WO2005088020A1 - Wall element and structure constructed therewith - Google Patents

Wall element and structure constructed therewith Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2005088020A1
WO2005088020A1 PCT/NL2005/000198 NL2005000198W WO2005088020A1 WO 2005088020 A1 WO2005088020 A1 WO 2005088020A1 NL 2005000198 W NL2005000198 W NL 2005000198W WO 2005088020 A1 WO2005088020 A1 WO 2005088020A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
plates
main
walls
transverse
tube
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/NL2005/000198
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Dirk Van Dijk
Johan Albert Schoenmaker
Original Assignee
Tech-Wood International Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to NL1025743 priority Critical
Priority to NL1025743 priority
Priority to NL1027046 priority
Priority to NL1027046 priority
Application filed by Tech-Wood International Ltd. filed Critical Tech-Wood International Ltd.
Publication of WO2005088020A1 publication Critical patent/WO2005088020A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/546,761 external-priority patent/US20100043339A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/12Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of other material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/82Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to sound only
    • E04B1/84Sound-absorbing elements
    • E04B1/86Sound-absorbing elements slab-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/56Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members
    • E04B2/70Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of wood
    • E04B2/701Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of wood with integrated supporting and obturation function
    • E04B2/702Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of wood with integrated supporting and obturation function with longitudinal horizontal elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/10Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products
    • E04C2/20Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products of plastics
    • E04C2/22Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products of plastics reinforced
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/34Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure composed of two or more spaced sheet-like parts
    • E04C2/36Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure composed of two or more spaced sheet-like parts spaced apart by transversely-placed strip material, e.g. honeycomb panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H17/00Fencing, e.g. fences, enclosures, corrals
    • E04H17/14Fences constructed of rigid elements, e.g. with additional wire fillings or with posts
    • E04H17/16Fences constructed of rigid elements, e.g. with additional wire fillings or with posts using prefabricated panel-like elements, e.g. wired frames
    • E04H17/168Fences constructed of rigid elements, e.g. with additional wire fillings or with posts using prefabricated panel-like elements, e.g. wired frames using panels fitted in grooves of posts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/61Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other
    • E04B1/6108Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the frontal surfaces of the slabs connected together
    • E04B1/612Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the frontal surfaces of the slabs connected together by means between frontal surfaces
    • E04B1/6125Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the frontal surfaces of the slabs connected together by means between frontal surfaces with protrusions on the one frontal surface co-operating with recesses in the other frontal surface
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8623Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers and at least one form leaf being monolithic
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8623Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers and at least one form leaf being monolithic
    • E04B2/8629Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers and at least one form leaf being monolithic with both form leaves and spacers being monolithic
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/82Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to sound only
    • E04B1/84Sound-absorbing elements
    • E04B2001/8457Solid slabs or blocks
    • E04B2001/8476Solid slabs or blocks with acoustical cavities, with or without acoustical filling
    • E04B2001/848Solid slabs or blocks with acoustical cavities, with or without acoustical filling the cavities opening onto the face of the element
    • E04B2001/8485Solid slabs or blocks with acoustical cavities, with or without acoustical filling the cavities opening onto the face of the element the opening being restricted, e.g. forming Helmoltz resonators
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2002/867Corner details

Abstract

Wall element for separating two areas situated on either side of a wall, wherein the wall element is made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element has first and second, opposite longitudinal edges extending in tube direction, which longitudinal edges are provided with first and second coupling members, respectively, wherein the first coupling members define an accommodation space for a protrusion formed like second coupling members at the second longitudinal edge of another, same wall element, wherein the accommodation space is defined by plate continuations of both main plates.

Description

Wall element and structure constructed therewith
The invention relates to a wall element for use on separating walls, such as earth retaining walls, water-retaining walls, such as sheet pile walls or revetment walls, noise barrier walls, room separating walls, such as walls of buildings. In other words, walls for separating substances or stopping physical phenomena.
The invention further relates to wall structures and buildings constructed from such wall elements.
There is a need for wall elements with which one or more of the above- mentioned walls can be constructed fast and easy.
There is furthermore a need for wall elements that can reliably be placed and/or disposed.
There is furthermore a need for wall elements that are versatile in use.
From one aspect the invention provides a wall element for separating two areas situated on either side of a wall, wherein the wall element is made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel- shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element has first and second, opposite longitudinal edges extending in tube direction, which longitudinal edges are provided with first and second coupling members, respectively, wherein the first coupling members define an accommodation space for a protrusion formed like second coupling members at the second longitudinal edge of another, same wall element, wherein the accommodation space is defined by plate continuations of both main plates.
Such wall elements have a woody look and may have sufficient strength for various uses. They are easy to assemble into a wall.
The wall elements according to the invention are strong and do not need to be filled with concrete in order to provide a sufficiently strong wall. Instead - if so desired - they can be filled with an insulating material, such as insulation foam, so that the wall elements acquire increased sound-insulating and/or heat-insulating properties. They can be directly connected or coupled to each other, so that with few actions extended walls can be made without using coupling profiles. A further advantage is that the presence of wood fibres provides the wall or the building with a finished look, as a result of which covering layers do not need to be provided. The particles are embedded in the synthetic material and do not protrude from the surface. Should a rough surface be wanted, however, then this may optionally be achieved by brushing.
A wall constructed with hollow profiles according to the invention has a minimum number of joints.
Preferably both plate continuations extend over a same distance. Preferably per side the main plates and plate continuations have a same thickness. Both main plates may also have a same thickness. Furthermore both plate continuations may have a same thickness.
In one embodiment the protrusion ends in a transverse wall that is parallel to the other transverse walls.
Preferably the length of the wall element in tube direction is larger than the width of the wall element.
In one embodiment the thickness of the main plates and the transverse walls is the same.
In order to give room for expansions, particularly as a result of moisture absorption, the first and second coupling members may be provided with a dilatation provision.
In one embodiment the first and second coupling members can be brought in operative connection with each other by sliding them into each other in tube direction. The wall elements may then for instance be vibrated in vertical tube direction into a substrate.
In an alternative or additional embodiment the first and second coupling members can be brought in operative connection with each other by sliding them into each other transverse to the tube direction, parallel to the main plates.
From a further aspect the invention provides a wall or construction element for walls, such as walls, ceilings or roofs of buildings, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the construction elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles, wood fibres, are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the construction element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, which end edges are provided with first and second cooperating coupling means, respectively, that cooperate with each other.
In a constructively simple way the first coupling means are provided on lips that extend from the first end edge and that may be provided with hooks and the second coupling means are provided in areas that are recessed from the second end edge with grooves into which the hooks may engage.
Preferably the first and second end edge are provided with a transverse plate, so that extra stability is provided to the first and second coupling means and after coupling a double transverse plate is present at that location.
The first and second coupling means can advantageously be formed with the material used for the construction elements in order to form a snap coupling.
In an embodiment particularly suitable for building houses the wall elements are provided with recesses at the first and/or the second longitudinal edges near the longitudinal ends of the wall elements. At the location of the corner of the wall the wall elements of walls meeting at that corner can thus also be placed alternately onto each other like in a log cabin. From a further aspect the invention thus also provides a wall element for partitions, particularly walls of a building, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define one or more tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, wherein the wall element at the first and/or second longitudinal edges, near the longitudinal ends of the wall element, is provided with recesses. In case the wall elements are placed to form a right-angled area the recesses may be provided perpendicular to the main plates. In one embodiment the width of the recess in longitudinal direction at least almost corresponds to the width of the wall element.
The wall elements in the sides connecting at a corner may mutually connect properly if the height of the recess at least almost corresponds to half the height of the wall element.
The wall element may comprise several parallel tubes.
The first and second edges are preferably formed for mutually fitting into each other.
The first edge may form a narrowed protrusion and the second edge an accommodation space for the first edge of an adjacent similar wall element, wherein the recess is disposed in the second edge. From a further aspect the invention provides a wall element for separating walls, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define one or more tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, wherein the first and second edges are formed for mutually fitting into each other.
In this case as well the first edge may form a narrowed protrusion and the second edge an accommodation space for the first edge of an adjacent similar wall element.
The wall element can be stackable with similar wall elements having the corresponding main plates in at least almost the same plane. It is for instance possible to place the wall elements lying horizontally onto each other in order to form a separating wall.
In an embodiment suitable for placement in pitched roofs, the first main plate can be formed with crests and valleys, preferably undulatory, due to which the water discharging function is enhanced and locations for attachment means such as bolts are provided that are situated relatively high and free from water.
In a further embodiment of the construction system according to the invention the first main plate and the second main plate form separate parts that can be coupled to each other. The first and second main plate can then be transported in mutually offset condition, wherein the width or height is temporarily reduced, so that less air is transported along or in other words per volume unit (TEU container) more construction elements can be transported.
Preferably the transverse plates are divided into a first part that is formed as one unity with the first main plate and a second part that is formed as one unity with the second main plate. The transverse parts prevent mutual shifting in one direction whereas the transverse parts offer room for forming coupling means for coupling both main plates.
It is preferred here that the first and second main plate are coupled to each other by means of a rigid coupling. Such rigid couplings can easily be formed with the said wood composite material.
From another aspect the invention provides a construction element for walls, such as upright walls, ceilings or roofs of buildings, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the construction elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood fibres are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the first main plate and the second main plate form separate parts that can be coupled to each other.
Preferably the transverse plates are then divided again into a first part that is formed as one unity with the first main plate and a second part that is formed as one unity with the second main plate, wherein preferably both transverse plate sections are provided with third and fourth coupling members, respectively, for mutual coupling.
From a further aspect the invention provides an earth or water-retaining structure constructed with wall elements according to the invention.
The tube direction may then advantageously be vertical.
As the wall panel is constructed with two cover plates at a relatively large distance from each other, high values are achieved for the moment of inertia against bending and the moment of resistance against bending. In combination with the high elasticity modulus and the high strength of the material itself this results in profiles having a high load-bearing capacity and a high resistance against deformation. Moreover as a result the profiles have a large degree of elastic stability which is of importance when long profile lengths are used. No buckling or torsion will therefore occur when using said profiles. This is of particular importance when vibrating long profiles into the ground. Due to the high rigidity the vibrations from the hammer type vibrator are properly transmitted to the lower end of the wall panel, in order to be as effective as possible when having the lower end of the wall panel penetrate the ground. The vibration energy here only to a slight degree deforms the wall panel.
Advantageous here is that due to the tube shape, despite the fact that the wall panels are made of the said thermoplastic composite with wood particles, a high moment of inertia is achieved, due to which lateral forces can also be absorbed well.
Several wall panels can be joined together beforehand, for instance three pieces, and then be jointly vibrated in. After a while an inclined position may arise when the plates are vibrated in for making revetments. According to the invention this can be counteracted by bevelling off a corner at the lower end of a wall panel to be vibrated in, which corner faces away from the edge that is slid in into the wall panel already placed, so that as a result during vibrating a horizontal force oriented towards the wall panels already placed is exerted on the wall panel that is being vibrated in.
Preferably a capping covers the upper side of the wall elements, wherein the capping is U-shaped . The capping can also be made by extrusion from said composite material having a synthetic matrix and wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, incorporated therein.
The tubes may at least partially, particularly in and upper part, more particularly in a part that is exposed to the outside air, be filled with heat-insulating material, particularly closed-cell synthetic foamed material.
From a further aspect the invention provides a noise barrier structure constructed with wall elements according to the invention. The wall elements form an effective noise-reflecting surface.
In that application the walls elements for ease of placement can be horizontally oriented with their tubes.
Columns can be placed between vertical series of wall elements. The columns may form accommodation spaces for accommodation of the longitudinal ends of the wall elements. In the accommodation spaces, between the column in question and the longitudinal end in question of the wall elements, a closing means can be placed, which prevents noise leakages. The closing means can be formed by an element of closed- cell synthetic foamed material.
In an aesthetic embodiment that can be made in one process the columns are made of the same material as the wall elements.
In case noise absorption is desired, the main plate situated at the retaining side may be provided with through-holes. The tubes can then be filled with sound-insulating or sound-muffling material, for instance mineral wool.
Preferably the content of wood particles or cellulose-containing particles is more than 50 % by weight, preferably 70% by weight or more, due to which a high strength is achieved, also at the location of the coupling means, and the woody nature is enhanced.
The synthetic material preferably is a thermoplastic synthetic material particularly a polyolefin, preferably polypropene or polyethene, or PVC or polycarbonate.
In a further development of the wall element according to the invention it is furthermore provided with continuous reinforcement elements extruded along in the wall element, which reinforcement elements are incorporated in the composite material, preferably in the main plates.
The invention furthermore relates to a wall or construction element for forming a wall in a building, such as a vertical wall (inner or outer wall), a horizontal wall (ceiling) and/or an inclined wall (roof). The invention furthermore relates to a building constructed with a number of such wall or construction elements. There is furthermore a need for buildings that can be erected fast and easy using a minimum of parts and a minimum of tools. In that case it is often desirable that the buildings despite their simple construction are resistant to extreme weather conditions, such as wind loads of hurricanes, large quantities of precipitation or intense sunshine.
It is observed that for buildings quick-building systems are for instance known from US patent specification 5.21 6.863, which regards C- shaped, octagonal columns that are open at one side and at that location and at the opposite side are provided with cooperating coupling means. Said columns are made of PVC and are thin-walled, as are the coupling means. The - in itself rather weak - columns after joining are filled with concrete. The octagonal cross-section, approaching a circular shape, will counteract failure of the profiles as a result of the weight of the unhardened concrete. The assembling of walls with the known profiles requires a lot of effort. Filling with concrete is always necessary in order to create sufficiently strong walls.
Quick-building systems are furthermore known from US patent specification 5.706.620. In this known system use is made of extruded hollow panels, that are placed as upright walls, roof parts, ridge beams, etcetera. The wall panels can be filled with concrete or sand for reinforcement, or with an insulation material for insulation. The wall panels are coupled to each other by coupling profiles that are l-shaped and optionally have a hollow body. The ends of the wall panels are provided with slits into which the turned ends at the transverse bodies of the l-shaped profiles are able to engage for coupling. The coupling profiles form an extra wall element to be produced, transported and mounted in the building system. The known panels are made of glass fibre-reinforced PVC, wherein the panels at the exposed side are finished with a layer of PVC to cover the protruding glass fibres. This requires an additional production action.
European patent application 0.320.745 can furthermore be mentioned, from which a comparable building system is known.
From a further aspect the invention provides a building having walls constructed with wall elements according to the invention.
An additional advantage of the wall elements according to the invention is that the relatively high content of cellulose-containing particles will strongly limit the charging of the wall elements with disturbing electrostatic electricity, because the charge can be more easily discharged to earth than by the synthetic material itself. This is particularly advantageous in dry spells.
In a further development according to the invention the walls are placed on a foundation plate and anchoring means are attached to the foundation plate and extend upward in a tube in question of a wall element and are provided with hook members oriented towards the foundation plate for engaging at the tube side of the plates surrounding the tube in question.
Additionally or alternatively a ceiling plate or roof element or wall plate can be placed on the walls, wherein anchoring means are then attached to the ceiling plate and extend downward in a tube in question of a wall element and are provided with hook members oriented towards the ceiling plate or the roof element for engaging at the tube side of the plates surrounding the tube in question. The said hook members are preferably pre-biased to the outside in a resilient manner, so that they can be easily inserted into the tube and are then active as if of their own accord.
The engagement by the hook members can be enhanced when the tubes are filled with loose bulk goods, particularly sand.
In another embodiment of a building according to the invention the tubes of the wall elements are horizontally oriented.
Like in a log cabin, the wall elements of walls connecting to a corner of the walls, at the first and/or second edges, near the longitudinal ends of the wall elements, can be provided with recesses, with which at the location of the corner of the walls the wall elements of the walls meeting at said corner are placed alternately onto each other.
The invention furthermore provides a building with a pitched roof constructed with wall elements according to the invention, wherein the wall elements are placed with the tubes in accordance with the fall of the roof. Such a roof is relatively rigid and easy to place.
The roof may have an inverted V-shape, wherein the upper edges of wall elements meeting at the ridge of the roof are oriented transverse to the main plates and in between them define a discharge opening that is in open connection with the tubes. The wall elements having an undulatory or comparable first main plate may be advantageous here, as in case of a first main plate that is turned to the outside the ridge can be covered with a straight ridge strip and then as if of its own accord ridge ventilation passages leading to the outside have been formed between the ridge strip and the first main plate. The ventilation achieved in that way is suitable for very hot areas, wherein the roof surface can be strongly heated up by the sun during the day. This is advantageous when the eaves are kept open, that means accessible to air that will flow upward through the wall elements in the roof for cooling it down and is able to leave there, in both roof planes. The ridge strip can be kept simple here. On the other hand in cold areas the cavities in the roof profiles can be used for partially or fully filling them with foam or in another way, as a result of which the roof surface is provided with larger heat insulation.
In a further embodiment in a building according to the invention the roof is supported by rafters constructed with wall elements according to the invention and the tube direction of the wall elements in the rafters is horizontal. The wall elements may optionally be biassed in vertical direction against each other and against a roof by passing tensioning cables through suitable passages in the transverse plates of the wall elements, wherein the upper end of the towing cables can simply support against a transverse plate at a (in that case horizontal) end edge.
Further stiffening of the roof structure is achieved when the roof is furthermore supported by purlins that are fittingly accommodated in recesses in the rafters.
From a further aspect the invention provides a building of which all walls separating air spaces from each other are formed as wall element according to the invention.
From yet another aspect the invention provides a building having walls separating air spaces from each other, such as upright walls, ceilings and roof, wherein all walls are formed out of wall elements made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel- shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction.
Other advantageous uses of the wall elements according to the invention are possible.
The invention will be elucidated on the basis of an exemplary embodiment shown in the attached drawings, in which:
Figure 1 A shows a first embodiment of a wall panel according to the invention;
Figure 1 B shows the wall panel of figure 1 in perspective view;
Figure 1 C shows the wall panel of figure 1 with solitary reinforcement elements embedded in the material of the panel;
Figures 2A and 2B show end views of a second embodiment of a wall panel/wall element according to the invention, in solitary condition and in mutually joined condition, respectively;
Figure 2C shows the wall panel of figures 2A,B having individual reinforcement elements embedded in the material of the panel;
Figures 3A and 3B show a third embodiment of a panel/wall element according to the invention in solitary condition and in mutually joined condition, respectively; Figure 4 shows a schematic, diagonal front view of a wall composed from wall elements according to the invention;
Figure 4A shows a schematic, diagonal front view of the wall of figure 4, in an arrangement as shore/bank wall and provided with a capping;
Figure 4B shows a cross-section of a capping of the arrangement according to figure 4A;
Figure 4C shows an alternative embodiment of a wall constructed with wall elements according to the invention having another embodiment of a capping;
Figure 4D shows the arrangement with the shore/bank wall according to figure 4A in cross-section;
Figure 4E shows detail of figure 4D;
Figure 5 shows a schematic arrangement of a wall composed of wall elements according to the invention, as a noise barrier;
Figures 5A-C show a front view, a horizontal cross-section and a vertical cross-section, respectively, of the wall of figure 5;
Figure 5D shows a wall panel according to the invention suitable for incorporation in noise barrier structures;
Figure 6A shows a further wall element according to the invention, particularly suitable for making the house of figure 6F;
Figures 6B and 6C show details of the house of figure 6F; Figure 6D shows a detail of the connection pitched roof wall in the house of figure 6F;
Figure 6E shows making a casing recess in a wall for the house of figure 6F;
Figure 6F shows a house made using wall elements according to the invention, in a log cabin-like embodiment;
Figures 7A and 7B show a further embodiment of a panel according to the invention, without and with, respectively, individual reinforcement elements embedded in the material of the panel;
Figures 8A and 8B show a schematic view of a corner connection in an upright wall constructed with panels according to the invention, without and with, respectively, individual reinforcement elements embedded in the material of the panel;
Figures 9A and 9B show a side view of a building made of panels according to the invention and a detail of the eave, respectively;
Figure 9C shows a schematic plan of the roof of the building of figures 9A and 9B;
Figure 9D shows a schematic view of the connection of a panel according to the invention having a foundation and on a superstructure;
Figure 1 0A shows a third embodiment of a wall panel according to the invention consisting of two parts; and
Figure 1 0B shows an alternative embodiment of parts of an assembled panel similar to the panel of figure 10A. The panel 1 in figure 1 A is made by co-extrusion from a composite of a thermoplastic synthetic material, particularly polyolefin, such as polyethene or polypropene, or PVC or polycarbonate. Preferably polypropene. In the polypropene matrix wood particles or other cellulose-containing particles are embedded, comprising fibres and sawdust or other powdered wood material . The content of wood particles may more than 50% by weight, preferably more than 70% by weight, more preferably between 70-80% by weight, and the content of polypropene is complementary thereto, preferably 20-30% by weight. Such a preferred ratio is approximately 70/30% by weight. Such a material is available from the applicant under the name "Tech- Wood" and has proven its strength, rigidity and durability. The material has a woody look and after extrusion already has a smooth surface. The material has a E-modulus of at least 4000 Mpa, preferably 4000- 8000 Mpa.
Further increase of the constructional strength and rigidity can be achieved when continuous reinforcement elements are extruded along in the panel for accommodation in the composite material, extending in the direction of extrusion. The E-modulus can then be considerably higher, between 6000-1 2000 Mpa.
The panel 1 of figure 1 A has a main plate 2 and a main plate 3, connected to each other by transverse walls or transverse plates 6 and transverse wall 4 and 5 situated at the end edges. The transverse wall 4 is slightly shorter than transverse wall 5, in order to form a snap space/protrusion 9 in the recessed corner area 8. The main plates 2 and 3, within the plane of the main plates 2 and 3, extend beyond the transverse wall 5, in order to form protrusions 10 with snap cams 1 1 . The transverse walls 4, 5 and 6 are provided with holes 7, intended for passage of an optional tension rope and optionally allowing filling material, such as sand, through. The holes are disposed in the direction transverse to the plane of the drawing every other 1 0 to 20 cm.
The main plates 2 and 3 and the transverse walls 4, 5 and 6 form tubular spaces 40. The panel 1 may have a height that is in the order of magnitude of the height of a storey, for instance 3 m, but may very well be much longer. The panel 1 is extruded in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing, wherein as shown in figure 1 B, wood fibres 1 2 are oriented in tube direction. As a result the panel 1 has a high compression strength and bending strength (in addition to the bending strength due to the transverse walls 4, 5, 6). The panels 1 here have sufficient independent rigidity, without connection to other elements being necessary. They may be coupled to each other for providing a continuous wall surface and preventing slits, to which end in an easy manner, without tools, two panels according to figure 1 are joined together with the complementary end edges, after which snap cams 1 1 engage behind the snap cams 8, and the transverse wall 4 comes to lie within the protrusions 1 0, against or almost against the transverse wall 5.
If it has to be prevented that under the influence of large compressive forces, such as wind loads in case of hurricanes, panels placed against each other and coupled to each other, become indeed detached from each other, or to counteract differences in deformations a tensioning cable 35 can be passed through the said holes 7 in order to bias several coupled panels 1 against each other.
When the panels 1 are used for assembling a wall of a building the tubes 4 can be filled with an insulation material, selected depending on the geographical or meteorological conditions. In desert areas for instance sand could be used.
Figure 1 C shows the panel 1 of figure 1 A with continuous reinforcement elements 3a incorporated therein for increasing the rigidity and the strength.
The wall element 1 ' shown in the figures 2A and 2B is made of the same material as the panel 1 of figures 1 A, etcetera. The manufacturing was also similar. In this case reinforcement elements can also be incorporated therein, see figure 2C.
Holes may also optionally be there for passage of additional tensioning elements, such as the holes 7 in figure 1 A.
At a first edge, the wall element 1 ' of figures 2A,B is provided with a recess having a thickness of for instance 24 mm, limited by transverse wall 5' and by extensions 1 0' of the main plates 2', 3'. The thickness of the wall continuations 1 0' and the main plates 2', 3' is the same for instance 7 mm. The thickness of the transverse edges 5', 6' and 4' is mutually the same , and preferably also the same as the one of the main plates 2', 3' . The main plates 2', 3' and the transverse edges 4', 6', 5' enclose tubes 40'. Said tubes are elongated: the largest length of the wall element 1 ' is in the direction transverse to the end surface indicated, for instance some meters. The width is for instance 25- mm and the depth 76 mm.
The second edge with transverse edge 4' forms a protrusion of for instance 24 mm that may be fittingly accommodated in the accommodation space defined by the wall continuations 10', as can be seen in figure 2B. In the wall parts 8' parallel to the main plates 2', 3' dilatation cams 9' have been disposed at the outside, in order to leave slits 60a, 60b between two adjacent wall panels V, in order to thus provide room for expansion as a result of expansions such as for instance due to moisture absorption in the wall panels 1 ' .
The wall panel 1 " in the figures 3A and 3B for a large part corresponds to wall panel 1 ' of figures 2A,B wherein the thickness of the transverse walls, at least in the centre area thereof, of the transverse walls 4", 5", 6" is slightly smaller (6 mm) than the thickness of the main plates 2" and 3". Furthermore the placement cams 9" are provided on the outside of the transverse wall 4", for abutment against the outside of the transverse wall 5" of the next wall panel 1 " (see figure 3B). The wall panel 1 " can be made similarly, of the same material as wall panel 1 ' .
In case the wall panels V are used for a noise barrier a resilient sound- sealing strip 61 can be disposed between the cams 9" by clamping in order to close off the slit 60a for preventing air leakages.
The wall panels 1 ' and 1 " are also suitable to be joined by approaching in a direction transverse to the direction of the tubes or according to a direction parallel to those of the tubes, depending on what the best approach is for the desired use.
For instance a wall 90 as shown in figure 4 can be obtained, wherein the tube direction is vertical. This may be of particular use in noise barriers, earth retaining walls and water retaining walls. A bank/shore covering wall of a water body, such as a lake or channel, will be discussed below by way of example, wherein the wall panels 1 , etcetera, have to be driven into the bottom. The placed wall elements 1 , 1 ', 1 " may at the top be covered by a capping, as shown in figure 4A, where U-shaped cappings 70 (figure 4B), of wood composite material comparable to that of which the wall panel 1 has been made, also obtained by extrusion, is placed over the upper end of the wall panels 1 . The legs of the U-profile may be provided with pilot edges. The inner surface of the upper wall may be provided with placement cams 71 .
In figure 4C an alternative capping is shown, again made of the same material, made by extrusion, albeit in three parts, screwed together in order to form a capping 80, as shown.
In the figures 4A and 4D the wall of figure 4A is shown in an arrangement as bank/shore wall, wherein the bank/shore wall is kept vertical by means of a purlin 42, an anchor rod 43, and an anchor plate 44. In that case water may also penetrate the tubes 40. When there is question of frost conditions the water in the tubes 40 may also freeze, and the tube walls might get damaged due to expansion. According to the invention this is prevented by at the location of the freezing area of the water providing the tube 40 with a filling, as a result of which the volume of water that is able to expand there due to freezing is reduced. Preferably the filling is compressible, in order to buffer the expansion of the remaining water at that location, and thus to safeguard the walls of the tube from too high expansion forces. A suitable filling material is a closed-cell synthetic foam, schematically shown in detail in figure 4E, in the form of polyethene pipes 41 having closed cells, of which the end can be turned and inserted into the tubes 40 in order to properly remain in place.
The wall elements according to the invention can also be used for noise absorption, see figures 5 and further. The woody look of the wall panels here ensures a proper fit in the surroundings. The mass of the wall panels in this case is preferably at least 1 0 kg/m2, which can easily be achieved. Possible air leakage due to the connections between the wall panels can be prevented by a snug fit of the groove/tongue and optionally by sealing material, preferably strip-shaped.
In figure 5 an arrangement is shown with a noise barrier wall 90' assembled from wall elements 1 , 1 'or 1 " according to the invention. The wall 90' is placed between the buildings X and motorway Y and reflects the noise of the traffic. The wall 90' is built up from a number of columns 91 having an H-shape. The columns 91 can be made of the same material as the wall elements 1 , 1 '. Alternatively they can be made of steel. The columns 91 are founded on concrete pedestal footings that are not further shown. Wall elements 1 , 1 ' are stacked horizontally (see figures 5A and 5C) between the columns 91 , wherein the direction of the coupling is vertical. The longitudinal ends of the wall elements 1 , 1 ' are in this case accommodated in the accommodation spaces defined by the H-profiles. In said accommodation spaces polyethene foam pipes 92 with closed cells, comparable to pipes 40 of figure 4E, are disposed, with which noise leakages are prevented . The pipes pressed between the ends of the wall elements 1 , 1 ' and the H-profiles, ensure permanent sealing due to their elasticity and are protected from UV radiation by the legs of the H- profiles. Due to their resilience the foam pipes 92 also ensure that a dilatation provision is provided for the wall elements when they expand in their longitudinal direction due to gradual absorption of moisture.
Particularly for noise absorption it may be advantageous to provide the noise barrier side of the wall panels, see wall panel 201 in figure 5D, the main plate 203, with holes 21 1 that end in the tubes 240. The holes occupy at least 1 5 % of the overall surface at that side. The tubes 240 may function as sound muffling casing. Sound-absorbing material 242, such as mineral wool is placed in the tubes. Figure 6A shows a wall panel 1 01 according to the invention, manufactured similarly to wall panel 1 ', of the same material. The wall panels can be joined by stacking them onto each other, as shown in figure 6B. Particular here is that the wall panels 1 01 near their ends are provided with recesses 1 1 1 , that are transverse to the main plates 1 02, 103 and extend from the lower edge (through transverse wall 5), to halfway the width of the wall panel 1 . As a result in a corner wall panels can be placed alternately like in a log cabin, as shown in figure 6B, in order to form walls 1 20. When the walls meet each other at a different angle than a right angle, the recesses can be disposed such in the wall panels that they are oriented corresponding to said different angle.
As can be seen in figure 6C massive elements, like in this case a wooden beam 1 22, can be inserted into the tubes 40. They may increase the rigidity and the creep-resistance and moreover offer an extra mounting option (for screwing in coach screws and the like) . As shown in figure 6D they may also serve as attachment aid for the roof 1 23.
The wall panels 1 ', etcetera, may easily be sawn in the desired shape, in this case a gable roof of the "log cabin" 90 of figure 6F. The ends of the wall panels, that are situated in view, may be finished with strips. Said strips as well may be made of said composite material. As shown in figure 6E, passages can easily be sawn in the walls 1 20, such as passage 1 24 for door case 1 25.
The wall panels 1 ' in for instance the log cabin shown can be filled with a heat-insulating material . A proper fit of the groove and tongue connection of the wall panels can prevent possible air slits between the wall panels. Optionally sealing strips accommodated in said connection can be used.
Figure shows 7A a wall panel 31 that is particularly suitable for use as roof element for pitched roofs. In the example the first main plate 32 is formed undulatory, but optionally a zig-zag shape or sheet pile wall shape may also be opted for. The first main plate 32 is intended to be situated at the outside, and the second main plate 33, which is straight, at the inside. The main plates 32 and 33 are connected to each other by means of transverse walls 34, 35 and 36, which also define the tubular spaces 41 .
At the end edges the panel 31 is provided with an accommodation space 39, 42 and 43, respectively. The accommodation space 39 is limited by confining edge 37 at one side, which confining edge 37 fits in the space 42, wherein confining edge 44 is able to engage behind confining edge 37. In the same way confining edge 38 fits in the space 43. The confinement connection can be realised by sliding in two panels 31 along each other - in tube direction-.
The sliding in longitudinal direction is advantageous when arranging a roof consisting of panels 31 , as after placing a first panel 31 the next panel can simply be slid from the bottom up while coupling the end edges that are facing each other.
The valleys in the main plate 32 may be intended for water discharge. Attachment means may be passed through at the location of the crests (not shown), in order to remain free of discharged water. It is observed that the transverse walls 36 are situated offset with respect to the crests of the main plate 32, in order to offer room to the fastening bolts passed through the crests. The main plate 33 is level so that mounting to the supporting parts of the roof structure is easy.
In figure 7B the panel 31 of figure 7A is shown with continuous reinforcement elements 33a accommodated therein, in order to increase the rigidity and strength.
Figure 8A shows a corner in a wall that is constructed from panels 1 , wherein use is made of the provisions at the end edges for a snap connection. The two panels 1 meeting each other, in this case at an angle of 90°, are snapped by means of the snap connection 8-1 1 to corresponding snap connections 51 , 52 at an L-shaped angle section or angle column 50, that may for instance be made of metal or maybe of "Tech-Wood" material. The legs of the L-shaped section 50 abut the transverse walls 4 and 5, respectively, of the panels 1 in a level manner. They are also provided with holes 55, that are in line with the said holes 7. Optional tensioning means may be passed therethrough and secured to the inside of the legs of the L-shaped section 50.
Finishing of the corner 53 then takes place using a closing section 60 that is provided with snap protrusions 52, that snap fixed onto snap protrusions 51 at the ends of the legs of the L-shaped section 50.
In figure 8B the L-shaped angle column 50 of figure 4 is shown with continuous reinforcement elements 50a accommodated therein, in order to increase the rigidity and strength of the column.
The building 70 in figure 9A consists of a foundation plate 71 onto which walls constructed with panels 1 have been placed. At the corners the said closing sections 60 can be seen. On the closing sections 60 and on the upper edges of the panels 1 U-shaped wall plate sections 71 have been placed, on which the superstructure is placed. As can also be seen in figure 7C, the superstructure comprises a number of rafters 80, onto which roof panels 73 have been placed which roof panels may correspond with the panels 31 according to figure 7A.
The rafters 80 in figure 9C are closed at sight yet constructed with panels according to the invention, for instance panels 1 , but for instance having two tubes 40 according to figure 1 A. Said tubes 40 then extend horizontally. The consecutive panels 74 are snapped to each other in the said manner, and after that, in connection with offering resistance to lifting powers due to wind suction, anchored to each other by means of tie rods 76.
The panels 74 may beforehand or in situ be sawn off diagonally at the ends in order to offer a smooth support surface to the roof panels 73.
As can be seen in figure 9B the ends of the panels 74 may be rectangularly sawn in to define a fitting accommodation space for the purlins 77, that may optionally be accommodated in a clamping fixed manner. The purlins may of wood or of reinforced profiles with said Tech-Wood material. The purlins are only capable of moving transverse from their position and get stuck in case of another direction of movement. This is an extra safeguard against lifting of the roof in case of hurricanes and the like.
At their lower ends the rafters 80 have a tube or wall plate 75, also made of Tech-Wood, into which a wooden rafter beam has been inserted, or which have been made of reinforced Tech-Wood material. The rafter beam itself may provide a fastening means, for instance as shown in figure 9B for the lower edge of the roof panels 73 and the profile 72. The panels 73 may be attached to the purlins 77 by means of fastening means 79. At the location of the ridge of the roof the panels 73 situated on both sides end straight, so that a V-shaped space is left. Said space is upwardly covered by a straight ridge strip 78. At the location of the valleys in the roof panels 73, however, passages are left free. As a result, as shown in figure 9A, a cooling air flow may occur from the eave (direction A), through the roof panels 73 (direction B) and then exit in the directions C.
A possible connection between wall panels 1 and horizontal construction parts of the building is shown in figure 9D. On the foundation plate 71 an anchor 90 is attached by means of bolts 92, which anchor is provided with rigid arms 91 that are resiliently biassed to the outside, and that have sharp edges. In the said tube with accommodated therein wooden wall plate or of reinforced Tech-Wood material 75, an anchor having hooking arms 91 can be inserted into the tube space 40 from above in the same manner. The sharp arm ends after extension engage into the inner surface of the parts of the wall panel 1 that surround the tube 50. By filling the tube 40 with sand the extension of the arms 91 may be enhanced.
When lifting forces are exerted on the roof and thus on the beam 75 said forces are transmitted by the anchor 90 to the panel 1 and subsequently via the anchor 90 to the lower side of the foundation plate 71 . A vertical displacement results in increased engagement of the arm ends in the tubes 40 and thus in improved anchoring.
The bolt connection 92 at the upper side can be used for fastening of an angle iron 93, with which further roof parts can be fastened.
The rafter structures 80 may optionally be provided with a passage hole, should there be question of a storey floor. The panels according to the invention may, depending on the intended use, for the sake of efficiency of transport also consist of two parts, as shown in the figures 10A and 10B. At the main plate 31 2 transverse wall members 31 4b, 31 5b and 31 6b are formed that end in snap accommodation spaces 31 8. The main plate 31 3 is formed with transverse wall members 31 4a, 314b and 1 6a and end in snap protrusions 31 7. The transverse wall member 314a and the transverse wall member 31 5a at the location of 31 9 are offset to the inside for letting the transverse wall members 31 4a, 31 4b, 31 5a and 31 5b , after connecting both panel members by insertion of the snap protrusions 31 7 in the snap spaces 31 8 substantially be aligned .
As can be seen in figure 1 0A the main plate 31 2 can be supported offset on main plate 31 3, so that transport height h i is much smaller than the height in mounted condition, namely h2 + h3.
h2 and h3 - and thus h i - may be varied as desired, shown in figure 10B with h4 and h5. Comparable parts have comparable reference numbers, increased by 1 0. For instance a h i and h4 of 40 and 80 cm respectively may be provided and a height of h3 and h5 of 40 and 80 cm, wherein panel thicknesses of 80, 1 20 and 1 60 cm, respectively, can be made.
The snap connection such as between protrusions 31 7 and accommodation spaces 31 8 is formed such that there is question of an at least almost rigid constraint. After joining together by snapping, which is easy to do on the building site without using tools, a panel is obtained which, as regards strength, can be compared with panel 1 , yet which due to the possibility of transport in the arrangement as shown in figure 10A takes less transport volume.

Claims

Claims
1 . Wall element for separating two areas situated on either side of a wall, wherein the wall element is made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element has first and second, opposite longitudinal edges extending in tube direction, which longitudinal edges are provided with first and second coupling members, respectively, wherein the first coupling members define an accommodation space for a protrusion formed like second coupling members at the second longitudinal edge of another, same wall element, wherein the accommodation space is defined by plate continuations of both main plates.
2. Wall element according to claim 1 , wherein both plate continuations extend over a same distance.
3. Wall element according to claim 2, wherein per side the main plates and plate continuations have a same thickness.
4. Wall element according to claim 1 , 2 or 3, wherein both main plates have a same thickness.
5. Wall element according to any one of the claims 1 -4, wherein both plate continuations have a same thickness.
6. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the protrusion ends in a transverse wall that is parallel to the other transverse walls.
7. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the length of the wall element in tube direction is larger than the width of the wall element.
8. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the thickness of the main plates and the transverse walls is the same.
9. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first and second coupling members are provided with a dilatation provision.
1 0. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first and second coupling members can be brought in operative connection with each other by sliding them into each other in tube direction.
1 1 . Wall element according to claim 1 -1 0, wherein the first and second coupling members can be brought in operative connection with each other by sliding them into each other transverse to the tube direction, parallel to the main plates.
1 2. Wall element for partitions, such as (retaining) walls, ceilings or roofs, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, which end edges are provided with first and second cooperating coupling means, respectively.
1 3. Wall element according to claim 1 2, wherein the first coupling means are provided with lips having hooks that extend from the first end edge and the second coupling means are provided with grooves in recessed areas of the second end edge.
14. Wall element according to claim 1 2, wherein the first and second end edge are provided with a transverse plate.
1 5. Wall element according to claim 1 2, wherein the first and second coupling means are formed for forming a snap coupling.
1 6. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the transverse walls or transverse plates are provided with openings for passing a tensioning element, such as a cable, or filler.
1 7. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, further provided with continuous reinforcement elements extruded along in the wall element, which reinforcement elements are incorporated in the composite material, preferably in the main plates.
1 8. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, provided with recesses at the first and/or second longitudinal edges, near the longitudinal ends of the wall element.
1 9. Wall element for partitions, particularly walls of a building, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel- shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define one or more tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, wherein the wall element at the first and/or the second longitudinal edges, near the longitudinal ends of the wall element is provided with recesses, which recesses are preferably oriented perpendicular to the main plates.
20. Wall element according to claim 1 9, wherein the width of the recess in longitudinal edge direction at least corresponds to the width of the wall element.
21 . Wall element according to claim 1 9 or 20, wherein the height of the recess at least almost corresponds to half the height of the wall element.
22. Wall element according to claim 1 9, 20 or 21 , wherein the wall element comprises several parallel tubes.
23. Wall element according to any one of the claims 1 9-22, wherein the first and second edges are formed for mutually fitting in each other.
24. Wall element according to any one of the claims 1 9-23, wherein the first edge forms a narrowed protrusion and the second edge an accommodation space for the first edge of an adjacent similar wall element, wherein the recess is arranged in the second edge.
25. Wall element for partitions, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define one or more tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the wall element is provided with first and second end edges extending substantially in tube direction, wherein the first and second edges are formed for mutually fitting into each other.
26. Wall element according to claim 25, wherein the first edge forms a narrowed protrusion and the second edge an accommodation space for the first edge of an adjacent similar wall element.
27. Wall element according to claim 26, stackable with similar wall elements having the corresponding main plates in at least almost the same plane.
28. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first main plate and the second main plate form separate parts that can be coupled to each other, wherein preferably the transverse plates are divided into a first part that is formed as one unity with the first main plate and a second part that is formed as one unity with the second main plate.
29. Wall element according to claim 28, wherein both transverse plate sections are provided with third and fourth coupling members, respectively, for mutual coupling.
30. Wall element according to claim 28 or 29, wherein the first and second main plates are coupled to each other by means of a rigid coupling.
31 . Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first main plate is formed with crests and valleys, preferably undulatory.
32. Wall element for walls, such as walls, ceilings or roofs of buildings, made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel- shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction, wherein the first main plate and the second main plate form separate parts that can be coupled to each other.
33. Wall element according to claim 32, wherein the transverse plates are divided into a first part that is formed as one unity with the first main plate and a second part that is formed as one unity with the second main plate, wherein preferably both transverse plate sections are provided with third and fourth coupling members, respectively, for mutual coupling.
34. Wall element according to claim 32 or 33, wherein the first and second main plate are coupled to each other by means of a rigid coupling.
35. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the content of wood particles and the like is more than 50 % by weight, preferably 70% by weight or more.
36. Wall element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the synthetic material is a thermoplastic synthetic material.
37. Wall element according to claim 36, wherein the thermoplastic synthetic material is a polyolefin or a PVC or a polycarbonate.
38. Wall element according to claim 37, wherein the synthetic material is polypropene or polyethene.
39. Building having walls constructed with wall elements according to any one of the claims 1 -38.
40. Building according to claim 39, wherein the tubes of the wall elements of the walls are oriented horizontally.
41 . Building according to claim 40, wherein the wall elements of walls connecting to a corner of the walls, at the first and/or second edges, near the longitudinal ends of the wall elements, are provided with recesses, with which at the location of the corner of the walls the wall elements of walls meeting at said corner are placed alternately onto each other, wherein the wall elements preferably are made according to any one of the claims 1 8-24.
42. Building according to claim 39, wherein the tubes of the wall elements of the walls are oriented vertically and the walls are put on a foundation plate and anchoring means are attached to the foundation plate and extend upward in a tube in question of a wall element and are provided with hook members oriented towards the foundation plate for engaging at the tube side of the plates surrounding the tube in question.
43. Building according to claim 39 or 42, wherein a ceiling plate or roof element or wall plate has been placed on the walls and anchoring means are attached to the ceiling plate and extend downward in a tube in question of a wall element and are provided with hook members oriented towards the ceiling plate or the roof element for engaging in at the tube side of the plates surrounding the tube in question.
44. Building according to claim 42 or 43, wherein the hook members are pre-biased to the outside in a resilient manner.
45. Building according to any one of the claims 39-44, wherein the tubes are filled with loose bulk goods, particularly sand.
46. Building according to any one of the claims 39-45, wherein the tubes are filled with a heat-insulating means.
47. Building according to any one of the claims 39-46, wherein at least some tubes are filled with massive parts, such as battens or beams, particularly of wood.
48. Building having a pitched rood constructed with wall elements according to any one of the claims 1 -38, wherein the wall elements with the tubes are placed in accordance with the fall of the roof.
49. Building according to claim 48, wherein the roof has an inverted V- shape, and wherein the upper edges of wall elements meeting at the ridge of the roof are oriented transverse to the main plates and in between them define a discharge opening that is in open connection with the tubes, wherein the wall elements preferably are formed in the roof as wall elements according to claim 26, wherein the first main plate is turned to the outside.
50. Building according to claim 49, wherein the discharge opening is upwardly covered by a ridge strip.
51 . Building according to any one of the claims 40-50, wherein the roof is supported by rafters constructed with wall elements according to any one of the claims 1 -38.
52. Building according to claim 51 , wherein the tube direction of the wall elements in the rafters is horizontal.
53. Building according to claim 51 or 52, wherein the roof is furthermore supported by purlins that are fittingly accommodated in recesses in the rafters.
54. Building according to any one of the claims 40-53, wherein all walls separating air spaces from each other are formed as wall element according to any one of the claims 1 -38.
55. Wall structure for separating substances or spaces, such as retaining walls, noise barrier walls, walls, ceilings and roof, wherein all walls are formed from wall elements made by extrusion from a composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres or other cellulose-containing particles, wherein the wall elements are panel-shaped and comprise a first main plate, a second main plate spaced therefrom and transverse plates connecting both main plates to each other, wherein both main plates and the transverse plates define tubular hollow spaces, wherein the wood particles comprise a fraction of elongated wood particles, which elongated wood particles are predominantly oriented in tube direction.
56. Earth or water-retaining structure constructed with wall elements according to any one of the claims 1 -38.
57. Earth or water-retaining structure according to claim 56, wherein the tube direction is vertical.
58. Earth or water-retaining structure according to claim 57, wherein one or more of the used wall elements are bevelled in a bottom corner area.
59. Earth or water-retaining structure according to claim 56, 57 or 58, wherein the upper side of the wall elements is covered by a capping, wherein the capping is U-shaped.
60. Earth or water-retaining structure according to claim 59, Wherein the capping is made by extrusion from said composite material having a synthetic matrix and incorporated therein wood particles, such as wood fibres, or other cellulose-containing particles.
61 . Earth or water-retaining structure according to any one of the claims 56-60, wherein the tubes, particularly in an upper part, more particularly in a part that is exposed to the outside air, are at least partially filled with heat-insulating material, particularly closed-cell synthetic foamed material.
62. Noise barrier structure constructed with wall elements according to any one of the claims 1 -38.
63. Noise barrier structure according to claim 62, wherein the wall elements with their tubes are oriented horizontally.
64. Noise barrier structure according to claim 62 or 63, wherein columns have been placed between vertical series of wall elements.
65. Noise barrier structure according to claim 64, wherein the columns form accommodation spaces for accommodation of the longitudinal ends of the wall elements.
66. Noise barrier structure according to claim 65, wherein a closing means is placed in the accommodation spaces, between the column in question and the longitudinal end in question of the wall elements.
67. Noise barrier structure according to claim 66, wherein the closing means is formed by an element of closed-cell synthetic foamed material.
68. Noise barrier structure according to any one of the claims 64-67, wherein the columns are made of the same material as the wall elements.
69. Noise barrier structure according to any one of the claims 62-68, wherein the main plate situated at the retaining side is provided with through holes.
70. Noise barrier structure according to claim 69, wherein the tubes are filled with sound-insulating or sound-muffling material, for instance mineral wool.
71 . Wall element provided with one or more of the characterising measures described in the attached description and/or shown in the attached drawings.
72. Retaining wall structure provided with one or more of the characterising measures described in the attached description and/or shown in the attached drawings.
73. Building provided with one or more of the characterising measures described in the attached description and/or shown in the attached drawings.
PCT/NL2005/000198 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Wall element and structure constructed therewith WO2005088020A1 (en)

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NL1027046 2004-09-15
NL1027046 2004-09-15

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US11/532,271 US20070062146A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2006-09-15 Wall element and structure constructed therewith
US12/546,761 US20100043339A1 (en) 1995-04-27 2009-08-25 Modular Housing Unit

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WO2010125391A3 (en) * 2009-04-29 2011-01-27 Task Green Limited Barrier and post for said barrier
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