WO2010000864A1 - Method for producing monoclonal antibodies - Google Patents

Method for producing monoclonal antibodies Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2010000864A1
WO2010000864A1 PCT/EP2009/058492 EP2009058492W WO2010000864A1 WO 2010000864 A1 WO2010000864 A1 WO 2010000864A1 EP 2009058492 W EP2009058492 W EP 2009058492W WO 2010000864 A1 WO2010000864 A1 WO 2010000864A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
cells
antibody
expression
defined
antibodies
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2009/058492
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Kristian Kjaergaard
Original Assignee
Novo Nordisk A/S
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP08159721.3 priority Critical
Priority to EP08159721 priority
Application filed by Novo Nordisk A/S filed Critical Novo Nordisk A/S
Publication of WO2010000864A1 publication Critical patent/WO2010000864A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C40COMBINATORIAL TECHNOLOGY
    • C40BCOMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY; LIBRARIES, e.g. CHEMICAL LIBRARIES, IN SILICO LIBRARIES
    • C40B40/00Libraries per se, e.g. arrays, mixtures
    • C40B40/04Libraries containing only organic compounds
    • C40B40/06Libraries containing nucleotides or polynucleotides, or derivatives thereof
    • C40B40/08Libraries containing RNA or DNA which encodes proteins, e.g. gene libraries
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K16/00Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K16/00Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies
    • C07K16/18Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K16/00Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies
    • C07K16/18Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans
    • C07K16/28Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants
    • C07K16/2803Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants against the immunoglobulin superfamily
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C40COMBINATORIAL TECHNOLOGY
    • C40BCOMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY; LIBRARIES, e.g. CHEMICAL LIBRARIES, IN SILICO LIBRARIES
    • C40B50/00Methods of creating libraries, e.g. combinatorial synthesis
    • C40B50/06Biochemical methods, e.g. using enzymes or whole viable microorganisms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K2317/00Immunoglobulins specific features
    • C07K2317/20Immunoglobulins specific features characterized by taxonomic origin
    • C07K2317/21Immunoglobulins specific features characterized by taxonomic origin from primates, e.g. man
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K2317/00Immunoglobulins specific features
    • C07K2317/20Immunoglobulins specific features characterized by taxonomic origin
    • C07K2317/24Immunoglobulins specific features characterized by taxonomic origin containing regions, domains or residues from different species, e.g. chimeric, humanized or veneered

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing antibodies, in particular, but not exclusively, monoclonal antibodies, to antibodies prepared by said method and to nucleic acid molecules, vectors and host cells used in the production of said antibodies.

Description

METHOD FOR PRODUCING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a method for producing antibodies, in particular, but not ex- clusively, monoclonal antibodies, to antibodies and antibody libraries prepared by said method and to nucleic acid molecules, vectors, host cells and kits used in the production of said antibodies.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Hybridoma technology has been the most widely used method to generate mono- clonal antibodies since the 1970s. This technology entails the use of B cells from an immunized host to be fused to myeloma cells in order to generate immortalized antibody producing cells. Various myeloma fusion partners have been developed, but their application has been limited to fusion with B cells from rodents such as mice, rat, hamster and guinea pig. Thus, the production of monoclonal antibodies has been restricted to hybridomas derived from these animals. It is possible to make heterohybridomas by fusion of B cells from other species such as rabbit and humans with murine myeloma cells. However, such hybridomas are very unstable and will be relatively short lived.

Rodent antibodies are not suitable for therapeutic uses due to their immunogenicity in humans. To overcome this issue, murine antibodies have been humanized genetically and companies have developed transgenic mice that produce fully human antibodies upon immunization. In these mice, the murine immune repertoire has been substituted with the human immunoglobulin genes and B cells from these mice can be fused with mouse myeloma fusion partners to generate hybridomas that produce fully human antibodies.

However, it is difficult, if not impossible, to use transgenic mice to raise antibodies that are cross-reactive with mouse antigens, because self-reactive antibody-producing cells are non-immunogenic and selected against by processes of immune tolerance induction. This often poses a problem in pre-clinical studies, in which mouse models are used for evaluation of the biological function of therapeutic antibody candidates.

Epitopes that are not immunogenic in mice might be immunogenic in other species, which are evolutionarily more distinct from mice. Rabbits, goat, pigs, sheep and other animals have been used for decades to raise polyclonal antibodies for diagnostic applications. However, polyclonal antibodies are not always suitable for pre-clinical evaluation and are not attractive as therapeutic agents as such. Taken together, there is an unmet need to generate monoclonal antibodies from other species than mice.

A rabbit fusion partner has been established and commercialized (Epitomics), which can be applied in the generation of monoclonal rabbit antibodies by traditional hybridoma technology. However, the establishment of a fusion partner is not trivial and can be very time consuming and costly, and might explain why no fusion partner to other species than mice and rabbits have been developed.

Phage display has also been used successfully to generate monoclonal rabbit antibodies from screening of rabbit antibody libraries. Antibody libraries allow the generation of mAbs from virtually any species whose immunoglobulin genes are known.

However, there are several drawbacks in phage display, especially in relation to un- desired selection pressure. Antibodies that are toxic to the cell, poorly expressed or folded, inefficiently incorporated into the phage particle, susceptible to proteolysis or slow down the bacterial growth, will not be selected in the enrichment process of phage displayed libraries. Furthermore, due to the transformation step in this technique the antibody library size is generally limited to 109, which reduces the chances of identifying high affinity antibodies using this technology. Affinity maturation of antibodies derived by phage display is therefore normally required for therapeutic uses. Also, the antibody format displayed on phages is restricted to ScFv and Fab fragments, which afterwards often needs to be converted into full length IgG required in functional assays.

US 2005/0048578 (Zhang) describes methods of screening for monoclonal antibodies with desirable activity which includes altering a nucleic acid encoding a selected parental humanized monoclonal antibody to make a library of nucleic acids, introducing the library into mammalian cells such that a library of monoclonal antibodies are produced on the surfaces of the mammalian cells, and sorting the cells to isolate a cell producing a humanized monoclonal antibody with desired activity.

There is therefore a great need for a method of producing monoclonal antibodies which does not require fusion and does not comprise the drawbacks contained in the phage display technology, and which can be applied in affinity maturation of antibodies.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a method of producing a monoclonal antibody which comprises the steps of:

(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;

(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation; (c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and

(d) recombinase-mediated cloning and expression of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a monoclonal anti- body obtainable according to the method defined hereinbefore.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of preparing a monoclonal antibody library which comprises the steps of:

(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;

(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation; (c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and

(d) recombinase-mediated cloning of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a monoclonal antibody library obtainable according to the method defined hereinbefore. According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a nucleic acid molecule comprising a gene encoding one or more regions of an antibody characterised in that said gene is flanked by recombination sites.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a vector comprising the nucleic acid as hereinbefore defined. According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a host cell comprising the vector as hereinbefore defined.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a kit for producing monoclonal antibodies which comprises the DNA recombination system as hereinbefore defined and instructions to use said kit in accordance with said methods hereinbefore defined.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 describes a flow chart detailing the methods to obtain monoclonal antibodies from either single B cells or from a pool of B cells using the present invention;

Figure 2 describes a diagram outlining the cloning procedure and functional outcome of the claimed vector suitable for expression of soluble monoclonal antibodies; Figure 3 describes the vector map of pKKJ222;

Figure 4 describes the results of an analysis of the vector construct for soluble expression of monoclonal antibodies. An antibody recognising KIR antigen was introduced into the claimed vector, and the resultant plasmid was used for transfection of HEK293 cells. Supernatant was analysed by Western blotting and Biacore, and the data showed the expected expression and binding profile of the antibody, demonstrating that the vector construct is functional;

Figure 5 describes a diagram outlining the cloning procedure and functional outcome of the claimed vector suitable for expression of membrane bound antibodies; Figure 6 describes the vector diagram of pKKJ253;

Figure 7 describes the analysis of a vector construct for expression of membrane bound monoclonal antibodies. An antibody recognising KIR antigen was introduced into the claimed vector, and the resultant plasmid was used for transfection of HEK293 cells. Cells were assayed two days after transfection by FACS for their ability to bind to fluorescence- conjugated KIR antigen. As expected, cells expressing the membrane bound form of the antibody showed significantly better binding to the antigen than the control cells, and therefore demonstrates that the claimed vector construct is functional;

Figure 8 describes the analysis of a vector construct for expression of membrane bound monoclonal antibodies. An antibody recognising KIR antigen was introduced into the claimed vector, and the resultant plasmid was used for transfection of FIp-InTM-CHO cells. Cells were assayed 3 weeks after transfection by FACS for their ability to bind to fluorescence-conjugated KIR antigen. As expected, cells stably expressing the membrane bound form of the antibody showed significantly better binding to the antigen than the control cells, and therefore demonstrates that the claimed vector construct is functional; Figure 9 describes ELISA on both un-transfected CHO cells and transfected CHO cells stable expressing soluble or membrane bound antibodies using anti-human kappa light chain-HRP for detection;

Figure 10 describes a diagram showing the cloning procedure for amplification of antibody genes from a single B cell or a pool of B cells, and subsequent introduction into claimed expression vectors as a soluble or membrane bound form;

Figure 11 describes a Western blot of supernatant from HEK293 cells transfected with chimeric rabbit/human antibody libraries originating from 5 different rabbits each immunized with different peptides. Anti-human-lgG-HRP was used for detection;

Figure 12 describes peptide specific ELISA testing the supernatant from HEK293 cells transfected with chimeric rabbit/human antibody libraries originating from 5 different rabbits each immunized with different peptides;

Figure 13 describes immunohistochemistry on pancreas using supernatant from un- transfected HEK293 cells and supernatant from HEK 293 cells transfected with library MT3154 originating from rabbit 2467A (see Figure 12) which had been immunised with islet- derived peptide m-hl_RP1 1-2-KLH. Pictures are captured using 1 Ox and 2Ox magnification, respectively;

Figure 14 describes peptide specific ELISA testing the supernatant from CHO cells transfected with library MT3154 originating from rabbit 2467A (see Figure 12) and selecting for hygromycin resistant clones. The library contained 5 cells/well;

Figure 15 describes the detailed screening of the clones marked in Figure 14 with an asterisk. This analysis required the dilution from 5 cells/well to 1 cell/well to prepare monoclonal antibodies; and

Figure 16 describes a Western blot analysis of the presence of IgG from CHO cells expressing: membrane bound IgG (CHO+MT3012), no IgG (CHO), and soluble IgG (CHO+pKKJ222). Analysis was performed on supernatant (lanes 2, 5 and 8), protease treated cells (lanes 3, 6 and 9), and untreated cells (lanes 4, 7 and 10). Lane 3 shows that IgG could be released from the cell surface by protease cleavage, demonstrating that the protease site and protease were functional in this setting.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a method of producing a monoclonal antibody which comprises the steps of:

(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;

(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation; (c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and

(d) recombinase-mediated cloning and expression of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

As described herein, the invention provides a number of advantages over conventional methods for producing monoclonal antibodies. For example, there is no requirement for a fusion partner, monoclonal antibodies may be prepared from virtually any species, one antibody type may be expressed per transfected cell, fast selection of monoclonal antibodies is provided, the monoclonal antibodies may be expressed in both soluble and membrane bound form, the invention can be used for affinity maturation of antibodies or improvement of other proteins, the invention can also be used in the display of full length IgG, the invention can also be screened by FACS, the invention also provides a procedure which does not include undesirable selection procedures.

It will be appreciated by the skilled person that the terms "antibody" and "immunoglobulin" may be used interchangeably. These terms are well understood and refer to a protein consisting of one or more polypeptides that specifically binds an antigen. One form of antibody constitutes the basic structural unit of an antibody. This form is a tetramer and consists of two identical pairs of antibody chains, each pair having one light and one heavy chain. In each pair, the light and heavy chain variable regions are together responsible for binding to an antigen, and the constant regions are responsible for the antibody effector func- tions.

The recognized immunoglobulin polypeptides include the kappa and lambda light chains and the alpha, gamma (IgGI , lgG2, lgG3, lgG4), delta, epsilon and mu heavy chains or equivalents in other species. Full-length immunoglobulin "light chains" (of about 25 kDa or about 214 amino acids) comprise a variable region of about 110 amino acids at the NH2- terminus and a kappa or lambda constant region at the COOH-terminus. Full-length immunoglobulin "heavy chains" (of about 50 kDa or about 446 amino acids), similarly comprise a variable region (of about 1 16 amino acids) and one of the aforementioned heavy chain constant regions, e.g., gamma (of about 330 amino acids).

It will be appreciated that the terms "antibodies" and "immunoglobulin" also include antibodies or immunoglobulins of any isotype, fragments of antibodies which retain specific binding to antigen, including, but not limited to, Fab, Fv, scFv, and Fd fragments, chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, single-chain antibodies, and fusion proteins comprising an antigen-binding portion of an antibody and a non-antibody protein. The antibodies may be detectably labelled, e.g., with a radioisotope, an enzyme which generates a detectable prod- uct, a fluorescent protein, and the like.

The antibodies may be further conjugated to other moieties, such as members of specific binding pairs, e.g., biotin (a member of biotin-avidin specific binding pair), and the like. The antibodies may also be bound to a solid support, including, but not limited to, polystyrene plates or beads, and the like. Also encompassed by the terms are Fab', Fv, F(ab')2, and/or other antibody fragments that retain specific binding to antigen.

It will be appreciated that antibodies may exist in a variety of other forms including, for example, Fv, Fab, and (Fab')2, as well as bi-functional (i.e. bi-specific) hybrid antibodies (e.g., Lanzavecchia et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 17, 105 (1987)) and in single chains (e.g., Huston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 85, 5879-5883 (1988); Bird et al., Science, 242, 423-426 (1988); see Hood et al., "Immunology", Benjamin, N.Y., 2nd ed. (1984), and Hunkapiller and Hood, Nature, 323, 15-16 (1986)).

It will be appreciated that an immunoglobulin light or heavy chain variable region consists of a "framework" region interrupted by three hypervariable regions, also called "complementarity determining regions" or CDRs. The extent of the framework region and CDRs have been precisely defined (see, "Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest," E. Kabat et al., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (1983)). The sequences of the framework regions of different light or heavy chains are relatively conserved within a species. The framework region of an antibody, that is the combined framework regions of the constituent light and heavy chains, serves to position and align the CDRs. The CDRs are primarily responsible for binding to an epitope of an antigen.

It will be appreciated that chimeric antibodies are antibodies whose light and heavy chain genes have been constructed, typically by genetic engineering, from antibody variable and constant region genes belonging to different species. For example, the variable seg- ments-of the genes from a rabbit monoclonal antibody may be joined to human constant segments, such as gamma 1 and gamma 3. An example of a therapeutic chimeric antibody is a hybrid protein composed of the variable or antigen-binding domain from a rabbit antibody and the constant or effector domain from a human antibody (e.g., the anti-Tac chimeric antibody made by the cells of AT. C. C. deposit Accession No. CRL 9688), although other mammalian species may be used. References herein to the term "humanized antibody" or "humanized immunoglobulin" refers to an antibody comprising one or more CDRs from an animal antibody, the antibody having been modified in such a way so as to be less immunogenic in a human than the parental animal antibody. An animal antibody can be humanized using a number of methodologies, including chimeric antibody production, CDR grafting (also called reshaping), and antibody resurfacing.

References herein to the term "murinized antibody" or "murinized immunoglobulin" refers to an antibody comprising one or more CDRs from an animal antibody, the antibody having been modified in such a way so as to be less immunogenic in a mouse than the parental animal antibody. An animal antibody can be murinized using a number of methodolo- gies, including chimeric antibody production, CDR grafting (also called reshaping), and antibody resurfacing.

References herein to "nucleic acid construct" include a nucleic acid sequence that has been constructed to comprise one or more functional units not found together in nature. Examples include circular, linear, double-stranded, extrachromosomal DNA molecules (plasmids), cosmids (plasmids containing COS sequences from lambda phage), viral genomes comprising non-native nucleic acid sequences, and the like.

References herein to "vector" includes an element capable of transferring gene sequences to target cells. Typically, "vector construct," "expression vector," and "gene transfer vector," mean any nucleic acid construct capable of directing the expression of a gene of in- terest and which can transfer gene sequences to target cells, which can be accomplished by genomic integration of all or a portion of the vector, or transient or inheritable maintenance of the vector as an extrachromosomal element. Thus, the term includes cloning, and expression vehicles, as well as integrating vectors.

References herein to the term "Encoded by" refers to a nucleic acid sequence which codes for a polypeptide sequence, wherein the polypeptide sequence or a portion thereof contains an amino acid sequence of at least 3 to 5 amino acids, more preferably at least 8 to 10 amino acids, and even more preferably at least 15 to 20 amino acids from a polypeptide encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Also encompassed are polypeptide sequences that are immunologically identifiable with a polypeptide encoded by the sequence. In one embodiment, the host animal in step (a) comprises a mammal. In a further embodiment, the host animal in step (a) comprises a human, mouse, rat, rabbit, goat, pig or sheep. In a yet further embodiment, the host animal in step (a) comprises a mouse, rabbit, goat, pig or sheep.

In one embodiment, the antigen in step (a) is a protein or nucleic acid molecule en- coding a protein to which an immune response is desired.

It will be appreciated that in order to mount a strong immune response, multiple immunizations are performed at suitable intervals normally every 2-3 weeks. The immune response will typically be measured by determining the titer of antigen specific antibodies in the sera of the immunized animal at different time points after immunization. Mammals that dis- play a high antibody titer are immunized 3-4 days prior to retrieval of B-cells either from blood, bone marrow or spleen.

In one embodiment, mRNA extraction in step (b) may be performed from a pool of B cells. In such an embodiment, lymphocyte pools including T and B cells can be retrieved from blood, bone marrow or spleen of the immunized animal and used as a source for ex- tracting mRNA in step (b). It will be appreciated that mRNA extraction from a B cell pool will give rise to a cDNA library in step (c).

In an alternative embodiment, single B-cells can be isolated from the lymphocyte pool prior to mRNA extraction in step (b). In a further embodiment, the single B-cell extraction may comprise the use of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) (e.g. fluorescent- labelled antibodies which recognize distinct surface markers on the B-cell). It will be appreciated that mRNA extraction from a single B cell will result in one type of cDNA sequence encoding one particular antibody in step (c).

The cDNA obtained from the B cell(s) in step (c) will typically be used as a template for PCR amplification of the IgG antibody genes. It will be apparent to the skilled person that gene specific primer sets are designed so that they match the DNA sequence of the antibody light chain and antibody heavy chain genes present in the animal from which the cDNA originates. Thus, primer sequences often vary between species, and a number of different primer sets can be required for amplification of antibody genes within species.

A list of primers for amplification of antibody genes from humans, rabbit and pigs are provided in Table 1 below:

Table 1

Figure imgf000010_0001
Figure imgf000011_0001

It will be apparent to the skilled person that primers for amplification of antibody genes from other species can be readily designed in accordance with the relevant sequence information available for said species. It will be appreciated that references to "recombinase-mediated cloning and expression" includes reference to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae- derived DNA recombination system. Such a recombination system typically comprises the presence of a FIp recombinase target (FRT) recombinase gene which is suitable for stable and site-directed integration of selected genes into the chromosome of a mammalian host cell. The first component of the DNA recombination system is typically a "target site vector" that is used to generate a host cell line. This target site vector typically contains a fusion gene comprising a gene encoding a first selection antibiotic fused to a reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a promoter.

In one embodiment, the first selection antibiotic of the target site vector is zeocin™. In one embodiment, the reporter gene of the target site vector is a gene which encodes β- galactosidase (i.e. the lacZ gene). In one embodiment, the promoter of the target site vector is an SV40 early promoter.

Typically, a FRT site is located downstream of the ATG initiation codon of the fusion gene of the target site vector. The FRT site serves as the binding and cleavage site for the FIp recombinase. The target site vector is transfected into the desired host cell line of interest and cells are selected for resistance to the first selection antibiotic. Antibiotic resistant clones are screened to identify those containing a single integrated FRT site. The resulting host cell line will therefore contain an integrated FRT site and express the fusion gene of the target site vector. Examples of suitable host cells for expression of the monoclonal antibodies include cells from mammals, e.g., mouse, rabbit, hamster, human etc. or avians, e.g., chicken, since animal cells usually ensure correct post-transcriptional modification, correct protein targeting, and correct protein conformation. In certain embodiments, the host cell is a human cell (e.g., HeLa), a mouse cell (e.g., NIH 3T3), a chicken cell (e.g., DT-40) or a rabbit cell (e.g., 240E). Other exemplary mammalian cells include monkey kidney cells (COS cells), monkey kidney CVI cells transformed by SV40 (COS-7, ATCC CRL 165 1 ); human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293, Graham et al. J. Gen Virol. 36:59 (1977)); baby hamster kidney cells (BHK, ATCC CCL 10); Chinese hamster ovary-cells (CHO, Urlaub and Chasin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 77:4216, (1980); mouse Sertoli cells (TM4, Mather, Biol. Reprod. 23:243-251 (1980)); monkey kidney cells (CVI ATCC CCL 70); african green monkey kidney cells (VERO-76, ATCC CRL-1587); human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA, ATCC CCL 2); canine kidney cells (MDCK, ATCC CCL 34); buffalo rat liver cells (BRL 3A, ATCC CRL 1442); human lung cells (W138, ATCC CCL 75); human liver cells (hep G2, HB 8065); mouse mammary tumor (MMT 060562, ATCC CCL 51 ); TRI cells (Mather et al., Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci 383:44-68 (1982)); NIH/3T3 cells (ATCC CRL-1658); and mouse L cells (ATCC CCL-1 ). Additional cell lines will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. A wide variety of cell lines are available from the American Type Culture Collection, 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209. In other embodiments, the suitable cells for antibody expression are cells for packaging virus, especially retroviral packaging cells, such as EcoPack2-293, Amphopack- 293, Retropack PT67, GP2-293 cells, as sold by Clontech (Palo Alto, Calif.). Other examples include ecotropic retroviral packaging cell line, GP+E86, and the amphotropic packaging cell line, GP+EnvAm12 (AM-12, GenPak(TM)) from Genetix Pharmaceuticals and Viraport packaging cell lines from Stratagene. In one embodiment, the host cell line is a mammalian cell line. In a further embodiment, the mammalian cell line is selected from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells (e.g. HEK293), African green monkey kidney cells (e.g. CV-1 ), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, Mouse (NIH Swiss) embryonic fibroblast cells (e.g. 3T3) or Human T-cell leukemia cells (e.g. Jurkat). In a yet further embodiment, the host cell line is a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line.

The second component of the DNA recombination system is typically a "cDNA expression vector" into which the gene of interest can be cloned. In one embodiment, expression of the gene of interest is controlled by a human promoter (e.g. the CMV promoter). The expression vector also contains a gene encoding a second selection antibiotic wherein said second selection antibiotic is different to the first selection antibiotic hereinbefore defined. In one embodiment, the second selection antibiotic is hygromycin. Such a resistance gene will typically comprise a FRT site embedded in the 5' coding region. The gene encoding a second selection antibiotic will typically lack a promoter and the ATG initiation codon.

The third component of the DNA recombination system is typically a "recombinase expression vector" which constitutively expresses the FIp recombinase under the control of the same human promoter within the cDNA expression vector.

The recombinase expression vector and the cDNA expression vector containing the gene of interest are cotransfected into the host cell line. Upon cotransfection, the FIp recombinase expressed by the recombinase expression vector mediates a homologous recombina- tion event between the FRT sites such that the cDNA/FRT construct is inserted into the ge- nome of the host cell line at the integrated FRT site. Insertion of the cDNA/FRT construct into the genome at the FRT site brings the human promoter and the ATG initiation codon from the target site vector into proximity and frame with the gene encoding a second selection antibiotic and therefore inactivates the fusion gene within the target site vector. Thus, stable expression cell lines can be selected for resistance to the second antibiotic.

In one embodiment, the recombinase-mediated cloning and expression comprises use of a suitable DNA recombination system such as the FIp-InTM system provided by Invi- trogen (Catalogue No. K6010-01 and K6010-02).

It will be apparent to the skilled person that the antibodies produced by the claimed methods can either be transiently expressed or expressed from cells with a stable integration of the antibody gene into the genome of the cell. When stable integration is required, in one embodiment a CHO cell line containing a single FRT site on the genome at a transcriptionally active site is used (such a cell line may be purchased from Invitrogen, Catalogue No. R758- 07). The single FRT site in this cell line allows for integration of only one copy of the gene of interest in the genome of the CHO cell. This particular feature is used in the present invention to establish CHO cell lines that stably express a single type of antibody (a monoclonal antibody) by introducing only one copy of the heavy and light chain genes of a particular antibody into the single FRT site of the CHO cell.

In one embodiment, restriction sites are introduced upstream and downstream of the promoter region of the cDNA/FRT construct which allows for the subsequent introduction of antibody light chain genes and antibody heavy chain genes, respectively (Figure 2).

The genes encoding the constant regions of the light and heavy chain of an antibody can be introduced prior to introduction of the variable regions. In this way a prefixed subtype, isotype, allotype, or format (i.e. IgG, Fab or Fab2) can be engineered which only requires in- troduction of the variable regions for proper antibody expression. This approach also abolishes the risk of introducing undesired mutations in the constant regions during the PCR process.

The present invention provides the generation of vector systems which allow for either (i) soluble expression or (ii) membrane bound expression of antibodies from mammalian cells. Thus, the present invention provides a method of expressing a single type of antibody per transfected cell, either in a soluble or a membrane bound form. The soluble form can readily be purified and used for functional studies, while the membrane bound form can be used as a display system from which screening of antibodies for i.e. antigen specificity or high affinity antibodies can be performed. Soluble antibodies are often required for functional analysis and biochemical characterization. When a library comprising a vast number of different antibody genes is introduced into the described vector system, a pool of polyclonal antibodies can be obtained. Polyclonal antibodies can be attractive in a number of cases and in one embodiment the present inven- tion provides a method for producing polyclonal antibodies. In an alternative embodiment, the present invention provides a method for producing monoclonal antibodies. Such monoclonal antibodies are beneficial as therapeutic agents and for most in vivo studies.

In the embodiment wherein soluble expression of antibodies is provided, the cell population may typically be diluted to obtain a single cell (monoclone) per well and the su- pernatant can subsequently be assayed for antibodies having the desired property and can afterwards be collected. Subsequently, high throughput screening of a large number of samples may be required to identify monoclones.

The ability to express antibody fragments on the surface of living cells or phage particles has been used for decades to identify monoclonal antibodies from antibody libraries. The physical linkage between phenotype and genotype in these systems allows for the selection rather than screening of antibody libraries.

The vector system provided by the present invention allows surface display of antibodies on the membrane of the host cell line.

In the embodiment where membrane bound expression is required, the method of the invention additionally comprises the step of introducing a protease cleavage site between the constant heavy chain and the membrane binding domain. Such a cleavage site provides the advantage of allowing soluble antibodies to be generated by protease treatment of cells expressing surface bound antibodies. Examples of suitable sequences of protease cleavage sites include those described in WO 2008/043847, the sequences of which are herein incor- porated by reference.

The inventor of the present invention has fused the extracellular domain, transmembrane spanning domain and the intracellular domain of naturally occurring membrane bound form of mouse IgG to the C-terminal of the antibody heavy chain constant region in the vector constructs as described hereinbefore. Cells expressing antigen specific antibodies on the surface can be isolated (either as a pool or as single cells) using FACS and fluorescent-conjugated antigen (see Figure 5).

When using the DNA recombination system mentioned hereinbefore to establish stable CHO cells each expressing one type of antibody it is possible to select monoclones that display an antibody with a desired specificity, affinity or functionality. Thus, the present invention allows for very fast generation and identification of monoclonal antibodies from antibody libraries originating from virtually any species.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a monoclonal antibody obtainable according to the method defined hereinbefore. In the embodiment when the antibody genes are amplified from cDNA from a single

B cell (or monoclone) only one type of heavy and light chain DNA sequence is obtained. By contrast, the embodiment when the antibody genes are amplified from cDNA from a pool give rise to a vast number of different heavy and light chain DNA products upon PCR amplification, hereinafter such products are referred to as a 'library'. Thus, according to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of preparing a monoclonal antibody library which comprises the steps of:

(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;

(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation;

(c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and (d) recombinase-mediated cloning of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

The antibody libraries can be expressed transiently in a mammalian cell line which will help to determine whether antibodies with a desired property are present in the library. Expression of such a library will result in the production of all transfected antibody genes from the cells and thereby give rise to a polyclonal antibody mixture. The library secures an everlasting source for polyclonal antibodies which is not the case when polyclonal antibodies are generated from drawing blood from immunized animals. For example, in the conventional arrangement, animals must be immunized repeatedly prior to blood sampling and the animals are susceptible to diseases which can decrease their lifespan even further. In one embodiment, the method of preparing a monoclonal antibody library additionally comprises a mutagenesis step. This embodiment provides the advantage of generating antibodies with improved properties (i.e. increased affinity or improved efficacy, etc.). Such an embodiment will typically provide a library of candidate variant monoclonal antibody- encoding nucleic acids. A library may encode at least 2 (i.e., at least about 5, at least about 10, at least about 50, at least about 100, at least about 200, at least about 500, at least about 1000, at least about 5000, at least about 10,000 or at least about 50,000 or more, usually up to about 100,000 or more) variants of the parental monoclonal antibody.

It will be appreciated that mutagenesis may be random mutagenesis, or may make directed changes in the antibody-encoding nucleic acids. In most embodiments, depending on the desired changes, a nucleic acid encoding a region of an antibody, e.g., one or more CDR regions, one or more a framework regions, a heavy or light chain variable domain, or any subdomain, any individual amino acid or combination thereof, in a heavy and/or light chain immunoglobulin-encoding nucleic acid may be altered. In most embodiments, the parental nucleic acid is altered to produce a plurality of variant nucleic acids containing at least one (e.g. two, three, four, or five or more) changes such that an encoded antibody region is changed by at least one (e.g. two, three, four, or five or more) amino acids in comparison to the equivalent region in the parental antibody.

In one embodiment, nucleic acids encoding at least one of the CDR and framework regions of a parental antibody are subjected to random mutagenesis to produce a library of variant antibodies containing, collectively, substitutions, additions or deletions of the amino acids that span the region.

In an alternative embodiment, nucleic acids encoding particular amino acids in a framework region or CDR of a parental antibody are subjected to random mutagenesis to produce a library of antibody variants that collectively has substitutions, deletions or additions of particular amino acids.

In a further embodiment, nucleic acids encoding particular amino acids in a framework or CDR region are directionally altered to provide a library of antibody variants that are collectively altered at the particular amino acids such that the amino acids are substituted for a specific nucleic acid. In other words, a subject library may contain antibody-encoding nu- cleic acids that are altered at any position across an antibody region, or in an individual position thereof.

In one embodiment, particularly one which involves parental antibodies that are non- human antibodies that have been humanized by resurfacing or CDR grafting, the individual amino acids that were substituted during humanization may be individually back-altered to become identical to amino acids at equivalent positions in the parental non-human antibody. In other words, if a resurfaced antibody contains 20 amino acid changes in comparison to its parental non-resurfaced counterpart, each of the 20 changes could be back-mutated to the amino acid that was present at the equivalent position in the parental non-resurfaced antibody. A library containing such variants usually contains antibodies that, collectively, contain all changes at all of the desired positions, and each antibody usually contains an alteration in at least 1 , at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least about 7, at least about 10, at least about 15, or at least about 20 or more positions.

It will be appreciated that to generate a library of variant monoclonal antibodies from a parental monoclonal antibody, the coding sequence of parental monoclonal antibody may be mutated so as to provide the library of variant monoclonal antibodies. The immunoglubulin heavy or light chain coding sequences may be mutated in various ways known in the art to generate targeted or random changes in the sequence of the encoded antibody. The sequence changes may be substitutions, insertions, deletions, or one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 or more residues), or a combination thereof. It will be appreciated that techniques for in vitro mutagenesis of cloned genes are well known to those skilled in the art. Examples of protocols for site specific mutagenesis may be found in Gustin et al. (1993), Biotechniques 14:22; Barany (1985), Gene 37:11 1-23; Colicelli et al. (1985), MoI. Gen. Genet. 199:537-9; and Prentki et al. (1984), Gene 29:303- 13. Methods for site specific mutagenesis can be found in Sambrook et al., Molecular Clon- ing: A Laboratory Manual, CSH Press 1989, pp. 15.3-15.108; Weiner et al. (1993), Gene

126:35-41 ; Sayers et al. (1992), Biotechniques 13:592-6; Jones and Winistorfer (1992), Biotechniques 12:528-30; Barton et al. (1990), Nucleic Acids Res 18:7349-55; Marotti and Tomich (1989), Gene Anal. Tech. 6:67-70; and Zhu (1989), Anal Biochem 177:120-4.

In one embodiment, it is desirable to screen a large number of candidate mono- clonal antibodies in order to rapidly identify an altered monoclonal antibody with an improved activity over the parental antibody. Any convenient protocol for generating large numbers of mutant proteins from an initial wild type protein may be employed, where representative protocols are well known to those of skill in the art and of interest include, but are not limited to: (1 ) error prone PCR, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,709; (2) DNA shuffling, as de- scribed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,355,484; 6,365,408; (3) in vivo mutagenesis in mutator cells (e.g., mutator bacterial strains deficient in mismatch repair enzymes) or using mutational vectors, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,004,804; 6,146,894; 6,165,718; 6,211 ,351 ; (4) directed evolution protocols, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,709, 5,723,323 and 6,171 ,820; (4) directed mutation, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,702,931 ; 5,932,419; 5,935,830; and the like. Oligonucleotides of varying sequence may also be inserted into an antibody-coding sequence to provide such a library of candidate monoclonal antibodies. Such protocols result in the production of a population of candidate monoclonal antibodies. The generated population of candidate monoclonal antibodies is then screened, using the methods described in the next section, in order to identify a monoclonal antibody that has an improved activity over the parental antibody used to generate the library.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a monoclonal antibody library obtainable according to the method defined hereinbefore.

The invention also provides methods of identifying a monoclonal antibody of interest. In general, the methods involve producing a library of candidate monoclonal antibodies using the methods described above, and screening the library to identify a monoclonal anti- body of interest. In many embodiments, screening involves identifying an antibody in the library that has an improved activity as compared to the parental antibody. For example, a monoclonal antibody of interest may exhibit: stronger binding to an binding partner (e.g., an increased affinity to a binding partner such as a protein or cell as compared to the parental antibody), greater specificity (e.g., binds to a subset of the binding partners of the parental antibody), stronger expression (e.g., is expressed at higher levels, e.g., greater than about 20%, 50%, 100%, 500% or 1000% or more, in a mammalian cell) or any other activity (i.e., inhibition of binding between two binding partners), as compared to a parental monoclonal antibody. In embodiments where a monoclonal antibody of interest has greater affinity for a binding partner than a parent monoclonal antibody, affinity for the binding partner is increased by at least about 20%, at least about 50%, at least about 100%, at least about 5- fold, at least about 10-fold, at least about 20-fold, at least about 50-fold or at least about 100- fold or more. For example, if a parental monoclonal antibody has an affinity for a binding partner of about 1x10"8 > M, a monoclonal antibody of interest derived from that parental monoclonal antibody will have a binding affinity of about 0.5x10"8 > M, about 1x10"9 > M, about 0.5x10"9 > M, or about 1x10"10 > M or more.

Since the antibodies are produced on the surfaces of mammalian cells, an antibody of interest is generally identified by isolating a cell producing the antibody using any one or more of a variety of positive or negative cell selection methods. In general, therefore, a library of cells producing candidate monoclonal antibodies is made using the methods described above, and cells are isolated based on an activity of the antibody which it produces.

Positive and negative selection assays include those in which a binding partner, e.g., an antigen such as a polypeptide to which the parental antibody binds, is mixed with the cell population under conditions sufficient for binding of the binding partner to the antibodies produced by the cells, and the cells that bind to the binding partner are isolated from the rest of the cell population, either because they bind or do not bind to the binding partner. This selection may be done by a variety of means, and generally involves a binding partner that is either detectably labeled, or bound to a solid support. In other words, a cell producing a monoclonal antibody of interest may be selected based on its binding to a binding partner, or, in other embodiments, a monoclonal antibody of interest may be selected based on its lack of binding to a binding partner.

In some embodiments, cells producing a monoclonal antibody of interest may be isolated from the rest of the population of cells by their binding to a solid support. For exam- pie, cells producing a monoclonal antibody of interest may be separated from the population of cells using magnetic separation using paramagnetic particles that are coated with a binding partner (Kiesel et al. euk Res. 1987 11 :1 119-25). Paramagnetic particles are available with a variety of surface derivatization chemistries to allow for the covalent attachment of a wide range of binding partners, e.g. a protein of interest or a cell producing the same on its surface. Mammalian cells producing surface-bound antibodies with high affinity for the binding partner bind to the magnetic particles and may be isolated in a strong magnetic field that attracts the magnetic beads. Alternatively, cells that bind to the particles may be separated in a continuous magnetic separator. In other embodiments, the variant antibody cell population is contacted with a solid support in which a binding partner is chemically immobilized, and cells that display antibodies that bind to the binding partner are retained on the solid support. Following washing, cells which specifically bound to the support may be released using binding partner that is not immobilized to the support.

In alternative embodiments, cells producing a monoclonal antibody of interest may be separated from the population of cells by cell sorting. In these embodiments, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) may be used. FACS permits the separation of subpopulations of cells on the basis of their light scatter properties as they pass through a laser beam. Since the cells producing a monoclonal antibody of interest may be bound to a florescent-tagged binding partner, they are identified by FACS as being fluorescent and can be separated from the non-fluorescent cells. In certain embodiments, a cell producing an antibody of interest binds to more fluorescent binding partner than other cells in the population and, as such, may be identified because it exhibits greater fluorescence. In other words, a cell producing an antibody with a higher affinity for an antigen, an antibody that is more highly expressed on the cell, an antibody that is more specific for an antigen, etc., will be identified in a cell population because it exhibits more fluorescence than the other cells. As such, in certain embodiments, a FACS cell sorter may be calibrated using a population of cells producing a parental antibody to identify a range of normal values for cells, and cells from the population of cells producing the variant antibodies may be selected if they exhibit fluorescence outside of this range. Alternatively, a population of cells producing variant antibodies may be analyzed using FACS, and the cells exhibiting the most fluores- cence in the population may be separated from the rest of the cells in the population. For example, about 1 %, about 5%, about 10%, about 15% or about 20% of the cells may be selected because they exhibit more fluorescence than the rest of the cells.

Depending on the exact methodology used, labeled antigen may be added to the cell population at a non-saturating amount, or in combination (at a certain ratio) with unla- beled antigen, to facilitate the identification cells producing antibodies of interest. In other embodiments, a distinguishably labeled second binding partner which binds to all the monoclonal antibodies produced by the cells with equal affinity may be added to the cell population to identify the expression level of an antibody in a single cell. Using the distinguishably labeled second binding partner, e.g., a labeled antibody that binds to an Fc region of the monoclonal antibody variants, the amount of binding of the first binding partner can be normalized to the amount of a monoclonal antibody produced by a cell. In other embodiments, inhibitors non-specific protein binding, e.g., BSA or dried milk solution, may be added to the cell population to facilitate identification of cells producing antibodies with desired properties. Cells producing a monoclonal antibodies of interest, once isolated from the popula- tion of cells may be cultured and subjected to further rounds of selection or used to isolate the nucleic acids encoding the monoclonal antibodies of interest, by e.g., plasmid rescue (if a plasmid vector is used), PCR (if a linear vector is used), or by isolation of virus particles produced by the cell (if a viral vector is used). These nucleic acids may be used in a variety of ways. For example, the nucleic acids may be used to produce a monoclonal antibody of in- terest, as will be described below. In other embodiments, the nucleic acids may be used as starting materials for reiterating the above mutagenesis/selection process. In other words, the first monoclonal antibody of interest identified using the above methods may become a parental monoclonal antibody and the above methods may be repeated to produce a second monoclonal antibody of interest. In another embodiment, the nucleic acids isolated from the isolated cells may be directly transferred into a population mammalian cells so that the antibodies represented by the isolated nucleic acids are produced on the surfaces of the mammalian cells. This cell population may be mixed with antigen, and the cells that bind to antigen may be again isolated from other cells in the population, reiterating the selection process. This process may be re-iterated once, twice, thrice or 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times until a monoclonal antibody of interest suitable for future is identified in the isolated cell population. The nucleic acids encoding a suitable monoclonal antibody of interest may be isolated and used to produce the monoclonal antibody of interest.

If a single retroviral vector with an IRES is used, the surface bound antibodies are usually produced using a first packaging cell, and cells producing a monoclonal antibody are isolated using the methods described above. Once the cells are isolated, the supernatant of the isolated cells may be used to infect a second packaging cell, and cells producing a monoclonal antibody are isolated using the methods described above. In other words, if a single retroviral vector with an IRES is used, the packaging cell lines used must be alternated in successive rounds of selection in order to perform the methods. According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a nucleic acid molecule comprising a gene encoding one or more regions of an antibody characterised in that said gene is flanked by recombination sites.

In one embodiment, said one or more regions comprises one or more of the follow- ing: either or both light chains and/or either or both heavy chains or the variable (Fab) regions or the constant (Fc) regions.

In one embodiment, the recombination sites comprise a flp recombinase site as defined hereinbefore.

In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule additionally comprises an element encoding a membrane binding domain. In a further embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule additionally comprises an element encoding a protease cleavage site between the gene encoding one or more regions of an antibody and the element encoding a membrane binding domain. Such embodiments provide the advantage of allowing surface display of the resultant expressed antibody upon the membrane of the host cell line and subsequent cleavage from the surface at the protease cleavage site.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a vector comprising the nucleic acid as hereinbefore defined.

In one embodiment, the vector additionally comprises a human promoter (e.g. the CMV promoter). In one embodiment, the vector additionally comprises a gene encoding a second selection antibiotic as defined hereinbefore.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a host cell comprising the vector as hereinbefore defined.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a kit for producing monoclonal antibodies which comprises the DNA recombination system as hereinbefore de- fined and instructions to use said kit in accordance with said methods hereinbefore defined. In one embodiment, said DNA recombination system comprises: (a) a target site vector containing a fusion gene comprising a gene encoding a first selection antibiotic fused to a reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a promoter; (b) a host cell line;

(c) a cDNA expression vector containing a suitable promoter for expression of the antibody gene of interest which comprises a gene encoding a second selection antibiotic wherein said second selection antibiotic is different to the first selection antibiotic; and

(d) a recombinase expression vector which constitutively expresses a FIp re- combinase gene under the control of the same promoter within the cDNA expression vector. It will be appreciated that the instructions for practicing the subject methods are generally recorded on a suitable recording medium. For example, the instructions may be printed on a substrate, such as paper or plastic, etc. As such, the instructions may be present in the kit as a package insert, in the labelling of the container of the kit or components thereof (i.e., associated with the packaging or subpackaging) etc. In other embodiments, the instructions are present as an electronic storage data file present on a suitable computer readable storage medium, e.g. CD-ROM, diskette, etc. In yet other embodiments, the actual instructions are not present in the kit, but means for obtaining the instructions from a remote source, e.g. via the internet, are provided. An example of this embodiment is a kit that in- eludes a web address where the instructions can be viewed and/or from which the instructions can be downloaded. As with the instructions, this means for obtaining the instructions is recorded on a suitable substrate.

Also provided by the subject invention are kits including at least a computer read- able medium including programming as discussed above and instructions. The instructions may include installation or setup directions. The instructions may include directions for use of the invention with options or combinations of options as described above. In certain embodiments, the instructions include both types of information.

It will be appreciated that all embodiments referred to hereinbefore for the methods of the invention may be equally considered embodiments of the nucleic acid, vector, host cell and kit aspects of the invention.

EXAMPLES

Further details of the invention are illustrated by the following non-limiting Examples.

Example 1 : Construction of mammalian expression vector for soluble expression of antibodies

The pTT vector (Durocher et al 2002, Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 30, No.2), an oriP-based vector having an improved cytomegalovirus (CMV) expression cassette was engineered to comprise a linker region upstream of the promoter elements. A linker comprising the restriction sites Hindi 11 , BsiWI and Xbal was introduced into the Pmel site of pTT, and the constant region of human kappa light chain (CKL) was subsequently introduced into the BsiWI/Xbal site giving plasmid pJSVOL In a similar fashion, a linker comprising the restriction sites Notl and Nhel was introduced into the Pmel/BamHI site of pTT, and the constant region from human IgGI (HC) was subsequently introduced into the Nhel/BamHI site giving plasmid pJSV02.

The fragment comprising the enhancer elements downstream of the CMV promoter, the CKL and a polyadenylation site was amplified from pJSVOI by PCR using primer KK441 : 5'-ggactagttctcttccgcatcgctgtctgcgaggg (SEQ ID NO:27) and KK450: 5'- gcgctacgtagatatccggggatctcgaccaaatgat (SEQ ID NO:28) and the product was digested with Spel/SnaBI prior to insertion into the Nhel/Pmel site of pcDNA5/FRT (Invitrogen, CA, USA, Cat. No. V6520) giving plasmid pKKJL

The fragment comprising the CMV promoter, the enhancer elements and the HC re- gion was amplified from pJSV02 by PCR using primer KK451 : 5'- cgcggatatcgttgacattgattattgactagt (SEQ ID NO:29) and KK452: 5'- cgcggatatctcatttacccggggacagggagaggc (SEQ ID NO:30) and the product was digested with EcoRI prior to insertion into the EcoRI site of pKKJ1 , giving plasmid pKKJ2.

In order to test the functionality of the vector construct, the variable regions of a de- fined fully human antibody recognizing human KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 (WO2006003179, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) was introduced into the vector pKKJ2.

The variable light chain was introduced into the Hindlll/BsiWI and the variable heavy chain was introduced into the Notl/Nhel site of pKKJ2, giving plasmid pKKJ222 (Figure 3). The resultant construct was transfected into human embryonic kidney-derived cell line 293 (HEK293) (American Type Culture Collection, VA, USA) and transiently expressed for 5 days prior to analysis. 1x106 cells/ml was used for transfection of 30ug plasmid DNA. The DNA was mixed with 1 ml of Opti-MEM Complexing Medium (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 31985-062) and incubated at room temperature for 5 minutes. The solution was mixed drop wise with 1 ml of Opti-MEM Complexing Medium containing 4OuI 293fectin Trans- fection Reagent (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 12347-019) and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature, and subsequently transferred to 30 ml prewarmed Freestyle 293 Expression Medium (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 12338-018). The supernatant was collected 5 days post-transfection and analyzed in Western blotting (Invitrogen, Taastrup, Denmark) using peroxidse-conjugated goat-anti-human kappa light chain antibody (Invitro- gen, Taastrup, Denmark) for detection and TMB One Ready-To-Use Substrate (Kementec, Denmark, cat.no. 4380A) for development (Figure 4).

A Biacore 3000 optical biosensor was used to evaluate the binding profile of the expressed antibody towards KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3. In order to determine affinities app. 10000RU of antigen was immobilized to the sensor surface by EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Thereafter, the supernatant injected into the flow cell with a flow rate of about 5 μl/min for about 3 min and allowed to associate with KIR. Following the association phase, the surface was washed with running buffer (HBS-EP, pH 7.4, containing 0.005% detergent P20) at a flow rate of 5 μl/min for 2 min. The sensorgram data was analyzed using the Bia evaluation software 3.0 (Biacore, Sweden) (Figure 4)

Example 2: Construction of mammalian expression vector for membrane bound expression of antibodies

The extracellular domain, transmembrane spanning domain and the intracellular domain of naturally occurring membrane bound form of mouse IgG (Yamawaki-Kataoka et al 1982, PNAS, 79:2623-2627) was synthesized (Geneart, Regensburg, Germany) and fused to the C-terminal of the antibody heavy chain constant region in plasmid pKKJ222 described above (Figure 5). In addition, a protease cleavage site HRV143C (WO2008043847-A1 , hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) was introduced between the constant heavy chain and the membrane binding domain in order to be able generate soluble antibodies by protease treatment of cells expressing surface bound antibodies. The resultant plasmid pKKJ253 (Figure 6), was used for transfection of HEK293 cells as previously described, and the presence of surface bound antibodies were assayed by FACS 5 days post-transfection (Figure 7).

Cells were washed and resuspended in PBS + 1% BSA prior to incubation with biotinylated-KIR2DL1 for 45 minutes at 4°C. The cells were washed twice in PBS and 1 % BSA before adding PE-labelled Streptavidin (DAKO, Denmark, cat. no. R0438). After 20 minutes of incubation at 4°C the cells were washed and resuspended in PBS. The samples were analysed on a FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences, Denmark) and data handling was performed using CellQuest Pro Software (BD Biosciences, Denmark)

Example 3: Stable transfection of model antibody In order to generate stable transfectants, Flp-ln™-CHO cells (Invitrogen CA, USA, cat.no. R758-07) was transfected with plasmid pKKJ222 and pOG44 (Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat. no. V6005-20). Flp-ln™-CHO cells were grown in DMEM/F12+Glutamax-1 media (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 31331 ) containing 10% FCS (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 10091-148), 1% Penicillin-Streptomycin (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 10378- 016) and 100ug/ul Zeocin™ (Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. R250-01 ) prior to transfection. Approximately 1x107 cells with a viability of more than 90% were used per transfection. 700 ul cell suspension was transferred to 4mm electroporation cuvettes (Biorad, CA, USA) and placed in a Biorad Gene Pulser XCeII (Biorad, CA, USA). A total of 40ug DNA (5,7ug pKKJ222 and 34,3ug pOG44) was added to the cells and electroporation was performed with 300V and 90OuF. The transfected cells were transferred to 30 ml DMEM/F12+Glutamax-1 media (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 31331 ) containing 10% FCS (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 10091-148) and 1% Penicillin-Streptomycin (Gibco, Invitrogen, CA, USA, cat.no. 10378-016) and without Zeocin™. Day 3 post-transfection the cells were trypsinated and 1x105 cells/ml were transferred in fresh growth media to new flasks and allowed to adhere prior to addition 500ug/ul Hygromycin B (Invitrogen ,CA, USA, cat.no. R220-05). New media containing 500ug/ml Hygromycin B was applied to the cells every 3 days, and the cells were split to new flasks when >75% confluence was obtained (ca. 2 times weekly). An un- transfected cell population was used to monitor the efficiency of Hygromycin. The selection pressure was increased to 750ug/ml Hygromycin B and only transfected cells survived after 2 weeks, demonstrating that the transfected plasmid DNA had integrated into the FRT site of the Flpln™-CHO cells. 3 weeks post-transfection supernatant was analyzed in Western blotting as described previously showing successful antibody expression (data not shown). The stable transfectants were analysed by FACS as previously described (Figure 8).

Untransfected cells (Flpln™-CHO), cells expressing soluble antibodies (Flpln™- CHO + pKKJ222) and cells expressing membrane bound antibodies (Flpln™-CHO + pKKJ253) was transferred to 96 wells microtiter wells and grown in DMEM/F12+Glutamax-1 media, containing 10% FCS, 1% Penicillin-Streptomycin and 750ug/ul Hygromycin for 2 days. Adhering cells were washed twice in growth media and incubated with HRP- conjugated goat-anti-human kappa light chain antibody (Invitrogen, Taastrup, Denmark) for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were washed 3 times and developed with TMB One Ready-To-Use Substrate (Kementec, Denmark, cat.no. 4380A) (Figure 9). Protease treatment of membrane bound antibodies: Cells were harvested and resuspended in either PBS or 3 mg/ml C3 protease

(WO2008043847-A1 ) and incubated at 300C for 4 hours. The supernatant was collected and analyzed in a Western blot (Figure 16).

Determination of number of integrations:

In order to determine the number of antibody genes that had integrated into the ge- nome of Flpln™-CHO, a Southern blot analysis was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted (DNeasy Kit, Qiagen, Denmark, Cat. No. 27144) from untransfected Flpln™-CHO cells and from cells transfected with pKKJ222 and pKKJ253 and digested with Hindi 11 and Nhel, respectively. Also plasmid DNA from pKKJ222 and pKKJ252 was digested with the same restriction enzymes and samples were subjected to agarose gel eletrophoresis. The DNA in the resulting agarose gel was Southern blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane and the Southern blot was hybridized using a 717bp radioactive labelled probe specific for the Hin- dlll/Xbal antibody light chain fragment of pKKJ222 and pKKJ253. Light chain containing DNA fragments on the Southern blot was visualized by autoradiography confirming integration of a single HC and LC gene.

Example 4: Creation of rabbit antibody libraries

Five New Zealand White rabbits were immunised with different peptides as listed below, which are fragments of membrane proteins on islet cells. The peptides were all conjugated to KLH using standard protocols prior to immunization (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, USA, Cat. No. 77656).

Table 2

Figure imgf000026_0001

RNA was extracted from spleenocytes and used for cDNA synthesis according to standard procedures (Qiagen, Denmark, Cat. No. 74124)

The cDNA was used as template for PCR amplification of the rabbit variable region of the rabbit antibodies using the primers with SEQ ID NO: 18, 19, 20 and 21 , listed in Table 1.

The products of the variable light chain and variable heavy chain was used as templates in and overlapping PCR using the primers with SEQ ID NOS: 19 and 21. The PCR products were digested with Hind 111 and Nhel and introduced into the Hindll I/Nhel site of pKKJ222 as outlined in figure 10. The resultant plasmid pool was digested with BsiWI and Notl, in order to allow insertion of a 1.6kb fragment comprising the human kappa light chain constant region and CMV promoter region from pKKJ222 digested with BsiWI and Notl. The final chimeric rabbit/human IgGI vector libraries were designated as listed in the table above.

The libraries were transfected into HEK293 cells and expressed transiently as described previously. Supernatant was analysed 5 days post-transfection in Western blotting (Invitrogen, Taastrup, Denmark) using HRP-conjugated goat-anti-human kappa light chain antibody (Invitrogen, Taastrup, Denmark) for detection (Figure 11 ).

The presence of antigen specific antibodies in the supernatant was analyzed in a direct ELISA in which peptides were immobilized and peroxidase-conjugated goat-anti-human kappa light chain antibody (Invitrogen, Taastrup, Denmark) was used for detection (Figure 12).

The supernatant from HEK293 cells transfected with antibody library MT3154 was analyzed in immunohistochemistry for the ability to stain islet cells. lmmunohistochemistry on sections was carried out as described in detail (Pedersen et al 2006 J Histochem Cytochem 54:567-547). Briefly, 4um thick paraffin imbedded tissue sections from mouse pancreas was washed 3 times in Xylene, 3 times in 99% Ethanol, 1 time in 96% Ethanol and 1 time in 70% Ethanol. The section was soaked in 200ml 0.01 M Citrate buffer pH 6.0 (Merck, Glostrup, Denmark) and boiled in microwave oven for 4 minutes and allowed to cool for 20 minutes prior to rinse by PBS. Endogenous peroxidases were quenched by washing the sections in 3% H2O2 in distilled water for 5 minutes. The sections were rinsed 3 times for 5 minutes in PBS before blocking with TNB (Perkin Elmer, Hvidovre, Denmark) and supernatant from HEK293 cells transfected with library MT3154 was incubation overnight at room temperature. Biotinylated-goat-anti-human IgG (Invitrogen, CA, USA) was applied after 3 times wash in PBS and incubated for 30 minutes. The section was washed 3 times in PBS prior to addition of peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin (Invitrogen, CA, USA). After incubation for 30 minutes the section was washed 3 times in PBS and incubated with Fluorophore Tyramide (NEN Life Science, MA, USA). Images were captured on a LSM510 confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss, Brock & Michelsen, Birkerød, Denmark) and picture data handling was done using Adobe Photoshop software (Figure 13).

Example 5: Stable expression of library and selection of monoclones

In order to generate stable transfectants, Flp-ln™-CHO cells was transfected with DNA library MT3154 and pOG44, as previously described.

Cells were grown for 3 weeks in media supplemented with 750ug/ml hygromycin in order to select for stable transfectants. 5 cells/well were transferred to 96 well plates and in- cubated for 10 days prior to analysis of supernatant. The supernatant was analyzed in a direct ELISA on immobilised peptide m_hLRP1 1-2 as mentioned earlier (Figure 14), and the four cell populations displaying the highest titer (C4, C10, E8 and E12) were selected for subcloning. The selected cell populations were diluted to 1 cell/well and transferred to 96 well plates. The number of clones in each well was determined by microscopy and supernatant from wells containing monoclones were analysed in ELISA (Figure 15).

Exemplary embodiments The following are exemplary embodiments of the subject invention.

1. A method of producing a monoclonal antibody which comprises the steps of:

(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;

(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation; (c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and

(d) recombinase-mediated cloning and expression of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

2. A method as defined in embodiment 1 wherein the host animal in step (a) comprises a mammal.

3. A method as defined in embodiment 1 wherein the host animal in step (a) comprises a mouse, rabbit, goat, pig or sheep.

4. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein the antigen in step (a) is a protein or nucleic acid molecule encoding a protein to which an immune response is desired.

5. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein mRNA extraction in step (b) is performed from a pool of B cells.

6. A method as defined in any of embodiments 1 to 4 wherein single B-cells are isolated from a lymphocyte pool prior to mRNA extraction in step (b).

7. A method as defined in embodiment 6 wherein single B-cell extraction comprises the use of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) 8. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein the recombinase- mediated cloning and expression comprises the presence of a FIp recombinase target (FRT) recombinase gene.

9. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein the recombinase- mediated expression comprises a mammalian cell line selected from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells (e.g. HEK293), African green monkey kidney cells (e.g. CV-1 ), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, Mouse (NIH Swiss) embryonic fibroblast cells (e.g. 3T3) or Human T-cell leukemia cells (e.g. Jurkat).

10. A method as defined in embodiment 9 wherein the host cell line is a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line.

11. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein the recombinase- mediated expression comprises soluble expression or membrane bound expression of antibodies from mammalian cells.

12. A method as defined in any preceding embodiments wherein the recombinase- mediated expression comprises membrane bound expression of antibodies from mammalian cells.

13. A method as defined in embodiment 11 wherein the recombinase-mediated expression comprises soluble expression or membrane bound expression of a single type of antibody per transfected cell.

14. A method as defined in embodiment 12 which additionally comprises the step of introducing a protease cleavage site between a constant heavy chain and a membrane binding domain.

15. A monoclonal antibody obtainable according to the method as defined in any preceding embodiments.

16. A method of preparing a monoclonal antibody library which comprises the steps of: (a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen; (b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation; (c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and

(d) recombinase-mediated cloning of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.

17. A method as defined in embodiment 16 which additionally comprises a mutagenesis step (e.g. random mutagenesis or site directed mutagenesis).

18. A monoclonal antibody library obtainable according to the method defined in embodiment 16 or embodiment 17.

19. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a gene encoding one or more regions of an antibody characterised in that said gene is flanked by recombination sites.

20. A nucleic acid molecule as defined in embodiment 19 wherein said one or more re- gions comprises one or more of the following: either or both light chains and/or either or both heavy chains or the variable (Fab) regions or the constant (Fc) regions.

21. A nucleic acid molecule as defined in embodiment 19 or embodiment 20 wherein the recombination sites comprise a flp recombinase site as defined hereinbefore.

22. A nucleic acid molecule as defined in any of embodiments 19 to 21 which additionally comprises an element encoding a membrane binding domain.

23. A nucleic acid molecule as defined in embodiment 22 which additionally comprises an element encoding a protease cleavage site between the gene encoding one or more regions of an antibody and the element encoding a membrane binding domain.

24. A vector comprising the nucleic acid as defined in any of embodiments 19 to 23.

25. A vector as defined in embodiment 24 which additionally comprises a human promoter (e.g. the CMV promoter).

26. A host cell comprising the vector as defined in embodiment 24 or embodiment 25.

27. A kit for producing monoclonal antibodies which comprises: (a) a target site vector containing a fusion gene comprising a gene encoding a first selection antibiotic fused to a reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a promoter;

(b) a host cell line;

(c) a cDNA expression vector containing a suitable promoter for expression of the anti- body gene of interest which comprises a gene encoding a second selection antibiotic wherein said second selection antibiotic is different to the first selection antibiotic;

(d) a recombinase expression vector which constitutively expresses a FIp recombinase gene under the control of the same promoter within the cDNA expression vector; and

(e) instructions to use said kit in accordance with the methods defined in any of em- bodiments 1 to 14.

28. A kit as defined in embodiment 27 wherein the first selection antibiotic of the target site vector is zeocin™.

29. A kit as defined in embodiment 27 or embodiment 28 wherein the reporter gene of the target site vector is a gene which encodes β-galactosidase (i.e. the lacZ gene). In one embodiment, the promoter of the target site vector is an SV40 early promoter.

30. A kit as defined in any of embodiments 27 to 29 wherein the host cell line is selected from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells (e.g. HEK293), African green monkey kidney cells

(e.g. CV-1 ), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, Mouse (NIH Swiss) embryonic fibroblast cells (e.g. 3T3) or Human T-cell leukemia cells (e.g. Jurkat).

31. A kit as defined in any of embodiments 27 to 31 wherein the second selection anti- biotic is hygromycin.

All references, including publications, patent applications, and patents, cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety and to the same extent as if each refer- ence were individually and specifically indicated to be incorporated by reference and were set forth in its entirety herein (to the maximum extent permitted by law), regardless of any separately provided incorporation of particular documents made elsewhere herein.

The use of the terms "a" and "an" and "the" and similar referents in the context of describing the invention are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. For example, the phrase "the compound" is to be understood as referring to various "compounds" of the invention or particular described aspect, unless otherwise indicated.

Unless otherwise indicated, all exact values provided herein are representative of corresponding approximate values (e.g., all exact exemplary values provided with respect to a particular factor or measurement can be considered to also provide a corresponding approximate measurement, modified by "about," where appropriate).

The description herein of any aspect or aspect of the invention using terms such as "comprising", "having," "including," or "containing" with reference to an element or elements is intended to provide support for a similar aspect or aspect of the invention that "consists of", "consists essentially of", or "substantially comprises" that particular element or elements, unless otherwise stated or clearly contradicted by context (e.g., a composition described herein as comprising a particular element should be understood as also describing a composition consisting of that element, unless otherwise stated or clearly contradicted by context).

Claims

1. A method of producing a monoclonal antibody which comprises the steps of:
(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen; (b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation;
(c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and
(d) recombinase-mediated cloning and expression of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.
2. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the host animal in step (a) comprises a mouse, rabbit, goat, pig or sheep.
3. A method as defined in any preceding claim wherein the antigen in step (a) is a protein or nucleic acid molecule encoding a protein to which an immune response is desired.
4. A method as defined in any preceding claim wherein the recombinase-mediated cloning and expression comprises the presence of a FIp recombinase target (FRT) recombi- nase gene.
5. A method as defined in any preceding claim wherein the recombinase-mediated expression comprises soluble expression or membrane bound expression of antibodies from mammalian cells.
6. A method as defined in claim 5 wherein the recombinase-mediated expression comprises soluble expression or membrane bound expression of a single type of antibody per transfected cell.
7. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the recombinase-mediated expression comprises membrane-bound expression of antibodies from mammalian cells, and which ad- ditionally comprises the step of introducing a protease cleavage site between a constant heavy chain and a membrane binding domain.
8. A monoclonal antibody obtainable according to the method as defined in any preceding claim.
9. A method of preparing a monoclonal antibody library which comprises the steps of:
(a) immunisation of a host animal with a desired antigen;
(b) extracting mRNA from one or more B cells following immunisation;
(c) preparing cDNA from the extracted mRNA; and (d) recombinase-mediated cloning of one or more selected antibody genes from the cDNA.
10. A method as defined in claim 9 which additionally comprises a mutagenesis step, optionally random mutagenesis or site directed mutagenesis.
11. A monoclonal antibody library obtainable according to the method defined in claim 9 or claim 10.
12. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a gene encoding one or more regions of an an- tibody characterised in that said gene is flanked by recombination sites.
13. A vector comprising the nucleic acid as defined in claim 12.
14. A host cell comprising the vector as defined in claim 13.
15. A kit for producing monoclonal antibodies which comprises:
(a) a target site vector containing a fusion gene comprising a gene encoding a first selection antibiotic fused to a reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a promoter;
(b) a host cell line; (c) a cDNA expression vector containing a suitable promoter for expression of the antibody gene of interest which comprises a gene encoding a second selection antibiotic wherein said second selection antibiotic is different to the first selection antibiotic;
(d) a recombinase expression vector which constitutively expresses a FIp recombinase gene under the control of the same promoter within the cDNA expression vector; and (e) instructions to use said kit in accordance with a method defined in any of claims 1 to 7.
PCT/EP2009/058492 2008-07-04 2009-07-06 Method for producing monoclonal antibodies WO2010000864A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP08159721.3 2008-07-04
EP08159721 2008-07-04

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2010000864A1 true WO2010000864A1 (en) 2010-01-07

Family

ID=41119930

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2009/058492 WO2010000864A1 (en) 2008-07-04 2009-07-06 Method for producing monoclonal antibodies

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2010000864A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2012168199A1 (en) 2011-06-06 2012-12-13 Novo Nordisk A/S Therapeutic antibodies
US8673305B2 (en) 2002-01-25 2014-03-18 G2 Therapies Ltd Methods of treatment with antibodies against the extracellular loops of C5aR
US8808701B2 (en) 2008-02-20 2014-08-19 G2 Inflammation Pty Ltd Methods of inhibiting the interaction of C5aR with C5a with anti-C5aR antibodies

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050048578A1 (en) * 2003-06-26 2005-03-03 Epitomics, Inc. Methods of screening for monoclonal antibodies with desirable activity
EP1516929A2 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-23 Symphogen A/S Method for linking sequences of interest
WO2008104184A2 (en) * 2007-03-01 2008-09-04 Symphogen A/S Method for cloning cognate antibodies

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050048578A1 (en) * 2003-06-26 2005-03-03 Epitomics, Inc. Methods of screening for monoclonal antibodies with desirable activity
EP1516929A2 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-23 Symphogen A/S Method for linking sequences of interest
WO2008104184A2 (en) * 2007-03-01 2008-09-04 Symphogen A/S Method for cloning cognate antibodies

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
HUANG ET AL: "An efficient and targeted gene integration system for high-level antibody expression", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V.,AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 322, no. 1-2, 14 April 2007 (2007-04-14), pages 28 - 39, XP022040562, ISSN: 0022-1759 *
WIBERG F C ET AL: "Production of target-specific recombinant human polyclonal antibodies in mammalian cells", BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, WILEY & SONS, HOBOKEN, NJ, US, vol. 94, no. 2, 5 June 2006 (2006-06-05), pages 396 - 405, XP002449594, ISSN: 0006-3592 *

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8673305B2 (en) 2002-01-25 2014-03-18 G2 Therapies Ltd Methods of treatment with antibodies against the extracellular loops of C5aR
US8808701B2 (en) 2008-02-20 2014-08-19 G2 Inflammation Pty Ltd Methods of inhibiting the interaction of C5aR with C5a with anti-C5aR antibodies
WO2012168199A1 (en) 2011-06-06 2012-12-13 Novo Nordisk A/S Therapeutic antibodies
US8613926B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2013-12-24 Novo Nordisk A/S Anti-C5a receptor antibodies
US8846045B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2014-09-30 Novo Nordisk A/S Anti-C5a receptor antibodies
EP3424953A1 (en) 2011-06-06 2019-01-09 Novo Nordisk A/S Therapeutic antibodies
US10323097B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2019-06-18 Novo Nordisk A/S Anti-C5a receptor antibodies

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Fellouse et al. High-throughput generation of synthetic antibodies from highly functional minimalist phage-displayed libraries
EP1844074B1 (en) Human antibodies and proteins
US6806079B1 (en) Methods for producing members of specific binding pairs
KR101995735B1 (en) Common light chain mouse
ES2541142T3 (en) Compositions and methods for antibodies directed against complement C5 protein
DK2044117T3 (en) Procedure for manufacturing immunglobulines
KR101404512B1 (en) Synthetic immunoglobulin domains with binding properties engineered in regions of the molecule different from the complementarity determining regions
Cheung et al. A proteomics approach for the identification and cloning of monoclonal antibodies from serum
KR101024443B1 (en) Method for manufacturing recombinant polyclonal proteins
Hoogenboom Selecting and screening recombinant antibody libraries
CA2434802C (en) Isolating cells expressing secreted proteins
ES2567298T3 (en) Antibody against CSF-1R
US8198415B2 (en) Anti-rhesus D recombinant polyclonal antibody
JP2017536412A (en) T cell retargeting heterodimeric immunoglobulin
US8404445B2 (en) Antibody libraries
US7112439B2 (en) Dual expression vector system for antibody expression in bacterial and mammalian cells
Malmborg et al. BIAcore as a tool in antibody engineering
CN103261220B (en) A method for generating multivalent and multispecific antibodies
US20160238600A1 (en) Method for selecting a single cell expressing a heterogeneous combination of antibodies
Tian et al. Induction of HIV neutralizing antibody lineages in mice with diverse precursor repertoires
Schirrmann et al. Phage display for the generation of antibodies for proteome research, diagnostics and therapy
US20050048578A1 (en) Methods of screening for monoclonal antibodies with desirable activity
KR20110076906A (en) Improved method of rna display
JP2008189691A (en) Transgenic non-human animal producing heterologous antibody
US8367408B2 (en) Fusion partner for production of monoclonal rabbit antibodies

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 09772564

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase

Ref document number: 09772564

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1