WO2006107866A2 - Accelerated permanent magnet generator - Google Patents

Accelerated permanent magnet generator Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2006107866A2
WO2006107866A2 PCT/US2006/012294 US2006012294W WO2006107866A2 WO 2006107866 A2 WO2006107866 A2 WO 2006107866A2 US 2006012294 W US2006012294 W US 2006012294W WO 2006107866 A2 WO2006107866 A2 WO 2006107866A2
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WO
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Prior art keywords
pellet
pressure
gas
cylinder
vapor
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PCT/US2006/012294
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French (fr)
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WO2006107866A3 (en )
Inventor
Robert Hunt
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Heat2Energy Llc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/18Structural association of electric generators with mechanical driving motors, e.g. turbine
    • H02K7/1869Linear generators; sectional generators
    • H02K7/1876Linear generators; sectional generators with reciprocating, linearly oscillating or vibrating parts
    • H02K7/1884Linear generators; sectional generators with reciprocating, linearly oscillating or vibrating parts structurally associated with free piston engines
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/26Arrangements for controlling single phase motors

Abstract

A magnetic piston generator (100) includes a permanent magnet (102) having seals (140) located at each end of the magnet (102) to retain pressure that is accelerated to high velocity back-and-forth within a closed cylinder (112) through the center of an electromagnetic coil (110) located in the central portion of the cylinder (112) by high pressure working fluid (104). The pressurized working fluid (104) is alternately input into each end of the cylinder (112) to drive the permanent magnet (102) back-and-forth through the coil (110) in order to produce a direct electrical output (108). The seals or rings (140) maintain the pressure differential on the opposing sides of the permanent magnet (102). Gas is compressed at each end of the cylinder (112) within sealed ends of the cylinder (112) in order to allow the kinetic energy of the high velocity permanent magnet (102) to compress gas at each end of the cylinder (112) in order to cause a 'bounce-back effect' that accelerates the magnet (102) in the opposite direction.

Description

ACCELERATED PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR

Related Application Data

This application is entitled to the benefit of and claims priority from United States Application for Provisional Patent, Application No. 60/667,800, filed 01 April 2005, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Background

On the molecular level gas molecules vibrate back-and-forth at the rate of thousands of times per second. Gas molecules conserve their Kinetic Energy as they bounce back-and-forth within a confined space. The bounce results in the direction of the gas molecules being reversed with no loss of velocity, so long as no heat energy is lost during the process. Thereby the molecules can continue to bounce back-and-forth at the same velocity indefinitely so long as their heat energy is maintained. Gas molecules collide with each other and collide with the walls of the container in an unordered manner with strait line courses between collisions. If additional heat is added their velocity and kinetic energy level increases and if heat is lost, their velocity and kinetic energy level decreases.

The impact of the gas molecules that possess a near elastic condition bouncing off the inside of the pressure vessel is measured as vapor pressure that increases with the addition of heat. The vapor pressure rises as the Kinetic Energy of the impact increases due to the increased velocity of the gas molecules as a result of the increase in temperature.

A rifle fires a bullet that is accelerated by the explosion of gunpowder that accelerates the bullet to high velocity within the barrel of the gun. The bullet attains a much higher level of Kinetic Energy as a result of the acceleration, as Kinetic Energy is defined as one half of the mass times the velocity squared. Therefore, acceleration of the bullet causes it to have substantially more energy that allows it to drive through steel if the acceleration is powerful enough. Likewise, a relatively low pressure pneumatic air gun propels a nail with sufficient force to penetrate several inches deep into wood. A basket ball bounces off the floor because air is compressed by the Kinetic Energy of Motion of the ball as it hits the floor. Kinetic energy is transferred from the ball to the air as the air compresses. As the ball stops its downward forward motion, most of the kinetic energy is immediately given back from the compressed air to the ball, which causes the ball to bounce back in the opposite direction with almost as much kinetic energy as it had when it originally hit the floor. Thus, energy is conserved in the process, but less energy is returned each time the ball bounces until equilibrium is reached and the ball stops bouncing. The basket ball player thus must put additional energy into the process in order to keep the ball bouncing with equal force.

Gun silencers work on a very simple principle. If a balloon is popped with a pin, it will make a loud noise. But if the end of the balloon were untied to let the air out slowly, it would pop making very little noise. That is the basic idea behind a gun silencer.

Gunpowder is ignited behind the bullet in order to fire the bullet from a gun. The gunpowder creates a high-pressure pulse of hot gas. The pressure of the gas forces the bullet down the barrel of the gun. When the bullet exits the end of the barrel, it is like uncorking a bottle. The pressure behind the bullet is immense, however — on the order of 3,000 pounds per square inch (psi) — so the pop that the gun makes as it is uncorked is extremely loud.

A silencer screws on to the end of the barrel and has a volume 20 or 30 times greater than the volume of the ban-el of the gun. With the silencer in place, the pressurized gas behind the bullet has a big space to expand into. So the pressure of the hot gas falls significantly. When the bullet finally exits through the hole in the silencer, the pressure being uncorked is much, much lower — perhaps 60 psi. Therefore, the sound of the gun firing is much softer.

The Brayton cycle that includes jet engines and gas turbine generators is generally considered to be more efficient than the Rankine cycle. The Brayton cycle, however, in application is less than thirty-three percent efficient because the compressor turbine that compresses air into a combustor in order to burn fuel that is added to the compressed air requires an energy input of roughly two-thirds of the power generated by the power turbine. The limiting factor of power output for gas turbines is the amount of heat that they can withstand before the metal from which they are made loses structural integrity. Gas turbines operate at very high temperatures above 2000 deg. F. Most of the work to improve the Brayton cycle has been directed toward new alloys that allow use of greater heat.

The Rankine cycle works most efficiency at lower temperatures in the range of 1 ,000 deg. F. because the energy to pump the liquid phase working fluid from a condenser at lower pressure into the boiler at higher pressure increases with increased Delta Pressure; and, the higher the temperature the greater the resulting pressure of the working fluid, which in most

Rankine cycle power plants is water. Mini steam turbines that use higher heat in order to get more power within a smaller area can have very low efficiency resulting from an increase in the energy input needed to pump the liquid, which can exceed forty percent of the power generated by a mini steam turbine under high Delta P conditions.

Diesel and gasoline combustion engines produce a lot of heat that is rejected to the environment by the radiator, exhaust pipe, and heat radiated from the engine itself to the atmosphere. This heat is wasted energy that is usable to generate additional power. Prior art vapor power cycles that use gas turbines as the prime mover in association with an electrical generator or alternator are not well suited to harness the waste heat of produced by conventional combustion engines.

L Fuel cells have attracted a great deal of attention primarily because of their ability to covert a fuel source directly into an electrical output at relatively high efficiency. However, fuel cells to date are very expensive on the order of five thousand dollars per kilowatt of power generated. A second drawback of fuel cells is that they must use expensive hydrogen fuel or must use a reformer to convert hydrocarbon fossil fuels to hydrogen by removal of the carbon; and, the process creates pollution that reduces the environmental benefits of fuel cell use.

In the prior art linear alternators and generators are generally connected to "free piston" engines of various types that have certain essential features common to them all, which typically consists of a pair of opposed pistons in a single cylinder. The general principles of operation of these and related free-piston engines are well known, with combustion at appropriate times, often by Diesel cycle, providing the power strokes of the pistons combined with appropriate inlet and outlet valves and/or ports. Free piston engines improve on the operational inefficiencies of crankshaft internal combustion engines. However, prior art linear free piston generator or alternator engines have substantial limitations, which include a constant load being placed on the magnet that is retained within a coil that resists acceleration of the magnet. The constant attraction of the electromagnetic coil to the magnet results in a very slow velocity of movement of the magnet within the coil being attained that reduces the power output of the generator or alternator; and, failure to develop alternative methods to drive a magnet within a coil, such as the use of thermal energy or the use of pressurized sources of gas or liquids to drive the magnetic pellet or piston; and, the use of pistons connected to a magnet by connecting rods that reduces the free movement of the pellet or piston within the coil by producing additional friction; and, negative lateral forces being produced by the connecting rods that reduces the mechanical efficiency of these prior art linear alternators.

To date, all known prior art linear alternators have been driven by internal combustion, having a magnet that remains located within an electromagnetic coil. The magnet is connected linearly to a rod that is connected to an internal combustion piston within a cylinder. Typically there is a piston via a rod attachment located on each side of the magnet.

Alternating combustion of the two pistons drives the magnet back-and-forth via the attached rods within the coil that maintains a constant magnetic attraction resistive force on the magnet. The typical velocity of the magnet of such prior art linear alternators is on the order of four inches per second as is disclosed on the Sandia National Labs website in the linear alternator device designed and constructed by Dr. Van Blarigan and his team. The most limiting factor regarding the power output of this prior art linear alternator is the very slow velocity of the movement of the magnets through the coil, as can be seen below in the description of Faraday's Law, the voltage induced when a magnet is moved into or out of a coil is proportional to the speed with which the magnet is moved into the coil.

Faraday's law that explains the ways by which electricity may be generated states that any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (EMF) to be "induced" in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage will be generated. The change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength, moving a magnet toward or away from the coil, moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field, or by rotating the coil relative to the magnet. The voltage induced when a magnet is moved into or out of a coil is proportional to the speed with which the magnet is moved into or out of the coil. Summary of the Invention

Herein disclosed is a novel linear alternator or generator that eliminates the pistons and connecting rods used in all prior art free piston engine type of linear alternators or generators and the negative frictional and lateral forces and slowed velocity produced by the use of rods and free pistons.

A first pressure driven embodiment of the present invention is disclosed that comprises a permanent magnet having seals located at each end of the magnet to retain pressure that is accelerated to high velocity back-and-forth within a closed cylinder through the center of an electromagnetic coil located in the central portion of the cylinder by high pressure working fluid. The pressurized working fluid is alternately input into each end of the cylinder to drive the permanent magnet back-and-forth through the coil in order to produce a direct electrical output. The seals or rings maintain the pressure differential on the opposing sides of the permanent magnet. Gas is compressed at each end of the cylinder within sealed ends of the cylinder in order to allow the kinetic energy of the high velocity permanent magnet to compress gas at each end of the cylinder in order to cause a "bounce-back effect" that accelerates the magnet in the opposite direction. In the alternative to the use of sealed cylinder ends, solenoid valves capable of sealing the ends of the cylinder may be used.

Energy is conserved in this process.

The compression of gas at the sealed ends of the cylinder provides the near elastic state required to conserve of energy for the present invention in an ordered fashion, being in the same manner as a gas molecvile on the molecular level conserves energy as it bounces off the walls of a container and other molecules in an unordered manner.

Unlike prior art "free piston" alternators or generators engines, the present invention disclosed herein does not necessarily require internal combustion in order to power the alternator or generator, although internal combustion may be used. The present invention may be powered by external combustion or by any thermal energy, using such common power cycles as the Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, Brayton cycle and the Sterling cycle. Additionally any pressurized gas or pressurized liquid may be used to power the accelerated magnetic piston or pellet linear generator or alternator disclosed herein, such as the pressure provided by natural gas, the pressure of compressed air, pressure provided by the vaporizer of a power cycle, the pressure provided by pressurized hydraulic fluid etc.

A pressurized gas, which includes compressed air, driven Accelerated Magnetic Piston Generator (MPG 0 provides the simplest embodiment of the present invention. This simple version may be driven by compressed air that is exhausted to the environment, having no negative environmental impact and being a source of renewable energy if the compressed air is produced by attaching an air compressor to the output shaft of a wind turbine as a form or renewable energy for example.

Likewise, the MPG may be powered by the pressure of a natural gas well having a pressure drop to transmission line pressure or by the natural gas pressure drop of a transmission line to a city gate. The pressurized gas to drive a pressurized gas MPG may be provided by the vaporizer of a simple Rankine Cycle with the exhaust being directed to a condenser so that any thermal energy source may be used to power the MPG. The magnetic piston of a Rankine cycle pressurized gas powered MPG is driven by the Delta pressure between the vaporizer and condenser that is exerted upon the magnetic piston, which has seals on each end of the piston in order to maintain the difference in pressure on each side of the piston and to keep it properly aligned within the cylinder.

The present invention innovatively provides self-compression of air or another gas for a power cycle and the process also conserves a large portion of the energy put into it, which is accomplished by acceleration of a magnetic pellet that is either a permanent magnet or an electrically conductive material. After being accelerated to a high velocity, the magnetic pellet passes linearly through a series of permanent magnets (the pellet being made of an electrically conductive material) or passes linearly through an electromagnet in order to generate electricity. The kinetic energy produced by the acceleration of the pellet is used to overcome the resistance of the electromagnet to passage of the permanent magnet pellet through the electromagnet or an electrically conductive pellet through a permanent magnet or electromagnet to produce an Electromagnetic Force (EMF) in order to generate electricity. The acceleration of the magnetic pellet may be accomplished by a number of means: explosion of gunpowder; and, gas combustion; and, diesel combustion; and, propelled by the pressure of high pressure gas; and, propelled by the pressure of high pressure liquid, etc. In order to stop the accelerated magnetic pellet after it has been accelerated, air or another gas is compressed to high pressure within a dead-end tube or pipe. Thus compression is accomplished by the process of stopping the pellet, which transfers the kinetic energy of the magnetic pellet to the compressed gas. The compressed air acts like a spring and the pellet is accelerated in the opposite direction as the energy is conserved. In order to sustain the process and to return the pellet with the same amount of energy as the pellet was originally accelerated, additional energy is added as the pressure of the compressed gas begins to fall. The additional energy input may be performed by combustion of diesel or gas or may be provided by high pressure vapor from a vaporizer of a Rankine cycle or by providing additional heat to the compressed air or other gaseous working fluid via a Brayton cycle, Sterling cycle, or new hybrid cycle disclosed herein.

The operation is slightly different for each type of power cycle used. However, a magnetic pellet can be accelerated by any of the well known power cycles as well as the Hunt cycle that is a modified Rankine cycle that accomplishes liquid transfer at equalized pressure to eliminate the liquid pump used by a conventional Rankine power cycle. Also, the present patent discloses new cycles that may be classified as modified or hybrid power cycles that use certain attributes of these prior art power cycles together to form all new power cycles.

Different cycles may be beneficially used together. For example, a Diesel cycle Magnetic Accelerated Pellet Generator that self-compresses air for combustion with diesel fuel may be used in association with a Rankine cycle or the modified Hunt / Rankine cycle to operate a thermal engine unit to propel a magnetic pellet to generate more electricity or may be used to pump hydraulic fluid to high pressure to produce hydraulic power that may be used to operate hydraulic rams, motors, hydraulic lifts, etc. The first cycle is combustion driven using a fuel source; and, the second cycle is a thermal engine that uses heat rejected from the combustion cycle in order to power the bottoming second cycle.

Acceleration increases the Kinetic Energy level of the magnetic pellet to a very high degree as its velocity increases and velocity is the key to very high power density electrical power production. This principal, for example, applies to high speed mini-turbine technology that rotates at very high velocity via the use of air bearings in order to produce greater electrical output. Likewise, the greater the velocity of the movement of the permanent magnets that comprise the magnetic pellet through the electromagnetic coils of the magnetic pellet generator, the greater the amplitude of the electrical power output generated.

Thus, acceleration of the magnetic pellet to high velocity accomplishes a number of very important processes; (1) a dramatic increase in the Kinetic Energy possessed by the magnetic pellet that allows its magnets to overcome the electromagnetic attraction of the electrical field generated by the electromagnet coils as it passes through the center of the coils; and, (2) dramatically increases the power output of the accelerated magnetic pellet generator in order to produce extremely high power density; and, (3) produces a self-compressing hybrid power cycle that heats compressed gas in the manner of a Brayton cycle, although the hybrid cycle does not internally combust fuels as does a conventional Brayton cycle process. The pellet compresses gas into a heat exchanger and heat energy is added to the gas via indirect heat exchange in order to increase the volume of the gas at constant pressure in order to power the process; and, (4) conserves the input energy via energy recovery as the energy from the initial acceleration of the pellet is transferred to the gas that then transfers the energy back to the pellet as the gas accelerates the pellet in the opposite direction using energy conserved from the original acceleration. The energy is continuously transferred back-and- forth from the pellet to the gas; then back to the pellet; to the gas again in a continuous cycle of energy conservation. This process is of continuous energy conservation is far more preferable when compared to a conventional Brayton cycle that typically uses two-thirds of its gross power output to, drive a compressor turbine to compress air into the combustor.

Accumulators provide the huge volume to maintain the low pressure in the center of the cylinder of the magnetic pellet generator in the same manner as a silencer works for a gun that is described above to reduce sound using a large volume to retain the pulse of hot gas.

The following steps explain the principal methods of operation of Fig. 6A-K, in one exemplary preferred embodiment of the Accelerated Magnetic Piston or Pellet Generator, which we believe holds the potential to be a replacement technology to fuel cells. The MPG is projected to have higher efficiency than a fuel cell in the direct production of electrical power, without the need of turbines or other prime movers being used as an intermediary process requirement to drive a generator. The power density and versatility also exceed that of a fuel cell. Like a fuel cell, the MPG can be powered by a fuel source. We have designed both internal and external combustion models that use fuels. But unlike the fuel cell, the MPG can also be thermally powered by any available heat source, such as solar heat, waste heat, geothermal, OTEC, etc. A thermal MPG unit can be powered by heat provided by any combustion engine, including waste heat from a combustion MPG unit.

The process is thermally controlled. A constant volume process is used at startup. Thereafter, the process becomes a constant pressure process with the volume changing in direct relationship to heat input that increases the volume of gas or heat rejection that reduces the volume of gas in order to maintain a pressure differential on the opposing sides of the pellet that is accelerated back-and-forth within the cylinder as a result of the pressure differential. A greater volume of gas comes out of the heat exchanger than is compressed into it by the pellet because of the heat applied to the gas causing it to expand, which provides a greater volume of gas that applies force against the pellet for a longer duration that allows the pellet to attain much higher velocity. The velocity of the pellet therefore can be controlled by the heat input, having increased velocity with increased temperature.

The MPG has a direct electrical power output just like a hydrogen fuel cell, but offers the potential to be more fuel-efficient and cost-effective than a fuel cell that requires expensive hydrogen fuels or needs a reformer to use conventional fossil fuels. The MPG, which has the flexibility to be powered by any available source of thermal energy, is more versatile than a fuel cell.

The MPG can increase the overall fuel efficiency of any fuel cell system, combustion engine, gas turbine or steam boiler without consuming any additional fossil fuels, nor generating any additional greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the MPG can be powered by geo-pressure resources available in many of the world's oil and gas wells, to the high pressure resources throughout thousands of miles of the world's compressed natural gas pipelines.

The present invention has extremely high power density due to the high velocity attained by the accelerated magnetic pellet of the generator that innovatively uses a hybrid self- compressing Brayton power cycle to directly generate electrical power output without the need of a turbine or other prime mover. The Brayton cycle is calculated as the most thermally efficient of all the known power cycles because it uses sensible heat instead of Latent Heats used by the Rankine cycle or newer vapor power cycles such as the Kalina cycle that require much greater amounts of heat energy input. The efficiency of the self-compressing accelerated magnetic pellet generator is projected to be on the order of 70% efficient because unlike a conventional Brayton cycle, two-thirds of the power does not have to go into compression. This direct electrical power generator device, which potentially is more efficient than a fuel cell, is also more versatile than a fuel cell because it can operate using virtually all fuels without the need of a reformer and it can operate equally well using both high or low temperature heat sources, such as solar, geothermal, OTEC, etc.

Brief Description of the Drawing

Fig. 1 is a first embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a second embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a third embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a fourth embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a fifth embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention; Fig. 6 is a sixth embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Fig.' s 6A-6K are useful to describe the operation of the embodiment of Fig. 6;

Fig. 7 is a seventh embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention; Fig.' s 7A-H are useful to describe the operation of the embodiment of Fig. 7; and

Fig. 8 is a eighth embodiment of a magnetic piston generator constructed according to the principles of the present invention;

Description of the Exemplary Preferred Embodiments

Fig. 1 discloses an apparatus (100) that uses a new power cycle that is a hybrid Sterling power cycle (heats and cools a gas to provide higher pressure expansion and lower pressure contraction of the gas) and Brayton power cycle (heats compressed air via combustion of fuel within the compressed air) that accelerates a permanent magnet pellet ( 102) to high velocity using a high vapor pressure gaseous phase working fluid (104), such as carbon dioxide that is capable of substantial changes in pressure via small changes in temperature, in order to generate electricity (108) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet pellet (102) passes back-and-forth through one or more electromagnets (1 10). In this new power cycle apparatus (100) gas is heated and cooled to provide higher pressure expansion and lower pressure contraction of the gas as in a Sterling cycle, but unlike a Sterling cycle the gas is compressed prior to being heated in the manner of a Brayton cycle. However, no internal combustion takes place as in the Brayton cycle; and, the gas (104) that is compressed is not air but instead is a high vapor pressure working fluid (104). External combustion may take place to provide heat to the thermal unit (100).

A substantial force provided by compressed and heated vapor (104) within heat exchanger (106) is applied against the back side of a permanent magnet pellet (102), which has lower pressure on the opposite side of the pellet (102). A trigger mechanism (134) releases the magnetic pellet (102) to begin the process; and, compressed and heated high pressure vapor (104) accelerates the magnetic pellet (102) through a cylinder (112). The triggers (132) located near each end of the cylinder (1 12) remain pulled during normal operation to allow free passage of the pellet (102). Lower pressure gas (104) in front of the pellet is pressurized into lines (116 & 142) that lead to the coolers (120 & 126) that lower the vapor pressure of the vapor (104) that flows from the coolers (120 & 126) to accumulators (118 & 124) where the cooled, low pressure gas (104) is held, which maintains low pressure at the center of the apparatus (100) by providing a heat sink (114) to lower the vapor pressure of the gaseous phase working fluid (104) within the coolers (120 & 126) by cooling the vapor (104) to lower its pressure. The pressure differential of the high pressure of the heated vapor (104) behind the pellet (104) to the low pressure of the cooled vapor (104) in front of the pellet (102) drives the pellet (102) through the cylinder (112) in the forward direction.

The pellet (102) consists of a permanent magnet (not individually shown) that has seals (140) mounted toward each end of the magnet in order to prevent the high pressure vapor (104) from going past the magnetic pellet (102) within the cylinder (112). The seals (140) also create the gap required in order to separate the magnetic pellet (102) from the electromagnets (110) in order to generate electricity (108) as the magnetic pellet (102) passes through the electromagnets (110). Forward movement of the accelerated pellet (102) compresses gas (104) into lines (116 & 142) that lead to the coolers (120 & 126) that lower the vapor pressure of the vapor (104) that flows from the coolers (120 & 126) to accumulators (118 & 124) where the cooled, low pressure gas (104) is held. The cooling provided by the heat sink (114) of the coolers (120 & 126) provides heat rejection, along with low pressure storage capacity provided by accumulators (118 & 124), lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (104) within cylinder (112) in front of the accelerated pellet (102) that is propelled from behind by high pressure heated vapor (104) that provides acceleration of the pellet (102) in the forward direction.

The accelerated pellet (102) passes through one or more electromagnets (110) that generate electricity (108) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet (102) passes through the electromagnet (110) at high velocity attained by the acceleration process. The high velocity attained by the pellet (102) allows it to plunge through the electromagnet (110), as if the pellet (102) were a bullet passing through an object. The high level of kinetic energy is attained as a result of the high speed acceleration of the pellet (102) that may be on the order of the speed of a bullet of 2,500 feet per second determined by the Delta Pressure of the force that provides back-and -forth acceleration of the magnetic pellet (104) in order to generate AC 60 Hertz (60 cycles per second) current with 3,600 pulses of electricity (108) per minute. The Delta Pressure for Carbon Dioxide for example at 80 deg. F. is less than 1,000 p.s.i. and at 250 deg. F. is over 4,000 p.s.i. for a Delta Pressure of greater than 3,000 p.s.i. that is roughly equal to the pressure produced by gunpowder to accelerate bullets. This is also very near the temperature range of heat rejection from power plants and is a good operating temperature for αlow temperature" geothermal power generation.

The original high pressure vapor (104) behind the pellet (102) expands as the pellet (102) moves forward and the area within which the vapor (104) is held increases in volume. The expansion also causes cooling of the vapor ( 104). As the pellet (102) moves past the inlet to line (116) any remaining pressure of the original quantity of high pressure vapor (104) greater than the pressure of accumulator (118) flows into the inlet to line (116) to cooler (120) that reduces it vapor pressure via heat rejection; and, then the cooled vapor (104) flows to low pressure accumulator (118) that retains the cooled, low pressure vapor (104) that previously was a portion of the propellant that accelerated the pellet (102). After passing through the electromagnet (110) to generate an electrical power output (108), the pellet (102) compresses vapor (104) in front of it that pressurizes vapor (104) through line (142) into cooler (126) and then into low pressure accumulator (124) in order to continue to maintain low pressure in front of the pellet (102).

After passing the inlet to line (142), the pellet (102) speeds toward the dead end of the cylinder (112) that is fluidly connected to indirect heat exchanger (130) compressing vapor (104) in front of the pellet (102) via its Kinetic Energy of Motion. The pressure of the compressed vapor (104) increases as the pellet (102) moves forward. The compressed vapor (104) is forced into indirect heat exchanger (130) at the end of the cylinder (112). The pressure rapidly builds as the vapor (104) compresses and the temperature of the vapor (104) rises as a result of the heat of compression.

Lower pressure is formed behind the pellet (102) as it compresses vapor (104) in front of it. The vapor (104) behind the pellet (102) continues to expand to lower pressure as the pellet continues to move forward and more area is gain behind the pellet (102). The lower pressure causes vapor (104) to be drawn out of the accumulators (118 & 124) through coolers (120 & 126) through lines (116 & 142) into the center of the cylinder (112). Expansion of the vapor (104) causes cooling of the vapor (104) as it enters cylinder (112) that is at lower pressure, which further cools the vapor (104) due to expansion, which further lowers it vapor pressure as it is cooled due to expansion. This process maintains a continuous zone of refrigerated cool, low pressure vapor (104) at the center of the cylinder (100) of the apparatus (100) that also cools the electromagnets (110) located at the center of the unit (100), which increases the performance of the electromagnets (110) or in the alternative permanent magnets (110) in regard to generating electricity (108).

The vapor (104) is refrigerated to a lower temperature than the heat rejection temperature of the heat sink (114) via compression by the forward momentum of the pellet (102) that pushes the vapor (104) into coolers (120 & 126), heat rejection via the heat sink (114), and then expansion within the lower pressure cylinder (112), which is an accepted method of refrigeration.

The pressure, caused by compression of the vapor (102) as the Kinetic Energy of Motion possessed by the accelerated pellet (102) does work on the vapor (102), increases until the pellet 's (102) forward momentum is fully stopped; and, the pellet (104) reverses direction as a result of the high pressure produced via compression provided by the initial kinetic energy of the pellet (102). The compressed vapor (102) acts like a spring that thrusts the pellet (104) in the opposite direction. Additionally, springs (132) or other biasing members are located at each end of the cylinder (112) to repel the pellet (102) in the event the pellet's (102) forward momentum carries it all the way to an end of the cylinder (112).

As the pellet (102) moves in the opposite direction, the pressure exerted by the compressed vapor (104) decreases as the vapor (104) expands. In order for the pellet (102) to achieve acceleration equal to its original acceleration, additional energy must be put into the process of acceleration of the pellet (102), which is accomplished by heat exchanger (130) that provides heat from heat source (136). Heating the vapor (104) within the heat exchanger (130) causes an increase in volume of the vapor (104), which further accelerates the pellet (102) to its original rate of acceleration as the process continues in the opposite direction in a continuous high speed, back-and-forth cycle (100).

Energy is conserved by the "spring like" action of the vapor (104) compressed by the kinetic energy of the accelerated pellet (102) that gives energy to the vapor (104) that is then given back to the pellet (102) to instantly begin acceleration of the pellet (102) in the opposite direction, like a bouncing ball. Then additional heat energy via the heat source (136) is put into the cycle (100) to increase the acceleration of the pellet (102) until its original velocity is attained.

And again forward movement of the accelerated pellet (102) in the opposite direction compresses gas (104) into lines (116 & 142) that lead to the coolers (120 & 126) that lower the vapor pressure of the vapor (104) that flows from the coolers (120 & 126) to accumulators (118 & 124) where the cooled, low pressure gas (104) is held. The cooling provided by the heat sink (114) of the coolers (120 & 126) provides heat rejection, which along with low pressure storage capacity provided by accumulators (118 & 124) lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (104) within cylinder (112) in front of the accelerated pellet (102) that is propelled from behind by high pressure heated vapor (104) that provides acceleration of the pellet (102) in the forward direction. The accelerated pellet (102) passes through one or more electromagnets (110) that generate electricity (108) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet pellet (102) passes through the electromagnet (1 10) at high velocity attained by the acceleration process. The high velocity attained by the pellet (102) allows it to plunge through the electromagnet (110), as if the pellet (102) were a bullet passing through an object.

The original high pressure vapor (104) behind the pellet (102) expands as the pellet (102) moves forward and the area within which it is held increases in volume. The expansion also causes cooling of the vapor (104). As the pellet (102) moves past the inlet to line (142) any remaining pressure of the high pressure vapor (104) greater than the pressure of accumulator (124) flows into the inlet to line (142) to cooler (126) that reduces it vapor pressure via heat rejection; and, then the cooled vapor (104) flows to low pressure accumulator (124) that retains the cooled, low pressure vapor (104) that previously was a portion of the propellant that accelerated the pellet (102).

After passing through the electromagnet (110) to generate an electrical power output ( 108), the pellet (102) compresses vapor (104) in front of it that pressurizes vapor ( 104) through line (116) into cooler (120) and then into low pressure accumulator (118) in order to continue to maintain low pressure in front of the pellet (102).

After passing the inlet to line (116), the pellet (102) speeds toward the dead end of the cylinder (112) that is fliiidly connected to indirect heat exchanger (106) compressing vapor (104) in front of the pellet (102) via its kinetic energy. The pressure of the compressed vapor (104) increases as the pellet (102) moves forward. The compressed vapor (104) is forced into indirect heat exchanger (106) at the end of the cylinder (1 12). The pressure rapidly builds as the vapor (104) compresses and the temperature of the vapor (104) increases as a result of the heat of compression.

Lower pressure is formed behind the pellet (102) as it compresses vapor (104) in front of it. The vapor (104) behind the pellet (102) continues to expand to lower pressure as the pellet (102) continues to move forward and more area is gain behind the pellet (102). The lower pressure causes vapor (104) to be drawn out of the accumulators (118 & 124) through coolers (114 & 126) through lines (116 & 142) into the center of the cylinder (112). Expansion of the vapor (104) causes cooling of the vapor (104) as it enters cylinder (112) that is at lower pressure, which further cools the vapor (104) due to expansion, which further lowers it vapor pressure as it is cooled due to expansion.

The pressure, caused by compression of the vapor (104) as the kinetic energy possessed by the accelerated pellet (102) does work on the vapor (104), increases until the pellet's (102) forward momentum is fully stopped; and, the pellet (102) reverses direction as a result of the high pressure produced via compression provided by the initial kinetic energy of the pellet (102). The compressed vapor (104) acts like a spring that thrusts the pellet (102) in the opposite direction.

As the pellet (102) moves in the opposite direction, the pressure exerted by the compressed vapor (104) decreases as the vapor (104) expands. In order for the pellet (102) to achieve acceleration equal to its original acceleration, additional energy must be put into the process of acceleration of the pellet (102), which is accomplished by heat exchanger (106) that provides heat from heat source (136). Heating the vapor (104) within the heat exchanger (106) causes an increase in volume of the vapor (104), which further accelerates the pellet (102) to its original rate of acceleration as the process continues in the opposite direction in a continuous high speed, back-and-forth cycle (100), preferably with the magnetic pellet (104) passing through the electromagnet (110) at the rate of 3,600 times per minute to generate 60 Hertz AC electric current power output (108).

Fig. 2 discloses a modified Sterling or Rankine power cycle (200) that accelerates a permanent magnet pellet (202) to high velocity using a high vapor pressure gaseous phase working fluid (204), such as carbon dioxide capable of changing from a vapor (204) to a liquid (206), in order to generate electricity (208) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet (202) passes back-and-forth through one or more electromagnets (210).

A substantial force provided by vapor (204) heated within heat exchanger (228) is applied against the permanent magnet pellet (202), which has lower pressure on the opposite side of the pellet (202). A trigger mechanism (230) releases the magnetic pellet (202) to begin the process; and, compressed and heated high pressure vapor (204) accelerates the magnetic pellet (202) through a cylinder (212). Lower pressure gas (204) in front of the pellet is pressurized into a cooler or condenser (214) that maintains low pressure at the center of the apparatus (200) by providing a heat sink (216) to lower the vapor pressure of the gaseous phase working fluid (204) within the cooler (214) by cooling the vapor(204) to lower its pressure or in the alternative by providing a heat sink (216) to lower the temperature of the a vapor (204) as the pressure increases until the vapor (204) is condensed into liquid phase working fluid (206) within the condenser (214). The pressure differential of the high pressure of the heated vapor (204) behind the pellet (204) to the low pressure of the cooled vapor (204) or condensed liquid (206) in front of the pellet (204) drives the pellet (204) through the cylinder (212) in the forward direction. If the cycle (200) condenses the gas (204) to a liquid (206) then the cycle is a modified Rankine cycle, but if the working fluid (204) remains in the gaseous state, the power cycle (200) is a modified Sterling cycle.

Forward movement of the accelerated pellet (202) compresses gas (204) through one way check valve (218) into lines (220) leading to the cooler or condenser (214) that lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (204) or condenses the vapor (204) into liquid (206) that flows from the cooler or condenser (214) to an accumulator (222) where the cooled gas (204) or liquid (206) is held. The cooling provided by the heat sink (216) of the cooler or condenser (214) that provides heat rejection, along with the low pressure storage capacity provided by the accumulator (222), lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (204) within the cylinder (212) in front of the accelerated pellet (202) that is propelled from behind by high pressure heated vapor (204) that provides acceleration of the pellet (202) in the forward direction.

The accelerated pellet (202) passes through one or more electromagnets (210) that generate electricity (208) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet (202) passes through the electromagnet (210) at high velocity attained by the acceleration process. The high velocity allows the pellet (202) to plunge through the electromagnet (210), as if it were a bullet passing through an object, due to the high level of kinetic energy attained as a result of the high speed acceleration of the pellet (202) that may be on the order of the speed of a bullet of 2,500 feet per second determined by the Delta Pressure of the force that provides acceleration of the pellet (204).

After passing through the electromagnet (210), the kinetic energy of the pellet (202) compresses vapor (204) in front of it, as the pellet (202) speeds toward the end of the cylinder (212). The compressed vapor (204) is forced into indirect heat exchanger (224) fluidly connected to the end of the cylinder (212). The pressure rapidly builds as the vapor (204) compresses and rises in temperature as a result of the heat of compression.

Lower pressure is formed behind the pellet (202) as it compresses vapor (204) in front of it. The lower pressure causes working fluid (204 & 206) to be drawn out of the accumulator

(222) through one way check valve (232). Expansion causes cooling of the vapor (204) as it leaves accumulator (222) to lower pressure or in the alternative as liquid leaves the accumulator (222) and evaporates within the cylinder (212) or is vaporized within the end heat exchangers (224 & 228) in the event that liquid (206) is pushed into the heat exchangers (224 & 228) at the ends of the cylinder (212) by the pellet (204) as it moves back-and-forth within the cylinder (212). This process maintains a continuous zone of cold, low pressure vapor (204) at the center of the apparatus (200).

The pressure, caused by compression of the vapor (202) as the kinetic energy possessed by the accelerated pellet (202) does work on the vapor (202), increases until the pellet's (202) acceleration if fully stopped; and, the pellet (204) reverses direction as a result of the high pressure produced via compression provided by the initial kinetic energy of the pellet (202). The compressed vapor (202) acts like a spring that thrusts the pellet (204) in the opposite direction.

As the pellet (204) moves in the opposite direction, the pressure exerted by the compressed vapor (202) decreases as the vapor (202) expands. In order for the pellet (202) to achieve acceleration equal to its original acceleration, additional energy must be put into the process of acceleration of the pellet (204), which is accomplished by heat exchanger (224) that provides heat from heat source (226). Heating the vapor (204) within the heat exchanger (224) causes it to increase in volume and pressure, which further accelerates the pellet (204) to its original acceleration as the process continues in the opposite direction in a continuous high speed, back-and-forth cycle (200).

Energy is conserved by the "spring like" action of the vapor (202) compressed by the kinetic energy of the accelerated pellet (204) that gives energy to the vapor (202) that is then given back to the pellet (204) to instantly begin acceleration of the pellet (204) in the opposite direction, like a bouncing ball. Then additional heat energy is put into the cycle (200) to increase the acceleration of the pellet (204) until its original velocity is attained. Aagain forward movement of the accelerated pellet (202) in the opposite direction compresses gas (204) through one way check valve (218) into lines (220) leading to the cooler or condenser (214) that lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (204) or condenses the vapor (204) into liquid (206) that flows from the cooler or condenser (214) to an accumulator (222) where the cooled gas (204) or liquid (206) is held. The cooling provided by the heat sink (216) of the cooler or condenser (214) that provides heat rejection, along with the low pressure storage capacity provided by the accumulator (222), lowers the vapor pressure of the vapor (204) within the cylinder (212) in front of the accelerated pellet (202) that is propelled from behind by high pressure heated vapor (204) that provides acceleration of the pellet (202) in the forward direction.

The accelerated pellet (202) passes through one or more electromagnets (210) that generate electricity (208) via an electromagnetic force (EMF) produced as the permanent magnet (202) passes through the electromagnet (210) at high velocity attained by the acceleration process (not shown). The high velocity allows the pellet (202) to plunge through the electromagnet (210) due to the high level of kinetic energy attained as a result of the high speed acceleration of the pellet (202).

After passing through the electromagnet (210) in the opposite direction, the kinetic energy of the pellet (202) compresses vapor (204) in front of it, as the pellet (202) speeds toward the end of the cylinder (212). The compressed vapor (204) is forced into indirect heat exchanger (224) fluidly connected to the end of the cylinder (212). The pressure rapidly builds as the vapor (204) compresses and rises in temperature as a result of the heat of compression (not shown).

The pressure, caused by compression of the vapor (202) as the kinetic energy possessed by the accelerated pellet (202) does work on the vapor (202), increases until the pellet's (202) acceleration if fully stopped; and, the pellet (204) reverses direction as a result of the high pressure produced via compression provided by the initial kinetic energy of the pellet (202). The compressed vapor (202) acts like a spring that thrusts the pellet (204) in the opposite direction. As the pellet (204) moves in the opposite direction again, the pressure exerted by the compressed vapor (202) decreases as the vapor (202) expands. In order for the pellet (202) to achieve acceleration equal to its original acceleration, additional energy must be put into the process of acceleration of the pellet (204), which is accomplished by heat exchanger (224) that provides heat from heat source (226). Heating the vapor (204) within the heat exchanger (228) causes it to increase in volume and pressure, which further accelerates the pellet (204) to its original acceleration as the process continues in the opposite direction in a continuous high speed, back-and-forth cycle (200), preferably with the magnetic pellet (204) passing through the electromagnet (210) at the rate of 3,600 times per minute to generate 60 Hertz AC electric current power (208).

Fig. 3 describes a diesel powered linear reciprocating generator apparatus (300) that creates a self-compressing, self-ignition diesel combustion embodiment of the Magnetic Pellet Generator (MPG) (300). The combustion unit (300) may be powered by diesel fuel (302) or with the addition of a spark plug (not shown) to initiate combustion by most other fossil fuels, such as natural gas, gasoline, propane, methanol, etc. in order to directly generate an electrical output (324). A magnetic pellet (308) that works in the manner of a free piston is positioned within a cylinder (314). The pellet (308) has seals or rings (326) at each of its ends in order to retain the pressure differential on the opposing sides of the pellet (308). The seals (326) also serve to align the pellet (308) within the cylinder (314) so that it can move freely along the length of the cylinder (314).

The linear reciprocating generator (300) generates an electrical power output (324) as the free moving pellet (308) moves back-and-forth through the center of a permanent magnet or electromagnetic coil (316) in response to the combustion of diesel fuel (302) that occurs at each end of the cylinder (314). The expanding gas (328) produced by combustion of the diesel (302) accelerates the pellet (308) to high velocity along the cylinder (314). The kinetic energy level of the pellet (308) is increased in response to the acceleration, which increases the ability of the magnetic pellet (308) to overcome the resistance of passage through the coil (316) ~ just as a bullet accelerated by the explosion of gunpowder gains sufficient force to plunge through a wall. The Kinetic Energy of Motion of a body is defined as one half of its mass times its velocity squared. Thus an increase in velocity causes a direct exponential increase in the amount of kinetic energy possessed by the body. The process is started by compression of air (not shown) into one end of the cylinder (314) behind the magnetic pellet (308) that is held in place by a trigger mechanism (322). Diesel fuel (302) is injected into air containing oxygen or pure oxygen (306) capable of supporting combustion in front of the pellet (308). The pellet (308) is released by the trigger mechanism (322) and is accelerated down the cylinder (314) by the force of the compressed air (not shown) against the pellet (308). Spent air (306) and is pushed from the cylinder (314) out through one-way flow check valves (318) and through exhaust systems (312) to the atmosphere as the pellet (308) moves forward in order to maintain low pressure in front of the pellet (308) that has high pressure on its opposite side. Seals (326) located on each end of the pellet (308) maintain the pressure differential on each side of the pellet (308). The permanent magnet pellet (308) passes through the center of the coil (316) at very high velocity generating a significant electrical output (324), having gained substantial kinetic energy via acceleration.

The pellet (308) continues its rapid forward movement along the length of the cylinder (314). After the pellet (308) passes the last exhaust outlet (318), its forward momentum begins to self-compress the fuel (302) and air (306) mixture in front of the pellet (308) that is trapped between the pellet (308) and the dead end of the cylinder (314). The self-compression process causes a spring like action that slows the pellet (308) as energy is transferred from the pellet (308) to the fuel (302) and air (306) mixture. During this period as the pellet (308) compresses fuel (302) and air (306) in front of it, low pressure is formed within the cylinder (314) behind the forward moving pellet (308); and, fuel (302) that is provided by fuel injector (310) and air (306) drawn in by the low pressure that flows through one-way flow check valves (304) that only allow the flow of air (306) in the incoming direction are injected into this low pressure zone at the opposite end of the cylinder (314).

Compression of the fuel (302) and air (306) in front of the pellet (308) causes the heat of compression to be produced and the temperature of the fuel (302) and air (306) mixture rises in response to the compression, which causes the diesel fuel (302) to self-ignite as the temperature reaches the self-ignition temperature of the diesel fuel (302). Combustion of the fuel (302) and air (306) mixture creates expanded high pressure, hot gases (328) that accelerate the pellet (308) in the opposite direction. Acceleration of the pellet (308) in the opposite direction causes the pellet (308) to again pass through the coil (316) producing an electrical output (324) as the pellet (308) again pushes exhaust gases (328) out of the exhaust outlets (312) in order to maintain low pressure in front of the pellet (308) and again low pressure is formed behind the pellet (308) that allows a new supply of fuel (302) and air (306) to be drawn in behind the pellet (308) that will be combusted later.

The fuel (302) and air (306) mixture in front of the pellet (308) is again self-compressed by the kinetic energy of the pellet (308) and self-ignition takes place via the heat of compression in a cycle to continuously drive the pellet (308) back-and-forth through the coil (316) in a continuous reciprocating cycle as described herein.

The present invention (300) is much more efficient than other combustion powered reciprocating electrical generators because energy is conserved as the kinetic energy of the pellet (308) provides self-compression. Energy is transferred from the pellet (308) to the air (306) and fuel (306) mixture prior to combustion that recovers a great deal of the energy input that originally accelerated the pellet (308) and then the recovered energy is transferred back to the pellet (308) as the pressure of the compressed gases (302 & 306) provide a motive force, which (along with the effect of combustion) propels the pellet (308) in the opposite direction as the gases (302 & 306) transfer the recovered energy back to the pellet (308) in a cycle.

The efficiency of the device (300) may be improved by providing heat recovery by heating the fuel (302) and air (306) mixture prior to injection into the cylinder (314) via indirect heat exchange with the hot exhaust (312) resulting from combustion waste heat. Alternatively, the waste heat may be used to power a thermal MPG embodiment as described in Figure One. This process of using the heat recovered from a combustion MPG as described in Figure Three is described in detail in Figure Four.

A combustion embodiment of the MPG can also be produced by providing combustion heat to provide heat to the hot end of the thermal unit. However, the efficiency of this method of combustion may also be improved by using the waste heat rejected from the cycle produced via combustion to power a second thermal MPG unit at a lower temperature range as a "bottoming" cycle. This second method of providing combustion heat externally from the MPG device has one significant advantage over the internal combustion method in that much lower levels of heat may be used to power the device.

Fig. 4 describes an apparatus (400) that is a combined combustion embodiment of the Magnetic Pellet Generator (MPG) (404) that is described in greater detail in Fig. 3 with the addition of a heat driven (thermal) embodiment of the Magnetic Pellet Generator (402) that is described in greater detail in Fig. 1 in order to form a single unit (400) that gains greater efficiency than combustion unit (404) or thermal unit (402) alone. The combustion (404) portion of the unit (400) may be powered by most fossil fuels in order to directly generate an electrical output. The waste heat from combustion powers the thermal unit (402) of the dual unit (400) to produce additional electrical output.

Heat energy is recovered from the waste heat of the combustion unit (404) via heat exchangers (408) that surround the cylinder and exhaust system of the combustion unit (404). A working fluid transfers the recovered heat energy from the heat exchangers (408) of the combustion unit (404) to the hot ends (406) of thermal unit (402) in order to power the thermal unit (402) as shown in Figure Four.

The MPG technology may be used as a replacement technology to fuel cell technology, having several advantages over fuel cell technology, such as the ability to be to power the combustion unit (404) by combustion of fossil fuels or hydrogen; and, the thermal MPG (402) may additionally be powered by heat sources that include low temperature heat sources, making it a much more versatile technology than fuel cell technology that can only be powered by fossil fuels and hydrogen. Low temperature heat sources that can power the thermal unit (402) include: solar power; and, waste heat from any source that includes combustion waste heat from operation of engines of vehicles, manufacturing processes, etc.; and, geothermal heat sources that include low temperature geothermal heat sources; and, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC); and, the heat of compression; etc.

Fig. 5 describes an external combustion embodiment (500) of the present invention that provides low temperature combustion (516) as a motive force to drive the magnetic pellet (502) through coils (514) in order to generate electricity (508) at only on one end of the cylinder (512). The end of the cylinder (512) opposite the combustion (516) heat source end of the cylinder (512) is plugged by an end cap (510) that provides a dead end to the cylinder (512). The forward momentum of the pellet (502) compresses gas (not shown) into this dead end of the cylinder (512) that results in the pellet (502) first being stopped and then accelerated in the opposite direction by the force of the compressed gas (not shown). This "bounce like" effect returns the magnetic pellet (502) to the hot end of the cylinder (512) after it passes through the coils (514) to produce an electrical output (508) for the second time on its return trip.

The external combustion unit (518) comprises: a fuel supply (524) that is mixed with an air supply (522) that provides oxygen to support combustion within burner (520); and, heat resulting from combustion (516) of the fuel (524) and air (522) that externally provides a heat source to the magnetic pellet generator's (500) heat exchanger (526) that contains a high vapor pressure working fluid that is heated to provide high pressure gas (528) to drive the magnetic pellet (502); and, an exhaust system (506) to discharge the spent gases of combustion (516).

The rest of the operation of Fig. 5 is identical to the operation of Fig. 1, which provides a detailed description of the other processes used by Fig. 5.

A main advantage of Fig. 5 that provides external combustion over Fig. 3 that provides internal combustion is the low temperature at which Figure Five is capable of operating, which may be less than 200 degrees F. It is well known that lower temperature combustion results in fewer emissions as NOX and SOX are produced as the result of heating air to high temperatures as typically results in internal combustion.

Fig. 6 describes a more powerful embodiment of the external combustion accelerated magnetic pellet generator unit (600) having multiple inline coils (630) along the cylinder (614). The magnetic pellet (602) that reciprocates within cylinder (614) comprises a series of magnets (636) attached together having an electrical insulator (634) located between the magnets (636)of the magnetic pellet (602) or in the alternative having like pole ends of the magnets (636) together to cancel out the magnets' (636) electrical field. More power is generated because more pulses of electrical current (628) are produced as the series of magnets (636) of the magnetic pellet (602) pass through the series of coils (630) because each time a magnet (636) passes a coil (630) an electrical current output pulse (628) is generated. For one complete back-and-forth cycle of the magnetic pellet (602) with two separate magnets (636), thirty-six separate electrical output pulses (628) are produced as the two magnets (636) pass through the nine coils (630) that are shown two times to produce 60 Hertz AC current output (628) by completing one hundred back-and-forth cycles per minute to produce 3,600 pulses of current output (628) per minute.

Fig. 6 also beneficially includes gas flow bypass lines (620) that enhance the free movement of the pellet (602) through the center portion of the cylinder (614) by equalizing the pressure on each side of the pellet (602) that is described in greater detail herein.

Startup of the unit (600) is accomplished by first vacuuming and then charging the sealed magnetic pellet generator (600) with a gaseous phase, high vapor pressure working fluid, such as carbon dioxide gas (610) to a specified temperature and pressure with compression valve (604) being in the open position and with the magnetic pellet (602) locked behind the trigger mechanism (632). Thereafter, vacuum pump / compressor (612) draws in gaseous phase working fluid (610) from the cylinder (614) in front of the magnetic pellet (602) that has rings (638) to retain the pressure differential on the opposite sides of the pellet (602). The pressure of the gas (610) lowers in front of the pellet (602) and increases behind the pellet (602). The gas (610) is also pressurized into heat exchanger (608) located behind the pellet (602) in the high pressure zone where compression of the gas (610) takes place.

When the vacuum pump / compressor unit (612) cannot provide any additional pressure differential, compression valve (604) is closed, severing the fluid connection through the vacuum pump / compressor unit (612) connecting via lines (620) to the opposite sides of the pellet (602), which is held in place by the trigger mechanism (632). The vacuum pump / compressor unit (612) is turned off. Then, heat is indirectly applied to the compressed gas (610) via thermal energy from the heat source that is shown in Figure Six as being produced as the result of combustion (640) within burner (642) of oxygen contained in an air supply (646) with a fuel source supply (644), such as natural gas or hydrogen, or almost any other fuel supply source (644). The products of combustion (640) as discharged through exhaust system (606) to the environment. Alternatively the unit (600) may also be driven by any low or high temperature heat source such as solar heat, geothermal heat, waste heat, warm ocean water, etc. Heating the gas (610) within the confined area inside of heat exchanger (608) and cylinder (614) behind the pellet (602) having pressure retention seals (638) causes the pressure of the high vapor pressure gas (610) to increase as there is no room for an increase in volume.

The pellet (602) is released by the trigger mechanism (632) once the desired high pressure of the working fluid (610) has been reached. At the time when the pellet (602) is released, there exists a very substantial Delta pressure between the partial vacuum in front of the pellet (602) to the very high pressure of the compressed and heated gas (610) behind the pellet (602), preferably on the order of thousands of pounds per square inch of pressure differential. The pellet (602) is accelerated at a very rapid rate due this great pressure differential, potentially achieving velocities well in excess of the speed of a bullet.

As the pellet (602) is being accelerated by the pressure differential on its opposite sides, high pressure gas (610) is continuously being supplied from heat exchanger (608) to the backside of the pellet (602) as the heat supplied by the combustion (640) heat source that causes expansion of the gas (610) to a greater volume, which continues to apply force to the pellet (602) in order to accelerate it to higher and higher velocity. The pressure of the gas (610) in front of the pellet (602) that originally was at very low pressure only slightly increases in pressure during the pellet (602) acceleration process because of the large amount of area within the accumulator (618) that is provided to hold a substantial amount of incoming gas (610) in order to maintain only a minor pressure increase in front of the accelerating pellet (602). Thus acceleration of the magnetic pellet (602) continues until the first inlet to the bypass lines (620) is reached. The Kinetic Energy of Motion possessed by the pellet (602) is dramatically increased due to this acceleration to high velocity resulting in the pellet (602) possessing a much greater power generation potential as the amplitude of the electrical power output (628) generated increases with increased velocity.

The pressure within the system is equalized upon the pellet (602) reaching the first inlet to the bypass lines (620) as hot, higher pressure gas (610) from behind the pellet (602) is able to flow through lines (620) through coolers (616) that cools via heat sink (622) and reduces the vapor pressure of the working fluid (610) to the second inlet to the bypass lines (620) located on the front side of the pellet (602), which allows the pressure to equalize on both sides of the fast moving pellet (602). Additionally, cooled lower pressure gas (610) may flow into accumulator (618) that holds substantial volume in order to reduce pressure buildup from the release of hot, high pressure gases (610) from behind the pellet (602). Gas (610) is forced into the bypass lines (620) in front of the pellet (602); and, then flows to the area of low pressure formed behind the pellet (602) during the passage of the pellet (602) through the zone that lies between the two inlets to the bypass lines (620). This process prevents the buildup of pressure in front of the pellet (602) as it moves forward displacing gas (610) from its path that allows relatively free passage of the fast moving pellet (602) through the central portion of cylinder (614) of the generator (600).

A series of coils (630) located in the central portion of the cylinder (614) generate an electrical current output (628) as the permanent magnets (636) of the magnetic pellet (602) pass through the center of the coils (630). The velocity and the resulting level of Kinetic

Energy of the pellet (602) are so great that it resists being slowed down by the electromagnetic attraction of the coils (630) and the magnets (636) of the magnetic pellet

(602) passes through the coils (630) at high velocity, like a bullet passing through paper. As explained in the previous paragraph, the magnetic pellet (602) has in regards to the pressure of the gas (610) relatively free passage through the central portion of the cylinder (614) where it passes through the coils (630). which allows all of the Kinetic Energy of the magnetic pellet (602) to be available for overcoming the electromagnetic attraction of the coils (602) on the magnets (636) of the magnetic pellet (602) with almost no resistance from gas (610) pressure.

After passing through the coils (630) in the central portion of the cylinder (614) and after passing the second inlet to the bypass lines (620), the pellet (602) begins to compress gas (610) into the dead end (624) of the cylinder (614) and the temperature of the gas (610) begins to rise due the heat of compression. Heat is transferred to insulated recuperator (626) that preferably is made of highly thermally conductive material such as copper or silver, being well insulated on its outer surface. The gas (610) in front of the pellet (602) continues to compress and to increase in pressure until the pressure is great enough to stop the forward momentum of the pellet (602) as Kinetic Energy from the pellet (602) is transferred to the gas (610).

The pellet (602) immediately begins to accelerate in the opposite direction due to the high pressure of the gas (610) that exerts a force against the pellet (602) in the opposite direction. The Kinetic Energy that was originally transferred from the pellet (602) to the gas (610) as the pellet (602) does work on the gas (610) is thereby transferred back to the pellet (602) as the gas (610) does work on the pellet (602). This process provides a very high degree of conservation of energy for the accelerated magnetic pellet generator (600). This conservation of energy is responsible for the high efficiency of the generator (600), projected to be on the order of seventy percent efficient directly to electricity (628).

The pressure and temperature of the expanding gas (610) begins to decrease as the gas (610) accelerates the pellet (602) in the opposite direction. Heat stored that was originally produced by the heat of compression of the gas (610) held by the heat capacity material from which the recuperator (626) is constructed is released back to the gas (610) in order to increase the volume of the gas (610) back to near its original volume. If the highly insulated recuperator (626) were not used, a greater amount of heat energy would be lost due to conduction of heat through the walls of the cylinder (614) during compression of the gas (610) that would result in the volume of gas (610) being substantially reduced during expansion. Without the insulated recuperator (626), heat loss would be far greater if the zone in which the cold end (624) of the cylinder (614) is located is at a substantially low temperature. The insulated recuperator (626) beneficially stores and returns the heat to the gas (610) during the expansion process that accelerates the pellet (602) in the opposite direction until the pellet (602) reaches the second by-pass line (620) that allows free movement of the pellet (602) through the central portion of the cylinder (614) where the pellet (602) passes through the center of the coils (630) for a second time on its way back and again an electrical output (628) is generated.

Gas (610) in front of the pellet (602) is forced into heat exchanger (608) that is fluidly connected to the sealed front end of cylinder (614) after the pellet (602) passes the first inlet to the bypass lines (620) that results in an increase in the pressure of the gas (610) as heat builds due to the heat of compression and as a result of heating of the gas (610) via combustion (640) within the heat exchanger (608) and cylinder (614) in front of the pellet (602) until the pellet (602) is again brought to a full stop. And, then it is accelerated in the opposite direction by the force applied against the pellet (602) by the pressure of the gas (610). As the gas (610) begins to expand and to cool as a result of expansion, additional heat energy is supplied to the gas (610) by heat exchanger (608) via combustion (640) heat source that substantially increases the volume of gas (610), which results in more high pressure gas (610) being available to accelerate the pellet (602) for a longer duration so that the original velocity of the pellet (602) is achieved in a continuous back-and-forth cycle as described herein to generate a continuous output of electricity (628).

On the cold end (624) of the generator (600) that does not have a heat exchanger (608); heat energy is conserved via insulated recuperator (626) in order to create a compressed gas (610) spring like "bounce" effect for the magnetic pellet (602) that returns the pellet (602) to the opposite end of the cylinder (614) with minimal energy loss (heat). The heat exchanger (608) end of the generator (600), supplies heated and expanded gas to accelerate the pellet (602) to high velocity in order to restore the Kinetic Energy level of the pellet (602) back to its original state in a continuous cycle.

The magnetic pellet generator (600) may be shut down by ceasing combustion (640); and, thereafter, the magnetic pellet (602) will bounce back-and-forth with each bounce being less energetic until all of the Kinetic Energy possessed by the pellet (602) is used up. The pellet (602) is secured behind the trigger mechanism (632) in order to be ready for the next startup of the magnetic pellet generator (600).

Next, the operation of the Fig. 6 embodiment is described.

The sealed system (600) is charged with a gaseous phase, high vapor pressure working fluid (610), preferably carbon dioxide gas.

The trigger mechanism (632) holds the pellet in place as the working fluid via a vacuum pump (612) is withdrawn from in front of the pellet (610) and is compressed to high pressure behind the pellet (602) that has seals (638) to retain the pressure. This process forms a substantial pressure differential with low pressure partial vacuum in front of the pellet (610) and with high pressure behind it.

Valve (604) is closed and indirect heat via external combustion (640) or any other heat source is added to the compressed working fluid (610) behind the pellet (602) to increase the pressure of the gas (610) within the constant volume area behind the pellet (602) that is held in place by the trigger (612). As best seen in Fig. 6A, the pellet (602) is released by the trigger mechanism (632). The pellet (602) is accelerated down the cylinder (614) by the high pressure behind the pellet (602), achieving velocities on the order of the speed of a bullet. The Kinetic Energy of Motion possessed by the pellet (602) is dramatically increased due to the acceleration to high velocity resulting in the pellet (602) possessing a much greater power generation potential as the amplitude of the electrical power output (628) generated increases with increased velocity per Faraday's Law of Induction.

As best seen in Fig. 6B. hot, higher pressure gas (610) from behind the pellet (602) is able to flow through lines (620) past the pellet (610) to the second inlet to the bypass lines (620) located on the front side of the pellet (602), which allows the pressure to equalize on both sides of the fast moving pellet (602) and through out the entire unit (600) as well. The gas

(610) that flows into the bypass lines (620) is cooled by cooler (612) that reduces it volume and vapor pressure. Accumulator (618) provides sufficient area to store excess low pressure gas (610) released from behind the pellet (602).

As best seen in Fig. 6C, a series of coils (630) located in the central portion of the cylinder (614) generate an electrical current output (628) as the permanent magnets (636) of the magnetic pellet (602) pass through the center of the coils (630). The high level of Kinetic Energy of the pellet (602) allows it to resist the electromagnetic attraction of the electromagnetic coils (630) as it rapidly passes through the center of the coils (630). The high velocity of the permanent magnet pellet (602) produces a very high magnitude power output (628).

As best seen in Fig. 6D, the pellet (602) has relatively free movement through the center of the cylinder (614) because gas (610) displaced in front of the pellet (602) can flow through the bypass lines (620) to behind the pellet (602) without the buildup of pressure in front of the pellet (610). The gas (610) is cooled via heat rejection as it circulates through the bypass line (620), which reduces the volume and vapor pressure of the gas (610).

As best seen in Fig. 6E. the pellet (602) compresses gas (610) in front of it causing the heat of compression to be produced as the pellet (602) speeds into the sealed end (624) of the cylinder (614). The heat is stored in recuperator (626). As the pellet (602) compresses the gas (610) in front of it, energy is transferred from the pellet (602) to the gas (610); and, the energy is conserved for later use to accelerate the pellet (602) in the opposite direction. Lower pressure is formed behind the pellet (602) as it compresses gas (610) in front of it.

As best seen in Fig. 6F, the pressure of the gas (610) increases until the pellet's (602) forward moment is stopped.

As best seen in Fig. 6G, the pellet (602) accelerates in the opposite direction due to the high pressure of the gas (610) that exerts a force against the pellet (602) in the opposite direction. Recuperator (626) gives the stored heat back to the expanding gas (610) as it cools due to expansion so that the volume of gas (610) is not substantially reduced by heat loss during the compression process.

As best seen in Fig. 6H, power is generated as the magnetic pellet (602) again accelerates through the center of the coils (630) with relatively free movement as the gas (610) moves from in front of the pellet (602) to behind it.

As best seen in Fig. 61, gas (610) is compressed from cylinder (614) into heat exchanger (608) by the momentum of the pellet (602) and low pressure is formed behind the pellet (602).

As best seen in Fig. 6 J, the pressure of the gas (610) builds until it stops the forward momentum of the pellet (602) after a substantial quantity of gas (610) has been pressurized into heat exchanger (608).

As best seen in Fig. 6K, the pellet (602) is again accelerated to its original velocity because of the heat energy added to the gas (610) by the combustion (640) heat source and the process repeats itself in a continuous cycle. The heat energy increases the volume of gas (610) available in order to accelerate the pellet (602) to higher velocity. Energy is conserved during each compression cycle as energy is transferred from the pellet (602) to the gas (610) as the pellet (602) does work on the gas, then back to the pellet (602) as the gas (610) does work on the pellet (602), which results in the very high efficiency attained by the self-compressing

Accelerated Magnetic Pellet Generator (600). Fig. 7 below uses the compression of a gas providing the near elastic state for a magnetic piston in the same manner as the near elastic nature of gas molecules on the molecular level in an unordered manner.

A pressurized gas, which includes compressed air, driven MPG provides the simplest embodiment of the Accelerated Magnetic Piston Generator. This simple version may be driven by compressed air that is exhausted to the environment, having no negative environmental impact if the compressed air is produced by attaching an air compressor to the output shaft of a wind turbine as a form or renewable energy for example.

Likewise, the MPG may be powered by the pressure of a natural gas well having a pressure drop to transmission line pressure or by the natural gas pressure drop of a transmission line to a city gate. The pressurized gas to drive a pressurized gas MPG may be provided by the vaporizer of a simple Rankine Cycle with the exhaust being directed to a condenser so that any thermal energy source may be used to power the MPG. The magnetic piston of a Rankine cycle pressurized gas powered MPG is driven by the Delta pressure between the vaporizer and condenser that is exerted upon the magnetic piston, which has seals on each end of the piston in order to maintain the difference in pressure on each side of the piston and to keep it properly aligned within the cylinder.

The following is a brief description of the major steps of the operation of the pressurized gas driven MPG model disclosed herein in Figure Seven:

As best seen in Fig. 7A, The pressurized gas driven system (700) is prepared for start-up by opening pressurized gas supply solenoid valve (720) that allows a pressurized gas (724), such as compressed air to apply force against magnetic piston (708) that is held in place by a trigger mechanism (722). The pellet (708) has seals at each end to retain the pressure of the pressurized gas (724). This process forms a substantial pressure differential with low pressure ambient pressure in front of the piston (708) and with high pressure compressed air (724) or another pressurized gas (724) behind it. Exhaust valve (706) is closed and exhaust valve (718) is open to the ambient low pressure of the atmosphere via exhaust line (716). Pressurized gas supply valve (730) is closed. As best seen in Fig. 7B, the piston (708) is released by the trigger mechanism (722). The piston (708) is accelerated down the cylinder (704) by the high pressure behind the piston (708), achieving a high velocity. Ideally the piston (708) would achieve the velocity of a bullet of thousands of feet per second. The Kinetic Energy of Motion possessed by the piston (708) is dramatically increased due to the acceleration to high velocity resulting in the piston (708) possessing a much greater power generation potential as the amplitude of the electrical power output (726) generated increases with increased velocity per Faraday's Law of Induction and the inertia of the accelerated mass of the high speed piston (708) maintains its high velocity in order to resist the magnetic attraction of the coils (712) in the same manner as an accelerated bullet is able to pass through a steel plate.

As best seen in Fig. 7C, a series of coils (712) located in the central portion of the cylinder (704) generate an electrical current output (726) as the permanent magnets of the magnetic piston (708) pass through the center of the coils (712). The high level of Kinetic Energy of the piston (708) allows it to resist the electromagnetic attraction of the electromagnetic coils (712) as it rapidly passes through the center of the coils (712). The high velocity of the permanent magnet piston (708) produces a very high magnitude power output (726).

As best seen in Fig. 7D, electronic sensor (714) turns off the pressurized gas supply (724) via solenoid valve (720) when the piston (708) reaches the sensor (714). The senor also closes exhaust valve (716) and opens exhaust valve (706) to the ambient atmospheric pressure via exhaust line (728).

As best seen in Fig. 7E, the piston (708) compresses gas (724) in front of it causing the heat of compression to be produced as the piston (708) speeds into the sealed end of the cylinder

(704). The heat is may be stored in a recuperator. As the piston (708) compresses the gas

(724) in front of it, energy is transferred from the piston (708) to the gas (724); and, the energy is conserved for later use to accelerate the piston (708) in the opposite direction.

Lower pressure is formed behind the piston (708) because exhaust solenoid valve (706) is open to atmospheric pressure as piston (708) compresses gas (724) in front of it.

As best seen in Fig. 7F, the pressure of the gas (724) increases until the piston's (708) forward moment is stopped. As best seen in Fig. 7G. the piston (708) accelerates in the opposite direction due to the high pressure of the gas (724) that exerts a force against the piston (708) in the opposite direction via energy conserved by the compression of the gas (724) via the kinetic energy of the piston (708). The work done on the gas (724) by the piston (708) is returned as the gas does work on the piston (708) to accelerate it in the opposite direction with approximately the same velocity as the piston (708) had when it entered the dead end of the cylinder (704).

As best seen in Fig. 7H, gas supply valve (730) is opened when the piston (708) reaches sensor (714) for the second time as it goes in the opposite direction in order to provide a supply of high pressure gas (724) to accelerate the piston (708) back to its original velocity. Energy lost results in slower velocity of the piston (708). Energy is lost while producing electrical power (726), due to heat losses, and due to friction. This energy is replaced by the force applied against the piston (708) by the pressure of the pressurized gas (724) that flows through valve (730), accelerating the piston (708) in the opposite direction.

A second power output (726) is generated as the magnets of the magnetic piston (708) move through the coils (712) in the opposite direction at high velocity.

Sensor (710) closes exhaust valve (706), opens exhaust valve (748), and closes pressurized gas supply valve (730) when the piston (708) reaches sensor (710) going in the opposite direction. The piston (708) is again stopped and reverses direction; and, when it reaches sensor (710) for the second time pressurized gas supply valve (720) is opened in order to repeat the process in a continuous cycle.

With reference to Fig. 8, there is shown an alternative embodiment of the MPG in which the improvements include an electro-magnetic trigger (106), a single accumulator (116) and elimination of the by-pass lines. .

Use of the entire cylinder as a one-piece electro-magnet that is cycled on and off allows variable power output in a number of ways. The length of the electromagnet coil that produces power when activated is effectively changed by altering the location at which the coil is turned-on or shut-off. The electrical power supply to the coil is turned off to reduce the magnetic attraction of the magnet to the coil in order to allow the magnet to accelerate to high velocity. The above changes allows the magnet to be driven with the full force of the working fluid against the magnet as it passes through the coil for higher power output as the force keeps the magnet from being slowed by the electro-magnetic attraction of the coil.

The entire cylinder being a single electro-magnet allows the unit to operate in reverse with an electrical power input that alters directions from end-to-end of the coil to cause a back-and- forth movement of the magnet within the cylinder to form a solenoid in order to pump water or compress a gas. This opens up new categories of use for the unit as a reversible device capable of pumping a liquid or compressing a gas. For example, the MPG could be used for pump storage in which cheap electricity is used to power the MPG to pump water to a high head then during the peak period the pressure of the water drives the MPG to produce electrical power for the grid. A hydro driven MPG would also be beneficially cooled by the water.

These improvements that will also be applied to other MPG models help to simply the design and substantially reduce the MPG manufacturing and unit costs.

Claims

The Claims
1. An electrical current generator for converting heat energy obtained from an external source to electrical energy comprising: a sealed cylinder containing a working fluid having a first end portion, a second end portion and a body portion disposed intermediate said first end portion and said second end portion, said body portion being nonferrous; a magnetic pellet sealingly disposed in coaxial slidable engagement within said cylinder and initially releasably biased in said first end portion proximal said body portion; a electrically conductive coil coaxially disposed externally said body portion about a midpoint thereof, said coil having a first end and a second end; a first accumulator and a second accumulator in fluid communication with said body portion, said first accumulator being disposed proximal said first end of said coil and said second accumulator being disposed proximal said second end of said coil; a first pair of heat exchangers, one of said first pair of heat exchangers being disposed in fluid communication intermediate said body portion and said first accumulator and one other of said first pair of heat exchangers being disposed in fluid communication intermediate said body portion and said second accumulator; a second pair of heat exchangers adapted to be exposed heat energy from said external source, one of said second pair of heat exchangers being disposed in fluid communication with said first end portion distal said body portion and one other of said second pair of heat exchangers being disposed in fluid communication with said second end portion distal said body portion; wherein initial heating of said working fluid in said first end portion while said pellet is releasably biased thereat builds an acceleration pressure upon release, and after release cooling and heating of said working fluid in said first end portion and said second end portion maintains reciprocation of said pellet, said pellet generating a magnetic field to pass through said coil when said pellet is reciprocated, said coil thereby generating electricity.
PCT/US2006/012294 2005-04-01 2006-04-03 Accelerated permanent magnet generator WO2006107866A3 (en)

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Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3234395A (en) * 1962-02-01 1966-02-08 Richard M Colgate Free piston electrical generator
US3968387A (en) * 1975-05-16 1976-07-06 Lawrence Peska Associates, Inc. Linear magnetic generator
US4140932A (en) * 1976-11-10 1979-02-20 Riverbank Laboratories Pulse generator
US4403153A (en) * 1981-04-03 1983-09-06 Roger Vallon Free-piston electric current generator
US4454426A (en) * 1981-08-17 1984-06-12 New Process Industries, Inc. Linear electromagnetic machine
US4649283A (en) * 1985-08-20 1987-03-10 Sunpower, Inc. Multi-phase linear alternator driven by free-piston Stirling engine
DE19813992A1 (en) * 1998-03-28 1999-10-07 Stefan Roeder Free piston combustion engine with electrical energy delivery e.g. for hybrid automobile, heating plant or mobile current generator
US6199519B1 (en) * 1998-06-25 2001-03-13 Sandia Corporation Free-piston engine
DE19943993A1 (en) * 1999-09-14 2001-03-15 Volkswagen Ag Internal combustion engine for motor vehicle, has linear generator with permanent magnet(s) on piston rod moved axially and reciprocally in coil winding when dual piston oscillates
US20050072148A1 (en) * 2001-01-17 2005-04-07 Pierre Francois Power unit with reciprocating linear movement based on stirling motor, and method used in said power plant

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3234395A (en) * 1962-02-01 1966-02-08 Richard M Colgate Free piston electrical generator
US3968387A (en) * 1975-05-16 1976-07-06 Lawrence Peska Associates, Inc. Linear magnetic generator
US4140932A (en) * 1976-11-10 1979-02-20 Riverbank Laboratories Pulse generator
US4403153A (en) * 1981-04-03 1983-09-06 Roger Vallon Free-piston electric current generator
US4454426A (en) * 1981-08-17 1984-06-12 New Process Industries, Inc. Linear electromagnetic machine
US4649283A (en) * 1985-08-20 1987-03-10 Sunpower, Inc. Multi-phase linear alternator driven by free-piston Stirling engine
DE19813992A1 (en) * 1998-03-28 1999-10-07 Stefan Roeder Free piston combustion engine with electrical energy delivery e.g. for hybrid automobile, heating plant or mobile current generator
US6199519B1 (en) * 1998-06-25 2001-03-13 Sandia Corporation Free-piston engine
DE19943993A1 (en) * 1999-09-14 2001-03-15 Volkswagen Ag Internal combustion engine for motor vehicle, has linear generator with permanent magnet(s) on piston rod moved axially and reciprocally in coil winding when dual piston oscillates
US20050072148A1 (en) * 2001-01-17 2005-04-07 Pierre Francois Power unit with reciprocating linear movement based on stirling motor, and method used in said power plant

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