WO2002086187A1 - Apparatus for the deposition of metal or metal oxide coatings - Google Patents

Apparatus for the deposition of metal or metal oxide coatings Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2002086187A1
WO2002086187A1 PCT/EP2002/004243 EP0204243W WO02086187A1 WO 2002086187 A1 WO2002086187 A1 WO 2002086187A1 EP 0204243 W EP0204243 W EP 0204243W WO 02086187 A1 WO02086187 A1 WO 02086187A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
substrate
metal
deposition
metal oxide
holding system
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2002/004243
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Jurgen Denul
Roger De Gryse
Anneke Segers
Hugo Lievens
Original Assignee
N.V. Bekaert S.A.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP01201428.8 priority Critical
Priority to EP01201428 priority
Application filed by N.V. Bekaert S.A. filed Critical N.V. Bekaert S.A.
Publication of WO2002086187A1 publication Critical patent/WO2002086187A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L39/00Devices using superconductivity; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L39/24Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of devices provided for in H01L39/00 or of parts thereof
    • H01L39/2419Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of devices provided for in H01L39/00 or of parts thereof the superconducting material comprising copper oxide
    • H01L39/2422Processes for depositing or forming superconductor layers
    • H01L39/2435Processes for depositing or forming superconductor layers by sputtering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/50Substrate holders
    • C23C14/505Substrate holders for rotation of the substrates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/54Controlling or regulating the coating process
    • C23C14/541Heating or cooling of the substrates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/56Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating; Arrangements for maintaining the vacuum, e.g. vacuum locks
    • C23C14/568Transferring the substrates through a series of coating stations

Abstract

The invention relates to an apparatus for the deposition of a metal or a metal oxide coating on a substrate. The apparatus comprises a holding system for at least one substrate and a housing surrounding the holding system and provided with a heating system. The holding system is mounted in such a way that it can be rotated inside the housing. The apparatus is in particular suitable to deposit superconducting metal oxide coatings.

Description

APPARATUS FOR THE DEPOSITION OF METAL OR METAL OXIDE COATINGS

Field of the invention. The invention relates to an apparatus and to a method for the deposition of a metal or metal oxide coating. The apparatus is in particular suitable to deposit superconducting metal oxide coatings.

The invention further relates to a substrate coated with a metal or metal oxide coating.

Background of the invention.

Since superconducting materials such as YBa2Cu3O7.x (YBCO) can be successfully produced by a number of techniques, new problems such as how to increase the production capacity and the cost effectiveness are coming up.

Both production capacity and cost effectiveness are directly related to the average volume deposition rate.

Since the volume deposition rate is determined by the thickness deposition rate and the area on which the material can simultaneously be deposited, at present one is trying to optimize the existing methods in order to increase either the thickness deposition rate or the area on which material can simultaneously be deposited.

In order to obtain a high quality YBCO coating over a larger area a homogeneous temperature distribution over the substrate is required.

This can be achieved by using a fast rotating turntable with heating elements above, below and around it, as described in WO 98/20521. However, the coated surface is limited to a surface of about 400 cm2 and the method can not be applied to coat long lengths of a substrate.

A possible solution to coat tapes is by helicoidally winding a tape around a cylindrical holder and growing a superconducting film on the substrate while rotating the holder as described in US 5,731 ,271. Summary of the invention.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and a method of depositing a metal or metal oxide coating on large surfaces of a substrate. It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and a method for the deposition of a superconducting coating and more particularly for the deposition of a thick superconducting coating with an excellent crystallinity.

It is still a further object to provide a method to deposit a metal or metal oxide coating having a high production capacity and a high cost effectiveness.

According to a first aspect of the present invention an apparatus for the deposition of a metal or a metal oxide coating is provided. The apparatus comprises a holding system for at least one substrate and means to deposit the metal or metal oxide coating. The holding system is surrounded by a housing. This housing is interrupted by at least one deposition window. The means to deposit the metal or metal oxide coating are located in front of this deposition window. The housing is provided with a heating system.

The holding system is mounted in such a way that it can be rotated inside the housing.

The holding system may be designed to hold one or more substrates. The substrates may be mounted or fixed on the holding system in a number of different ways, for example by using screws or adhesives. The holding system can be provided with a number of recesses, in which the substrates are laid.

In one embodiment the holding system comprises a cylindrical tube on which the substrate or substrates is/are mounted. In another embodiment the holding system comprises a tube with a polygonal cross-section.

Preferably, at least a part of the inner side of the housing is provided with a heating system, in such a way that the substrate or substrates is/are surrounded by this heating system. This heating system allows to achieve a homogeneous heating of the substrate.

The heating system may comprise any heating element known in the art such as metal wires, strips or coils. Preferred metals are for example Ni-

Cr alloys such as Inconel® or Hastelloy®. A preferred heating element comprises a Thermocoax heating element. Also infrared heating elements, such as infrared lamps can be used.

The housing and the heating system is interrupted by at least one deposition window.

Preferably, the size of the deposition windows is as small as possible, since the bigger the deposition windows are the higher the temperature fluctuations can be.

It can be desired that the housing is thermally isolated. The housing can for example be provided with thermally insulating shields, such as metal shields or it can be provided with thermally insulating material, such as ceramic material. Alternatively, the housing can be provided with a combination of thermally insulating shields and thermally insulating material.

The housing preferably comprises a side wall, a back wall and a front wall. The side wall may have a round cross-section, or it may have a polygonal cross-section. The side wall and the heating system are interrupted at a number of deposition zones.

Possibly, also the front and the back wall are provided with a heating system.

In one embodiment the side wall is a cylindrical wall provided with heaters, forming a cylindrical heating system.

The coating can be deposited by a number of different techniques such as sputtering for example magnetron sputtering, ion beam sputtering and ion assisted sputtering, evaporation or co-evaporation, laser ablation, chemical vapour deposition or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

The substrate may cover the whole surface of the holding system .

Alternatively, the holding system comprises a number of substrates such as a number of wafers or discs.

As substrate tapes or foils such as plastic, ceramic or metallic tapes or foils can be considered.

Preferred substrates are for example made of aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, steel, nickel or nickel alloys, titanium, polyester or polyimide, for example known as Kapton®or Upilex®.

In principle, the apparatus can be used for the deposition of any metal or metal oxide coating on a substrate.

The apparatus is in particular suitable for the deposition of superconducting coatings such as YBCO coatings.

For the purpose of this application YBCO has to be understood to comprise not only YBa2Cu3O7.x but also YBCO coatings whereby Y is replaced partially or totally by a rare earth element or YBCO coatings doped with for example Ca. Also other deviations from the conventional 1 ,2,3 compositions known in the art are supposed to be included.

Other examples of coatings that can be deposited by the apparatus according to the present invention are TiO2, BaTiO3, SrTi03, CeO2, yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and MgO coatings.

The apparatus can also be used to deposit silicon or germanium coatings or mixtures thereof, for example to deposit crystalline silicon or germanium coatings.

Since small temperature variations may have a serious influence on the crystal structure and quality of the deposited material, the requirements of the homogeneity and stability of the temperature during deposition are extremely high.

As the substrate is surrounded by the heating system, a homogeneous temperature of the substrate during deposition can be obtained. Furthermore, the apparatus according to the present invention is designed so that the holding system holding the substrate can be rotated inside the housing. By rotating the holding system inside the housing possible changes in temperature are minimized or even avoided.

The rotating speed is for example dependent upon the number and width of the deposition windows, the required temperature and the heating power of the heating system.

Preferably, the rotating speed is higher than 1 rotation/min as for example between 10 and 1000 rotations/min.

The temperature of the substrate is dependent upon the material to be deposited and dependent upon the deposition technique, but is preferably between 200 and 1000 °C, more preferably the temperature is between 400 and 800 °C. The temperature is important since it has a direct influence on the crystal structure and quality of the deposited material.

The apparatus according to the invention does not impose any restrictions to the ultimate thickness of the coating. It allows to deposit thick coatings and/or to deposit multilayered structures. The apparatus may comprise different deposition zones. The same material can be deposited at the different deposition zones or alternatively, different materials are deposited at the different deposition zones, allowing to deposit a multi-layered coating.

If the deposition of one of the materials has to be avoided a shutter can be used in the corresponding deposition zone.

Also buffer layers like yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), MgO or CeO2 can be applied by the apparatus according to the present invention. These buffer layers can be deposited by a number of different techniques such as sputtering for example magnetron sputtering, ion beam sputtering and ion assisted sputtering, evaporation or co-evaporation, laser ablation, chemical vapour deposition or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

The apparatus may further comprise one or more oxygen supplies. Possibly, the oxygen supply is limited to an oxygen pocket.

According to a second aspect of the present invention a method for the deposition of a metal or metal oxide coating is provided. The method is performed by using an apparatus as described above. The method comprises the steps of : loading a holding system with at least one substrate; - rotating the holding system;

- heating the substrate by means of a heating system surrounding the holding system; depositing a metal or metal oxide coating on the substrate; - rotating the holding system holding said substrate inside the housing during deposition to obtain a homogeneous temperature of the substrate.

The steps of rotating the holding system, heating the substrate and depositing the metal or metal oxide coating on the substrate are all performed simultaneously. This allows to keep the temperature of the substrate stable during the deposition of the coating.

The loading of the holding system as well as the unloading can be automated.

According to a further aspect of the present invention, an article comprising at least one coating layer of a metal or metal oxide is provided.

The article is obtainable by the above described method. The article comprises a substrate; - at least one metal or metal oxide coating layer deposited on said substrate.

A preferred metal oxide layer comprises YBCO; a preferred metal layer comprises silicon.

The metal or metal oxide layer has for example a thickness of 0.1 or 0.2 μm.

Also metal or metal oxide coating with a rather high thickness, such as a thickness higher than 0.5 μm or 1 μm, can be obtained. Possibly, the article further comprises one or more intermediate layers. Such an intermediate layer is for example functioning as an adhesion layer or as a buffer layer.

The buffer layer can for example be a yttrium stabilized zirconia layer, a CeO2 layer or a Y2O3 layer.

Brief description of the drawing.

The invention will now be described into more detail with reference to the accompanying drawing wherein - FIGURE 1 is a schematic drawing of an apparatus for the deposition of a metal or metal oxide coating according to the present invention.

Description of the preferred embodiments of the invention.

FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of an apparatus 10 according to the present invention.

A substrate 11 is mounted on a cylindrical holding system 12.

This cylindrical holding system holding at least one substrate is surrounded by a housing 14. The housing comprises a cylindrical wall, a back wall and a front wall.

The cylindrical wall, surrounding the holding system, and thus surrounding the substrate, is provided at its inner side with heater elements forming a heating array 16. Preferably, the cylindrical wall is also provided with insulatings shields (not shown). In a preferred embodiment also the front wall and the back wall are provided with heater elements and possibly also with thermally insulating shields.

In the cylindrical wall 14 and in the heating array 16 several windows 18 are foreseen for the deposition of the coating. If necessary, additional heater elements can be foreseen to provide a local additional heating of the substrate or to assure that the temperature of the substrate is kept constant.

The holding system is rotating around the axis 20 inside the surrounding housing, and thus inside the surrounding heating system.

Preferably, one or all the deposition windows are provided with a shutter.

Claims

1. An apparatus for the deposition of a metal or a metal oxide coating on a substrate, said apparatus comprises - a holding system for at least one substrate; means to deposit said metal of metal oxide coating; a housing surrounding said holding system; said housing being interrupted by at least one deposition window; said means to deposit said metal or metal oxide coating are located in front of said deposition window; characterised in that said housing is provided with a heating system and said holding system is mounted in such a way that it can be rotated inside said housing.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 , whereby said holding system comprises a cylindrical tube.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1 , whereby said holding system comprises a tube with a polygonal cross-section.
4. An apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, whereby said housing comprises a side wall, a front wall and a back wall; said side wall being provided with a heating system.
5. An apparatus according to claim 4, whereby said side wall is a cylindrical wall.
6. An apparatus according to claim 4, whereby said side wall has a polygonal cross-section.
7. An apparatus according to any one of claim 4 to 6, whereby said front wall and said back wall are provided with a heating system.
8. An apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, whereby said apparatus further comprises additional heaters.
9. An apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, whereby at least one of the deposition zones is provided with a shutter.
10. An apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, whereby at least part of said housing is thermally isolated.
11. A method for the deposition of a metal or metal oxide coating onto a substrate using an apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 10; said method comprises the steps of loading a holding system with at least one substrate; - rotating the holding system; heating the substrate by means of a heating system surrounding the holding system;
- depositing a metal or metal oxide coating on the substrate; rotating said holding system holding said substrate in the housing during deposition to obtain a homogeneous temperature of said substrate.
12. A method according to claim 11 , whereby the rotating speed of said holding system is between 1 and 1000 rotations/min.
13. An article obtainable by applying the method according to any one of claims 11 to 12; said article comprises
- a substrate; at least one metal or metal oxide coating layer deposited on said substrate.
14. An article according to claim 13, whereby said metal oxide coating layer comprises a YBCO coating.
15. An article according to claim 13, whereby said metal coating layer comprises silcon, germanium or mixtures thereof.
16. An article according to any one of claims 13 to 15, whereby said metal or metal oxide coating has a thickness higher than 0.1 μm.
PCT/EP2002/004243 2001-04-20 2002-04-17 Apparatus for the deposition of metal or metal oxide coatings WO2002086187A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP01201428.8 2001-04-20
EP01201428 2001-04-20

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2002086187A1 true WO2002086187A1 (en) 2002-10-31

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4702935A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-10-27 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Production method of a high magnetic permeability alloy film
US5047385A (en) * 1988-07-20 1991-09-10 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method of forming superconducting YBa2 Cu3 O7-x thin films with controlled crystal orientation
EP0655515A1 (en) * 1988-02-08 1995-05-31 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process
WO1998020521A1 (en) * 1996-11-01 1998-05-14 THEVA DüNNSCHICHTTECHNIK GMBH Device for producing oxidic thin films
WO1999011837A1 (en) * 1997-09-02 1999-03-11 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Device for applying layers of hard material by dusting
US6217720B1 (en) * 1997-06-03 2001-04-17 National Research Council Of Canada Multi-layer reactive sputtering method with reduced stabilization time

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4702935A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-10-27 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Production method of a high magnetic permeability alloy film
EP0655515A1 (en) * 1988-02-08 1995-05-31 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process
US5047385A (en) * 1988-07-20 1991-09-10 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method of forming superconducting YBa2 Cu3 O7-x thin films with controlled crystal orientation
WO1998020521A1 (en) * 1996-11-01 1998-05-14 THEVA DüNNSCHICHTTECHNIK GMBH Device for producing oxidic thin films
US6217720B1 (en) * 1997-06-03 2001-04-17 National Research Council Of Canada Multi-layer reactive sputtering method with reduced stabilization time
WO1999011837A1 (en) * 1997-09-02 1999-03-11 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Device for applying layers of hard material by dusting

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