Magnetite Nanoparticles as a Single Dose Treatment for Iron Deficiency Anemia
Technical field :
Pharmacy Background Art :
Iron is a component of proteins required for crucial cellular processes being iron containing proteins involved in oxygen transport, ATP production, DNA synthesis, and other physiological processes [1-3]. Its deficiency causing a disease called Iron deficiency anemia, which is a reduction in the oxygen- carrying capacity of red blood cells that results in a variety of symptoms, including dyspnea, headaches, light-headedness, short breath and fatigue . Therefore, anemia has been associated with reduced health-related quality of life and its treatment is essential to improve our health and performance. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common disease involving about 1/3 of the global population and it is directly associated with nutrition. According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world's 5- to 14- year-old children are anaemic, the great majority resident in developing countries. In the Third World, 56% of pregnant women are anaemic and 38 % of the total women are anaemic. Even in countries such as USA, which is the most developed, about 7.8 million of women and about 700,000 of growing children have problems of iron deficiency [5,6]. In Egypt, statistics shows that above 70% of people are anemic and most of the patients are women and children.
The medical community believes that the iron deficiency, with or without anemia, can easily be corrected with the administration of oral iron. It is not unusual, however, to encounter patients with persistent anemia and iron deficiency, who claim to have been on oral iron for months! Oral iron is not well-tolerated by all patients; it has gastrointestinal side-effects (constipation or diarrhoea, nausea)-, and patients do not adhere to it as they should(7). Furthermore, even with good compliance, iron absorption is not always adequate. It had been reported recently that the presence of Cysteine and Vitamin C increase the absorption of iron in the body 
When body iron stores are depleted (low-serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), erythropoiesis becomes iron restricted, as reflected by a low mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, an increase in the percentage of hypochromic red cells and a low haemoglobin (Hb) content of reticulocytes . Administration of oral iron can correct the anaemia, provided time is not a limitation, and significant doses (200 mg) can be tolerated. Following the administration of oral iron, it takes 2-3 weeks for the Hb to start rising, 2 months for it to return to normal levels and 6 months for iron stores to be repleted; with intravenous iron Hb starts rising in 1 week, the percentage of responding patients is higher and iron stores are repleted . Boosting iron stores is an advantage, particularly for patients receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) .
There are now three iron products that are safe for intravenous administration: iron saccharate, iron gluconate and low molecular weight iron dextran. The best gives rise in the Hb level after one week, and It comes back to the normal level after a month of treatment through twice weekly intravenous administration doses.
We discovered that magnetite nanoparticles capped with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can be used as single dose drug for anemia treatment and it raises the RBCs and HB level to their normal values within 10 days.
Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a mixed iron oxide (FeO-Fe2O3) with an inverse spinel crystal structure. In the inverse spinel structure, half of the Fe+3 ions are tetrahedrally coordinated and the other half of the Fe+3 ions and all of the Fe+2 ions are octahedrally coordinated. Each octahedral site has six nearest neighbor O-2 ions arranged on the corners of an octahedron, while each tetrahedral site has four nearest neighbor O-2 atoms arranged on the corners of a tetrahedron.
Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) can be prepared in a number of
ways, the most common of which is the chcriiicz! cc- precipitation of Fe salts with the addition of a hydroxide base. These methods allow the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles in a simple rather way with a careful control in size and shape and thus are very appropriate for their use in biomedical applications. Uniform particles are usually prepared via homogeneous precipitation reactions, a process that involves the separation of the nudeation and growth of the nuclei.
We prepared magnetite nanoparticles capped with ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). We discovered that magnetite nanoparticles coated with Vitamin C increases the hemoglobin level and also increases the formation of RBCs. Animal experiments have been carried out to ensure the efficiency of magnetite nanoparticles capped with Vitamin C in anemia treatment. Hemoglobin levels have been decreased in the mammals to be less than 7, then a single dose of our proposed drug is given to the mammals either IP or orally. Within 10 days, the hemoglobin level and RBCs increased to normal levels. The used magnetite nanoparticles stimulate erythropoiesis without any apparent toxicity and it dose not affect haemostasis
Disclosure of Invention :
Part I: Magnetite nanoparticles
- Preparation of biocompatible magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) using vitamin C as a capping material
- The prepared MNP have an average size of 5 nm as shown from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images in Figure 1.
- Quantitative determinations of the iron content of the prepared stock solution of the MNP using inductivity coupled plasma (ICP) preparation of serial concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles , 10 ppm, 30 ppm and 60 ppm to be used as treatment doses.
Part II: Animal Experimental Design
- Five weeks old Albino rats of the Wisconsin Holtzman strain, weighing 150-160 g, were divided into four groups according to mode of drug administration as follows:
Intra peritoneal (IP) group, oral groLfp; positive control group and negative control group.
Both of IP and oral groups were subdivided into three groups according to dose used for treatment, 10 ppm , 30 ppm, 60 ppm. The following diagram summarizes the experimental design.
- All methods used in this study were done according to the NIH guidelines.
- The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of the prepared MNP as a drug for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) as mentioned previously. So the examined rats have to acquire IDA disease, for doing this four successive blood samples were withdrawn during four days from all groups except the negative control one.
- The Hemoglobin (Hb) and RBCs count of the IP, oral and positive control groups were measured and taken as a base at the start time where the mean values of these groups were about 7.5 g for Hb and 3.5 x 106 / mm3 for RBCs.
- This means that all groups acquired IDA except the negative control group.
- 10 ppm, 30 ppm ' and 60 ppm 'i?5?zz were administered intra peritoneal at the abdomen cavity of the rats in the IP group and orally through gastric tube into the stomach of the rats in the oral group.
- The positive and negative control groups were not given any doses of the drug..
Bone marrow Smear:
- The rats were sacrificed at the end thirty days and their femurs were the source of bone marrow for examination of myeloid erythroid ratio (M/E)
The bones were dissected and the marrow removed then mixed with a drop of serum of the same animal species. A smear was prepared by spreading a drop of the resulting suspension on clean dry slides to form a thin bone marrow film.
The films were stained with Leishman stain and examined microscopically. (Hoffbrand and Pettit., 1992)
- During the studying period, any clinical signs were carefully observed.
1- Hematological analysis:
- Hematological tests were done to estimate Hb and RBCs count of all groups at three time intervals, after ten, twenty and thirty days of the drug administration.
- Also, other hematological parameters such as leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets and hematocrit were measured using an autoanalyser.
2- Serum biochemical analysis:
- Blood samples were collected at the start (base line) and at the end of each period. The serum biochemical analysis was carried out to determine; total protein, albumin, bilirubin, AST, ALT, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, uric acid.
3- Histopatholoqical analysis:
- The brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, heart and spleen were removed and subsequently processed for histopathological examination.
1. Our prepared Magnetite nanoparticles did not induce any abnormal clinical signs in the laboratory animals.
2. Did not cause any adverse effects on growth because no statistically significant differences in the body weight gain was found compared to the control group.
3. The serum biochemical analysis indicated that, there was no alteration in blood chemistry compared to control .
4. Hematological Parameters indicated, no significant change in leukocytes, differential or platelet count compared to control group.
5. The most significant sign that was observed through this study, is the marked increase in hemoglobin levels. Where the mean Hb concentration was about 7.5 g/dl before treatment and increased to 13 g/dl within the first 10 days of the treatment.
6. Also the mean RBCs count was 3.5 xlO6/mm3 before magnetite nanoparticles administration and 30 days after administration the mean RBCs count was 8.5 xlO6/mm3.
7. The histopathological examination indicated that, mild inflammatory cells infiltrated mainly the liver & kidneys due to immune response. This was observed in the acute phase 14 days after injection. The inflammatory reaction decreased after 28 days during the subacute phase and completely recovered at the end of chronic phase , 90 days after injection
- The treatment of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles did not induce any apparent toxicity.
- The marked efficiency of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles in increasing Hb and RBCs significantly .This being an effective treatment for IDA.
Brief Description of Drawings :
Fie IwA: TEM images of the magnetite particles capped with Ascorbic acid. Hie sample is monodispersed with average size of about 4 nm.
BONE MARROW SMEARS FROM THE FEMUR OF RATS
GROUP OF RATS NEGATIVE CONTROL :
Fig LB.There was no alteration observed and the normal
Myeloid (M) and erythroid (E) precursor and the M/E ratio « 1 :
GROUP OF RATS KEPT AS POSITIVE CONTROL
Fig 2.A&B.Pepletion was observed in the erythroid precursors and the M/E ratio »3:l(H&Ex 160)
GROUP OF RATS TREATED BY lQppm :
Fie 3A&B& 4A&B Active dividing megakaryocytes and elevated erythroid precursors with M/E ratio * 1.5 :1. ( H & E x 160)
GROUP OF RATS TREATED BY 3Qppm :
(Fiα.5&61 : There was obvious number of megakaryocytes associated with increase in the erythroid precursos and erythroid islands with M/E ratio «1:2. (H&Ex 160)
GROUP OF RATS TREATED BY βOppm :
Fie 7&8: Multiple numbers of erythroid precursors and erythroid islands as well as increased megakaryocytes were observed and the M/E ratio «1:3. (H&Ex 160)