WO2009138565A1 - System and method for providing generic user plane fingerprint reporting - Google Patents

System and method for providing generic user plane fingerprint reporting Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009138565A1
WO2009138565A1 PCT/FI2009/050390 FI2009050390W WO2009138565A1 WO 2009138565 A1 WO2009138565 A1 WO 2009138565A1 FI 2009050390 W FI2009050390 W FI 2009050390W WO 2009138565 A1 WO2009138565 A1 WO 2009138565A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
measurement parameter
fingerprint
generic
system
parameter includes
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FI2009/050390
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Jari Syrjärinne
Lauri Wirola
Ismo Halivaara
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Nokia Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Priority to US5390708P priority Critical
Priority to US61/053,907 priority
Application filed by Nokia Corporation filed Critical Nokia Corporation
Publication of WO2009138565A1 publication Critical patent/WO2009138565A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/0252Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves by comparing measured values with pre-stored measured or simulated values
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W64/00Locating users or terminals or network equipment for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management

Abstract

A generic user plane fingerprint reporting system and method. According to various embodiments, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprints is defined (100). Measurement parameters in fingerprint messages may be defined with System International (Sl) units and with sufficiently large ranges so that they can be applied on any system without system-specific dependencies (110). Various embodiments allow for the easy addition of new systems, as well as the seamless hybrid use of different systems. Still further, performance improvements achieved by various embodiments may be sufficient to fulfill requirements for emergency call positioning in the United States.

Description

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING GENERIC USER PLANE FINGERPRINT REPORTING

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to positioning systems. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of non-satellite-based positioning systems for applications such as emergency call positioning.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This section is intended to provide a background or context to the invention that is recited in the claims. The description herein may include concepts that could be pursued, but are not necessarily ones that have been previously conceived or pursued. Therefore, unless otherwise indicated herein, what is described in this section is not prior art to the description and claims in this application and is not admitted to be prior art by inclusion in this section.

Location services that are based on the location of mobile devices, commonly referred to as "assisted navigation systems," are becoming increasingly widespread. There are currently a variety of assisted navigation systems, including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as Global Positioning System (GPS), GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and Galileo. As used herein, "assistance data" may include, but is not limited to, navigation models, time assistance, reference location, atmosphere models, differential corrections, sensor assistance and acquisition assistance. Assistance data can also include, for example, position information, high-accuracy position information, multi- frequency multi-GNSS measurement data, sensor measurements, route information and waypoint information. Assistance data for assisted navigation systems have been specified and standardized for cellular systems. The delivery of such assistance data can be built on top of cellular system-specific control plane protocols. Such protocols include, for example, the radio resource location services protocol (RRLP) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, the radio resource control (RRC) layer of layer 3 in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) networks, and IS-801 for code division multiple access (CDMA) networks, standardized in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and 3GPP2 standards. The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) has defined a user plane protocol referred to as Secure User Plane Location (SUPL). SUPL employs user plane data bearers for transferring location assistance information, such as GNSS assistance data and for carrying positioning technology-related protocols between a terminal, e.g., a mobile communication device, and its operating network. SUPL is intended to be an alternative and, at the same time, a complement to existing standards based on signaling in the mobile network control plane. SUPL assumes that a mobile network or other network can establish a data bearer connection between a terminal and some type of location server. The use of a user plane protocol can be particularly beneficial in the case of IP networks where the data bearer is available by nature. SUPL utilizes existing control plane standards whenever possible.

It is anticipated that GPS and GNSS will comprise the backbones of location-based services and navigation applications. Nevertheless, non-satellite based positioning methods which enable positioning in the areas where GPS and GNSS do not work will still be used. Additionally, services that do not require a location accuracy of within a few meters will still be used, and there will also remain a need for identifying the positioning of terminals that do not have an integrated GPS or GNSS receiver.

Cellular standards offer various network-based positioning methods as alternatives to GPS. These methods include Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) in GSM, Idle Period Downlink - Observed Time Difference of Arrival (IPDL-OTDOA) in WCDMA and Advanced Forward-Link Trilateration (AFLT) in CDMA. Typically, these methods are capable of providing positioning accuracy within a few hundred meters. Such accuracy is often sufficient to meet the needs of some location-based services. However, this level of accuracy is not sufficient to directly fulfill the requirements for emergency call positioning in the United States.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Various embodiments provide a generic user plane fingerprint reporting system and method. According to various embodiments, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprints is defined. Measurement parameters in fingerprint messages may be defined with System International (SI) units and with sufficiently large ranges so that they can be applied on any system without system- specific dependencies.

Various embodiments allow for the easy addition of new systems, as well as the seamless hybrid use of different systems. Various embodiments also serve to reduce the complexity of fingerprint methods, as SET and SUPL only need to support one format for the measurements. Still further, performance improvements achieved by various embodiments may be sufficient to fulfill requirements for emergency call positioning in the United States. Various embodiments provide a method, computer program product and apparatus for providing position support across a plurality of communication systems. According to these embodiments, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprint information is defined. The user plane-specific generic measurement report is populated with at least one fingerprint measurement parameter, the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter possessing a range such that it can be applied on any communications system without system-specific dependencies.

These and other advantages and features of various embodiments of the present invention, together with the organization and manner of operation thereof, will become apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein like elements have like numerals throughout the several drawings described below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a flow chart showing a process by which various embodiments of the present invention may be implemented; Figure 2 is an overview diagram of a system within which various embodiments of the present invention may be implemented;

Figure 3 is a perspective view of an electronic device that can be used in conjunction with the implementation of various embodiments of the present invention; and

Figure 4 is a schematic representation of the circuitry which may be included in the electronic device of Figure 3.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS EMBODIMENTS

In Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Radio Frequency (RF) fingerprinting has been presented as a potential solution to the above-identified issues. RF fingerprinting takes into account effects that a building or people may have on an RF signal. This makes wireless device location tracking more detailed, precise and reliable than conventional triangulation- based systems. Positioning based on large regional radio maps of WLAN access points (APs) can be used to provide almost navigation-grade positioning accuracy in urban areas. Such positioning also offers a convenient method for indoor positioning. SUPL 2.0 supports RF fingerprint data collection from GSM, WCDMA, WLAN and WiMAX networks. The SUPL 2.0 specification defines measurement parameters for a number of networks. Various proposed solutions have been made for addressing WLAN positioning issues. Some approaches rely directly on a fingerprint map, in which each grid point contains information on its spatial coordinates, as well as signal strength information of WLAN APs in terms of, for example, mean values or histograms (one for each AP recorder at the grid point). Alternatively, the fingerprint map may be reduced to a radio map containing apparent WLAN AP locations. The WLAN APs are made unique by their MAC addresses. Some operators have also extended the mapping to base stations of cellular networks.

Fingerprint information does not necessarily comprise only measurements of received signal strengths and their respective qualities as seen by the handset. Instead, fingerprint information can include more versatile measurements from the base stations and APs. These measurements may comprise time delay measurements, time difference measurements between base stations, channel or signal quality measurements, i.e., power histograms, number and spread of RAKE fingers, pulse shapes, etc., and measurements from multiple antennas, i.e., diversity receivers. For WLAN fingerprinting, combining received signal strength indicators (RSSI) with one or more of these pieces of information, such as time difference measurements, can improve positioning performance.

One issue relating to the widespread use of fingerprinting methods across all networks is the difference in the content of measurement reports in user plane-specifications. The SUPL 2.0 specification defines measurement parameters for a number of networks, but the parameters are not equal between the systems, i.e., the contents of information elements (IEs), resolutions, ranges, etc. may vary. Due to the differences in the measured parameters, the hybrid use of different networks is quite difficult. Additionally, the SUPL 2.0 specification limits fingerprint reporting only to the systems that the SUPL Location Platform (SLP) is supporting. Reporting is allowed only for the systems SLP has requested. This limits the performance of fingerprinting methods because, for example, Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H) and WLAN fingerprints cannot be used in the positioning if SLP supports/understands only GSM Network Measurements Reports (NMR). Various embodiments provide a generic user plane fingerprint reporting system and method. According to various embodiments, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprints is defined. Measurement parameters in fingerprint messages may be defined with System International (SI) units and with sufficiently large ranges so that they can be applied on any system without system-specific dependencies.

According to various embodiments, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprints may contain (1) generic global cell ID (GCI) with a system ID parameter to identify the systems such as GSM, WCDMA, Near Field Communication (NFC), Bluetooth (BT), DVB-H etc.; (2) a generic RSSI parameter applicable for any system; (3) generic round trip delay (RTD) and relative delay (RD) values; (4) generic inter-system and/or intra- system time difference measurement parameters for GNSS time dissemination/maintenance and potentially for more accurate positioning of SUPL-enabled terminals (SETs); (5) generic signal characterization information such as power histograms, number and spread of RAKE fingers, pulse shapes etc. (which can be given in terms of data points, functions, etc.); (6) generic time stamps (using GNSS time, Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), etc.), if available; (7) generic GNSS time association information, if available; (8) location information of the SET, if available; (9) support for diversity/multiple antenna measurements; and (10) information regarding uncertainty associated with any of the measurements. According to various embodiments, messages for supporting generic fingerprint reports from SET to SLP are implemented. The measurement parameters in the fingerprint messages are defined in Si-units and with sufficiently large ranges so that they can be applied on any system without system- specific dependencies. For example, the time difference and round trip delay measurements are reported in seconds rather than in WCDMA chips. The parameters for time, location and identity information may also be made as generic as possible, with the message bodies and number of parameters being kept constant. In certain embodiments, however, some parameters can be made generic conditioned on the system-specific definitions. For example, the cell/ AP identity can comprise either a global Cell-ID including Mobile Country Code (MCC)+Mobile Network Code (MNC)+Location Area Code (LAC)+Cell ID (CI) in a GSM case (four parameters) or simply a 48-bit MAC address in WLAN case. However, both IDs can be fitted into one long bit string that is parsed differently based on the system-ID (GSM or WLAN). The number of parameters in the generic structure is, therefore, two: system-ID and ID-string, but the structure is able to carry the ID strings of both systems.

Figure 1 is a flow chart showing a process by which various embodiments of the present invention may be implemented. At 100 in Figure 1, a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprints is defined. At 110, the measurement report is populated with a plurality of measurement parameters. In various embodiments, each measurement parameter is defined in SI units and with sufficiently large ranges so that they can be applied on any system without system- specific dependencies.

A generic user plane fingerprint reporting arrangement according to various embodiments possesses a number of advantages over conventional systems. In various embodiments, the addition of new systems is simple to implement, as one only needs to define a system ID for the new system. Additionally, the content of the reports is system- independent. Also, the complexity of the fingerprint method is reduced in various embodiments, as the SET and SLP need to support only one format for the measurements. Furthermore, various embodiments make the seamless hybrid use of different systems, as the measurement data is in the same format and has the same quality indicators.

In addition to the above, the generic user plane fingerprinting method of various embodiments also outperforms the current SUPL 2.0 implementation in various ways. For example, the method of various embodiments equalizes the data sent from the SET; in contrast to the current SUPL 2.0 implementation, the measurements from GSM and WLAN will have the same content. Additionally, the method of various embodiments allows for the use of any network/system in radio map generation, including networks/systems that are not inherently supported by the native system. For example, in various embodiments GSM SLP can use DVB-H measurements in radio map generation. A generic data format of various embodiments does not assume any system specific conversions. Various embodiments also support intra-system time difference measurements in order to assist with fingerprinting positioning or to be used as a standalone positioning method. Still further, various embodiments support inter-system time difference measurements in order to assist fingerprint positioning or to be used as a standalone positioning method. In the case of time difference measurements, these may be real-time differences with full frame ambiguity, instead of E-OTD or IPDL-OTDOA measurements. Various embodiments also support measurements from multiple antennas, i.e., support antenna diversity. These performance improvements may be sufficient in various embodiments to meet the requirements for emergency call positioning in the United States.

Figure 2 shows a system 10 in which various embodiments of the present invention can be utilized, comprising multiple communication devices that can communicate through one or more networks. The system 10 may comprise any combination of wired or wireless networks including, but not limited to, a mobile telephone network, a wireless Local Area Network (LAN), a Bluetooth personal area network, an Ethernet LAN, a token ring LAN, a wide area network, the Internet, etc. The system 10 may include both wired and wireless communication devices. For exemplification, the system 10 shown in Figure 2 includes a mobile telephone network 11 and the Internet 28. Connectivity to the Internet 28 may include, but is not limited to, long range wireless connections, short range wireless connections, and various wired connections including, but not limited to, telephone lines, cable lines, power lines, and the like. The exemplary communication devices of the system 10 may include, but are not limited to, an electronic device 12 in the form of a mobile telephone, a combination personal digital assistant (PDA) and mobile telephone 14, a PDA 16, an integrated messaging device (IMD) 18, a desktop computer 20, a notebook computer 22, etc. The communication devices may be stationary or mobile as when carried by an individual who is moving. The communication devices may also be located in a mode of transportation including, but not limited to, an automobile, a truck, a taxi, a bus, a train, a boat, an airplane, a bicycle, a motorcycle, etc. Some or all of the communication devices may send and receive calls and messages and communicate with service providers through a wireless connection 25 to a base station 24. The base station 24 may be connected to a network server 26 that allows communication between the mobile telephone network 11 and the Internet 28. The system 10 may include additional communication devices and communication devices of different types.

Communication devices may communicate using various transmission technologies including, but not limited to, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Short Messaging Service (SMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), e-mail, Instant Messaging Service (IMS), Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), LTE, etc. A communication device involved in implementing various embodiments of the present invention may communicate using various media including, but not limited to, radio, infrared, laser, cable connection, and the like. Figures 3 and 4 show one representative electronic device 12 within which the present invention may be implemented. It should be understood, however, that the present invention is not intended to be limited to one particular type of device. The electronic device 12 of Figures 3 and 4 includes a housing 30, a display 32 in the form of a liquid crystal display, a keypad 34, a microphone 36, an ear-piece 38, a battery 40, an infrared port 42, an antenna 44, a smart card 46 in the form of a UICC according to one embodiment, a card reader 48, radio interface circuitry 52, codec circuitry 54, a controller 56 and a memory 58. Individual circuits and elements are all of a type well known in the art.

Various embodiments described herein are described in the general context of method steps or processes, which may be implemented in one embodiment by a computer program product, embodied in a computer-readable medium, including computer-executable instructions, such as program code, executed by computers in networked environments. A computer-readable medium may include removable and non-removable storage devices including, but not limited to, Read Only Memory (ROM), Random Access Memory (RAM), compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVD), etc. Generally, program modules may include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Computer-executable instructions, associated data structures, and program modules represent examples of program code for executing steps of the methods disclosed herein. The particular sequence of such executable instructions or associated data structures represents examples of corresponding acts for implementing the functions described in such steps or processes.

Embodiments of the present invention may be implemented in software, hardware, application logic or a combination of software, hardware and application logic. The software, application logic and/or hardware may reside, for example, on a chipset, a mobile device, a desktop, a laptop or a server. Software implementations of various embodiments can be accomplished with standard programming techniques with rule-based logic and other logic to accomplish various database searching steps or processes, correlation steps or processes, comparison steps or processes and decision steps or processes. Various embodiments may also be fully or partially implemented within network elements or modules. It should be noted that the words "component" and "module," as used herein and in the following claims, is intended to encompass implementations using one or more lines of software code, and/or hardware implementations, and/or equipment for receiving manual inputs. The foregoing description of embodiments has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. The foregoing description is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit embodiments of the present invention to the precise form disclosed, and modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of various embodiments. The embodiments discussed herein were chosen and described in order to explain the principles and the nature of various embodiments and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to utilize the present invention in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. The features of the embodiments described herein may be combined in all possible combinations of methods, apparatus, modules, systems, and computer program products.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method for providing positioning support across a plurality of communications systems, comprising: defining a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprint information; and populating the user plane-specific generic measurement report with at least one fingerprint measurement parameter, the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter possessing a range such that it can be applied to a communications system without system- specific dependencies.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter is defined in System International units.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic global cell identification with a system identification parameter.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic received signal strength indicator parameter.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic round trip delay parameter.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic inter-system time difference measurement parameter.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic intra-system time difference measurement parameter.
8. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes generic signal characterization information.
9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic time stamp.
10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a Global Navigation Satellite Systems time association.
11. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes location information for a Secure User Plane Location- enabled terminal.
12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a support parameter for use with multiple antenna measurements.
13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes an uncertainty parameter associated with an additional measurement.
14. A computer program product, embodied in a computer-readable storage medium, comprising computer code for performing the processes of any of claims 1 to 13.
15. An apparatus, comprising: means for defining a user plane-specific generic measurement report for fingerprint information; and means for populating the user plane-specific generic measurement report with at least one fingerprint measurement parameter, the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter possessing a range such that it can be applied to a communications system without system- specific dependencies.
16. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter is defined in System International units.
17. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic global cell identification with a system identification parameter.
18. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic received signal strength indicator parameter.
19. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic round trip delay parameter.
20. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic inter-system time difference measurement parameter.
21. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic intra-system time difference measurement parameter.
22. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes generic signal characterization information.
23. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a generic time stamp.
24. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a Global Navigation Satellite Systems time association.
25. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes location information for a Secure User Plane Location - enabled terminal.
26. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes a support parameter for use with multiple antenna measurements.
27. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the at least one fingerprint measurement parameter includes an uncertainty parameter associated with an additional measurement.
28. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the defining and populating processes are implemented by computer code embodied on a computer-readable medium.
29. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the defining and populating processes are implemented by a chipset of the electronic device.
PCT/FI2009/050390 2008-05-16 2009-05-13 System and method for providing generic user plane fingerprint reporting WO2009138565A1 (en)

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WO2011067466A1 (en) * 2009-12-04 2011-06-09 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for on-device positioning using compressed fingerprint archives
WO2012032376A1 (en) * 2010-09-10 2012-03-15 Nokia Corporation Signal strength profiling
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WO2011067466A1 (en) * 2009-12-04 2011-06-09 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for on-device positioning using compressed fingerprint archives
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