 a special case of the non-diffracted light) deflect in different Rieh- obligations, as shown in Figures 5 and 6. FIG. In the middle third of the figure 8, the shading has been omitted to the arrangement of the color-splitting elements 24 to be able to understand in relation to the sensor including recognizable pixels 26; in the lower third of the color separator elements 24 are not shown.

As already mentioned, the sensor pixels 26 form in this embodiment an arrangement in which the sensor pixels marked with the letter g is the green Spekt- ralanteil twice as often occur as the r with the letter b marked sensor pixels corresponding to the red or blue spectral component are assigned. These imbalances processing of the individual spectral components carrying the higher sensitivity of the human eye for green light account, and is therefore implemented in conventional image sensors, which provide the individual photosensitive pixel sensor with color filters and are disposed in the Bayer pattern.

Similarly as with the Bayer pattern 26 color values ​​can be interpolated in the embodiment shown in the Figure 8 arrangement, the sensor pixel positions between the sensor pixels 26, which are associated with a particular spectral component.

At approximately lossless color separator elements 24 enables the image sensor 16 according to the illustrated in the figures 4 to 8 embodiment, supplying almost 100% of the incident light in the receiving plane 22 to the sensor pixels 26th Therefore, the image sensor 16 of the color camera 10 'has also a very high luminous efficiency. The color camera 10 'can therefore achieve even excellent color resolutions, even in unfavorable light conditions. However, the structural design is even simpler than in the embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 3 color camera 10 according to the first embodiment, since the arrangement of converging lenses eliminates 34th , With an assumed minimum size addition, the sensor pixel 26, the color-splitting elements in the embodiment shown in Figures 4 to 8 color camera 10 'be significantly smaller, since not three but only two sensor pixels 26 are arranged on the surface of a color beam splitter element 24 have to. Accordingly, smaller and cheaper, the imaging optics 14 may, for the same resolution, fail.

The image sensor 16 is also less sensitive to adjustment errors. If the arrangement of the color divider elements 24 aligned in the assembly not correct in relation to the arrangement of the sensor pixels 26, so the nep subsequently or by a calculated modification of Aufteilungsverhält- account can be taken, the rate applied by the transmitter 30 in the determination of the color values become . 9 shows a variant of the second embodiment shown in Figures 4 to 8, in which between the color divider members 24 and the sensor pixels 26 are also arranged as with the example shown in Figures 1 to 3 the first embodiment of converging lenses 38th However, the Sammellin- not sen 38 are near the Farbteiler- elements 24, but disposed in the vicinity of the sensor pixel 26th Characterized the collecting lenses are to pass through only light 38, the pixels on a sensor 26, which the respective condenser lens associated 38th The collecting lenses 38 make it possible to direct all of the light that passes through the color separator elements 24 of the sensor pixels 26, even if these, as indicated in Figure 9, are separated by greater distances. Further, it allow the condenser lenses 38, to allow the spectrally split light coincide with a numerical aperture of the sensor pixels 26, in which these optimum sensitivity. In contrast to the results shown in Figure 2 converging lenses 36, however, the collecting lenses can here reach 38 that the light incident on all sensor pixels 26 under similar angles by a slight lateral offset.

Figure 10 shows a further variant of the imager 16 shown in Figures 4 to 8, wherein between each

Color separator element 24 and the sensor pixels 26 a of each color splitter element 24 beam-displacing element 40 is disposed assigned, which changes the splitting ratio, which are distributed to the respective color splitter element 24 associated sensor pixel 26, the spectral components of the incident light. In the illustrated embodiment, the beam displacement members 40 are constructed as a roof-like bent plates with parallel faces 42, 44th A fold line 46 of the Strahlverlagerungsele- elements 40 extends perpendicular to the direction in which the spectral components are deflected by the beamsplitter elements 24th As can be seen in the center of the figure 10, shifting the beam-displacing element light of a wavelength which lies in the green spectral component, such that more light than in the example shown in the Figure 7 embodiment is incident on the sensor pixel that is associated with the green spectral component, and therefore is marked with the letter g. In this way, the division ratio is increased in favor of the sensor pixel g. Due to the parallelism of the interfaces 42, 47, the propagation direction of the light does not change as it passes through the beam-displacing element 40th

In the illustrated embodiment, the beam displacement is greatest for perpendicular incidence on the beam-displacing element 40, as shown in the middle of the figure 10th The more inclined the light is incident, the less changes the division ratio; for light falls mainly on the associated with the red or blue spectral sensor pixel r and b, namely a shift of the light takes place, but this has no or only little effect on the Aufteilungsverhält- nis.

With such or also differently shaped Strahlverlagerungsele- elements 40, which do not alter the numerical aperture, can change the division ratio so that an optimum, adapted to the spectral sensitivity of the human eye color determination is possible for a given type of color separator elements 24th Thus, the beam shifting members 40 may in particular corrugated parallel

having interfaces 42, 44th

The juxtaposed in a series of roof-shaped beam displacement elements 40 can be combined, which is about the size of the image to be recorded also to several strip-shaped members, or even a single larger component. In Figure 10, therefore, the adjacent beam displacement members 40 are separated from each other only by dashed lines.

3. Suitable color-splitter elements The following are examples of color-splitter elements described which can be used in the image sensors 16 of the color cameras 10, 10 described above. ' a. Diffractive optical elements

11 shows in an enlarged detail a section through a plurality of color divider elements 24 and their associated sensor pixel 26. Each color separator element 24 has a prismatic, namely substantially wedge-shaped carrier 45 which diffraction structures carries 47th

The diffraction structures 47 are for example formed in the shown exemplary as blazed structures that are sized and excluded with respect to the incident light 34 is directed, that the zeroth diffraction order suppressed, and the vast majority of the incident light is deflected in one of the two first diffraction orders 34th This diffraction is dependent on the wavelength of the light, so that the desired dependence of the deflection angle on the wavelength is obtained. The application of the diffraction structures 47 on the wedge-shaped support 45 ensures this is that there is no net deflection in the middle. In other words, the same amount of light is deflected by a Farbteiler- element 24 to the right as to the left in the figure 11, whereby the spectral components are distributed symmetrically relative to the direction at which the light impinges on the elements 24 Farbteiler- 34th

The color separator elements 24 are mutually arranged on envelope, whereby each two adjacent Farbteiler- elements 24 a line extending along the boundary between the color splitter elements symmetry plane are different, but symmetrical with respect to. In this way it is achieved that the wavelength-dependent deflection of the light, is carried out in the manner as explained above with reference to Figures 5 and 6. FIG. Characterized shown example, the two color-splitting elements 24 11 directed to the left in the figure, the blue spectral component on the common sensor pixels 26a, as has been explained above with reference to FIG. 6

So far, the simplicity's sake it has been assumed that the light 34 parallel to the optical axis, which is defined by the symmetry axis of the imaging optical system 14, is incident on the color beam splitter elements 24th With axis-parallel light, however, no figure can be realized; rather, must on the recording plane 22, which coincides with the image plane of the imaging optical system 14, converging beam having a non-zero numerical aperture, thereby acquiring an image of object 18 on the color separator elements 24th In the figure 1, such a converging beam is indicated by dashed lines and designated by the 46th

In the Figures 12a and 12b shows how the deflection of the spectral changes comparable at oblique incidence, when the color divider members 24 as shown in Figure 11 as diffractive optical elements are formed. In the figure, 12a can be seen how light deflected at a wavelength in the blue spectral component of a Farbteiler- element 24 and is incident on a sensor pixel 26, rather WEL of the spectral color blue is assigned to, and is therefore marked with the letter b.

In the illustration on the right in the Figure 12b, however, was assumed that the light falls below a zero angle to the optical axis to the color splitter element 24, as is indicated by arrows 34th Calculations have shown that the spectral splitting as such is hardly affected by the slanting light. This means that for two different wavelengths, the difference in the deflection angle for oblique light case approxi- remains hernd obtained.

However, the oblique incident light with the result that there is a kind of offset the deflection angle, ie all wavelength-dependent deflection angle change by a certain amount. This offset causes obliquely incident light, the color beam splitter element 24 exits at an angle other than perpendicular incident light of the same wavelength and thus impinges with a different split ratio of the sensor pixels 26th

In the Figure 12b, this offset is incident pixel in the plane of the sensor 26 for the light 34, which is inclined at a maximum angle to the optical axis to the color splitter element 24, denoted by d; the dashed lines indicate for comparison to the light path for vertically incident light. For light incident inclined toward the other side to the optical axis on the color divider element 24 and is indicated in the figure with dotted arrows 12b, there is toward a corresponding offset from the amount d to the opposite direction. In the figure, 12 is indicated by dotted lines.

The offset by the amount d to both sides results in that light of a certain wavelength is not a total area of ​​two illuminates the sensor pixels 26, but from more than two sensor pixels. However, the consequent smearing of the color information is still tolerable as long as these additional illuminated surface is no greater than about half of the surface of a sensor pixel.

In order to keep this smearing of the color information as low as possible should be ensured by the imaging optical system 14 that numerical aperture NA of light incident on the color beam splitter 24 light elements is as small as possible. therefore are particularly suitable imaging optics, the objects 18 increases in the object plane 20 maps to the recording plane 22nd The image-side numerical aperture is then by the amount of the magnification is smaller than the object-side numerical aperture of the imaging optics 14 are well suited, for example, microscope objectives, the image side numerical aperture is often less than 0.1 or even 12:05. b. Refractive optical elements

In the example shown in the Figure 13 embodiment, the color-splitting elements 24 are configured as refractive optical elements. Each color-splitter element consists of a direct-vision prism of a type as referred to in the art as an Amici prism. Each vision prism comprises three prisms 50, 52 and 54, the refracting surfaces each enclose an angle of 60 °. The three prisms 50, 52, 54 are arranged one after another on envelope and cemented together in a conventional manner. The two outer prisms 50, 54 are made of soda lime glass, while the central prism is made of flint glass 52nd Hence the beam path shown in Figure 14 for light of different wavelengths is obtained.

By appropriate choice of the optical materials for the prisms 50, 52, 54 is achieved that light can escape from the vision prism without distraction with a desired center wavelength, which is indicated in Figure 14 by a solid line. Light with larger or smaller wavelengths are deflected symmetrically thereto, as is indicated in Figure 14 by dashed and dotted lines. Are arranged on envelope two such Amici Geradsichtprismen, as shown in Figures 13 and 14, the deflection directions change periodically, so that each two adjacent Geradsichtprismen can share a sensor pixel as above with reference to Figures 5 and explained 6 and is shown in FIG. 13

Even when forming the color components elements as Geradsichtprismen an oblique incident light to Verschmie- leads tion of color information. Therefore, the image side numerical aperture of the imaging optics 14 should be as small as possible even with a use of Geradsichtprismen.

II. Color Projector

The two-dimensional array of elements Farbteiler- in the capture plane 22 according to the invention can be used in the reverse direction light to overlap light generated by the light pixels of different colors, to produce therefrom in an image forming device a two-dimensional color image. This will be explained below with reference to Figures 15 and 16 by means of embodiments, each showing a color image projector 110th Parts which occur in accordance with one of the embodiments described above, for a color camera 10 or 10 'are designated by increasing by one hundred numerals.

The color image projector 110 shown in Figure 15 in a schematic meridional section has a housing 112 in which a direction indicated at 114, imaging optics and an image generation device are arranged 116th The image forming device 116 includes a digital data memory 132 which is associated with a control electronics 130 for light pixels 126 in conjunction which are applied to a support 128th Each group of three luminescent pixels 126 associated with delay element 124. overloading, wherein the overlay elements are arranged side by side in a two dimensional pattern in an object plane of the imaging optics 114th The overlay elements 124 respectively associated light pixels 126 generate different spectral colors, which are overlaid by the overlay elements 124 into a polychromatic light beam. The incident from different directions to the superposition elements 124 light beams are thereby united by the superposition of elements 124 so that they telecentric, ie parallel to the optical axis extending main beams overlay elements

124 leave. For the arrangement and configuration of the light pixels 126 and the overlay elements 124, the considerations and variations described above with reference to Figures 2 to 14 apply accordingly. The resulting on the overlay elements 124 picture will be imaged using the imaging optical system 114 onto an image plane 120 on which it can be viewed. So that the light beams generated by the individual light-emitting pixels 126 entirely possible overlap in the overlay elements 124, emerging from the overlay elements 124 light beam must have a small numerical aperture, as for an object point at the left edge of the

Object plane of the imaging optics is indicated 114 having a broken beam. Due to this small numerical aperture and the etendue of the imaging optics 114 is small, which is defined as the product of numerical aperture and field size. The small light conductance in turn allows the use of small and simple design imaging optics 114th

The light emitting pixel 126 should be as small as possible, since the dimensions of which determine the size of the overlay elements 124, and thus the resolution of the color image projector 110 significantly. Since such a small light pixels 126 usually only relatively produce little light, is provided in the example shown in the Figure 16 embodiment of a color image projector 110 ', to generate colored light points using the method described in Figures 1 to 14 color splitter elements.

116 For this purpose, the image forming means there is no self-radiating light pixels 126, but a light Guelle 160 that illuminates, via a collimating lens 162, a first array of color-splitter elements 124a. This color separator members 124a have the same structure, as described above with reference to Figures 4 to eighth In place of the local pixel sensor 26, however, an array of switchable light control occurs pixels 164. The transmittance of the Lichtsteuer- pixel 164 in the image forming device 116 can in this case by a digital with a

change image memory 132 associated control electronics 130 individually and continuously, as is indicated by different degrees of blackening for three of the light control pixels 164 shown in the figure sixteenth By the spectral allocation by the color separator members 126a, the light controller 164 pixels are illuminated with light of different colors.

The light emitted by the light control pixels 164 light is then overlaid by the following superposition elements 124b, so that a color image on the exit surface of the superposition elements 124b that can be imaged using the imaging optical system 114 onto an image plane 120th The light modulation pixel 164 thus correspond functionally the luminescent pixels 126 of the embodiment of a Farbbildpro ector 110 shown in Figure 15, because they can emit colored light of variable intensity.

The light control pixels 164 may be realized as LCD cells, as is known about flat screens here. The light control pixel 164 but also tiltable micromirrors into account that part of a micro-electromechanical system come (MEMS), may be as it is often used for example in beamers.

The image forming device 116 shown in Figure 16 allows the use of high-intensity light sources and the light produced thereof practically without loss, that is, to use without the use of absorbing color filters, for the production of the color image in the image plane 120th

III. Spectrograph The embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 3 for a color camera 10 may be modified so as to obtain a spectroscope for a spatially resolved spectroscopy. In this case, the number of sensor pixels 26 only needs to be sufficiently increased. Figure 17 shows an exemplary example of a spectrograph 210, wherein each beamsplitter element 24 nine sensor pixels are assigned. The greater this case, the number of sensor pixels, which are associated with a single change in the color divider element 23, the higher the spectral resolution of the spectrograph 210th

Otherwise, the design of the spectrograph 210 corresponds demje Nigen, which was explained above with reference to Figures 1 to 3 for the color camera 10th

Claims

1. imager for the digital recording of a two ¬ dimensional color image, comprising a plurality of light sensitive sensor pixels (26) and having a plurality of juxtaposed color separator elements (24), wherein a) each color separator element (24) at least two
associated sensor pixel (26) and b) of each color separator element (24) is designed such that it impinges thereon polychromatic light (34) distributed over its associated sensor pixels (26) having a division ratio of the incident on the spectral composition
Light depends, characterized in that c) the color separator elements (24) are arranged in a two dimensional pattern.
2. The imager of claim 1, characterized in that the color splitter elements (24) are formed such that they deflect different spectral components of the incident colored light (34) in different directions.
3. The imager of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least one Farbteiler- element (24) holds a diffractive optical element environmentally.
4. The imager of claim 3, characterized in that the color splitter element comprises a wedge-shaped prism (45) carried thereby diffracting structures (47).
5. The imager of any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one color splitter element is a refractive optical element (50, 52, 54).
6. The imager of claim 5, characterized in that the refractive optical element comprises a vision prism.
7. The imager of any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the Farbteiler- elements (24) formed and arranged relative to the sensor pixels that light of a wavelength falls in at least two associated with the same color splitter element sensor pixel (26).
8. The imager of any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one but not all of a color separator element (24) associated sensor pixels are additionally assigned to a neighboring color splitter element.
9. The imager of claim 8, characterized in that there is at least one wavelength, in which adjacent color separator elements (24), which at least one sensor pixel (26) is jointly assigned net, incident from the same direction light of this wavelength in a distract direction for the two color-splitter elements (24) is different.
The imager of claim 9, characterized in that the different directions are mirror symmetrical relative to a symmetry plane passing between the two color-splitter elements (24).
Imager of claim 10 and according to claim 4, characterized in that at adjacent color separator elements (24), which is jointly associated with at least one sensor pixel (26), the wedge-shaped prisms (45) have alternating wedge angle.
The imager of any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that between each color splitter element (24) and the sensor pixels (26) assigned to the color splitter element refractive beam-displacing element (40) is arranged which changes the splitting ratio and the parallel optical surfaces (42 , 44).
Digital camera (10), with imaging optics (14), with which an object (18) onto an image plane (22) can be imaged, and having an image sensor (16) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the imaging optics (14 ), has an image-side numerical aperture of less than 0.1, preferably less than 0.05. Image forming means for reproducing a color image having a plurality of switchable light-emitting pixels (126) and having a plurality of juxtaposed superimposition elements (124), wherein a) each overlay member (124) at least two light-emitting pixels (126) are associated with the light with different color generate, b) the overlay elements (124) in a
are arranged two-dimensional pattern, and wherein c) of each overlay member (124) is designed such that it is superimposed light incident from different directions with different colors to form a common beam bundle.
Spectroscope (210) for the spatially resolved Spektro ¬ microscopy, with a plurality of light-sensitive sensor pixels and having a plurality of juxtaposed color separator elements (24), wherein a) each color separator element (24) comprises at least four sensor pixels (26) are associated and b) of each color splitter element (24) is designed such that it distributes incident thereon colored light on its associated sensor pixels (26) having a splitting ratio which depends on the spectral composition of the incident light, characterized in that the color splitter elements (24) in are disposed a two dimensional pattern.
PCT/EP2010/007109 2009-11-27 2010-11-24 Image acquisition device, image-generating device and spectroscope for spatially resolved spectroscopy WO2011063939A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102009056178.1 2009-11-27
DE200910056178 DE102009056178A1 (en) 2009-11-27 2009-11-27 Imager, imager and spectroscope for the spatially resolved spectroscopy

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2011063939A1 true true WO2011063939A1 (en) 2011-06-03

Family

ID=43618311

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2010/007109 WO2011063939A1 (en) 2009-11-27 2010-11-24 Image acquisition device, image-generating device and spectroscope for spatially resolved spectroscopy

Country Status (2)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102009056178A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2011063939A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2013140016A1 (en) * 2012-03-20 2013-09-26 Nokia Corporation An apparatus and a method for imaging

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102012221356A1 (en) * 2012-06-20 2013-12-24 Robert Bosch Gmbh Sensor and method for detecting light and method and apparatus for determining a color information

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0383308A2 (en) 1989-02-15 1990-08-22 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image reading device
US5233703A (en) 1991-12-03 1993-08-10 Galka Gordon P Headwear with identification pocket
US5481381A (en) 1991-11-20 1996-01-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Color image reading apparatus
US5497269A (en) * 1992-06-25 1996-03-05 Lockheed Missiles And Space Company, Inc. Dispersive microlens
US20020135825A1 (en) * 2000-07-14 2002-09-26 Chih-Kung Lee High light-sensing efficiency image sensor apparatus and method
EP1339237A2 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-08-27 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Solid state image pickup device
US6738171B1 (en) * 2001-11-21 2004-05-18 Micron Technology, Inc. Color filter array and microlens array having holographic optical elements

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5682266A (en) * 1995-04-05 1997-10-28 Eastman Kodak Company Blur filter for eliminating aliasing in electrically sampled images
US5701005A (en) * 1995-06-19 1997-12-23 Eastman Kodak Company Color separating diffractive optical array and image sensor
US6137535A (en) * 1996-11-04 2000-10-24 Eastman Kodak Company Compact digital camera with segmented fields of view

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0383308A2 (en) 1989-02-15 1990-08-22 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image reading device
US5481381A (en) 1991-11-20 1996-01-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Color image reading apparatus
US5233703A (en) 1991-12-03 1993-08-10 Galka Gordon P Headwear with identification pocket
US5497269A (en) * 1992-06-25 1996-03-05 Lockheed Missiles And Space Company, Inc. Dispersive microlens
US20020135825A1 (en) * 2000-07-14 2002-09-26 Chih-Kung Lee High light-sensing efficiency image sensor apparatus and method
US6738171B1 (en) * 2001-11-21 2004-05-18 Micron Technology, Inc. Color filter array and microlens array having holographic optical elements
EP1339237A2 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-08-27 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Solid state image pickup device

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2013140016A1 (en) * 2012-03-20 2013-09-26 Nokia Corporation An apparatus and a method for imaging

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE102009056178A1 (en) 2011-06-01 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6211521B1 (en) Infrared pixel sensor and infrared signal correction
US3573353A (en) Optical detection system and method with spatial filtering
US7110034B2 (en) Image pickup apparatus containing light adjustment portion with reflection of a portion of light onto adjacent pixels
US6486974B1 (en) Image reading device
US20150312455A1 (en) Array Camera Architecture Implementing Quantum Dot Color Filters
US9210392B2 (en) Camera modules patterned with pi filter groups
US4264921A (en) Apparatus for color or panchromatic imaging
US20110164156A1 (en) Image pickup device and solid-state image pickup element
US7009652B1 (en) Image input apparatus
US20080080028A1 (en) Imaging method, apparatus and system having extended depth of field
US20110279727A1 (en) Backside illumination image sensor and image-capturing device
US4318123A (en) Solid-state, color-encoding television camera
US20050225654A1 (en) Thin color camera
US20060215054A1 (en) Wide angle camera with prism array
US5701005A (en) Color separating diffractive optical array and image sensor
US20100091161A1 (en) Solid-state image sensor and imaging apparatus equipped with solid-state image sensor
US5982497A (en) Multi-spectral two-dimensional imaging spectrometer
US7433042B1 (en) Spatially corrected full-cubed hyperspectral imager
US7242478B1 (en) Spatially corrected full-cubed hyperspectral imager
US20030151685A1 (en) Digital video camera having only two CCDs
US5750985A (en) High speed and high precisioin image scanning apparatus
US20100188537A1 (en) Solid-state imaging device
JP2007155929A (en) Solid-state imaging element and imaging apparatus using the same
US5223703A (en) Image reader with color decomposing blazed diffraction grating
JP2005167356A (en) Imaging device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 10790890

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct app. not ent. europ. phase

Ref document number: 10790890

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1