WO2006057677A1 - Packet processing systems and methods - Google Patents

Packet processing systems and methods Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2006057677A1
WO2006057677A1 PCT/US2005/025832 US2005025832W WO2006057677A1 WO 2006057677 A1 WO2006057677 A1 WO 2006057677A1 US 2005025832 W US2005025832 W US 2005025832W WO 2006057677 A1 WO2006057677 A1 WO 2006057677A1
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Prior art keywords
lts
legacy
transmit
transmit antennas
corresponding
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2005/025832
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Mark A. Webster
Michael J. Seals
Original Assignee
Conexant Systems, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Priority to US58959404P priority Critical
Priority to US60/589,594 priority
Priority to US11/159,812 priority
Priority to US11/159,812 priority patent/US7643453B2/en
Application filed by Conexant Systems, Inc. filed Critical Conexant Systems, Inc.
Publication of WO2006057677A1 publication Critical patent/WO2006057677A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/26Systems using multi-frequency codes
    • H04L27/2601Multicarrier modulation systems
    • H04L27/2602Signal structure

Abstract

Various packet processing systems and methods are disclosed. One method embodiment, among others, comprises providing a legacy long training symbol (LTS) (1302), and inserting subcarriers in the legacy LTS to form an extended LTS (ELTS) (1304).

Description

PACKET PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation-in-part of copending U.S. utility

application entitled, "Legacy Compatible Spatial Multiplexing Systems and Methods," having ser. no. 11/159,812, filed June 22, 2005, which claimed the benefit of U.S. provisional application having serial no. 60/581,358, filed June 22,

2004, both of which are entirely incorporated herein by reference.

This application claims priority to copending U.S. provisional application

entitled, "Singular Preamble Structure for 802.1 In PHY Unifying Mixed-Mode and

Greenfield," having ser. no. 60/589,594, filed July 21, 2004, which is entirely

incorporated herein by reference.

This application is related to copending U. S utility patent application entitled

"Packet Generation Systems and Methods," filed on July 20, 2005, and accorded serial number xx/xxx,xxx, which claimed the benefit of U.S. provisional application having serial no. 60/589,158, filed July 20, 2004, both which are entirely

incorporated herein by reference. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention.

The present disclosure is generally related to communication systems, and, more particularly, is related to wireless communication systems and methods.

2. Related Art.

Wireless communication systems are widely deployed to provide various types

of communication such as voice, data, and so on. These systems may be based on

code division multiple access (CDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA),

orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM), or some other multiplexing techniques. OFDM systems may provide high performance for some channel

environments. FIG. IA is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary single-in, single-out (SΪSO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

communication system 100 (herein, SISO system 100) that is compliant with IEEE

802.11 standards. The SISO system 100 comprises a transmitter device 102 and a

receiver device 104. The transmitter device 102 comprises a transmit (TX) processor

106, radio circuitry 108, and antenna 110. The receiver device 104 comprises an antenna 112, radio circuitry 114, and receive (RX) processor 116.

The transmitter device 102 comprises well-known circuitry that divides the

high-speed data signals into tens or hundreds of lower speed signals and transmits

the signals in parallel over respective frequencies within a radio frequency (RF)

signal that comprise subcarrier frequencies ("subcarriers"). The frequency spectra of

the subcarriers overlap so that the spacing between them is minimized. The subcarriers are also orthogonal to each other so that they are statistically independent

and do not create cross-talk or otherwise interfere with each other. FIG. IB is a

schematic diagram that illustrates an exemplary OFDM symbol 118 corresponding

to signals processed in the SISO system 100. In 802.11 standards, each OFDM symbol 118 provided by the transmitter device 102 comprises 52 subcarriers

(partially shown for brevity) centered at a defined reference or carrier frequency,

with a bandwidth (BW) of approximately 20 mega-Hertz (MHz). The spectrum resulting from processing at the receiver device 104 is typically centered at the same

reference or carrier frequency.

In operation, the transmit processor 106 receives data signals (designated as

TX datal at a defined data rate designated as TX Ratel). The transmit processor 106

encodes and interleaves the data and maps the interleaved data into respective

subcarrier channels as frequency domain symbols. Further processing by the transmit processor 106 may result in the insertion of training signals, cyclic extensions (e.g., guard intervals), and additional processing such as inverse fast

Fourier transformations (IFFT) and wave shaping. The processed subcarriers are

provided to the radio circuitry 108, which provides filtering, modulation,

amplification, and upconversion functionality, ultimately resulting in the

transmission of data from antenna 110.

FIG. 1C is block diagram that describes an exemplary OFDM packet structure 150. used in the transmission of information between the transmitter device

102 and the SISO receiver device 104. Additional information about the packet

structure can be found in 802.11 standards. The packet structure 150 is generated in a baseband processing section (e.g., in or in cooperation with an inverse fast Fourier transform (DFFT) operation) of the transmitter device 102, and comprises several

sections. Sections A and B are comprised of short training symbols (STS). Section

A is used by a communication system to provide signal detection, automatic gain

control (AGC), and diversity selection functionality. Section B is used by a

communication system to provide coarse frequency offset estimation and timing synchronization. Section C, sometimes referred to as a long training symbol (LTS),

is used by a communication system to provide channel estimation and fine frequency

offset estimation. Sections A-C are typically referred to as the preamble portion of a packet. Section D is referred to as the signal field or header, and contains data rate

and packet length information. Sections E and F are OFDM symbols, such as

OFDM symbol 118a. Sections D, E, and F provide rate length, service and data, and

data, respectively.

At the receiver device 104, the antenna 112 receives the transmitted data, which is provided to radio circuitry 114 to complement the processing that occurred at

radio circuitry 108. The data is then provided to receive (RX) processor 116, which provides clock recovery, cyclic extension removal, transformations (e.g., fast Fourier

transformation, FFT), demapping, deinterleaving, and decoding to recover the TX datal as RX datal. Transmitter and receiver devices that are compliant to IEEE

802.1 la/g standards, such as shown in FIG. IA, are often referred to as legacy radios

or legacy devices.

Continual demand for increased data rates has resulted in the advancement of communications system technology, such as the use of multiple antennas in a single device having transmitter and/or receiver functionality. In terrestrial communication

systems (e.g., a cellular system, a broadcast system, a multi-channel multi-point distribution system (MMDS), among others), a RF modulated signal from a transmitter device may reach a receiver device via a number of transmission paths. The

characteristics of the transmission paths typically vary over time due to a number of

factors such as fading and multi-path. To provide diversity against deleterious path

effects and improve performance, multiple transmit and receive antennas may be used for data transmission. Spatial multiplexing refers to a technique where a transmission

channel is divided into multiple "spatial channels" through which independent streams can be transmitted and received via multiple transmit and receive antennas, respectively.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram that illustrates a multiple-input multiple-output

(MEVIO) OFDM communication system 200 (herein, MIMO system 200). The MIMO system 200 employs multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive

antennas for data transmission. Through spatial multiplexing, a MBVIO channel

formed by the transmit and receive antennas may be decomposed into independent channels. Each of the independent channels is also referred to as a spatial subchannel of the MIMO channel. The MEVIO system 200 comprises a transmitter

device 202 and receiver device 204. The transmitter device 202 comprises transmit

(TX) processors 206 and 212, radio circuitry 208 and 214, and antennas 210 and 216. The receiver device 204 comprises antennas 218 and 226, radio circuitry 220

and 228, and receive (RX) processors 224 and 230. The transmit processors 206 and

212 and the radio circuitry 208 and 214 comprise similar circuitry to that found in and described for transmit processor 106 (FIG. IA), with the addition of circuitry for

implementing spatial multiplexing. The radio circuitry 220 and 228 and receive

processors 224 and 230 also share common circuitry with like components shown in and described for receiver device 104 (FIG. IA). The receive processors 224 and

230 may comprise signal separating functionality to remove interference caused by

multiple transmit signals occupying the same bandwidth at the receive antennas 218 and 226, and thus may be used to increase the data rate.

In developing systems such as MIMO that utilize multiple-antenna devices,

there is a need to consider legacy receivers (e.g., single-input, single output (SISO),

OFDM receivers) and the design challenges concomitant with implementing

transmitters with multiple antennas in an environment that still uses legacy receivers.

SUMMARY Various packet processing systems and methods are disclosed. One method

embodiment, among others, comprises providing a legacy long training symbol

(LTS), and inserting subcarriers in the legacy LTS to form an extended LTS (ELTS).

Other systems, methods, features, and advantages of the disclosed systems

and methods will be or become apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following drawings and detailed description. It is intended that all such additional systems, methods, features, and advantages be included within

this description and be within the scope of the disclosure. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Many aspects of the disclosed systems and methods can be better understood

with reference to the following drawings. The components in the drawings are not

necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon clearly illustrating the

principles of the disclosed systems and methods. Moreover, in the drawings, like reference numerals designate corresponding parts throughout the several views.

FIG. IA is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary single-in, single-out

(SISO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system.

FIG. IB is a schematic diagram that illustrates subcarriers of an OFDM

symbol processed in the SISO OFDM communication system shown in FIG. IA.

FIG. 1C is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary OFDM packet

structure used in SISO and multiple-input, multiple-output (MDVIO) OFDM

communication systems.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram that illustrates a MIMO OFDM communication system.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a legacy

compatible spatial multiplexing (LCSM) system.

FIG. 4A is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a transmit

module of the LCSM system shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 4B is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a long training

symbol (LTS) generator of the transmit module shown in FIG. 4A.

FIG. 4C is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a short training

symbol (STS) generator of the transmit module shown in FIG. 4A. FIG. 4D is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary packet structure

generated by the waveshape logic and transmitted from a first antenna shown in FIG.

4A.

FIG. 5 A is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a cyclic shift transmit module of the LCSM system shown in FIG. 3.

FIGs. 5B-5C are block diagrams that illustrate two embodiments of an

inverted LTS-CS (cyclic shifted) generator shown in FIG. 5A.

FIG. 5D is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary packet structure generated by the waveshape logic and transmitted from a second antenna shown in

FIG. 5 A.

FIG. 6 is a block diagram that illustrates receive module embodiments of the

LCSM system shown in FIG. 3.

FIGs. 7A-7B are block diagrams that illustrate embodiments of receive logic of one of the receive modules shown in FIG. 6 corresponding to channel estimation.

FIGs. 8A-8B are block diagrams that illustrate embodiments of receive logic of one of the receive modules shown in FIG. 6 corresponding to channel estimation with at least one channel estimate having a cyclic shift.

FIGs. 9A-9B illustrate exemplary extended LTS (ELTS) symbol wavefoπns.

FIGs. 1OA and 1OB are schematic diagrams that illustrate orthogonal

sequences for 2-ary and 4-ary Walsh (also known as Walsh-Hadamard) coding,

respectively. FIGs. 1 IA-I IB illustrate an embodiment that performs preamble/header

processing for a four antenna implementation using the orthogonal sequences described in FIG. 1OB and Walsh processing.

FIGs. 12A-12B illustrate an embodiment that performs preamble/header

processing for a four transmit antenna implementation using a combination of Walsh

processing and large cyclic shifts.

FIGs. 13 and 14 are flow diagrams that illustrate packet processing method embodiments on the transmit side.

FIGs. 15 and 16 are flow diagrams that illustrate packet processing method

embodiments on the receiver side.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Disclosed are various embodiments of legacy compatible, spatial

multiplexing (SM) systems and methods (herein, referred to as LCSM systems).

Such embodiments are described in the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) communication systems.

In one embodiment, an LCSM system comprises one or more transmit modules that include waveshape logic configured to generate transmit waveforms (e.g., packet segments) that enable a receiver to implement channel estimate processing

corresponding to signals emitted from multiple transmit antennas. The waveshape

logic generates, in one embodiment, a two-part packet that is employed in both

MEVIO spatial multiplexed packet transmission and reception and legacy transmission and reception. That is, a first portion of a packet includes a legacy preamble that is compatible for use with legacy receivers (e.g., 801.11 a/g receivers).

Legacy receivers recognize the first portion as a normal legacy preamble, and thus

process the corresponding packet in a conventional manner. A second portion of the packet includes a cyclic shifted, inverted long training symbol that is used to enable successful processing by a SM MEMO receiver (e.g., 802.1 In compatible receiver).

In one implementation, 52 subcarriers are used for the MIMO portion of a preamble and the legacy portion of the preamble at the transmit side, hi another

implementation, 56 or more subcarriers are used for the MIMO portion of a preamble. Such an implementation in conventional systems would represent a

discontinuity in bandwidth between the legacy preamble portion (having 52

subcarriers) and the MIMO portion (having 56 or more subcarriers). Such a discontinuity also results in conventional systems ignoring the legacy portion of the preamble in training or estimating the channel corresponding to the MIMO signal, which wastes packet overhead. Thus, one embodiment of the waveshape logic

processes the long training symbol in a manner that adds subcarriers to each end of a

symbol to provide an extended long training symbol (ELTS) having 56 or more

subcarriers. It is noted that although the width of the long training symbol is

extended, the duration preferably remains unchanged. Certain LCSM system embodiments described herein reuse the cyclic shifted

legacy portion of a packet to enable orthogonal channel estimation at either a MIMO

receiver in a spatial multiplexing environment or a legacy receiver. With spatial

multiplexing techniques, two or more signals can be delivered in the same frequency channel, providing a mechanism for a receiver to exploit multipath signals (e.g., signals emitted from each transmit antenna that bounce off structures to create

multiple signals arriving at different angles at a receiver) to mitigate or eliminate

interference that the receiver experiences between two or more transmit signals.

That is, the cyclic shift, which may be implemented as an advance or delay,

mitigates (or eliminates) self-interference of a preamble portion of the transmitted

signal, and enables the transmission of legacy preamble portions provided from multiple transmit antennas. By reusing the cyclic shifted preambles, channel estimation is efficient since such channel estimation makes use of the legacy portion

of the packet. Reusing the cyclic shifted portion also allows digital circuitry to be

reused.

In one embodiment, channel estimation is performed using Walsh coding,

which is a well-known waveform algorithm that uses addition and subtraction to

separate two signals. Thus, joint channel estimation of signals, provided from multiple transmit antennas, by a receiver is enabled with reuse of the legacy preamble in the channel estimation.

In another embodiment, channel estimation is performed using large cyclic

shifts in addition to Walsh coding.

Certain LCSM system embodiments are described in the context of a 2 x 2

MIMO OFDM system that utilizes Walsh code orthogonalization. However, one of

ordinary skill in the art would appreciate that other spatial multiplexing orders (e.g.,

3 x 3, 4 x 4, etc.) and other channel estimation methods can be used and hence are considered within the scope of the disclosure. For instance, embodiments are described using three and four transmit antennas. Further, although described in the context of EEEE 802.11 compatible systems {e.g., 802.1 la/g, 802.1 In, etc.), it would be understood by one having ordinary skill in the art that the disclosed systems and

methods apply to any systems compliant to OFDM-based standards.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of a LCSM system

300. The LCSM system 300, though shown encompassing transmit and receive

components, may comprise select components of one or more of the same in some

embodiments, hi one embodiment, the LCSM system 300 comprises a multiple-

input multiple-output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system that generates a packet having a legacy preamble portion and a MIMO spatial multiplexing portion, and reuses the legacy preamble portion to

provide orthogonal channel estimation. The LCSM system 300 comprises a transmitter device 302 and a receiver device 304. The transmitter device 302 may

include functionality of the receiver device 304, and the receiver device 304 may

comprise functionality of the transmitter device 302. Further, the described

embodiments may be embodied in many wireless communication devices, including computers (desktop, portable, laptop, etc.), consumer electronic devices (e.g., multi¬ media players), compatible telecommunication devices, telephone communication

systems and devices (e.g., voice over IP phones), personal digital assistants (PDAs),

or any other type of network devices, such as.printers, fax machines, scanners, hubs, switches, routers, set-top boxes, televisions with communication capability, etc.

The transmitter device 302 comprises two modules 334 and 336. Module

334 comprises a transmit (TX) processor 306, radio circuitry 310, and an antenna 314 (herein, also first transmit antenna, or Tχi). Module 336 comprises a transmit

(TX) processor 308, radio circuitry 312, and antenna 316 (herein, also second

transmit antenna, or Tχ2). The modules 334 and 336, or select components of the

same, may also be referred to as packet processing systems or transmit side packet

processing systems. The transmit processors 306 and 308 comprise waveshape logic 350a and 350b, respectively. The waveshape logic 350a, 350b generate two-part packets and provide for extended LTSs, as described below. Briefly, for data

symbols and signal fields, transmit processors 306 and 308 encode and interleave the

incoming data (designated TX datal and TX data2 at TX data ratel and TX data

rate2, respectively). Transmit processors 306 and 308 map the interleaved data into respective subcarrier channels as frequency domain symbols, and include further processing for the insertion of training signals, cyclic extensions (e.g., guard

intervals), preamble generation, and inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) and

wave shaping. The processed subcarriers are provided to the radio circuitry 310 and 312, which provides filtering, modulation, and amplification functionality.

The receiver device 304 comprises modules 338 and 340. Module 338

comprises an antenna 318 (herein, also first receive antenna, or Rx1 ), radio circuitry

322, and receive (RX) processor 326. Receive processor 326 comprises receive (RX) logic 360a, which provides channel estimation functionality and multipath separation as described below. The module 338 may comprise additional circuitry, such as a

signal separator, among other components as would be understood by one having

ordinary skill in the art. Module 340 comprises an antenna 320 (herein, also second

receive antenna, or Rx2), radio circuitry 324, and receive (RX) processor 328, which comprises receive (RX) logic 360b, which provides channel estimation functionality

and multipath separation as described below. The module 340 may comprise

additional circuitry, such as a signal separator, among other components as would be

understood by one having ordinary skill in the art. The modules 338 and 340, or select

components of the same, may also be referred to as packet processing systems or receive side packet processing systems.

At the receiver device 304, the antennas 318 and 320 receive the transmitted data, and provide the same to radio circuitry 322 and 324, which provide downconversion functionality among other functionality to complement the processing

that occurred at radio circuitry 310 and 312. The corresponding downconverted

signals are provided to receive processors 326 and 328 to separate multipath signals

and recover the original data as RX datal and RX data2. Receive processors 326 and 328 may provide clock recovery, cyclic extension removal, transformation (e.g., fast Fourier transformation, FFT), demapping, deinterleaving, and/or decoding

functionality, among other functionality.

One or more components of the LCSM system 300, such as the waveshape logic 350a, 350b and the receive logic 360a, 360b, can be implemented using digital

circuitry, analog circuitry, or a combination of both. Also, one or more components

of the LCSM system 300 can be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or a

combination thereof. If implemented in hardware, the one or more components of the LCSM system 300 can be implemented with any or a combination of the following technologies, which are all well known in the art: a discrete logic

circuit(s) having logic gates for implementing logic functions upon data signals, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) having appropriate combinational logic

gates, a programmable gate array(s) (PGA), a field programmable gate array

(FPGA), etc.

If implemented partly or wholly in software, the one or more components of

the LCSM system 300 can be comprised of software or firmware that is stored in a

memory and that is executed by a suitable instruction execution system.

FIG. 4A is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of the module 334

of FIG. 3. The module 334 comprises the transmit processor 306, radio 310, and first transmit antenna 314. The transmit processor 306 comprises a waveshape logic

350a that generates the packet structure. The waveshape logic comprises a legacy

preamble/signal field (SF) generator 319. The legacy preamble/SF generator 319 comprises a short training symbol (STS) generator 301, a long training symbol

(LTS) generator 303a, a SFl generator 305, and a switch 311. The STS generator

301 and LTS generator 303a are configured to generate segments of a legacy preamble. The LTS generator 303 a also includes functionality to insert additional subcarriers to a standard, 52-subcarrier legacy LTS symbol. The STS generator 301 generates a STS segment and the LTS generator 303 a generates a LTS segment in

conformity to 802.11 standards. The SFl generator 305 generates a signal field

segment.

These segments are input to the switch 311, and based on a control signal

(Select 1), are provided as a coordinated output to switch 313, which also is part of

the waveshape logic 350a. The waveshape logic 350a further includes a LTS

generator 303b, a SF2 generator 307, and a data symbol generator 309. hi one embodiment, the LTS generator 303b is the same component as the LTS generator 303a, just designated with different letters ("a" and "b") to distinguish their

respective role in supplying a LTS segment for a legacy preamble portion (LTS

generator 303a) and a spatial multiplexing portion (LTS generator 303b). The SF2 generator 307 receives data rate information, among other information pertaining to

spatial multiplexing environments, and the data symbol generator 309 receives data

bits. The switch 313 receives the respective segments from generators 303b, 307,

and 309, and also receives the segments from switch 311, and based on the control

input (Select2), provides the segments in coordinated fashion to the digital-to-analog (D/A) converter 315a of the transmit processor 306.

It would be understood by one having ordinary skill in the art that transmit

processor 306 may comprise additional circuitry, such as a forward error correction

(FEC) encoder and an interleaver/mapper to be used in conjunction with data symbol and signal field processing as is known, as well as symbol shape logic, among other

components. For instance, an FEC encoder (or FEC coder) may receive information

from a data source and encode the received information according to one or more

encoding schemes. The FEC encoder may provide the encoded information to an interleaver/mapper, which interleaves or distributes the encoded information and maps (e.g., over approximately 64-subcarriers) the same for use over the first

transmit antenna 314. Symbol shape logic provides interpolator functionality as well

as low-pass filter smoothing of edges between successive OFDM symbols, in one

embodiment creating tapered trailer and leading edges of each OFDM symbol. The radio 310 receives the analog signal corresponding to the packet

structure generated in the waveshape logic 350a. The radio 310 comprises a

modulator 314a (e.g., in-phase/ quadrature (VQ) modulator and oscillator), conversion logic 316a (e.g., oscillator and mixer), and high power amplifier (HPA) 318a. It would be appreciated by one having ordinary skill in the art that fewer,

additional, and/or different components can be included in the module 334. Within

the radio 310, the analog transmission signals are modulated, upconverted, and amplified/filtered at modulator 314a, conversion logic 316a, and HPA 318a,

respectively. The resulting signal is then transmitted over first transmit antenna 314.

FIG. 4B illustrates an embodiment of LTS generator 303a, 303b, and

comprises a long training symbol (LTS) subcarrier stack 402, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) circuitry 404 (e.g., 64-point IFFT), and an add guard interval module 406. Concerning the insertion of extra subcarriers, extra active subcarriers

may be placed in the subcarrier stack 402. That is, for legacy 802.11 a/g

implementations, there are 52 active subcarriers placed in the stack and input to the IFFT circuitry 404. For extended LTS implementations, such as for 20 MHz

applications, 56 active subcarriers are placed in the subcarrier stack 402. Inactive

subcarriers are zeroed in the stack of 64 for the 64-point IFFT circuitry 404. Thus,

LTS subcarriers from the LTS subcarrier stack 402 are provided to the IFFT circuitry 404 for formation into an OFDM symbol. The IFFT circuitry 404 converts the subcarriers to its corresponding time-domain representation (an OFDM symbol), and

removes various subcarriers. FIG. 4C is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of the STS

generator 301. Like the LTS generator 303a, 303b, the STS generator 301 generates a deterministic signal waveform that is used at a receiver to estimate channel

information. The STS generator 301 comprises a STS subcaπϊer stack 401 that

feeds an IFFT 403. The components of the STS generator comprise similar functionality for generating STS segments as like components described above for the LTS segments, and thus discussion of the same is omitted for brevity.

FIG. 4D is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary packet structure

generated 400 generated by the waveshape logic 350a and transmitted from the first

transmit antenna 314 (Tχi). Further, the description of the various segments described in association with FIG. 4D may also be applied to like segments for

packet segments described below with or without cyclic shifting implemented for the

respective segment. The packet structure 400 comprises a legacy preamble portion 401 and a MIMO, spatial multiplexing (SM) portion 403. The legacy preamble

portion 401 comprises a short training symbol (STS) segment 420 and a long training symbol (LTS) segment 422a. Also included in the packet structure 400 is a

signal field (SFl) segment 424. The MEVIO, SM portion 403 comprises the reused

LTS (designated as 422b to distinguish between portions) segment 422b and a signal

field (SF2) segment 428. The STS segment 420 is used by the LCSM system 300 to

provide signal detection, automatic gain control (AGC), and diversity selection

functionality, as well as to provide coarse frequency offset estimation and timing

synchronization. The LTS segments 422a, 422b are used by the LCSM system 300

to provide channel estimation and fine frequency offset estimation. The LTS segments 422a, 422b are fixed, deterministic waveforms (e.g., deterministic subcarriers) that are used to perform channel estimation. The SFl segment 424

conveys the length of a packet 400 in time, which is used by a receiver to assist the

receiver in determining when a packet is complete and ready for analysis (e.g., error detection, correction, etc.). The SFl segment 424 also conveys a data rate of the

packet 400.

The MEVlO SM portion 403 is a new portion of the packet 400 according to one embodiment. With conventional single-input, single output (SISO) receivers, each receive antenna only needed to estimate the channel corresponding to a single transmit antenna. However, with two transmit antennas as found in the LCSM

system 300, at least two channels are estimated at each receive antenna, hi other

words, the LTS segment 422a is used again in portion 403 (designated 422b) to

enable the receive module 338 to estimate the channels corresponding to both

transmit antennas 314 and 316, as described below. With regard to the signal field

(SF2) segment 428, information conveyed includes data rates corresponding to MDVIO SM systems (e.g., 108 MBs for 802.1 In systems), the SM order (e.g., 2nd

order for 2 x 2, 3rd order, 4th order, etc.), information about error detection and type (e.g., Viterbi, turbo), etc. MMO SM receivers acquire and process, substantially in

parallel, the legacy portion 401 and MEVIO SM portion 403 to enable processing according to the capabilities to which the receiver is configured.

Note that, as is true with packet portions described below, different

configurations may be used. For instance, the SF2 segment 428 may immediately

follow SFl segment 424 in some embodiments. Further, the duration of the various segments described above and below may be configured differently. For instance,

one embodiment for the SF2 segment 428 may require 4 microseconds duration. Some embodiments may require more duration, depending on the information that is to be conveyed, among other design considerations.

FIG. 5 A is a block diagram that illustrates an embodiment of module 336,

which is configured to provide cyclic shifting of one or more segments of a packet

structure. The module 336 comprises the transmit (TX) processor 308, the radio

312, and the second transmit antenna 316. The transmit processor 308 comprises a

waveshape logic 35Ob for generating the cyclically shifted packet structure. The

waveshape logic 350b comprises a legacy preamble/signal field (SF) generator 519. The legacy preamble/SF generator 519 comprises a short training symbol (STS) generator 501, a long training symbol (LTS) generator 503 a, a SFl generator 505, cyclic shift modules 521, and a switch 511. Note that in some embodiments, the

cyclic shift functionality may be included in the respective generator. The STS

generator 501 and LTS generator 503a are configured to generate segments of a

legacy preamble. The STS generator 501 generates a STS segment and the LTS generator 503a generates a LTS segment in conformity to 802.11 standards. The

LTS generator 503a also includes functionality to insert additional subcarriers to a

standard, 52-subcarrier legacy LTS symbol. The SFl generator 505 generates a signal field segment. These segments are input to the cyclic shift modules 521 to undergo a cyclic shift (e.g., advance or delay), and then the cyclically shifted

segments are provided to switch 511, and based on a control signal (Selectl), are provided as a coordinated output to switch 513, which also is part of the waveshape

logic 350b.

The waveshape logic 350b further includes an inverted (represented with a

minus sign), cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b (-LTS-CS), a SF2 generator 507,

and a data symbol generator 509. hi one embodiment, the inverted, cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b is the same component as the LTS generator 303a, with the addition of an inverter that can be disabled or made transparent for legacy portion

LTS generation functionality. The SF2 generator 507 receives data rate information,

among other information pertaining to spatial multiplexing environments, and the

data symbol generator 509 receives data bits. The switch 513 receives the respective segments from generators 503b, 507, and 509, and also receives the segments from switch 511, and based on the control input (Select2), provides the segments in

coordinated fashion to the digital-to-analog (D/ A) converter 315b of the transmit processor 308.

It would be understood by one having ordinary skill in the art that transmit processor 306 may comprise additional circuitry, as described in association with

FIG. 4A.

The radio 312 receives the analog signal corresponding to the packet

structure generated in the waveshape logic 35Ob. The radio 312 comprises a modulator 314b {e.g., in-phase/ quadrature (I/Q) modulator and oscillator),

conversion logic 316b {e.g., oscillator and mixer), and high power amplifier (HPA)

318b. It would be appreciated by one having ordinary skill in the art that fewer,

additional, and/or different components can be included in the module 336. Within the radio 312, the analog transmission signals are modulated, upconverted, and

amplified/filtered at modulator 314b, conversion logic 316b, and HPA 318b,

respectively. The resulting signal is then transmitted over second transmit antenna

316 (Tχ2). It is noted that the quantity and spectral alignment of the extended

subcarriers on the second transmit antenna 316 preferably match the extension on the first transmit antenna 314.

FIGs. 5B-5C are block diagrams that illustrate two embodiments (503b- 1 and

503b-2, respectively) of an inverted, cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b that provides cyclic shifting of the MIMO SM portion of a packet to be transmitted over the second transmit antenna 316 (Tχ2). Inverted, cyclically shifted LTS generator

embodiments 503b- 1 and 503b-2 comprise a LTS carrier subcarrier stack 502, EFFT

504, and add guard interval 508, similar to the LTS generator 303 a, 303b described

in association with FIG. 4B. The inverted, cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b-l further includes a cyclic shift module 506 to provide cyclic delay or advances to the LTS segment, and an inverter logic (X) 510. With reference to FIG. 5B, a time

domain embodiment corresponding to LTS processing is shown. That is, in the inverted, cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b- 1, an LTS waveform from LTS

subcarrier stack 502 undergoes processing at the IFFT circuitry 504 to provide a

time-domain waveform. Similar processing with regard to subcarrier insertion is as

described in association with FIG. 4B. The resultant samples are cyclically shifted at

the cyclic shift module 506, a guard interval added at add guard interval 508, and

inverted at the inverter logic 510 located after the add guard interval 508. The inverter logic 510 multiples a minus (-) 1 with samples of the cyclically shifted LTS, thus inverting (e.g., make negative) the cyclic shifted LTS in the time domain.

FIG. 5C shows an embodiment of the cyclically shifted LTS generator 503b-

2that performs inversion in the frequency domain. The cyclically shifted LTS

generator 503b- 1 comprises components 502, 504, 506, and 508 similarly structured,

yet connected slightly differently compared to the embodiment 503b- 1 shown in

FIG. 5B. That is, the inverter module 510 is disposed between the LTS subcarrier stack 502 and the EFFT circuitry 504. Each subcarrier corresponding to a cyclically

shifted LTS is made negative, and then applied to the IFFT circuitry 504, resulting in

a negative cyclically shifted LTS.

FIG. 5D is a block diagram that illustrates an exemplary packet structure 500 generated by the waveshape logic 350b and transmitted from a second transmit

antenna 316 (Tχ2). The packet structure 500 comprises a legacy preamble portion

501 and a MIMO-SM portion 503. Segments 520, 524a, 526, 528, and 530 are

similar in function and structure to segments of the same name described in

association with FIG. 4D, except a cyclic shift may be applied, and thus discussion of the same is omitted for brevity. The MEVIO SM portion 503 comprises a

cyclically shifted, inverted LTS segment 524b. The signal field (SF2) segment 528 is not cyclically shifted in one embodiment, although some embodiments may

cyclically shift the SF2 segment 528, as well as the data symbols 530.

Note that in one embodiment, the signal field (SF2) segment 528 and the data

symbols 530 for the packet 500 may have the cyclic shift removed (or omitted during the processing). In some embodiments, the SF2 segment 528 and/or data symbols

530 may be cyclically shifted.

Before proceeding with a discussion of the receive processing of the LCSM

system 300, reference is made again to FIG. 3. As shown, the LCSM system

comprises multiple transmit antennas 314 (Tx i) and 316 (Tχ2) and multiple receive

antennas 318 (Rχi) and 320 (Rx2) in a spatial multiplexing environment. That is, multipath exists at first receive antenna 318, corresponding to signals provided from

first transmit antenna 314 to first receive antenna 318 and from second transmit

antenna 316 to first receive antenna 318. Similarly, multipath exists at second

receive antenna 320, corresponding to signals provided from first transmit antenna 314 to second receive antenna 320 and from second transmit antenna 316 to second receive antenna 320. Each receive antenna 318 and 320 estimates two multipath

channels, one from each of the two transmit antennas 314 and 316. For example,

since there are two receive antennas 318 and 320, four channels (Hn, H12, H21, H22)

can be estimated, as shown by Equation (1):

Rxx Hn HnJTxx

Eq. (1) Rx1 H2, H22 \ τx2

Equation (1) is computed on a subcarrier by subcarrier basis in OFDM environments. For instance, at the first receive antenna 318, a subcarrier at a defined

amplitude and phase emitted from first transmit antenna 314 and a subcarrier of a

defined amplitude and phase from second transmit antenna 316 is received and interference may result. The equation (1) is performed for each subcarrier received

to determine the amplitude and phase.

FIG. 6 is a block diagram that illustrates receive module embodiments 338 and 340. The module 338 comprises a first receive antenna 318, radio 322, and

receive (RX) processor 326. The radio 322 comprises a low noise amplifier (LNA) 602a, conversion logic 604a (e.g., mixer and oscillator), and automatic gain control

(AGC) logic 606a. The receive (RX) processor 326 comprises analog-to-digital (AfD) converter 608a, synchronization logic 610a, cyclic extension removal logic

612a, and receive (RX) logic 360a. Additional processing blocks may be included in

module 338 in some embodiments, such as a matched filter combiner(s), memory,

state logic, signal separator, among other components. Module 340 comprises

similar or the same components as module 338, with similar or the same connections, including a second receive antenna 320, radio 324 (comprising LNA 602b, conversion logic 604b, and AGC 606b), and receive (RX) processing 328

(comprising A/D 608b, synchronization logic 610b, cyclic extension remove logic

612b, and RX logic 360b). The discussion of module 340 is omitted for brevity, and discussion below will focus on module 338 with the understanding that the same or

similar processing applies to module 340.

Referring to module 338, the signals transmitted from first and second

transmit antennas 314 and 316, respectively, are received at first receive antenna 318 and provided to the low noise amplifier (LNA) 602a. The LNA 602a filters the

signal and provides the filtered signal to conversion logic 604a, where the filtered

signal is downconverted to baseband (e.g., in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals), or intermediate frequency (IF) in some embodiments. The downconverted signal is provided to AGC 606a, where the signal is amplified. In some embodiments, the

AGC 606a may provide the receiver power level back to the transmitter device 302,

such as to assist the transmitter device 302 in determining effective transmission

methods. The amplified I and Q signals are converted to the digital domain at AID

converter 608a of the receive processor 326. The A/D converter 608a provides the digital data to the synchronization logic 610a. The synchronization logic 610a recovers the clock signal and corrects for differences between the oscillation

frequency of the local oscillator of the transmitter device 302 and the oscillation

frequency of the local oscillator of the receiver device 304. The digital data is further provided to the cyclic extension removal logic 612a, which removes un-

needed cyclic extensions, and then to the receive logic 360a.

Assume that the receive antenna 318 receives packet 400 and 500 transmitted

from first transmit antenna 314 and second transmit antenna 316, respectively, LTSl corresponding to the legacy LTS 422a (from first transmit antenna 314) and cyclic shifted legacy LTS-CS 524a (from second transmit antenna 316), LTS2 corresponds

to the MEVIO SM LTS 422b (from first transmit antenna 314) and cyclic shifted

MIMO SM LTS-CS 524b (from second transmit antenna 316). RLTSl and RLTS2 correspond to the first receive antenna 318 receipt of the LTSl and LTS2,

respectively. That is, during reception of RLTS 1 , the first receive antenna 318

experiences interference corresponding to LTSl from first transmit antenna 314

weighted by the multipath channel H1 (i.e, H11) interfering with the signal delivered

from second transmit antenna 316 weighted by its multipath channel H2 (i.e., H12). Likewise, during reception of RLTS2, two signals weighted by their respective channels (Hi and H2) arrive simultaneously, or substantially simultaneously, to cause interference. Processing in the receive logic 360a is performed to separate the two

signals (corresponding to each transmit antenna 314 and 316), resulting in the

following equations (2) and (3):

RLTSl = Hl * LTS + H2 * LTS-CS, Eq. (2)

RLTS2 = Hl * LTS - H2 * LTS-CS, Eq. (3)

A Walsh transform is performed on RLTS 1 and RLTS2 in either the time domain or

the frequency domain. To obtain information corresponding to the first transmit antenna 314, RLTS 1 is added to RLTS2 as shown in Equation (4):

RLTSl + RLTS2 = 2 * Hl * LTS Eq. (4)

The result of this operation is information corresponding to the first transmit antenna

314 (the information corresponding to the second transmit antenna 316 dropped out

because of the minus sign before H2). That is, the second transmit antenna 316 ' transmitted a negative, cyclic shifted copy of itself during the MIMO SM timeslot

{i.e., -(LTS-CS) 524b).

To obtain the information corresponding to second transmit antenna 316, the following computation is performed:

RLTS 1 - RLTS2 = 2 * H2 * LTS-CS Eq. (5) The result of this operation is that constructive addition of the information

corresponding to the second transmit antenna 316 is achieved (mathematically, a

negative of a negative equals a positive), dropping out the information corresponding

to the first transmit antenna 314. Thus, separation of signals from the transmit antennas 314 and 316 is accomplished through the Walsh coding. Computation of

the amplitude and phase of the separated signals (channel estimation) is performed

on the separated signals. For instance, by dividing both sides of equation (4) by 2LTS (i.e., 2 * LTS), the following equation (6) is derived for H1:

Hi = (RLTSl + RLTS2)/(2LTS) Eq. (6)

To arrive at the channel estimation for H2, equation (5) is divided on both sides by

2LTS-CS, resulting in Equation (7):

H2 = (RLTS 1 - RLTS2)/(2LTS-CS) Eq. (7)

Thus, channel estimates for Hl and H2 have been computed.

FIGs. 7A-7B are block diagrams that illustrate an embodiment of receive

logic 36Oa-I and 360a-2, respectively, that performs the computations described above corresponding to equations (2) - (7). FIG. 7A corresponds to Walsh processing in the time domain, and FIG. 7B corresponds to Walsh processing in the frequency domain. Referring to FIG. 7A, the receive logic 36Oa-I comprises buffer

receive (RX) LTS 1 (or RLTS 1 buffer) 702 and buffer receive (RX) LTS2 (or RLTS2

buffer) 710 (herein, buffers 702 and 710), adders 704 and 712, FFT modules 706 and

714, and divide-out 2X TX LTS modulation module 708 (herein module 708) and

divide-out 2X TX LTS-CS modulation module 716 (herein module 716). The RLTS values are stored in buffers 702 and 710, provided to adders 704 and 712 (subtracted at adder 712, as shown by minus sign 718). The resultant values are transformed at

FFT modules 706 and 714 to reproduce the frequency subcarriers, and the

transformed values are divided out at modules 708 and 716 to arrive at the channel

estimates H1 and H2. Referring to FIG. 7B, an embodiment of receive logic 360a-2 is shown that

performs Walsh coding in the frequency domain. As shown, components 702, 706, 704, 708, 710, 714, 712, and 716 are the same, but rearranged in sequence of

operations such that Walsh coding occurs at adders 704 and 712 (where subtraction

is represented with minus sign 718) after the FFT modules 706 and 714 transform

the values to the frequency domain. hi another embodiment, a cyclic shifted channel estimate may be computed in association with the second transmit antenna 316. That is, equations (2) - (6)

remain as described above, but equation (7) is replaced with equation (8), which is

as follows:

H2-CS = (RLTS 1 - RLTS2)/(2LTS) Eq. (8)

That is, equation (5) is divided by a non-cyclic shifted LTS, and the result is a cyclic shifted version of H2 (i.e., H2-CS).

FIGs. 8A-8B are block diagrams that illustrate two embodiments of receiver

logic 360a-3 and 360a-4, respectively, where channel estimate H2 is cyclic shifted, and Walsh coding is performed in the time domain (FIG. 8A) and the frequency domain (FIG. 8B). With reference to FIG. 8 A, the receiver logic 360a-3 comprises

buffer receive (RX) LTSl (or RLTSl buffer) 702 and buffer receive (RX) LTS2 (or

RLTS2 buffer) 710 (herein, buffers 702 and 710), adders 704 and 712, FFT modules

706 and 714, and divide-out 2X TX LTS modulation module 708a (herein module 708a) and divide-out 2X TX LTS modulation module 708b (herein module 708b).

Note that modules 708a and 708b may be shared logic. The RLTS values are stored

in buffers 702 and 710, provided to adders 704 and 712 (subtracted at adder 712, as shown by minus sign 718). The resultant values are transformed at FFT modules 706 and 714 to reproduce the frequency subcarriers, and the transformed values are

divided out at modules 708a and 708b to arrive at the channel estimates Hi and H2-

CS. Referring to FIG. 8B, an embodiment of receive logic 360a-4 is shown that

performs Walsh coding in the frequency domain. As shown, components 702, 706,

704, 708a, 708b, 714, 712, and 716 are the same, but rearranged in sequence of operations such that Walsh coding occurs at adders 704 and 712 (where subtraction

is represented with minus sign 718) after the FFT modules 706 and 714 transform

the values to the frequency domain.

Although described in the context of 20 mega-Hertz (MHz) wide channels, it would be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that 40 MHz wide

channels will similarly apply. That is, two 20 MHz packets can be transmitted on

two different frequencies. For instance, corresponding to first transmit antenna 314,

the lower 20 MHz channel may have the following sequence: LTS, SFl , LTS, SF2, and then data symbols, similar to the packet sequence shown in FIG. 4D. Likewise, on the upper 20 MHz channel, the same sequence may be followed. Corresponding

to second transmit antenna 316, the following sequence maybe employed: LTS-CS,

SFl-CS, -(LTS-CS), SF2-CS (or non-cyclic shifted), and data symbols with or without CS may be employed subsequently, similar to the sequence shown in FIG.

5D.

Note that in some embodiments, packets from a first transmitter and a second

transmitter comprise segments that, in one embodiment, are time-aligned. That is, corresponding segments are transmitted in time-aligned fashion. For example, the

STS segment from a packet sent from a first transmit antennas is time-aligned (e.g., has the same beginning and end time boundary, and thus duration) with a cyclic

shifted STS segment corresponding to a packet transmitted from a second transmit antenna, and the LTS segment transmitted from the first transmit antennas is time

aligned with the cyclic shifted LTS segment of the second transmit antennas, etc.

This is made possible by sharing a common digital clock (synchronized digital

circuits) for the signal generators both antennas. This is implicit in the transmitter device 302 shown in FIG. 3. hi some implementations, 56 or more subcarriers may be used for MIMO

processing (e.g., EBEE 802.1 In systems). That is, the MIMO portions of a packet

(e.g., LTS 422b, 524b, SF2 428, 528, etc.) may have 56 (or more) subcarrier symbol waveforms, hi conventional systems, legacy preamble and signal field portions (header) comprise 52 subcarriers for each symbol waveform, providing a

discontinuity between legacy preamble and signal field waveforms and MIMO

portion waveforms and resulting in MEVIO training or channel estimating being

delayed until receipt of the MEMO portions of a packet. For example, the legacy LTS with 52 subcarriers provides no training or channel estimating for the extra subcarriers found in the 56-subcarrier MEVIO portion of a packet. Such conventional

systems thus do not use the legacy portion for channel estimation, but rather, ignore

the legacy preamble portion and perform channel estimation after the legacy signal

field portion arrives. Such delayed processing wastes the information (e.g., in 802.11 systems, 8 microseconds of wasted legacy LTS) of the legacy preamble portion, since such information (e.g., the legacy LTS) is not utilized.

Embodiments described herein make use of the legacy preamble by inserting

additional subcarriers to legacy preamble symbol waveforms, and in particular, to

each end of the legacy LTS (e.g., 422a, 524a of FIGS. 4D and 5D, respectively)

symbol waveform, resulting in 56 or more subcarriers. Optionally, extra subcarriers may be inserted in the STS and first and second signals fields (SFl and SF2). In some embodiments, subcarriers are inserted in every LTS symbol whenever the LTS

symbol appears. By inserting the additional subcarriers, receive logic 360a and 360b

can completely perform channel estimation on packets 400 (FIG. 4) and 500 (FIG. 5)

that use 56 or more subcarriers for the symbol waveforms. For example, the second

signal field (SF2) informs the receiver module 338, 340 (e.g., receive logic 360a, 360b) the type of packet that is received, enabling the receive logic 360a, 360b to

perform channel estimation. Thus, in 802.11 -compliant systems, here 8 more

microseconds of training (channel estimating) is provided for MTJVIO channel estimation compared to conventional MEMO transmitter preamble structures that fail

to exploit the legacy LTS.

Further, due to the use of the legacy LTS and the nature of OFDM symbols

(e.g., demodulation of one subcarrier is transparent to an orthogonal subcarrier with

no resulting interference) and the retention of small advance/delay cyclic shifting as described above, legacy devices remain well-behaved in the presence of the

additional subcarriers. Additionally, since the legacy LTS is not wasted, the need for two different preambles to cover legacy and non-legacy (e.g., Greenfield) systems is obviated. Having two different preambles may require the need for additional circuitry, and

may cause confusion among various devices (e.g., in overlapping basic service sets)

that only expect to process one type of preamble yet encounter interference

corresponding to another type of preamble. Thus, the embodiments described herein provide for a single preamble structure that unifies mixed mode (legacy and MEVIO) and Greenfield implementations or protocols, with compatibility in both 20 MHz

and 40 MHz (due at least in part to parallelism and symmetry) systems. FIG. 9 A illustrates an exemplary extended LTS (ELTS) symbol waveform

900 for a 20 MHz packet. The ELTS symbol waveform 900 comprises a legacy portion 922 having 52 subcarriers (not all 52 are shown for simplicity), as well as

two sets of additional subcarriers added at the spectral edges 924 and 926 of the

legacy portion 922. As described above, subcarriers may be added by the LTS generators 303a, 503a of the waveshape logic 350a and 350b, respectively. In embodiments using 64-point IFFTs, up to 12 additional subcarriers maybe added. The location of the added subcarriers is preferably at the spectral edges of the

waveform 900, including at the edges adjacent to the center (at fc) of the waveform. FIG. 9B illustrates a legacy LTS symbol waveform and two different

extended LTS symbol waveforms, each corresponding to a 40 MHz wide packet.

Waveform 901 provides a legacy LTS, which comprises a 40 MHz wide subcarrier

structure matching the subcarrier structure of two 20 MHz 802.1 la/g OFDM

packets, whose center frequencies are spaced by 10 MHz. Waveform 906 adds extra subcarriers to the gap in the middle, on the inner spectral edges of the two 20 MHz sub-packets. Waveform 912 adds extra subcarriers to the outer and inner edges of the sub-packets. Each of these 40 MHz constructions 901, 906, 912 is advantageous

to a receiver, since the similarity in subcarrier layout facilitates processing in the

receiver, especially, in the instance when a 20 MHz packet is received in either the upper or lower 20 MHz channel of the 40 MHz wide bandwidth, for example.

Waveform 901 has an 11 subcarrier gap 902 between the packets. This gap

902 is introduced into the waveform because transmit and receive filters roll off with

a finite rate. The receive filters are made with mostly analog components. Some

margin is provided to allow a filter to be flat across the pass band and still attenuate quickly in the stop band. Typically, a 6th order filter can be used to provide the

rejection to enable the signals to stack together. hi a legacy LTS packet, 52 subcarriers are subdivided with 26 on one side

904, 26 on the other side 905, and a gap 902 in the middle. The gap 902 is created in

the center of signal 901 to help eliminate (or mitigate) the dc offset and frequency

errors. In the 52-subcarrier legacy LTS 901, there is an 11-subcarrier gap 902. In a

56-subcarrier signal 906, 912, the gap 908, 914 is decreased. However, the

additional subcarriers are added in a manner such that there is still a sufficient gap to counter the effects of the dc offset and frequency errors. For the 56-subcarrier packets, there are the 52 subcarriers that correspond to the legacy subcarriers. There

are also 4 additional subcarriers to create an extended LTS.

There are at least two options 906, 912 for adding the subcarriers. The

additional subcarriers can be added at the front and back of each half of the waveform resulting in signal 912, or they can be added in the dc offset gap in the middle of the waveform resulting in signal 906. A 40 MHz packet, which has two

56-subcarrier 20MHz packets side by side, has 102 subcarriers. In the 40MHz

packet, since there is a slight gap between the upper and lower 20MHz packet, it is

possible to fill that gap with the extra subcarriers. If the additional subcarriers 910, 911, 913, and 915 are added at the spectral edges of the each half of the 20Mhz

packets, the gap 914 for reducing dc offset and frequency errors in a 40MHz signal is 7 subcarriers wide. If the additional subcarriers 907, 909 are added in the middle

of the 40MHz packet, the gap 908 is reduced to 3 subcarriers. By adding extra subcarriers, the data portion of the packet can be increased by as much as 10% or

more.

Embodiments are described below that extend the principles above to three and four transmit channel implementations. As described above, for multiple transmit antennas, each receiver module (e.g., 338, 340) needs to estimate the multipath channel (using the magnitude and phase shift of multipath echoes)

corresponding to each transmit antenna, since the deterministic preamble and header

portions corresponding to each transmit antenna interfere with each other. Thus, for

four transmit antennas, four multipath channels are estimated for each receive

antenna (e.g., at each receive module 338, 340), one corresponding to each transmit

antenna, hi one embodiment using four receive antennas, this channel estimation is

performed four times. The description below emphasizes the processing at a single

receive antenna (e.g., 318) with the understanding that each receive antenna is to

perform such processing. Thus, referring to a single receive antenna, once four multipath channels are estimated, the channel estimates can be communicated to a

signal separator located in the receiver device (e.g., 304) to separate the payloads

(data portion) of each transmit signal.

In general, to remove self interference on the LTSs of multiple transmit

signals, the LTS portions corresponding to one or more transmit antennas are

encoded multiple times and cyclically shifted to enable simple combining (e.g., add

and subtract), such as through the use of Walsh coding, although other techniques may be used. Once the LTS portion from each antenna is observed, the multipath channel corresponding to each transmit antenna can be computed. Thus, in one embodiment, Walsh coding with small cyclic shifts to ensure legacy device

compatibility is described for three and four transmit antenna implementations. In another embodiment, large cyclic shifts in combination with Walsh coding is

described for three and four transmit antenna implementations.

FIGs. 1OA and 1OB are schematic diagrams that illustrate orthogonal

sequences for 2-ary and 4-ary Walsh (also known as Walsh-Hadamard) coding, respectively. Referring to the 2-ary sequence 1002 of FIG. 1OA, which is explained above for two transmit antenna implementations, column 1004 corresponds to the designated transmit antenna (first transmit antenna, Tx1, and second transmit

antenna, Tχ2). Columns 1006 and 1008 correspond to the sign ("-" representing

waveform inversion, "+" representing no inversion) of the legacy LTS (LTSl, such

as LTS 422a, 524a) and MIMO LTS (LTS2-4, such as LTS 422b, 524b),

respectively. In one implementation, two LTS symbol waveforms corresponding to

the legacy and MIMO preamble/header portions of a packet are transmitted from each transmit antenna. To enable separation of the preamble/header portions among

multiple transmit antennas at a receive antenna, two LTSs (LTSl and LTS2) are transmitted with the same sign from the first transmit antenna (+, +) and two LTSs

are sent from the second transmit antenna, with the second LTS (LTS2) negated (-).

As described above, this 2-ary sequence in combination with cyclic shifting enables

the receive logic (e.g., 360a) to add and subtract the LTS segments and separate the

two transmit antennas preamble/header signals. Note that sign rearranging is acceptable if the orthogonal property is retained.

Referring to the 4-ary sequence 1010 of FIG. 1OB, column 1012 corresponds

to the designated transmit antenna (first transmit antenna, Tx1, second transmit antenna, Tχ2, third transmit antenna, Tχ3, and fourth transmit antenna, Tχ4).

Columns 1014-1020 correspond to the sign ("-" representing waveform inversion, "+" representing no inversion) of the legacy LTS (LTSl) 1014 and MEVlO LTSs

(1016, 1018, and 1020). Extending the principles explained above, since four

transmit antennas provide preamble/header portions that all interfere with each other,

to implement Walsh coding, four LTSs need to be transmitted for each transmit antenna. Thus, referring to the first transmit antenna, all LTSs are transmitted with

the same sign. With regard to the second transmit antenna, the LTSs have the

following sign sequence: LTSl 1014 (+), LTS2 1016 (-), LTS3 1018 (+), and LTS4 1020 (-). With regard to the third transmit antenna, the LTSs have the following

sign sequence: LTSl 1014 (+), LTS2 1016 (+), LTS3 1018 (-), and LTS4 1020 (-

).With regard to the fourth transmit antenna, the LTSs have the following sign

sequence: LTSl 1014 (+), LTS2 1016 (-), LTS3 1018 (-), and LTS4 1020 (+). One skilled in the art would understand that variations are possible. For example, as long as the orthogonal property is retained, sign re-arrangement is

possible, hi general, any combination of arithmetic LTS weighting can be used

which creates an orthogonal set. An orthogonal set refers to the fact that a channel from any individual transmit antenna can be computed with all interference from other transmit antennas substantially eliminated. The LTS sign pattern enables the receive logic 360a, 360b to compute each channel orthogonal to the other channels.

Thus, the 4-ary sequence in combination with cyclic shifting enables the receive

logic 360a, 360b to add and subtract the LTS segments and separate the four

transmit antennas preamble/header signals.

FIGs. 1 IA-I IB illustrate a receive logic embodiment that performs

preamble/header processing for a four antenna implementation using the orthogonal sequences described in FIG. 1OB and Walsh processing. Exemplary cyclic shifts values and symbol durations are described and illustrated, with the understanding that other values for cyclic shifts and symbol durations may be used. FIG. 1 IA is a

schematic diagram that shows portions of four packets 1102, 1104, 1106, and 1108

corresponding to four transmit antennas, TX1-TX4, respectively. The STS segments

1110 from each of the packets corresponds to the STS segment of the legacy

preamble. STS1, STS2, STS3, and STS4 corresponds to transmit antennas TX1-TX4, respectively, and for 802.11 systems, has a duration of 8 microseconds. As one

example, STS1, STS2, STS3, and STS4 may have cyclic shifts of 0 nanoseconds (ns),

-100 (cyclic delay) ns, +100 (cyclic advance) ns, and -200 ns, respectively. The LTSl segments 1112 from each of the packets corresponds to the legacy

LTSs (i.e., LTSI i, LTSl2, LTSl3, and LTSl4) of the legacy preamble, and may have

cyclic shifts corresponding to the cyclic shifts of their corresponding STS (i.e.,

LTSl1 0 ns, LTSl2 -100 ns, LTSl3 +100, and LTSl4 -200, respectively). For 802.11 systems, a duration of the legacy LTSl segments may be 8 microseconds (which

includes 1.6 microseconds of guard interval).

Following the LTSl segments 1112 are the SFl segments 1114 (SFl1, SFl2, SFl3, and SFl4) of the legacy header, and likewise have cyclic shifts corresponding to the cyclic shifts of their corresponding legacy preambles. For 802.11 systems, the

SFl may be 4 microseconds. The STS 1110, LTS 1112, and SFl 1114 segments are

structured in sequence and duration to provide for mixed mode compatibility (i.e.,

compatible with legacy 802.1 la/g and MlMO 802.11 standards). Note that guard intervals, though not shown, are implied.

Following the legacy preamble/header portions are the MEVIO LTS segments 1116, 1118, and 1120. Each of the MIMO LTS segments 1116, 1118, and 1120 are shown with cyclic shifts corresponding to their corresponding legacy

preamble/header portions, with exemplary durations of 8 microseconds each (which includes 1.6 microseconds of guard interval). It would be understood by one having

ordinary skill in the art that durations other than 8 microseconds for the MFMO LTSs

may be used, such as 4 microseconds. Note that the orthogonal sequence used in

this exemplary embodiment is the 4-ary sequence shown in FIG. 1OB. Further, note

that a MIMO signal field (SF2) is not shown, but may be inserted between the

MMO LTS segments 1116 and the SFl segments 1114 or after the LTS4 segments 1120. The signal field SF2 conveys to the receiver module (e.g., 338) how many transmit antennas are sending signals to the receiver module receive antenna (e.g., 318), and thus enables the receive logic 360a to determine the type of orthogonal

sequence to use for Walsh processing. The references Rl and R2-R4 represent time

slots in which the corresponding segments (LTSl 1112 and LTS2 1116, LTS3 1118, and LTS4 1120, respectively) arrive in the receiver module 338. That is, each time

slot comprises LTSs from each transmit antenna. As described above, the cyclic

shifts are consistently applied across each LTS to keep the waveform the same (except for inversion) for Walsh processing, and include cyclic shifts of 0 ns, (+) and

-100 ns (2 samples) and -200 ns (4 samples).

FIG. 1 IB is a block diagram that illustrates one embodiment of the receive

logic 360a-5 to perform processing of the packets shown in FIG. 1 IA. It would be understood that, although described for receive logic 360a-5, a similar architecture

and thus process is applied for each receive logic (e.g., 360b) corresponding to each

receive antenna. In general, such baseband processing can be performed in the time domain or the frequency domain. As shown, the receive logic 360a-5 comprises first

FFTs 1122, LTS logic 1124, IFFTs 1126, adders 1128, de-cyclic shift logic 1130 (equivalent to the modules 708, such as 708a, 708b, described in association with

FIGs. 7A-8B) , and second FFTs 1132. Fewer or additional components may be used in some embodiments, and some of the functionality of each component may be

combined with other components. For instance, registers or other storage

components may be used for storing intermediate values during processing, or functionality of first and second FFTs 1122 and 1132 may be combined in a single

component.

In operation, LTS samples arrive at a buffer (not shown, although described

as buffers 702, 710 in association with FIGs. 7A-8B) in the receive logic during the

Rl time slot, R2 time slot, R3 time slot, and R4 time slot. For example, and as

illustrated in FIG. 1 IA, the Rl time slot comprises LTSl samples for all four transmit antennas, amounting to considerable interference among the corresponding

signal samples. Similarly, the R2-R4 time slots also comprise interfering MIMO LTS symbol samples (LTS2-LTS4) from transmit antennas TX1-TX4. Referring

now to the Rl time slot for simplicity in discussion, with the understanding that

similar processing applies for the R2-R4 time slots, the interfering samples are

stripped of the guard intervals (approximately 16 samples, e.g., at cyclic extension

removal logic 612a, FIG. 6) and, in one embodiment, a 64-point FFT is performed at FFT 1122. The resulting LTSl samples are provided to the LTS logic 1124, demodulated (e.g., remove the BPSK modulation), and the resulting frequency

domain signals (corresponding to the four transmit signals) are provided to the IFFT

1126 for conversion to the time domain. Note that in some embodiments, separation

may occur in the frequency domain.

Note that each OFDM symbol is fundamentally 64 samples in the time

domain, and has 64-subcarriers in the frequency domain even though not all of the

subcarriers are populated (e.g., some are set to zero). In fact, in the time domain, the

multipath echoes that occur in wireless local area network (WLAN) environments

may comprise much fewer samples than 64, and typically are constrained to fewer than 16 samples. Guard intervals placed between 64 sample symbols typically

comprise 16 samples to absorb multipath transitions from one symbol to the next. Thus, when the multipath echoes are observed (e.g., amplitude and phase shifts) in

the time domain, the number of samples used to describe the echoes for purposes of channel estimation is relatively small (e.g., 16 samples or less). Pn other words,

when the IFFT processing is performed at IFFTs 1126, not all 64 samples are

required, but instead approximately 16 samples corresponding to the multipath

information can be used (e.g., through windowing operations whereby the first 16 samples of the multipath information are extracted from the 64 samples) and the rest

of the samples discarded.

The time domain samples are combined at adders 1128 via Walsh processing

similar to the processing described above in association with FIGs. 7A-8B to

separate out the multipath impulse responses. Note that the operation of each adder

1128 differs, as represented by the difference in arithmetic operations among Rl-

R4). The output of the adders 1128 includes the channel estimate hi (the lower case

h representing the time domain) corresponding to first transmit antenna TXl, h2-cs (the cyclic shifted (cs) channel estimate corresponding to TX2), h3-cs corresponding to TX3, and h4-cs (TX4 channel estimate).

The multipath impulse responses may be provided to the decyclic shift logic

1130 to remove the cyclic shifts in the time domain. Note that similar functionality

can be performed in the frequency domain. The decyclic shift logic 1130 shifts the

cyclically shifted impulse responses in the direction opposite to the cyclic shift

direction imposed at the transmit module (e.g., 334). hi other words, the decyclic shift logic 1130 de-rotates the shifted impulse responses, resulting in channel

impulse responses having no cyclic shifts in the time domain. The time-domain channel impulse responses can optionally be provided to the second FFTs 1132 to provide time domain to frequency domain conversion. The frequency domain

channel impulse responses (frequency domain represented using a capital Ff) output

from the second FFTs 1132 may be further processed in additional components of the receive module 338 (e.g., used in a signal separator to aid in the separation of the

corresponding interfering payload packets).

For three transmit antenna implementations, identical processing to that

described in association with a four transmit antenna implementation is employed,

except the channel estimate corresponding to a fourth transmit antenna is not computed (and of course the fourth transmit signal is not transmitted). The receive

logic 360a knows that the fourth transmit signal does not exist by virtue of

information obtained in the MEVIO signal field (SF2), which conveys to the receiver

module 338 how many transmit antennas are employed for the received transmit

signals.

FIGs. 12A-12B illustrate a receive logic embodiment that performs

preamble/header processing for a four transmit antenna implementation using a combination of Walsh processing and large cyclic shifts. Note that the sign

arrangement (orthogonal sequence) is different from the sequence shown in FIG. 1OB, largely due to the fact that a combination of Walsh processing and large cyclic

shifts is used to remove the transmit antenna cross interference. Walsh processing

implemented in this embodiment uses a 2-ary orthogonal sequence to provide a first level of separation to recover pairs of interfering LTSs. Large cyclic shift processing in this embodiment provides a second level of LTS separation, recovering individual

LTSs without any remaining interference. Thus, the combination of orthogonal

arithmetic weighting (e.g., Walsh processing) and large (compared to the multipath

time spread) cyclic shifts can be used to create a composite orthogonal set, and

variations consistent with this main theme are contemplated.

Further, as indicated above, large cyclic shifts are shifts larger than the

multipath spread (or guard interval 16 samples), hi one embodiment, the largest

cyclic shift that can be implemented is 1A (0.5) of an FFT span (e.g., 1600

nanoseconds or 32 samples for IEEE 802.11, 64-point FFTs). In some embodiments, any cyclic shift value between the lower guard interval bound (16

samples) and the upper bound of the 0.5 FFT span (i.e., after the guard interval has

been removed) may be considered a large cyclic shift. Using such embodiments, the

amount of MIMO LTSs used can be reduced (e.g., from four to three per packet), which may result in faster processing times. Exemplary cyclic shifts values and

symbol durations are described and illustrated, with the understanding that other

values for cyclic shifts and symbol durations may be used.

FIG. 12A is a schematic diagram that shows portions of four packets 1202,

1204, 1206, and 1208 corresponding to four transmit antennas, TX1-TX4,

respectively. The STS segments 1210 from each of the packets corresponds to the

STS segment of the legacy preamble. STS1, STS2, STS3, and STS4 corresponds to

transmit antennas TX1-TX4, respectively, and for 802.11 systems, has a duration of

8 microseconds. As one example, STSi, STS2, STS3, and STS4 may have cyclic shifts of 0 nanoseconds (ns), -100 (cyclic delay) ns, +100 (cyclic advance) ns, and -

200 ns, respectively. Guard intervals, though not shown, are implied. The LTSl segments 1212 from each of the packets corresponds to the legacy LTSIs (i.e.,

LTSIi, LTSl2, LTSl3, and LTSl4) of the legacy preamble, and may have cyclic shifts corresponding to the cyclic shifts of their corresponding STS (i.e., LTSIi 0 ns,

LTSl2 -100 ns, LTSl3 +100, and LTSl4 -200, respectively). For 802.11 systems, a

duration of the legacy LTS 1 segments may be 8 microseconds. Following the LTS 1

segments 1112 are the SFl segments 1214 (SFIi, SFl2, SFl3, and SFl4) of the legacy header, and likewise have cyclic shifts corresponding to the cyclic shifts of their corresponding legacy preambles. For 802.11 systems, the SFl may have a

duration of 4 microseconds. The STS 1210, LTSl 1212, and SFl 1214 segments are

structured in sequence and duration to provide for mixed mode compatibility (i.e.,

compatible with legacy 802.1 la/g and MEVIO 802.11 standards).

Following the legacy preamble/header portions are the MIMO LTS segments

1216 (LTS2) and 1218 (LTS3). Note that the LTS and ELTS subcarrier structures

described in association with FIG. 12 are the same as those described for FIGs. 4, 5, 10, and 11. The LTS2 segments 1216 are shown with cyclic shifts corresponding to their corresponding legacy preamble/header portions, with exemplary durations of 8 microseconds, although variations are possible (e.g., 4 microseconds). The LTS3

segments 1218 are shown with cyclic shifts for the first and second transmit antenna

that mirror the cyclic shifts of their corresponding preamble/header symbols, but for

LTS segments corresponding to the third and fourth transmit antenna, have large

cyclic shifts (1600 ns modified by the small cyclic shift occurring to the legacy LTS (during the Rl time slot), resulting in one example as 1700 ns for LTS3 and 1400 ns

for LTS4). One exemplary duration for the LTS2 segments can be 8 microseconds,

although it would be understood by one having ordinary skill in the art that durations other than 8 microseconds for the MIMO LTSs in general may be used, and that

different cyclic shifts may be employed. Further, note that a MIMO signal field

(SF2) is not shown, but may be inserted between the MIMO LTS segments 1216 and

the SFl segments 1114 or after the LTS segments 1218. The signal field SF2 ■ conveys transmit antenna quantity information, among other information, to the

receiver module 338, and thus enables the receive logic to determine the required

processing. The references R1-R3 represents time slots in which the corresponding

LTS symbols arrive in the receiver module 338.

In general, three LTS segments are transmitted from each transmit antenna. The receiver module 338 extracts R1-R3 to obtain the four multipath channels. For

Rl and R2, 2-ary orthogonal sequence processing is employed, as described above,

which results in partial separation of the preamble/header portions of the transmit

signals. With regard to R3, the first transmit antenna sends an LTS at with no cyclic

shift. The second transmit antenna sends an LTS with a -100 ns cyclic shift. The

third transmit antenna sends an LTS with a large cyclic shift (1600 ns + 100 ns (Rl) = 1700 ns). Similarly, the fourth transmit antenna sends an LTS with a large cyclic

shift (1600 ns - 200 ns (Rl) = 1400 ns). It is noted that a 1600 ns cyclic shift is equivalent to half of the 64 samples, or 32 samples (half an OFDM symbol minus

the guard symbol). The applied cyclic shift is thus the 1600 ns cyclic shift modified

by the cyclic shift imposed on the legacy LTS. FIG. 12B is a block diagram that illustrates one embodiment of the receive

logic 360a-6 to perform processing of the packets shown in FIG. 12 A. It would be understood that, although described for receive logic 360a-6, a similar architecture

and thus process is applied for each receive logic 360a (e.g., receive logic 360b

corresponding to second receive antenna 320) corresponding to each receive antenna. In general, such baseband processing can be performed in the time domain or the frequency domain. As shown, the receive logic 360a-6 comprises FFTs 1122,

LTS logic 1124, EFFTs 1126, first adders 1228a, 1228b, extractors 1230a, 1230b,

second adders 1232, and third adders 1234. Note that fewer or more components

may be used, or in some embodiments, functionality of some of these components

may be combined. As the components 1122-1126 and the associated processing

have been described in association with FIG. 1 IB, discussion of the same is omitted

for brevity except where noted.

Referring to first adders 1128a, 1128b and Rl and R2 processing, Walsh processing using 2-ary orthogonal sequencing is implemented for Rl and R2, with

the resulting pairs of (hi + h2-cs) and (h3-cs + h4-cs) provided at their respective

output. With regard to R3, an IFFT is performed at IFFT 1126 corresponding to R3.

Because of the large cyclic shifts implemented on the LTSs corresponding to the

third and fourth transmit antennas, the extractor 1230a extracts the first 16 samples to provide hl-cs and h2-cs (i.e., hi — h2-cs), and the extractor 1230b extracts the

second 16 samples to provide h3-cs and h4-cs (i.e., h3-cs-h4-cs). There is no

overlap between the pairs hi and h2-cs and h3-cs and h4-cs due to the zero or small

cyclic shifts of the first and second transmit antenna and the large cyclic shifts associated with the third and fourth transmit antenna. The pairs are added/subtracted at respective second and third adders 1232 and 1234, with the resulting individual

impulse responses (hi , h2-cs, h3-cs, and h4-cs). Further processing may be

employed to optionally de-cyclic shift the impulse responses and convert to the

frequency domain as explained in association with FIGS . 11 A- 11 B .

Process descriptions or blocks in flow charts should be understood as

representing modules, segments, or portions of code which include one or more executable instructions for implementing specific logical functions or steps in the

process, and alternate implementations are included within the scope of the preferred embodiment of the present invention in which functions may be executed out of order from that shown or discussed, including substantially concurrently or in

reverse order, depending on the functionality involved, as would be understood by

those reasonably skilled in the art of the present invention.

As will be appreciated from the above description, one embodiment of a packet processing method 334 (or similarly 336) comprises, as illustrated in FIG. 13,

providing a legacy long training symbol (LTS) (1302) and inserting subcarriers in

the legacy LTS to form an extended LTS (ELTS) (1304).

Another embodiment of a packet processing method 334-1 (or similarly 336) comprises, as illustrated in FIG. 14, providing in each legacy portion of packets

corresponding to a plurality of transmit antennas long training symbols (1402),

providing in each spatially multiplexed portion of the packets multiple copies of the

legacy portion long training signals (1404), inverting and imposing a small cyclic

shift to at least one of the multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas (1406), and inverting and imposing a large cyclic shift to at least one of the

multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas, the large cyclic

shift corresponding to the combination of a small cyclic shift associated with a legacy long training symbol for the same transmit antenna and half of an orthogonal

frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol (1408).

An embodiment of a packet processing method 338 (or 340) comprises, as

shown in FIG. 15, receiving a plurality of packets from multiple transmit antennas, each packet having mixed mode segments (1502), and using an extended long

training symbol (ELTS) from the mixed mode segments to estimate a multipath

channel corresponding to each of the transmit antennas (1504) .

Another packet processing embodiment 338-1 (or 340), shown in FIG. 16, comprises receiving a plurality of packets from multiple transmit antennas (1602), and performing Walsh coding with large cyclic shifts to compute the multipath channel for each transmit antenna that sends the packets (1604).

It should be emphasized that the above-described embodiments of the present

disclosure, particularly, any "preferred" embodiments, are merely possible examples

of implementations, merely set forth for a clear understanding of the principles of the disclosed systems and methods. Many variations and modifications may be made to the above-described embodiment(s) without departing substantially in scope. All

such modifications and variations are intended to be included herein within the scope of this disclosure.

Claims

CLAIMSWhat is claimed:
1. A method (334), comprising: providing a legacy long training symbol (LTS) (1302); and inserting subcarriers in the legacy LTS to form an extended LTS (ELTS) (1304).
2. A system (334), comprising: means for providing a legacy long training symbol (LTS) (350); and means for inserting subcarriers in the legacy LTS to form an extended LTS (ELTS) (350).
3. A method (338), comprising: receiving a plurality of packets from multiple transmit antennas, each packet having mixed mode segments (1502); and using an extended long training symbol (ELTS) from the mixed mode segments to estimate a multipath channel corresponding to each of the transmit antennas (1504).
4. A system (338), comprising: means for receiving a plurality of packets from multiple transmit antennas, each packet having mixed mode segments (322, 318); and means for using an extended long training symbol (ELTS) from the mixed mode segments to estimate a multipath channel corresponding to each of the
transmit antennas (360).
5. A method (338-1), comprising: receiving a plurality of packets from multiple transmit antennas (1602); and performing Walsh coding with large cyclic shifts to compute the multipath channel for each transmit antenna that sends the packets (1604).
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the large cyclic shifts comprises shifts greater than a multipath time spread.
7. A system (338), comprising: logic (360) configured to perform Walsh coding with large cyclic shifts to compute a multipath channel for each transmit antenna of a plurality of transmit antennas that sends packets.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein the large cyclic shifts comprises a combination of a cyclic shift value corresponding to half of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol and a small cyclic shift corresponding to the ELTS in the mixed mode segments.
9. A method (334-1), comprising: providing in each legacy portion of packets corresponding to a plurality of transmit antennas long training symbols (1402); providing in each spatially multiplexed portion of the packets multiple copies of the legacy portion long training signals (1404); inverting and imposing a small cyclic shift to at least one of the multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas; and inverting and imposing a large cyclic shift to at least one of the multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas, the large cyclic shift corresponding to the combination of a small cyclic shift associated with a legacy long training symbol for the same transmit antenna and half of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol post guard removal.
10. A system (334), comprising: logic (350) configured to provide in each legacy portion of packets corresponding to a plurality of transmit antennas long training symbols, provide in each spatially multiplexed portion of the packets multiple copies of the legacy portion long training signals, invert and impose a small cyclic shift to at least one of the multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas, and invert and impose a large cyclic shift to at least one of the multiple copies for at least one of the plurality of transmit antennas, the large cyclic shift corresponding to the combination of a small cyclic shift associated with a legacy long training symbol for the same transmit antenna and half of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol post guard removal.
PCT/US2005/025832 2004-06-22 2005-07-21 Packet processing systems and methods WO2006057677A1 (en)

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