WO2000046874A1 - Compact wideband antenna - Google Patents

Compact wideband antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000046874A1
WO2000046874A1 PCT/US2000/002717 US0002717W WO0046874A1 WO 2000046874 A1 WO2000046874 A1 WO 2000046874A1 US 0002717 W US0002717 W US 0002717W WO 0046874 A1 WO0046874 A1 WO 0046874A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
antenna
radiator
selected
element
end
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2000/002717
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2000046874A9 (en
Inventor
Martin J. Mannion
Original Assignee
Maxrad, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US11860099P priority Critical
Priority to US60/118,600 priority
Application filed by Maxrad, Inc. filed Critical Maxrad, Inc.
Priority claimed from CA 2361446 external-priority patent/CA2361446A1/en
Publication of WO2000046874A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000046874A1/en
Publication of WO2000046874A9 publication Critical patent/WO2000046874A9/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/30Resonant antennas with feed to end of elongated active element, e.g. unipole
    • H01Q9/32Vertical arrangement of element
    • H01Q9/36Vertical arrangement of element with top loading
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/362Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith for broadside radiating helical antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/307Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way
    • H01Q5/342Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes
    • H01Q5/357Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes using a single feed point

Abstract

A broadband, compact, omnidirectional antenna (10) usable in the 800-1000 MHz frequency range incorporates an elongated, symmetrical, radiating stud (26) which terminates in a cylindrical metallic radiating cap (22). A cylindrical, non-conductive hollow housing (32) with first and second ends (30a, 30b) surrounds the stud and is closed at one end by the radiating cap. Over all, the length of the antenna is less than a corresponding quarter wave monopole while providing better performance characteristics, and, greater structural stability then metal or whip-type antennas.

Description

COMPACT WIDEBAND ANTENNA Field of the Invention:

The invention pertains to antennas usable at 800MHz and 900 MHz radiating frequencies More particularly, the invention pertains to compact, omnidirectional, broadband antennas usable in multiple bands encompassing 800-1000 MHz service. Background of the Invention:

Various types of mobile, radio telephone-type service in the 800-900

MHz frequency spectrum have become very popular with numerous subscribers world- wide These systems have produced several different omnidirectional antenna designs

Known antennas often have an exposed metal rod or whip which might be shortened by a loading coil Such antennas have either a direct connection to an RF feed, necessitating a hole in the respective vehicle, if vehicle mounted, or a "through the glass" capacitive-type coupling between an RF feed and a radiator One such antenna has been disclosed in US Patent No 5,742,255 owned by the assignee hereof

While generally useful for their intended purposes, known whip antennas tend to be bendable or breakable even when the vehicle is only driven through a car wash This has been a long term inconvenience to users Another issue involves bandwidth, and impedance characteristics in view of the proliferating number of services operating in different bands It is inconvenient and expensive to have to manufacture, stock and install different antennas for different services

There continues to be a need for structurally stable, omnidirectional antennas usable in the 800- 1000 MHz frequency range Preferably, such antennas would provide better multi-band performance than is currently available while at the same time alleviating some of the structural weaknesses of known whip-type antennas Summary of the Invention:

A mobile or fixed station antenna has a compact profile and a wide instantaneous operating bandwidth The antenna enhances performance by enabling the transmission of signals over a very broad frequency bandwidth In most cases, a single compact wideband antenna in accordance with the present invention provides supeπor antenna performance across multiple communication system bands, such as cellular AMPS, 800 MHz special mobile radio (SMR), 900 MHz ISM, and 900 MHz GSM Enhanced performance is achieved as a result of a compact, rugged, physical package that may be shorter than a standard quarter wave monopole The antenna does not have an exposed metal rod, or whip, as is standard for mobile antennas In one embodiment, the conductive portion of the antenna is either enclosed in a protective housing, or is itself part of the housing enclosure The antenna includes a non-conductive protective housing which encloses, at least in part, a vertical conductive mast

In another embodiment, a contact at the antenna's base transfers energy from the base connector to the vertical conductive assembly Various types of RF connectors could be used The antenna can be coupled to industry standard mobile antenna mounts This allows for easy replacement of existing hardware

The antenna radiator includes a conductive, elongated element of appropriate length for the desired operating frequency A conductive disc is connected to a distal end thereof In one embodiment, the element is rod-like In another embodiment, the element includes a helical coil with axially extending leads In either embodiment, the element has an over-all length less than one-quarter wavelength of a selected operating frequency

In either embodiment, the respective radiator is substantially self- supporting with the radiator extending from an RF-type connector In neither embodiment does the radiator need axial support from an axially extending support such as an axially oriented printed circuit board

The conductive disc serves dual electrical and mechanical functions Electrically, the disc functions as the top portion of the radiating antenna assembly Mechanically, it serves as the top cap for the compact wideband antenna assembly

In another aspect, a metal ring at the base of the non-conductive housing can be used to fine-tune antenna performance In yet another embodiment, antenna impedance can be tuned using a fixed capacitor coupled between the radiator and a ground Numerous other advantages and features of the present invention will become readily apparent from the following detailed description of the invention and the embodiments thereof, from the claims and from the accompanying drawings Brief Description of the Drawings:

Fig 1 illustrates an exploded view of a compact wideband antenna in accordance with the present invention,

Fig 2 is a side view of certain structural component of the preferred embodiment of the present invention,

Fig 3 is a side view of an alternate embodiment of antenna of the present invention,

Fig 4 A, 4B together illustrate exploded and assembled views of another embodiment of the present invention, Fig 5 illustrates measured comparative VSWR plots vs frequency over a 900-2900 MHz range,

Fig 6 is a plot of measured VSWR over an 800-1000 MHz range,

Fig 7 illustrates comparative plots of antenna gain over an 770-970 MHz range, Fig 8 illustrates measured VSWR over a 400-600 MHz range,

Fig 9 illustrates an assembled view of a dualband embodiment of the present invention, and

Fig 10 is a plot of measured VSWR of the dualband embodiment over an 800-2000 MHz range Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments:

While this invention is susceptible of embodiment in many different forms, there are shown in the drawing and will be described herein in detail specific embodiments thereof with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered as an exemplification of the principles of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the specific embodiments illustrated

Referring to Figs 1 -2 of the drawings, a compact wideband antenna assembly 10 is illustrated located on a conductive ground plane 12 The compact antenna assembly can be threaded onto one of the standard mobile antenna mounts 16 used by the mobile industry In addition, the assembly 10 can also be mounted on other connector bases for use as a high performance fixed station antenna A signal source feedline 18, typically a coaxial cable, can be used to energize the assembly 10 The assembly 10 includes a disc shaped metal radiator 22 which contains a central bore 22a which receives an end 26a of elongated radiator 26. A proximal end 26b engages mount 16.

A non-conductive, hollow, molded housing 30 surrounds radiator 26. A distal end 30a abuts adjacent cap or radiator 22. A proximal end 30b slidably engages an optional, annular metal ring 32 which can be incorporated to improve performance.

The non-conductive housing 30 serves to encapsulate the vertical conductive mast 26 and to provide mechanical support to the assembly 10 The vertical conductive mast 26 is attached to the cap 22. For ease and simplicity of assembly, one attachment method is to screw the threaded mast 26 into a tapped hole 22a in the bottom of the cap 22

In the preferred embodiment shown in Figs 1, 2, the metal base ring

32 provides fine tuning of the antenna impedance As illustrated in the embodiment 10a of Fig. 3, the ring 32 can also be made from a non-conductive material such as PVC In this embodiment, the entire housing 30', as shown in Fig 3 can be formed of a single molded member.

A washer 34 supports the conductive mast 26 and provides the correct physical alignment In the preferred embodiment, a spring-loaded contact 26c provides contact between the mount 16 and the vertical mast 26 The contact 26c could also be formed as a leaf spring, or other conductive device

The conductive cap 22 serves a dual mechanical and electrical function The mechanical function of the cap 22 is to act as the top enclosure of the assembly 10 and to provide mechanical strength to the assembly 10. In its electrical capacity, the metallic cap 22 provides a capacitive load, thereby reducing the physical height of the assembly 10

The electrical loading created by the cap 22 provides a more stable antenna impedance as a function of frequency than standard vertical monopole antennas In comparison to a standard vertical monopole, the impedance bandwidth of the wideband antenna 10 is more than twice as great In one alternate embodiment 10b illustrated in Fig. 4A, 4B, the cylindrical vertical conductive mast 26 is replaced by a helical wound coil 46 with top and bottom leads 46a, b In the embodiments of Figs 1 -4B, the length of the vertical element is less than one quarter wavelength at the center of the frequency band

A tuning capacitor 48 may be used to match the antenna impedance to fifty ohms. The tuning capacitor 48 leads are connected between a vertical element contact ring 50a and a ground contact ring 50b As noted above, the effective length of the coil 46 and leads 46a, b is less than one-quarter wavelength of a selected frequency The diameter of coil 46 is selected to optimize antenna performance

In comparison to a vertical monopole, the impedance bandwidth of the antenna 10, 10a, 10b, can be significantly greater Fig 5 illustrates comparative VSWR plots of the antenna 10 and a quarter wave monopole The antenna 10 has a VSWR less than 1 6- 1 over a frequency range from 990 to 2880 MHz, greater than 97% bandwidth The quarter wave monopole 1 6 1 VSWR bandwidth is only in a range of 1950 MHz to under 2300 MHz

The antenna 10 tuned for the cellular AMPS frequency band has an impedance bandwidth that ranges from 775 MHz to 960 MHz at a VSWR of better than 1.6 1, see Fig 6 This antenna is less than 6 1 cm tall, 30% shorter than a quarter wavelength monopole (quarter wavelength equals 8 72 cm at 860 MHz) The present antenna is also a more efficient wideband radiator than a quarter wave monopole, translating into a flatter gain response versus frequency Fig 7 illustrates comparative measured relative antenna gain for the antenna 10 and a quarter wave monopole The gain of antennas in accordance with the present invention is substantially constant over 805-935 MHz band

As illustrated in Fig 8, an antenna 10 tuned for the UHF frequency band exhibited an impedance bandwidth of 465 MHz to 512 MHz with a VSWR less than 1 7 1 This wide bandwidth performance was achieved with an antenna 8 3 cm tall, or 0 13 wavelengths

The antenna 10 can be optimized for dualband cellular AMPS (824-896 MHz) and PCS (1850-1900 MHz) operation Fig 9 illustrates the dimensions of one dualband implementation of the antenna 10c The overall height of the antenna less than 4 6 cm. A 100 pf capacitor 51 , coupled between radiator 26 and ground, is used to optimize the antenna impedance in the two frequency bands Fig 10 illustrates the measured VSWR of the antenna 10c The peak VSWR is less than 1 85 1 in the AMPS band, and less than 1 7 1 in the PCS band Overall antenna height is less than one eighth of one wavelength a frequency of 824 MHz

In summary, an antenna assembly, such as antenna 10 can be expected to achieve superior wideband performance in both radiation efficiency and impedance bandwidth Furthermore, antennas such as antenna 10, exhibit the following performance features

1) Radiation efficiency exceeding a quarter wave monopole,

2) A rugged compact antenna assembly, 3) A physical height less than 1/6 of a wavelength in the cellular

AMPS band,

4) A radiation pattern well suited for mobile or fixed station applications where the primary antenna radiation is directed along the horizon, with a minimum concentration of energy at the zenith, and

5) Low Q, wideband resonant operation, without the requirement for lumped electrical components such as capacitors, inductors, or resistors

From the proceeding, it is clear that a wideband antenna as disclosed, provides a novel means for a mobile or fixed station antenna with extremely wideband performance in a very rugged, durable package

From the foregoing, it will be observed that numerous variations and modifications may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention It is to be understood that no limitation with respect to the specific apparatus illustrated herein is intended or should be inferred It is, of course, intended to cover by the appended claims all such modifications as fall within the scope of the claims

Claims

What is Claimed:
I An antenna comprising an RF feed element; a metal stud of a selected length coupled to the feed element at one end, and having a second, displaced, end; and a radiating cap, coupled to the second end and oriented substantially perpendicular to the stud.
2. An antenna as in claim 1 wherein the stud has a length parameter selected in accordance with a predetermined radiating frequency
3 An antenna as in claim 1 wherein the cap is symmetrical about a centerline
4 An antenna as in claim 3 wherein the cap is cylindrical
5 An antenna as in claim 1 which includes a housing which surrounds the stud and which has an end closed by the cap
6 An antenna as in claim 5 wherein the cap comprises a metal radiator and the housing comprises a molded enclosure formed of a resin
7 An antenna as in claim 6 which includes a metallic ring carried at a second, displaced, end of the housing
8 An antenna as in claim 3 wherein the stud is symmetrical about the centerline 9 An antenna as in claim 8 wherein the stud and the cap are substantially cylindrical
10 An antenna as in claim 1 wherein the stud includes an axially oriented helical coil
I I An antenna as in claim 1 wherein the stud is self-supporting 12 An antenna as in claim 1 wherein the stud is substantially rigid and not flexible.
13 An omnidirectional, broadband, low profile antenna comprising a non-conductive, hollow, cylindrical body having first and second spaced apart ends, an elongated, self-supporting radiator element extending axially within the body, and a symmetrical radiating cap, coupled to an end of the element and to the body closing an end thereof
14. An antenna as in claim 13 which includes an RF port, coupled to another end of the element adjacent to another end of the body 15. A antenna as in claim 13 wherein the cap is substantially cylindrical.
16. An antenna as in claim 13 wherein the body, the element and the cap are symmetrical relative to a common centerline
17 An antenna as in claim 13 wherein the radiator element has a length selected such that an overall antenna height selected in accordance with a predetermined radiating frequency is less than a height parameter of a quarter wavelength monopole antenna of the same frequency
18. An antenna as in claim 13 wherein the radiator element has a length selected such that an overall height selected in accordance with a predetermined radiating frequency provides a bandwidth that extends across at least a selected 150 MHz wide radio communications band
19 An antenna as in claim 18 wherein the radiator element includes a helical coil.
20 An omnidirectional antenna comprising a mounting element for attachment with a substantially horizontal orientation to a mounting surface wherein the mounting element carries an RF connector; an elongated radiator, carried by and oriented so as to be perpendicular to at least part of the mounting element, a cylindrical, non-conductive housing carried by the mounting element, which surrounds the radiator and extends from the mounting element with a distal open end, a disc-shaped radiator section, coupled to an end of the elongated radiator, oriented so as to be substantially perpendicular thereto, covering the distal open end of the housing wherein a substantially constant antenna gain is exhibited over a bandwidth on the order of 150 MHz 21 An antenna as in claim 20 which exhibits a VSWR < 1 5 1 over the bandwidth
22 An antenna as in claim 20 wherein the elongated radiator includes a helical coil, having first and second ends, located within the housing 23 An antenna as in claim 20 which includes a tuning capacitor
24. An antenna as in claim 20 wherein the elongated radiator is self- standing and has a length less than one-quarter of a selected wavelength
25 An antenna as in claim 22 wherein the coil includes first and second leads with each lead attached to a respective coil end and wherein the coil and associated leads have an over-all length less than one-quarter of a selected wavelength
26 An antenna as in claim 23 wherein a value of the capacitor is selected to optimize an antenna impedance characteristic in accordance with a selected criterion
27 An antenna as in claim 20 wherein the elongated radiator has a diameter selected to optimize performance relative to a selected criterion at a selected frequency
28 An antenna as in claim 22 wherein the elongated radiator has a diameter selected to optimize performance relative to a selected criterion at a selected frequency. 29 An antenna as in claim 22 wherein the radiator is self- supporting
30 A dualband antenna comprising a non-conductive, hollow cylindrical housing having first and second open ends, an RF feed element carried by the housing adjacent to one of the ends; an elongated metal radiator, coupled to the feed element and extending axially within the housing, a radiating disk, coupled to a distal end of the radiator and oriented to close the other end of the housing
31. An antenna as in claim 30 which includes a variable impedance element, coupled at least to the radiator.
32. An antenna as in claim 31 wherein the element comprises an impedance optimizing capacitor. 33. An antenna as in claim 30 sized to provide a peak VSWR less than 1.95:1 in one band and less than 1.8: 1 in a higher frequency band.
PCT/US2000/002717 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna WO2000046874A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11860099P true 1999-02-04 1999-02-04
US60/118,600 1999-02-04

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU36962/00A AU3696200A (en) 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna
CA 2361446 CA2361446A1 (en) 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna
MXPA01007933A MXPA01007933A (en) 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna.
EP00915737A EP1151496A4 (en) 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000046874A1 true WO2000046874A1 (en) 2000-08-10
WO2000046874A9 WO2000046874A9 (en) 2001-08-30

Family

ID=22379601

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2000/002717 WO2000046874A1 (en) 1999-02-04 2000-02-03 Compact wideband antenna

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1151496A4 (en)
AU (1) AU3696200A (en)
WO (1) WO2000046874A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2003030302A1 (en) * 2001-09-29 2003-04-10 Motorola Inc Helical antenna

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4328501A (en) * 1980-04-23 1982-05-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Small broadband antennas using lossy matching networks
US4366486A (en) * 1981-03-16 1982-12-28 Northern Illinois Gas Company Low profile antenna for data transponders
US5329287A (en) * 1992-02-24 1994-07-12 Cal Corporation End loaded helix antenna

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3852756A (en) * 1974-02-15 1974-12-03 Us Navy Electrically small resonant antenna with capacitively coupled load
US5218372A (en) * 1992-05-15 1993-06-08 Cheng Chen Sheng Wide band spherical antenna with improved impedance-matching circuit
US5708445A (en) * 1993-01-29 1998-01-13 Motorola, Inc. Antenna assembly for radio circuit and method therefor
GB2317994B (en) * 1996-10-02 2001-02-28 Northern Telecom Ltd A multiresonant antenna

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4328501A (en) * 1980-04-23 1982-05-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Small broadband antennas using lossy matching networks
US4366486A (en) * 1981-03-16 1982-12-28 Northern Illinois Gas Company Low profile antenna for data transponders
US5329287A (en) * 1992-02-24 1994-07-12 Cal Corporation End loaded helix antenna

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of EP1151496A4 *

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2003030302A1 (en) * 2001-09-29 2003-04-10 Motorola Inc Helical antenna

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2000046874A9 (en) 2001-08-30
AU3696200A (en) 2000-08-25
EP1151496A1 (en) 2001-11-07
EP1151496A4 (en) 2005-01-12

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