WO2011041544A2 - Ue-rs sequence initialization for wireless communication systems - Google Patents

Ue-rs sequence initialization for wireless communication systems Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011041544A2
WO2011041544A2 PCT/US2010/050906 US2010050906W WO2011041544A2 WO 2011041544 A2 WO2011041544 A2 WO 2011041544A2 US 2010050906 W US2010050906 W US 2010050906W WO 2011041544 A2 WO2011041544 A2 WO 2011041544A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
pseudo
random sequence
initialization
resource
specific
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2010/050906
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2011041544A3 (en
Inventor
Wanshi Chen
Juan Montojo
Tao Luo
Alexei Yurievitch Gorokhov
Aamod Dinkar Khandekar
Naga Bhushan
Amir Farajidana
Original Assignee
Qualcomm Incorporated
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US24749109P priority Critical
Priority to US61/247,491 priority
Priority to US24883009P priority
Priority to US61/248,830 priority
Priority to US12/890,182 priority
Priority to US12/890,182 priority patent/US8948097B2/en
Application filed by Qualcomm Incorporated filed Critical Qualcomm Incorporated
Publication of WO2011041544A2 publication Critical patent/WO2011041544A2/en
Publication of WO2011041544A3 publication Critical patent/WO2011041544A3/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J11/00Orthogonal multiplex systems, e.g. using WALSH codes
    • H04J11/0023Interference mitigation or co-ordination
    • H04J11/0026Interference mitigation or co-ordination of multi-user interference
    • H04J11/003Interference mitigation or co-ordination of multi-user interference at the transmitter
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J11/00Orthogonal multiplex systems, e.g. using WALSH codes
    • H04J11/0023Interference mitigation or co-ordination
    • H04J11/005Interference mitigation or co-ordination of intercell interference
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J13/00Code division multiplex systems
    • H04J13/10Code generation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J13/00Code division multiplex systems
    • H04J13/16Code allocation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/26Systems using multi-frequency codes
    • H04L27/2601Multicarrier modulation systems
    • H04L27/2602Signal structure
    • H04L27/261Details of reference signals
    • H04L27/2613Structure of the reference signals
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0001Arrangements for dividing the transmission path
    • H04L5/0014Three-dimensional division
    • H04L5/0023Time-frequency-space
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0048Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver
    • H04L5/0051Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver of dedicated pilots, i.e. pilots destined for a single user or terminal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/0406Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes
    • H04W72/042Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes in downlink direction of a wireless link, i.e. towards terminal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • H04W72/0453Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource the resource being a frequency, carrier or frequency band

Abstract

Pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs) are initialized, the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. Pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs are generated. At least one of the pseudo-random sequences is mapped to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.

Description

UE-RS SEQUENCE INITIALIZATION FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS
CROSS-REFERENCE
[0001] The present application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/247,491, entitled "UE-RS SEQUENCE INITIALIZATION FOR REL-9 AND BEYOND," filed on September 30, 2009 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/248,830, entitled "UE-RS SEQUENCE INITIALIZATION FOR REL-9 AND BEYOND," filed on October 5, 2009, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
BACKGROUND
Field of the Invention
[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to wireless communication, and more specifically for reference signal (RS) sequence initialization for wireless communication systems.
Relevant Background
[0003] Wireless communication systems are widely deployed to provide various types of communication content such as voice, data, and so on. These systems may be multiple-access systems capable of supporting communication with multiple users by sharing the available system resources (e.g., bandwidth and transmit power). Examples of such multiple-access systems include code division multiple access (CDMA) systems, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems, frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems, 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems, and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems.
[0004] Generally, a wireless multiple-access communication system can simultaneously support communication for multiple wireless terminals. Each terminal communicates with one or more base stations via transmissions on the forward and reverse links. The forward link (or downlink, DL) refers to the communication link from the base stations to the terminals, and the reverse link (or uplink, UL) refers to the communication link from the terminals to the base stations. This communication link may be established via a single-in-single-out, multiple-in-signal-out or a multiple-in- multiple-out (MIMO) system.
[0005] A MIMO system employs multiple (Nj transmit antennas and multiple (NR) receive antennas for data transmission. A MIMO channel formed by the Nr transmit and
NR receive antennas may be decomposed into Ns independent channels, which are also referred to as spatial channels, where N§ < min{N' , NR } . Each of the N$ independent channels corresponds to a dimension. The MIMO system can provide improved performance (e.g., higher throughput and/or greater reliability) if the additional dimensionalities created by the multiple transmit and receive antennas are utilized.
[0006] In addition, multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) systems are provided that allow an access point (or other wireless device) to simultaneously transmit to multiple UEs (or other wireless devices) using MIMO over a single frequency band. In this regard, access points can transmit UE specific reference signals (RS) to the UEs for demodulating data transmitted simultaneously in one or more signals in the frequency band. In LTE Release 8 (Rel-8) for single-layer beamforming, UE RS sequences are defined in terms of bandwidth of one or more resource blocks of a corresponding downlink transmission. In addition, pseudo-random sequences for the UE RS are generated according to a UE-specific identifier.
SUMMARY
[0007] The following presents a simplified summary in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the disclosed aspects. This summary is not an extensive overview and is intended to neither identify key or critical elements nor delineate the scope of such aspects. Its purpose is to present some concepts of the described features in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.
[0008] In accordance with one or more aspects and corresponding disclosure thereof, various aspects are described in connection with assigning and initializing sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations. [0009] In certain aspects, a method of data communication in a wireless communication system is provided. The method can comprise initializing pseudorandom sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudorandom sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. The method can further comprise generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs. The method can further comprise mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
[0010] In certain aspects, a method of data communication in a wireless communication system is provided. The method can comprise receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. The method can further comprise receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource. The method can further comprise using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
[0011] In certain aspects, an apparatus in a wireless communication network is provided. The apparatus can comprise at least one processor configured to initialize pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE; generate pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs; and map at least one of the pseudorandom sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs. The apparatus can further comprise a memory coupled to the at least one processor.
[0012] In certain aspects, an apparatus in a wireless communication system is provided. The apparatus can comprise at least one processor configured to receive at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE- RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE; receive data on a downlink bandwidth resource; and use the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource. The apparatus can further comprise a memory coupled to the at least one processor.
[0013] In certain aspects, an apparatus in a wireless communication network is provided. The apparatus can comprise means for initializing pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. The apparatus can further comprise means for generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs. The apparatus can further comprise means for mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
[0014] In certain aspects, an apparatus in a wireless communication system is provided. The apparatus can comprise means for receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE. The apparatus can further comprise means for receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource. The apparatus can further comprise means for using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
[0015] In certain aspects, a computer-readable medium having computer readable instructions stored thereon for execution by at least one processor to perform a method is provided. The method can comprise initializing pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. The method can further comprise generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs. The method can further comprise mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs. [0016] In certain aspects, a computer-readable medium having computer readable instructions stored thereon for execution by at least one processor to perform a method is provided. The method can comprise receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE. The method can further comprise receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource. The method can further comprise using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
[0017] To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, one or more aspects comprise the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims. The following description and the annexed drawings set forth in detail certain illustrative aspects and are indicative of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the aspects may be employed. Other advantages and novel features will become apparent from the following detailed description when considered in conjunction with the drawings and the disclosed aspects are intended to include all such aspects and their equivalents.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0018] The features, nature, and advantages of the present disclosure will become more apparent from the detailed description set forth below when taken in conjunction with the drawings in which like reference characters identify correspondingly throughout and wherein:
[0019] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a multiple access wireless communication system.
[0020] FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a communication system.
[0021] FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary system that facilitates defining, initializing and mapping reference signals (RSs) in MU-MIMO configurations.
[0022] FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating PUSCH assignments for various user equipments (UEs) in MU-MIMO configurations. [0023] FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process for assigning and initializing sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of an access point.
[0024] FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process for receiving and using sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of a user equipment (UE).
[0025] FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary system that facilitates defining, initializing and mapping RSs in MU-MIMO configurations.
[0026] FIG. 8 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process for assigning and initializing sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of an access point.
[0027] FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process for receiving and using sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of a user equipment (UE).
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
[0028] Various aspects are now described with reference to the drawings. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of one or more aspects. It may be evident, however, that the various aspects may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to facilitate describing these aspects.
[0029] The techniques described herein may be used for various wireless communication networks such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) networks, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) networks, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) networks, Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA) networks, Single-Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) networks, etc. The terms "networks" and "systems" are often used interchangeably. A CDMA network may implement a radio technology such as Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA), cdma2000, etc. UTRA includes Wideband-CDMA (W-CDMA) and Low Chip Rate (LCR). cdma2000 covers IS-2000, IS-95 and IS-856 standards. A TDMA network may implement a radio technology such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). An OFDMA network may implement a radio technology such as Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA), IEEE 802.1 1 , IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.20, Flash-OFDM®, etc. UTRA, E-UTRA, and GSM are part of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Long Term Evolution (LTE) is an upcoming release of UMTS that uses E-UTRA. UTRA, E-UTRA, GSM, UMTS and LTE are described in documents from an organization named "3rd Generation Partnership Project" (3GPP). cdma2000 is described in documents from an organization named "3rd Generation Partnership Project 2" (3GPP2). These various radio technologies and standards are known in the art. For clarity, certain illustrative aspects of the techniques are described below for LTE, and LTE terminology is used in much of the description below.
[0030] Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), which utilizes single carrier modulation and frequency domain equalization is a technique. SC- FDMA has similar performance and essentially the same overall complexity as those of OFDMA system. SC-FDMA signal has lower peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) because of its inherent single carrier structure. SC-FDMA has drawn great attention, especially in the uplink communications where lower PAPR greatly benefits the mobile terminal in terms of transmit power efficiency. It is currently a working assumption for uplink multiple access scheme in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), or Evolved UTRA.
[0031] Referring to Fig. 1 , a multiple access wireless communication system according to one embodiment is illustrated. An access point 100 (AP) includes multiple antenna groups, one including 104 and 106, another including 108 and 1 10, and an additional including 1 12 and 1 14. In Fig. 1 , only two antennas are shown for each antenna group, however, more or fewer antennas may be utilized for each antenna group. Access terminal 116 (AT) is in communication with antennas 112 and 114, where antennas 1 12 and 1 14 transmit information to access terminal 1 16 over forward link 120 and receive information from access terminal 116 over reverse link 118. Access terminal 122 is in communication with antennas 106 and 108, where antennas 106 and 108 transmit information to access terminal 122 over forward link 126 and receive information from access terminal 122 over reverse link 124. In a FDD system, communication links 1 18, 120, 124 and 126 may use different frequency for communication. For example, forward link 120 may use a different frequency then that used by reverse link 1 18.
[0032] Each group of antennas and/or the area in which they are designed to communicate is often referred to as a sector of the access point. In the embodiment, antenna groups each are designed to communicate to access terminals in a sector , of the areas covered by access point 100.
[0033] In communication over forward links 120 and 126, the transmitting antennas of access point 100 utilize beamforming in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of forward links for the different access terminals 1 16 and 122. Also, an access point using beamforming to transmit to access terminals scattered randomly through its coverage causes less interference to access terminals in neighboring cells than an access point transmitting through a single antenna to all its access terminals.
[0034] An access point may be a fixed station used for communicating with the terminals and may also be referred to as an access point, a Node B, evolved Node B (eNB), or some other terminology. An access terminal may also be called an access terminal, user equipment (UE), a wireless communication device, terminal, access terminal or some other terminology. Moreover, an access point be a macrocell access point, femtocell access point, picocell access point, and/or the like.
[0035] Additionally, as described, access point 100 can communicate with access terminals 1 16 and 122 using MIMO, single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO), multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO), and/or the like. In this regard, access point 100 can transmit reference signals (RSs) to the access terminals 116 and 122 that can be used for demodulating subsequent signals sent from the access point 100. In an example, the RSs can be UE specific. In one example, RSs for access terminals 116 and 122 (and/or additional access terminals communicating with access point 100) can be CDM, FDM, and/or a combination of CDM and FDM to facilitate diversity.
[0036] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a transmitter system 210 (can be an access point or access terminal) and a receiver system 250 (can be an access terminal or access point) in a MIMO system 200. At the transmitter system 210, traffic data for a number of data streams is provided from a data source 212 to a transmit (TX) data processor 214.
[0037] In an embodiment, each data stream is transmitted over a respective transmit antenna. TX data processor 214 formats, codes, and interleaves the traffic data for each data stream based on a particular coding scheme selected for that data stream to provide coded data.
[0038] The coded data for each data stream may be multiplexed with pilot data using OFDM techniques. The pilot data is typically a known data pattern that is processed in a known manner and may be used at the receiver system to estimate the channel response. The multiplexed pilot and coded data for each data stream is then modulated (i.e., symbol mapped) based on a particular modulation scheme (e.g., BPS , QSPK, M-PS , or M-QAM) selected for that data stream to provide modulation symbols. The data rate, coding, and modulation for each data stream may be determined by instructions performed by processor 230.
[0039] The modulation symbols for all data streams are then provided to a TX MIMO processor 220, which may further process the modulation symbols (e.g., for OFDM). TX MIMO processor 220 then provides Nr modulation symbol streams to Ντ transmitters (TMTR) 222a through 222t. In certain embodiments, TX MIMO processor 220 applies beamforming weights to the symbols of the data streams and to the antenna from which the symbol is being transmitted.
[0040] Each transmitter 222 receives and processes a respective symbol stream to provide one or more analog signals, and further conditions (e.g., amplifies, filters, and upconverts) the analog signals to provide a modulated signal suitable for transmission over the MIMO channel. Νγ modulated signals from transmitters 222a through 222t are then transmitted from Ντ antennas 224a through 224t, respectively.
[0041] At receiver system 250, the transmitted modulated signals are received by NR antennas 252a through 252r and the received signal from each antenna 252 is provided to a respective receiver (RCVR) 254a through 254r. Each receiver 254 conditions (e.g., filters, amplifies, and downconverts) a respective received signal, digitizes the conditioned signal to provide samples, and further processes the samples to provide a corresponding "received" symbol stream.
[0042] An RX data processor 260 then receives and processes the N# received symbol streams from N# receivers 254 based on a particular receiver processing technique to provide Nj "detected" symbol streams. The RX data processor 260 then demodulates, deinterleaves, and decodes each detected symbol stream to recover the traffic data for the data stream. The processing by RX data processor 260 is complementary to that performed by TX MIMO processor 220 and TX data processor 214 at transmitter system 210.
[0043] A processor 270 periodically determines which pre-coding matrix to use (discussed below). Processor 270 formulates a reverse link message comprising a matrix index portion and a rank value portion.
[0044] The reverse link message may comprise various types of information regarding the communication link and/or the received data stream. The reverse link message is then processed by a TX data processor 238, which also receives traffic data for a number of data streams from a data source 236, modulated by a modulator 280, conditioned by transmitters 254a through 254r, and transmitted back to transmitter system 210.
[0045] At transmitter system 210, the modulated signals from receiver system 250 are received by antennas 224, conditioned by receivers 222, demodulated by a demodulator 240, and processed by a RX data processor 242 to extract the reserve link message transmitted by the receiver system 250. Processor 230 then determines which pre-coding matrix to use for determining the beamforming weights then processes the extracted message.
[0046] In an aspect, logical channels are classified into Control Channels and Traffic Channels. Logical Control Channels comprises Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) which is DL channel for broadcasting system control information. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) which is DL channel that transfers paging information. Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) which is Point-to-multipoint DL channel used for transmitting Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (MBMS) scheduling and control information for one or several MBMS Traffic Channels (MTCHs). Generally, after establishing a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection this channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS (Note: old MCCH+MSCH). Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information and is used by UEs having an RRC connection. In aspect, Logical Traffic Channels comprises a Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) which is a point-to-point bidirectional channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user information. Also, a Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) is a point-to-multipoint DL channel for transmitting traffic data.
[0047] In an aspect, Transport Channels are classified into downlink (DL) and uplink (UL). DL Transport Channels comprises a Broadcast Channel (BCH), Downlink Shared Data Channel (DL-SDCH) and a Paging Channel (PCH), the PCH for support of UE power saving (DRX cycle is indicated by the network to the UE), broadcasted over entire cell and mapped to PHY resources which can be used for other control/traffic channels. The UL Transport Channels comprises a Random Access Channel (RACH), a Request Channel (REQCH), a Uplink Shared Data Channel (UL-SDCH) and plurality of PHY channels. The PHY channels comprises a set of DL channels and UL channels.
[0048] The DL PHY channels comprise: Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH), Physical Broadcast Channel (PBSH), Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH), Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH), Physical Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Indicator Channel (PHICH), and Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH).
[0049] The UL PHY Channels comprise: Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH), Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH), and Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH).
[0050] In an aspect, a channel structure is provided that preserves low PAR (at any given time, the channel is contiguous or uniformly spaced in frequency) properties of a single carrier waveform.
[0051] For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
ACK Acknowledgement AM Acknowledged Mode
AMD Acknowledged Mode Data
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
BCCH Broadcast Control CHannel
BCH Broadcast CHannel
C- Control-
CCE Control Channel Element
CCCH Common Control CHannel
CCH Control CHannel
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
CDM Code Division Multiplexing
CP Cyclic Prefix
CQI Channel Quality Indicator
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRS Common Reference Signal
CTCH Common Traffic CHannel
DCCH Dedicated Control CHannel
DCH Dedicated CHannel
DCI Downlink Control Information
DL DownLink
DRS Dedicated Reference Signal
DSCH Downlink Shared CHannel
DTCH Dedicated Traffic CHannel
E-CID Enhanced Cell IDentification
FACH Forward link Access CHannel
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FSTD Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat/reQuest
LI Layer 1 (physical layer)
L2 Layer 2 (data link layer)
L3 Layer 3 (network layer)
LI Length Indicator
LLR Log-Likelihood Ratio
LSB Least Significant Bit
MAC Medium Access Control
MBMS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
MCCH MBMS point-to-multipoint Control CHannel
MRW Move Receiving Window
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSCH MBMS point-to-multipoint Scheduling CHannel
MTCH MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic CHannel
NAC Non-Acknowledgement
PCCH Paging Control CHannel
PCH Paging CHannel
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control CHannel
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PHY PHYsical layer
PhyCH Physical CHannels
PMI Precoding Matrix Indicator
PRACH Physical Random Access CHannel PUCCH Physical Uplink Control CHannel
RACH Random Access CHannel
RB Resource Block
RLC Radio Link Control
RRC Radio Resource Control
RE Resource Element
RS Reference Signal
RTT Round Trip Time
Rx Receive
SAP Service Access Point
SDU Service Data Unit
SFBC Space Frequency Block Code
SHCCH SHared channel Control CHannel
SN Sequence Number
SUFI SUper Field
TA Timing Advance
TCH Traffic CHannel
TDD Time Division Duplex
TFI Transport Format Indicator
TM Transparent Mode
TMD Transparent Mode Data
TTI Transmission Time Interval
Tx Transmit
U- User-
UE User Equipment
UL UpLink
UM Unacknowledged Mode
UMD Unacknowledged Mode Data
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
MBSFN multicast broadcast single frequency network
MCE MBMS coordinating entity
MCH multicast channel
DL-SCH downlink shared channel
MSCH MBMS control channel
PDCCH physical downlink control channel
PDSCH physical downlink shared channel
[0052] FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary system 300 that facilitates generating UE- RSs and related resource mappings in an MU-MIMO configuration. System 300 includes an access point 302 that can be a base station, femtocell access point, picocell access point, relay node, mobile base station, mobile device operating in a peer-to-peer communications mode, and/or the like, for example, that provides wireless device 304 with access to a wireless network. Wireless device 304 can be a user equipment (UE) such as a mobile device, portion thereof, or substantially any device that can access a wireless network.
[0053] Access point 302 can include a UE-RS sequence defining component 306 that develops a plurality of reference signals that can be used by one or more UEs to decode data over shared resources, a UE-RS sequence initializing component 308 that creates a pseudo-random sequence of the reference signals for the one or more UEs, a UE-RS mapping component 310 that maps a UE to a given pseudo-random sequence of UE-RSs, and an RS information signaling component 312 that communicates the UE- RS mapping information to a corresponding UE. Wireless device 304 can include an RS information receiving component 314 that obtains one or more parameters related to RS transmissions from an access point and an RS decoding component 316 that decodes one or more RSs based at least in part on the parameters.
[0054] According to an example, as described, RSs in an MU-MIMO configuration can be CDM, FDM, and/or a combination thereof. For example, where RSs are CDM, access point 302 can multiplex RSs according to pseduo-random sequences selected for one or more wireless devices. In an example, UE-RS sequence defining component 306 can generate a plurality of UE-RSs that can be utilized to decode data sent over shared resources to one or more UEs. In MU-MIMO configurations, it is to be appreciated that devices having shared bandwidth assignments and/or location assignments may not be completely aligned. Thus, UE-RS sequence defining component 306 can generate the plurality of UE-RSs based on an entire bandwidth of a related cell instead of based on PDSCH bandwidth (as in LTE release 8). In another aspect (e.g., to support multi-cell MU-MIMO), UE-RS sequence defining component 306 can generate the UE-RSs in a bandwidth agnostic manner, such as according to a largest downlink bandwidth configuration in terms of resource block (RBs).
[0055] Once the UE-RSs are defined, UE-RS sequence initializing component 308 can generate pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RS for assigning to UEs to decode shared resources. In MU-MIMO configurations, it can be desirable that antenna ports for wireless devices paired to use the same PDSCH resources remain orthogonal. To this end, UE-RS sequence initializing component 308 can initialize the UE-RS sequences based at least in part on a cell identifier (as opposed to a UE identifier in LTE release 8). This can ensure orthogonality since the antenna ports use the common metric. In this regard, for example, other common metrics can be utilized, such as resource block identifier, antenna port index, and/or the like, that can be known for both antenna ports. The UE-RS mapping component 310 can assign the pseudo-random sequences of UE-RS and shared resources to one or more wireless devices using a predetermined mapping scheme that maintains the orthogonality (e.g. , sequentially from one end of the band, starting from the center of the band, etc.).
[0056] In FIG. 3, RS information signaling component 312 can signal pseudorandom sequences of RS, related resources, and/or related parameters corresponding to the wireless device 304. At wireless device 304, RS information receiving component 314 can obtain the received pseudo-random sequences of RS, related shared resources, and/or parameters from the access point 302. RS decoding component 316 can decode RSs specific to wireless device 304 from access point 302 over the shared resources using the pseudo-random sequences, for example.
[0057] In some communication systems, UE-specific reference signal (UE-RS) is specified to support single-layer beamforming. For example, in DL transmission mode 7 of LTE Re 1-8, the UE-RS sequence r(m) is defined by: r(m) = -^ (l - 2 - c(2«)) + j -^(l - 2 c(2m + l)), m = 0,L...,12N™ - 1 (1) 2
where A^SCH denotes the bandwidth in resource blocks of the corresponding PDSCH transmission. The pseudo-random sequence c(z) can be pre-defined. The pseudorandom sequence generator can be initialized with:
• ^ = in 2} + } - (2N^ + l)- 2l6 + nsim (2) at the start of each subframe where nRNT[ is defined, and can be a UE-specific ID.
[0058] In other communication systems, dual-stream beamforming relying on two UE-RS antenna ports is supported. For example, in LTE Rel-9, the following can be true:
• 1) The two antenna ports are CDM-ed.
• 2) Dynamic rank adaptation is supported: that is, a UE may be indicated either rank 1 or rank 2 DL transmissions using layer 2 signaling (PDCCH). In case of rank 1 transmission, the UE is explicitly indicated which antenna port should be used.
• 3) MU-MIMO is supported: that is, two UEs may be paired using the same
PDSCH resources. Each UE is indicated the antenna port in use, but is not indicated whether it is in the MU- or SU-MIMO transmission.
[0059] For MU-MIMO operation, it is advantageous that the two UE-RS antenna ports for the paired UEs remain orthogonal after resource mapping using the pseudorandom sequence and the assigned PDSCH resources. However, as can be seen from equation (1) above, if the sequence is initialized based on a UE specific ID, the sequences generated for the paired UEs are no longer the same. As a result, the orthogonality may not be maintained. In addition, one UE does not know the pseudorandom sequence used by the other paired UE, as the UE-IDs may not be mutually known between the paired UEs. Such non-orthogonality and unknown information about the other random sequence can cause significant interference on UE-RS.
[0060] Another issue is that when the random sequence is generated dependent on the assigned PDSCH bandwidth ( A¾SCH ) and mapped to the specific locations of the assigned PDSCH resources, e.g., in (1). It is possible that UEs paired in MU-MIMO transmissions may not be completely aligned, both in terms of the assigned bandwidth and the assigned location, as illustrated in FIG. 4. Turning to FIG. 4, shown is a first PDSCH 401 which is assigned to a first UE and a second PDSCH 402 which is assigned to a second UE that is paired with the first UE. It is clear that the PDSCH bandwidths associated with the first and second PDSCHs 401 , 402 are not aligned. In such a case, the pseudo-random sequences for the paired UEs may not be orthogonal.
[0061] In view of the aforementioned issues, various UE-RS sequence initialization schemes are employed, in which the initialization of each pseudo-random (PR) sequence associated with each UE-RS is independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE.
[0062] In one aspect, the UE-RS sequence initialization can be made independent of a UE identifier in a number of different ways. In certain embodiments, this can be achieved by simply removing the UE identifier from the initialization. That is, The initialization is hence independent from UE specific IDs. Generally speaking, one can have:
¾* =/«',L»_ /2j) (3)
The sequence is still cell-dependent and subframe-dependent. Consequently, inter-cell interference randomization can still be realized.
[0063] In some embodiments, the UE-RS sequence initialization can be made independent of a specific UE identifier by making the initialization as a function of a resource block identifier (RBID) and/or an antenna port index (AntPortldx), expressed, respectively, as:
• cinit = /(NSa,L«s /2j,^ ) , and
• ¾ = f(N , [ n, 12J, AntPortldx)
Although orthogonality may not be maintained for some of the cases, at least the sequence is known to the UEs paired in the MU-MIMO transmissions. The RB1D can be generated either sequentially, or following a specific sequence-to-resource mapping approach (e.g., numbering starting from the middle and increase upwards/downwards, similar to that of the common reference signal (CRS) case).
[0064] In some embodiments, the UE-RS sequence initialization can be a function of a cyclic prefix (CP) type (i.e., normal or extended cyclic prefix). For example, the function can be expressed as: [l for normalCP
• cm =
Figure imgf000019_0001
NCP) , where NCP -
[0065] In certain embodiments, different combinations of the above dependencies may be employed. For example, the UE-RS sequence initialization can be a function of 1) RBID and AntPortldx, 2) RBID and NCp, 3) AntPortldx and NCp, or 4) RBID and AntPortldx and NCP, etc. [0066] In another aspect, the UE-RS random sequence generation can be done such that the paired UEs still have orthogonal UE-RS sequences, regardless of PDSCH resource allocations. This can be achieved, for example, by making the UE-RS sequence generation independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. This way, dependency on resource bandwidth is removed, thereby mitigating the need for related UEs to be aligned when receiving UE-RS sequences and related resource assignments. In certain embodiments, the UE-RS sequence generation is based on a maximum possible bandwidth of a given cell, and mapped to the DL resources in some pre-determined manner (e.g., sequentially from one end of the band, or starting from the center of the band, etc.). In other words, m - 0, 1, ...,12N^ - 1 , where m is defined in equation (1) above, and denotes a DL bandwidth of a specific cell in the wireless communication system.
[0067] In light of the possible support of multi-cell MU-MIMO, and the fact that the common reference signal (CRS) is generated in a bandwidth agnostic manner in LTE Rel-8, the UE-RS sequence can be bandwidth-agnostic as well. That is, m = 0,1, ...,12^'™χ] - 1 , where A¾B [DL' max] (may also be referred to as NRB[max' DL]) is a maximum DL bandwidth configuration in terms of number of RBs, e.g., 110 RBs. The mapping of the generated UE-RS sequence to the UE-RS resources can be the same as CRS (e.g., starting from the center, and mapping downwards/upwards such that the mapping from the generated sequence to the band is bandwidth-agnostic). To be more specific, the mapped symbol (where k is freq index; / is symbol index; and p is antenna port index) can be similar to: a[p = rUn (m') , where m = m + N^X'DL - N^ , and k has a step size of 6 resource elements (vs. 12 resource elements or the RB size). Thus, m' ranges from N^OL] - to Nl m + N^L - 1 . Note that UE-RS can be mapped on a per RB basis, instead of per 6 RBs as in the CRS case.
[0068] FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process 500 for assigning and initializing sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of an access point (e.g., eNB). The process 500 begins at start state 501 and proceeds to operation 510 in which pseudo-random (PR) sequences of UE-RSs for use by a plurality of UEs are initialized, where the initialization of each PR sequence associated with each UE-RS is independent of a specific UE identifier and/or independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE.
[0069] As described above, the first independence relating to the UE-RS PR sequence initialization can be achieved by removing the UE identifier from the initialization such as the one defined by equation (3) above; and/or by making the initialization a function of non-UE specific parameter such as RBm, AntPortldx, RBm, Ncp, or any combinations thereof. The second independence relating to the resource bandwidth can be achieved by initializing a plurality of UE-RSs based at least in part on a bandwidth of a specific cell that includes the plurality of UE-RSs. As described above, this removes dependency on resource bandwidth associated with the particular UE, which mitigates the need for related UEs to be aligned when receiving UE-RS sequences and related resource assignments.
[0070] The process 500 proceeds to operation 520 in which UE-RS PR sequences are generated using a procedure defined by equation (1), for example. The PR sequences can be generated using common (non-UE specific) identifiers, such as a cell identifier ( Ν^' ), resource block identifier (RBm), etc., so cell antennas can retain orthogonality of sequence assignment for devices having similar assigned resources.
[0071] The process 500 proceeds to operation 530 in which at least one of the UE- RS PR sequences thus generated is mapped to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs. This can be performed using a known or predetermined pattern to likewise ensure necessary orthogonality. The process 500 then terminates at end state 504.
[0072] After the mapping operation 530, an eNB sends the mapped UE-RS PR sequences to a plurality of UEs in a cell. A particular UE among the plurality of UEs can receive the PR sequences, extract a UE-RS intended for the particular UE, and use the UE-RS for data decoding purposes.
[0073] FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process 600 for receiving and using PR sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of a user equipment (UE). The process 600 begins at start state 601 and proceeds to operation 610 in which at least one PR sequence of a UE-RS is received by the UE where the at least one PR sequence has been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and/or independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE.
[0074] The process 600 proceeds to operation 620 in which data is received by the UE on a downlink (DL) bandwidth resource (e.g., PDSCH). The process 600 proceeds to operation 630 in which data received on the downlink bandwidth resource is decoded by the UE using the UE-RS. The process 600 terminates at end state 640.
[0075] In certain embodiments, as an extension of the embodiments described above, it is possible to apply a group-based UE-RS scrambling and PR sequence initialization. In such an embodiment, UEs are assigned to different groups in a semi- static or in a dynamic way and, within each group, a particular one of various UE- independent UE-RS scrambling and sequence initialization procedures described above can be applied.
[0076] In one aspect, a group index indicative of a particular group to which a specific UE is assigned can be conveyed to the UE through L3 or L2 layer signaling, for example. As an example, if there are two groups, the group indices can be defined as 0 and 1. A UE can be informed which group index, 0 or 1, the UE belongs to. Group- based UE-RS sequence initialization allows for non-orthogonal MU-MIMO UE-RS multiplexing when the total number of the layers for co-scheduled UEs in MU-MIMO setup is beyond the number of UE-RS orthogonal ports. For example, in the context of LTE Rel. 9, one can consider two groups of scrambling sequences, say group A and group B. It is possible to orthogonally multiplex 2 UEs of group A (or group B), each receiving rank 1. In addition it is possible to multiplex 2 UEs, each of rank 2, one from group A and one from group B, or 4 UEs each of rank 1 transmission where 2 are from group A and 2 are from group B.
[0077] Note that in this case the UEs can benefit from potential optimization of MU interference estimation within the group that the UE is semi-statically or dynamically assigned to. Also, inter-group interference randomization can be realized this way. Optimizations in designing the UE-RS scrambling for each group to reduce the adverse impact across different groups can also be employed.
[0078] In one aspect, an eNB can assign each UE to a particular one of different groups based on one or more predetermined factors. For example, an assignment of a particular UE to a particular group can be based on a total number of currently active UEs in each group and/or on one or more UE parameters or attributes of the particular UE. For instance in a correlated antenna deployment, where the channel directionality is changing slowly with time, UEs can be grouped based on their dominant channel directions such that UEs in different groups have dominant channel directions that are apart from, or possibly orthogonal to, each other.
[0079] FIG. 7 is a block diagram depicting a system 700 that facilitates generating UE-RSs and related resource mappings in an MU-MIMO configuration. The system 700 includes an access point 702 that can be a base station, femtocell access point, picocell access point, relay node, mobile base station, mobile device operating in a peer- to-peer communications mode, and/or the like, for example, that provides a wireless device 704 with access to a wireless network. The wireless device 704 can be a user equipment (UE) such as a mobile device, portion thereof, or substantially any user equipment (UE) that can receive access to a wireless network.
[0080] The access point 702 can include a UE-RS sequence defining component 706 that develops a plurality of reference signals that can be used by one or more UEs to decode data over shared resources, a UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 that creates a pseudo-random sequence of the reference signals for the one or more UEs, a UE-RS mapping component 710 that maps a UE to a given pseudo-random sequence of UE-RSs, a device grouping component 703 that assigns UEs to which resources are assigned to one or more groups, and an information signaling component 705 that communicates the UE-RS mapping and/or grouping information to one or more corresponding UEs. The wireless device 704 can include an RS information receiving component 714 that obtains one or more parameters related to RS transmissions from an access point and an RS decoding component 716 that decodes one or more RSs based at least in part on the parameters.
[0081] According to an example, as described above, RSs in an MU-MIMO configuration can be CDM, FDM, and/or a combination thereof. For example, where RSs are CDM, the access point 702 can multiplex RSs according to pseudo random sequences selected for one or more wireless devices. In an example, the UE-RS sequence defining component 706 can generate a plurality of UE-RSs that can be utilized to decode data sent over shared resources to one or more UEs. In MU-MIMO configurations, it is to be appreciated that devices having shared bandwidth assignments and/or location assignments may not be completely aligned. Thus, UE-RS sequence defining component 706 can generate the plurality of UE-RSs based on an entire bandwidth of a related cell instead of based on PDSCH bandwidth (as in LTE release 8). In another example (e.g., to support multi-cell MU-MIMO), the UE-RS sequence defining component 706 can generate the UE-RSs in a bandwidth agnostic manner, such as according to a maximum possible downlink bandwidth configuration in terms of RBs.
[0082] Once the UE-RSs are defined, the UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 can generate pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RS for assigning to UEs to decode shared resources. In MU-MIMO configurations, it can be desirable that antenna ports for wireless devices paired to use the same PDSCH resources remain orthogonal. To this end, the UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 can initialize the UE-RS sequences based at least in part on a cell identifier (as opposed to a UE identifier in LTE Rel-8). This can ensure orthogonality since the antenna ports use the common metric. In this regard, for example, other common metrics can be utilized, such as resource block identifier, antenna port index, and/or the like, that can be known for both antenna ports. The UE-RS mapping component 710 can assign the pseudo-random sequences of UE-RS and shared resources to one or more wireless devices using a pre-determined mapping scheme that maintains the orthogonality (e.g. , sequentially from one end of the band, starting from the center of the band, etc.).
[0083] The device grouping component 703 can assign wireless device (UE) 704 to one or more groups (e.g. , randomly, or based on a number of active UEs in a group, parameters of the device, and/or the like, as discussed above). In this regard, UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 can initialize the UE-RS sequences for the wireless device 704 based on the assigned group. Using group-based sequence initialization, in one example, can ensure orthogonality among devices depending on a received rank. For example, if there are two UE-RS ports, where the device grouping component 703 assigns the wireless device 704 to a group and the wireless device 704 receives rank 1 , the UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 can initialize orthogonal sequences for the wireless device 704 and another device in the same group receiving rank 1. Similarly, where the device grouping component 703 assigns the wireless device 704 to a group and the wireless device 704 receives rank 2, the UE-RS sequence initializing component 708 can initialize orthogonal sequences for the wireless device 704 and another device in a separate group receiving rank 2.
[0084] The information signaling component 705 can signal pseudo-random sequences, related resources, and/or related parameters corresponding to the wireless device 704. At wireless device (UE) 704, the RS information receiving component 714 can obtain the pseudo-random sequences, related shared resources, and/or parameters from the access point 702. The RS decoding component 716 can decode RSs specific to the wireless device 704 from the access point 702 over the shared resources using the pseudo-random sequences, for example. Similarly, in one example, the information signaling component 404 of access point 702 can transmit grouping information to the wireless device 704 (e.g. , using L3 layer signaling).
[0085] FIG. 8 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process 800 for assigning and initializing sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of an access point (e.g., eNB). The process 800 begins at start state 801 and proceeds to operation 810 in which a plurality of UEs are assigned to different UE groups based on one or more predetermined factors. As described above, the predetermined factors can include, but are not limited to, a total number of currently active UEs in each UE group, dominant channel directions of UEs and/or locations of UEs within a cell.
[0086] The process 800 proceeds to operation 820 in which pseudo-random (PR) sequences of UE-RSs for use by a plurality of UEs are initialized based on the assigned UE groups. In particular, the initialization of each PR sequence associated with each UE-RS for a particular UE can be based on a group ID indicative of the UE group to which the particular UE has been assigned. By way of example, in the initializing operation 820, c,¾ is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with each UE-RS and is a function defined by cMt = f(N1 c ,
Figure imgf000025_0001
, n _ groupID) , wherein:
Nn is a cell ID,
ns is a slot number, and
n_groupID is a group ID. [0087] Furthermore, in some embodiments, in the initializing operation 820, the initialization of each PR sequence associated with each UE-RS is independent of a specific UE identifier and/or independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE. As discussed above, the first independence relating to the UE-RS PR sequence initialization can be achieved by removing the UE identifier from the initialization such as the one defined by equation (3) above; and/or by making the initialization a function of non-UE specific attributes such as RBW, AntPortldx, RBm, NCP, or any combinations thereof. The second independence relating to the resource bandwidth can be achieved by initializing a plurality of UE-RSs based at least in part on a bandwidth of a specific cell that includes the plurality of UE-RSs. As described above, this removes dependency on the resource bandwidth associated with the particular UE, which mitigates the need for related UEs to be aligned when receiving UE-RS sequences and related resource assignments.
[0088] The process 800 proceeds to operation 830 in which PR sequences of the UE-RSs are generated using a procedure defined by equation (1), for example. The PR sequences can be generated using common (non-UE specific) identifiers, such as a cell identifier ( N ), a resource block identifier (RBm), a group ID (n_groupID), etc. , so cell antennas can retain orthogonality of sequence assignment for devices having similar assigned resources.
[0089] The process 800 proceeds to operation 840 in which at least one of the UE- RS PR sequences thus generated is mapped to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs. This can be performed using a known or predetermined pattern to likewise ensure necessary orthogonality. The process 800 terminates at end state 850.
[0090] FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process 900 for receiving and using sequences of UE-RSs in MU-MIMO configurations from a viewpoint of a user equipment (UE). The process 900 begins at start state 901 and proceeds to operation 910 in which at least one PR sequence of a UE-RS is received by a UE where the at least one PR sequence has been initialized based on a group index indicative of a UE group to which the UE belongs. Furthermore, in certain embodiments, the PR sequence has been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and/or independent of a resource bandwidth (PDSCH) assigned to a specific UE. [0091] The process 900 proceeds to operation 920 in which data is received by the UE on a downlink (DL) bandwidth resource (e.g., PDSCH). The process 900 proceeds to operation 930 in which data received by the UE on the downlink bandwidth resource is decoded by the UE using the received UE-RS. The process 900 terminates at end state 940.
[0092] Those of skill would further appreciate that the various illustrative logical blocks, modules, circuits, and algorithm steps described in connection with the aspects disclosed herein may be implemented as electronic hardware, computer software, or combinations of both. To clearly illustrate this interchangeability of hardware and software, various illustrative components, blocks, modules, circuits, and steps have been described above generally in terms of their functionality. Whether such functionality is implemented as hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system. Skilled artisans may implement the described functionality in varying ways for each particular application, but such implementation decisions should not be interpreted as causing a departure from the scope of the present disclosure.
[0093] As used in this application, the terms "component", "module", "system", and the like are intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component may be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers.
[0094] The word "exemplary" is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs.
[0095] Various aspects will be presented in terms of systems that may include a number of components, modules, and the like. It is to be understood and appreciated that the various systems may include additional components, modules, etc. and/or may not include all of the components, modules, etc. discussed in connection with the figures. A combination of these approaches may also be used. The various aspects disclosed herein can be performed on electrical devices including devices that utilize touch screen display technologies and/or mouse-and-keyboard type interfaces. Examples of such devices include computers (desktop and mobile), smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and other electronic devices both wired and wireless.
[0096] In addition, the various illustrative logical blocks, modules, and circuits described in connection with the aspects disclosed herein may be implemented or performed with a general purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. A general purpose processor may be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor may be any conventional processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. A processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing devices, e.g., a combination of a DSP and a microprocessor, a plurality of microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such configuration.
[0097] Furthermore, the one or more versions may be implemented as a method, apparatus, or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement the disclosed aspects. The term "article of manufacture" (or alternatively, "computer program product") as used herein is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, carrier, or media. For example, computer readable media can include but are not limited to magnetic storage devices (e.g., hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic strips. ..), optical disks (e.g., compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD)...), smart cards, and flash memory devices (e.g., card, stick). Additionally it should be appreciated that a carrier wave can be employed to carry computer-readable electronic data such as those used in transmitting and receiving electronic mail or in accessing a network such as the Internet or a local area network (LAN). Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope of the disclosed aspects.
[0098] The steps of a method or algorithm described in connection with the aspects disclosed herein may be embodied directly in hardware, in a software module executed by a processor, or in a combination of the two. A software module may reside in RAM memory, flash memory, ROM memory, EPROM memory, EEPROM memory, registers, hard disk, a removable disk, a CD-ROM, or any other form of storage medium known in the art. An exemplary storage medium is coupled to the processor such the processor can read information from, and write information to, the storage medium. In the alternative, the storage medium may be integral to the processor. The processor and the storage medium may reside in an ASIC. The ASIC may reside in a user terminal. In the alternative, the processor and the storage medium may reside as discrete components in a user terminal.
[0099] In one or more exemplary embodiments, the functions described may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software, the functions may be stored on or encoded as one or more instructions or code on a non-transitory computer-readable medium. Computer- readable media includes computer storage media. Storage media may be any available media that can be accessed by a computer. By way of example, and not limitation, such computer-readable media can comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium that can be used to carry or store desired program code in the form of instructions or data structures and that can be accessed by a computer. Disk and disc, as used herein, includes compact disc (CD), laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), floppy disk and blu-ray disc where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of non-transitory computer-readable media.
[00100] The previous description of the disclosed aspects is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present disclosure. Various modifications to these aspects will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the disclosure. Thus, the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.
[00101] In view of the exemplary systems described supra, methodologies that may be implemented in accordance with the disclosed subject matter have been described with reference to several flow diagrams. While for purposes of simplicity of explanation, the methodologies are shown and described as a series of blocks, it is to be understood and appreciated that the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, as some blocks may occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other blocks from what is depicted and described herein. Moreover, not all illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methodologies described herein. Additionally, it should be further appreciated that the methodologies disclosed herein are capable of being stored on an article of manufacture to facilitate transporting and transferring such methodologies to computers. The term article of manufacture, as used herein, is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, carrier, or media.
[00102] It should be appreciated that any patent, publication, or other disclosure material, in whole or in part, that is said to be incorporated by reference herein is incorporated herein only to the extent that the incorporated material does not conflict with existing definitions, statements, or other disclosure material set forth in this disclosure. As such, and to the extent necessary, the disclosure as explicitly set forth herein supersedes any conflicting material incorporated herein by reference. Any material, or portion thereof, that is said to be incorporated by reference herein, but which conflicts with existing definitions, statements, or other disclosure material set forth herein, will only be incorporated to the extent that no conflict arises between that incorporated material and the existing disclosure material.
[00103] WHAT IS CLAIMED IS :

Claims

1. A method of data communication in a wireless communication system, comprising:
initializing pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE;
generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs; and
mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
2. The method of claim 1 , wherein in the initializing step, α„α is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by cilit = f{N^ , \ ns / 2j) , wherein is a cell ID and ns is a slot number.
3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the pseudo-random sequences are defined by ,(M, ^(. - 2 . C(2M)) + y^(. - 2 . ,(2M + l,) , „=„, > .2A - -1 . wherein c is a pseudo-random sequence generator, and
Figure imgf000031_0001
m x] denotes a maximum downlink bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein NjgL max] is 1 10 resource blocks (RBs).
6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
7. The method of claim 6, wherein in the initializing step, ¾ is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by ca = f(NZ"
Figure imgf000032_0001
, RBID) , wherein:
NZ" is a cell ID,
ns is a slot number, and
RBID is a resource block (RB) identifier.
8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on an index indicative of an antenna port.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein in the initialization step, cinu is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by cMt = f (N , \_ns 12 J , AntPortldx) , wherein:
NZ" is a cell ID,
ns is a slot number, and
AntPortldx is an antenna port index.
10. The method of claim 1 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
11 The method of claim 10, wherein in the initializing step, c« is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by cm = f (NZ" ,
Figure imgf000032_0002
12 J , n _ groupID) , wherein:
N 1 is a cell ID,
ns is a slot number, and
n_groupID is a group ID.
12. The method of claim 10, further comprising assigning the group ID in a semi- static manner.
13. The method of claim 10, further comprising assigning the group ID in a dynamic manner.
14. The method of claim 11 , wherein there are two groups, a first one of the two groups having n_groupID=0, and a second one of the two groups having
n_groupID=\ .
15. The method of claim 10, wherein the at least one UE is assigned to the UE group based on one of a UE location, a UE dominant channel direction and a total number of current UEs assigned to the UE group.
16. A method of data communication in a wireless communication system, comprising:
receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE;
receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource; and
using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
18. The method of claim 16, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
19. The method of claim 16, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on an index indicative of an antenna port.
20. The method of claim 16, wherein the pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
21. An apparatus in a wireless communication network, comprising:
at least one processor configured to:
initialize pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE,
generate pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs, and map at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
22. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein in the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence, c¾¾ is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by cMt =
Figure imgf000034_0001
12 J) , wherein
NZ" is a cell ID and ns is a slot number.
23. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
24. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the pseudo-random sequences are defined by
r(m) = - 2 · c(2m)) + j-^=(l - 2 - c(2m + 1)) , m = 0, 1 12NjgU max] - 1 ,
-v/2
wherein c is a pseudo-random sequence generator, and Nj™" max] denotes a maximum downlink bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
2 . The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
26. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on an index indicative of an antenna port.
27. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
28. The apparatus of claim 27, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to assign the group ID in one of a semi-static manner and a dynamic manner.
29. An apparatus in a wireless communication system, comprising:
at least one processor configured to:
receive at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE,
receive data on a downlink bandwidth resource, and
use the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
30. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
31. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
32. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on an index indicative of an antenna port.
33. The UE of claim 29, wherein the pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
34. An apparatus in a wireless communication network, comprising:
means for initializing pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE;
means for generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs; and means for mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein in the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence, cinit is an initial value of a pseudo-random sequence generator associated with the each UE-RS and is a function defined by ca
Figure imgf000036_0001
2 J) , wherein is a cell ID and ns is a slot number.
36. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
37. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the pseudo-random sequences are defined by r(m) = - j (l - 2 · c(2w>) + ~ 2■ c(2m + !)) ' m = °- >— 12N
Figure imgf000036_0002
|SL'max] - 1 , wherein c is a pseudo-random sequence generator, and Nj^L' mix] denotes a maximum downlink bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
38. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the initialization of based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
39. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the initialization is based at least in part on an index indicative of an antenna port.
40. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
41. The apparatus of claim 40, further comprising means for assigning the group ID in one of a semi-static manner and a dynamic manner.
42. An apparatus in a wireless communication system, comprising:
means for receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE;
means for receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource; and
means for using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
43. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
44. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on an identifier indicative of a resource block (RB).
45. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based on an index indicative of an antenna port.
46. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the at least one pseudo-random sequence has been initialized based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
47. A computer-readable medium having computer readable instructions stored thereon for execution by at least one processor to perform a method comprising: initializing pseudo-random sequences of a plurality of user equipment specific reference signals (UE-RSs) for use by a plurality of user equipments (UEs), the initialization of each pseudo-random sequence associated with each UE-RS being independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to a specific UE;
generating pseudo-random sequences of the UE-RSs; and
mapping at least one of the pseudo-random sequences to a portion of common resources for at least one UE among the plurality of UEs.
48. The computer-readable medium of claim 47, wherein the pseudo-random sequences are based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
49. The computer-readable medium of claim 47, wherein the initialization is based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
50. A computer-readable medium having computer readable instructions stored thereon for execution by at least one processor to perform a method comprising: receiving at least one pseudo-random sequence of a user equipment specific reference signal (UE-RS), the at least one pseudo-random sequence having been initialized independent of a specific UE identifier and independent of a resource bandwidth assigned to the UE;
receiving data on a downlink bandwidth resource; and
using the UE-RS to decode data received on the downlink bandwidth resource.
51. The computer-readable medium of claim 50, wherein the at least one pseudorandom sequence is based at least in part on a maximum bandwidth configuration of the wireless communication system.
52. The computer-readable medium of claim 50, wherein the at least one pseudorandom sequence has been initialized based at least in part on a group ID, the group ID corresponding to a UE group to which at least one UE is assigned.
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