WO2000042118A1 - Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents - Google Patents

Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2000042118A1
WO2000042118A1 PCT/US1999/015935 US9915935W WO0042118A1 WO 2000042118 A1 WO2000042118 A1 WO 2000042118A1 US 9915935 W US9915935 W US 9915935W WO 0042118 A1 WO0042118 A1 WO 0042118A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
cf
hfc
ch
hcfc
chf
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1999/015935
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Donald Bernard Bivens
Barbara Haviland Minor
Akimichi Yokozeki
Hans O. SPAUSCHUS
Original Assignee
E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US09/231,847 priority Critical
Priority to US09/231,847 priority patent/US6299792B1/en
Priority to US35171099A priority
Priority to US09/351,710 priority
Application filed by E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company filed Critical E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company
Priority claimed from KR1020017008938A external-priority patent/KR20010101544A/en
Publication of WO2000042118A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000042118A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K5/00Heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants; Materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion
    • C09K5/02Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used
    • C09K5/04Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa
    • C09K5/041Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa for compression-type refrigeration systems
    • C09K5/044Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa for compression-type refrigeration systems comprising halogenated compounds
    • C09K5/045Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to vapour or vice versa for compression-type refrigeration systems comprising halogenated compounds containing only fluorine as halogen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K2205/00Aspects relating to compounds used in compression type refrigeration systems
    • C09K2205/10Components
    • C09K2205/12Hydrocarbons
    • C09K2205/122Halogenated hydrocarbons
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K2205/00Aspects relating to compounds used in compression type refrigeration systems
    • C09K2205/22All components of a mixture being fluoro compounds

Abstract

Refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents which solubilize mineral and synthetic oil lubricants with hydrofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon-based refrigerants are disclosed. These hydrocarbon oil-return agents, having seven through sixteen carbon atoms, as a small proportion of an overall refrigerant composition, permit efficient return of mineral and synthetic oil lubricants from non-compressor zones back to a compressor zone in a refrigeration system operating with hydrofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon-based refrigerants.

Description

TITLE

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON REFRIGERANT COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING HYDROCARBON OIL-RETURN AGENTS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents which solubilize mineral and synthetic oil lubricants with halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants, thereby permitting efficient return of lubricants from non-compressor zones back to a compressor zone in a refrigeration system.

BACKGROUND

Mineral oils and alkylbenzenes have been conventionally used as lubricants in chlorofluorocarbon-based (CFC) refrigeration systems. However, the lack of solubility of these lubricants in the replacement, non-ozone depleting, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants has precluded their use and necessitated development and use of alternative lubricants for HFC refrigeration systems based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) and polyol esters (POEs). While the PAGs and POEs are suitable lubricants for HFC-based refrigeration systems, they are extremely hygroscopic and can absorb several thousand ppm (parts per million) of water on exposure to moist air. This absorbed moisture leads to problems in the refrigeration system, such as formation of acids which resultant in corrosion of the refrigeration system and formation of intractable sludges. In contrast, mineral oils and alkylbenzenes are much less hygroscopic and have low solubility, less than 100 ppm, for water. Additionally, PAG and POE lubricants are considerably more expensive than the hydrocarbon lubricants, typically on the order of three to six times more expensive. As a consequence, there is a need and an opportunity to resolve this solubility problem so that the refrigeration industry may utilize mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants with HFC-based refrigerants.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants are also replacing CFCs, and in instances as mixtures with HFCs. These HCFC-based refrigerant mixtures are less soluble than CFCs in conventional refrigeration lubricants such as mineral oil. A lubricant change from mineral oil to alkylbenzene is often required when the HCFCs or HCFC/HFC mixtures are used to replace pure CFC- based refrigerants, resulting in more expense to the refrigeration industry. Consequently, there is a need and opportunity to resolve this low solubility problem so that the refrigeration industry may utilize HCFC and HCFC/HFC- based refrigerants with mineral oil lubricants.

For the foregoing reasons there is a need in the refrigeration industry for providing oil-return agents that create a solution of lubricant oil (dispersed phase) in a HFC- and/or HCFC-based refrigerant (continuous phase), which permits improved lubricant oil transport through a refrigeration system and lubricant oil return back to the refrigeration system compressor from other refrigeration system zones.

SUMMARY

The present invention is directed to a refrigerant composition that satisfies the aforesaid need. The refrigerant composition comprises.(a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom; (b) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and (c) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.

The present invention also relates to a refrigerant composition, comprising: (a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom; and (b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.

The present invention further relates to a lubricant composition for use with a halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant in compression refrigeration apparatus, comprising: (a) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and (b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.

Additionally, the present invention pertains to a process for returning oil from a non-compressor zone to a compressor zone in a compression refrigeration system comprising: (a) contacting an oil, selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils, in the non-compressor zone with a halogenated hydrocarbon, containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, in the presence of a hydrocarbon oil-return agent, containing from six to sixteen carbon atoms, to form a solution comprising oil, halogenated hydrocarbon, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent; and (b) transferring the solution from the non- compressor zone to the compressor zone of the refrigeration system. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to refrigerant compositions comprising: (a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom; (b) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and (c) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms, wherein said hydrocarbon oil-return agent forms a solution of said halogenated hydrocarbon and said oil.

The present invention further relates to compositions comprising: (a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom; and (b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms, wherein said hydrocarbon oil-return agent forms a solution of said halogenated hydrocarbon with an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils. The present invention further relates to lubricant compositions for use with halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants in compression refrigeration apparatus, comprising: (a) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and (b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms, wherein said oil-return agent forms a solution of said oil with halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant.

The present invention further relates to a process for returning oil from a non-compressor zone to a compressor zone in a compression refrigeration system comprising: (a) contacting an oil, selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils, in the non-compressor zone with a halogenated hydrocarbon, containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, in the presence of a hydrocarbon oil-return agent, containing from six to sixteen carbon atoms, to form a solution comprising oil, halogenated hydrocarbon, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent; and (b) transferring the solution from the non- compressor zone to the compressor zone of the refrigeration system. Halogenated hydrocarbons of the present invention contain at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom. Of particular utility are halogenated hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms containing at least one fluorine atom, optionally containing chlorine and oxygen atoms, and having a normal boiling point of from -90°C to 80°C. By normal boiling point is meant the temperature at which a liquid composition's vapor pressure is equal to one atmosphere. These halogenated hydrocarbons may be represented by the general formula CwF2w+2-χ-yHxClyOz, wherein w is 1-6, x is 1-9, y is 0-3, and z is 0-2. Preferred of the halogenated hydrocarbons are those in which w is 1-6, x is 1-5, y is 0-1, and z is 0-1. Such halogenated hydrocarbons are commercial products available from a number of sources such as E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Fluoroproducts,

Wilmington, DE, 19898, USA, or are available from custom synthesis companies such as PCRInc, P.O. Box 1466, Gainesville, Florida, 32602, USA, and additionally by synthetic processes disclosed in art such as The Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, or Chemistry of Organic Fluorine Compounds, edited by Milos Hudlicky, published by The MacMillan Company, New York, N.Y., 1962. Examples of the halogenated hydrocarbons are: CCI2F2 (CFC-12), CHCI2F (HCFC-21), CHCIF2 (HCFC-22), CHF3 (HFC-23), CH2C1F (HCFC-31), CH2F2 (HFC-32), CH3F (HFC-41), CF3CF3 (FC-116), CHC12CF3 (HCFC-123),

CHCIFCCIF2 (HCFC-123a), CHCIFCF3 (HCFC-124), CHF2CC1F2 (HCFC-124a), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH2CICF3 (HCFC-133a), CHF2CHF2 (HFC-134), CH2FCF3 (HFC-134a), CC1F2CH3 (HCFC-142b), CHF2CH2F (HFC-143), CF3CH3 (HFC-143a), CHCIFCH3 (HCFC-151a), CHF2CH3 (HFC-152a), CHF2CCI2CF3 (HCFC-225aa), CHCIFCCIFCF3 (HCFC-225ba), CHF2CC1FCC1F2 (HCFC-225bb), CHC12CF2CF3 (HCFC-225ca), CHC1FCF2CC1F2 (HCFC-225cb), CHF2CF2CCI2F (HCFC-225cc), CC1F2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-225da), CC1F2CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-225ea), CF3CHFCC12F (HCFC-225eb), CHF2CC1FCF3 (HCFC-226ba), CHC1FCF2CF3 (HCFC-226ca), CHF2CF2CC1F2 (HCFC-226cb), CF3CHCICF3 (HCFC-226da), CC1F2CHFCF3 (HCFC-226ea), CHF2CF2CF3 (HFC-227ca), CF3CFHCF3 (HFC-227ea), CHF2CC1FCHF2 (HCFC-235ba), CH2FCCIFCF3 (HCFC-235bb), CHC1FCF2CHF2 (HCFC-235ca), CH2C1CF2CF3 (HCFC-235cb), CH2FCF2CC1F2 (HCFC-235cc), CHF2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-235da), CHC1FCHFCF3 (HCFC-235ea), CHF2CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-235eb), CC1F2CH2CF3 (HCFC-235fa), CHF2CF2CHF2 (HFC-236ca), CH2FCF2CF3 (HFC-236cb),

CHF2CHFCF3 (HFC-236ea), CF3CH2CF3 (HFC-236fa), CH2FCF2CHF2 (HFC- 245ca), CH3CF2CF3 (HFC-245cb), CHF2CHFCHF2 (HFC-245ea), CH2FCHFCF3 (HFC-245eb), CHF2CH2CF3 (HFC-245fa), CH2FCF2CH2F (HFC-254ca), CH2CF2CHF2 (HFC-254cb), CH2FCHFCHF2 (HFC-254ea), CH3CHFCF3 (HFC- 254eb), CHF2CH2CHF2 (HFC-254fa), CH2FCH2CF3 (HFC-254fb), CH3CF2CH3 (HFC-272ca), CH3CHFCH2F (HFC-272ea), CH2FCH2CH2F (HFC-272fa), CH3CH2CF2H (HFC-272fb), CH3CHFCH3 (HFC-281ea), CH3CH2CH2F (HFC- 281fa), CF3CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-329p), CF3CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-329me), CF3CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-338q), CF3CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-338mf), CF3CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-338pe), CF3CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-338pce), CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-

338pcc), CF3CFHCFHCF3 (HFC-338mee), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-42-llp), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF3 (HFC-42-l lmce), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-42-l lme), CF3CF2CH2CF2CF3 (HFC-43-10mcf), CF3CF2CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-43-10mf), CF3CF2CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-43-10q), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-43 -1 Ope), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpce), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 (HFC-43- lOmee), CF2HCF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-43-10pccc), CF3CFHCF2CF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpcce), CF3CFHCF2CFHCF3 (HFC-43 -lOmece), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-52-13p), C4F9OCH3, and C-tF9OC2H5. Preferred of the halogenated hydrocarbons are: CHC1F2 (HCFC-22), CHF3 (HFC-23), CH2F2 (HFC-32), CHCIFCF3 (HCFC-124), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CHF2CHF2 (HFC-134), CH2FCF3 (HFC-134a), CF3CH3 (HFC-143a), CHF2CH3 (HFC-152a), CHF2CF2CF3 (HFC- 227ca), CF3CFHCF3 (HFC-227ea), CF3CH2CF3 (HFC-236fa), CHF2CH2CF3 (HFC-245fa), CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-338pcc), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 (HFC-43- lOmee), and azeotropic and azeotrope-like halogenated hydrocarbon compositions such as: HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124 (R-401A, R-401B, R-401C), HFC- 125 HFC-143a HFC-134a (R-404A), HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a (R-407A, R- 407B, R-407C), HCFC-22/HFC- 143 a/HFC- 125 (R-408A), HCFC-22/HCFC- 124/HCFC-142b (R-409A), HFC-32/HFC-125 (R-410A), and HFC-125/HFC- 143a (R-507).

The halogenated hydrocarbons of the present invention may further comprise up to 10 weight percent of at least one C3 to C5 hydrocarbon, e.g., propane, propylene, cyclopropane, n-butane, i-butane, and n-pentane. Examples of halogenated hydrocarbons containing such C3 to C5 hydrocarbons are azeotrope-like compositions of HCFC-22 HFC-125/propane (R-402A, R-402B) and HCFC-22/octafluoropropane/propane (R-403 A, R-403B).

Oils of the present invention are oils conventionally employed as lubricants in refrigeration apparatus with CFC-based refrigerants. Such oils and their properties are discussed in the 1990 ASHRAE Handbook, Refrigeration

Systems and Applications, chapter 8, titled "Lubricants in Refrigeration Systems", pages 8.1-8.21. Oils of the present invention comprise the family of compounds commonly known in this field as mineral oils. Mineral oils comprise paraffins (straight-chain and branched-carbon-chain, saturated hydrocarbons), naphthenes (cycloparaffins), aromatics (unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbons containing one or more rings characterized by alternating double bonds), and nonhydrocarbons (molecules containing atoms such as sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen in addition to carbon and hydrogen). Oils of the present invention further comprise the family of compounds commonly known in this field as synthetic oils. Synthetic oils comprise alkylaryls (such as linear and branched-alkyl-chain alkylbenzenes), synthetic paraffins, and polyalphaolefms. Examples of commercially available lubricant oils of the present invention are Suniso® 3GS, Sontex® 372LT, and Calumet® RO-30 (all previous three being naphthenes), Zerol® 150 (an alkylbenzene), and "BVM 100 N" (a paraffin).

The hydrocarbon oil-return agents of the present invention are employed in an effective amount in the present inventive compositions such that a solution of halogenated hydrocarbon and lubricating oil is formed. By "solution" is meant that halogenated hydrocarbon and oil become more miscible in the presence of hydrocarbon oil-return agents such that oil is returned as a homogenous solution with halogenated hydrocarbon from non-compressor zones to a compressor zone in a refrigeration system in a quantity, which maintains acceptable compressor lubrication and thus overall refrigeration system operation. In the present inventive compositions comprising halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent, it is preferred that less than about 10 weight percent of the total composition is hydrocarbon oil-return agent. In a more preferred sense, less than about 5 weight percent of the total composition (comprising halogenated hydrocarbon, oil, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent) is hydrocarbon oil-return agent. Hydrocarbon oil-return agent concentrations greater than about 10 weight percent of the total composition are typically not needed to obtain adequate oil return and have been observed to negatively influence the viscosity of the lubricating oil leading to inadequate lubrication and stress on, or mechanical failure of, the refrigeration apparatus. Higher oil-return agent concentrations than about 10 weight percent of the total composition have also been observed to negatively influence the capacity and performance of a refrigerant composition. An effective amount of hydrocarbon oil-return agent in the present inventive compositions leads to halogenated hydrocarbon and oil becoming miscibilized to the extent that adequate return of oil in a compression refrigeration system from non-compressor (e.g., evaporator) to compressor zones is obtained.

Hydrocarbon oil-return agent of the present inventive compositions comprises aliphatic, straight, branched, or cyclic chain hydrocarbons having at least seven carbon atoms and sixteen or less carbon atoms. For example, heptanes, octanes, nonanes, decanes, undecanes, kerosene, and mixtures thereof, and in particular refined kerosene with a sulfur content less than 0.2 weight%. Preferred of the hydrocarbon oil-return agents are those which are classified as combustible (as opposed to flammable) by ASTM D-93. So-classified combustible hydrocarbons are preferred as oil-return agents as their use in any quantity will not result in flammability being rendered to a refrigeration composition. A preferred hydrocarbon oil-return agent has from seven to sixteen carbon atoms A more preferred hydrocarbon oil-return agent has from eleven to thirteen carbon atoms. A most preferred commercially available compound useful as hydrocarbon oil-return agent is Isopar® H. Isopar® H is a high purity Cπ to C12 iso-parafinic with low aromatics sold by Exxon Chemical, USA. Compounds are typically considered flammable if the flash point is less than 37°C. Though flash points in the table below may be measured by slightly different methods, there is a trend of increasing flash point with carbon chain length. Chain lengths below ten carbon atoms may begin to become flammable. A nonflammable hydrocarbon oil-return-agent or carrier reduces flammability in refrigeration and air conditioning systems versus use of compounds such as propane, butane, isobutane and pentane, disclosed in the art as useful in promoting oil return. Also a larger amount of non-flammable hydrocarbon oil-return-agent than flammable hydrocarbon may be used without effecting system flammability.

Figure imgf000009_0001

The present refrigerant compositions comprising halogenated hydrocarbon, oil, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent generally comprise 40-99 weight% halogenated hydrocarbon, 1-60 weight0/., oil, and 0.01-10 weight% hydrocarbon oil-return agent, based on the total composition weight. More preferably, such compositions comprise 50-90 weight% halogenated hydrocarbon, 10-50 weight% oil, and 0.01-5 weight% hydrocarbon oil-return-agent. The further present compositions comprising: halogenated hydrocarbon, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent; and oil and hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprise weight ratios of components identical with those found in the present compositions comprising halogenated hydrocarbon, oil, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent. That is to say, in the present compositions, the weight ratio of halogenated hydrocarbon to oil is from about 0.6 (40/60) to about 99 (99/1), and the weight ratio of oil to hydrocarbon oil-return agent is from about 0.1 (1/10) to about 6000 (60/.01).

The present invention further comprises processes for producing refrigeration comprising evaporating the present refrigeration compositions in the vicinity of a body to be cooled and processes for producing heat comprising condensing the present refrigeration compositions in the vicinity of a body to be heated.

The present invention further relates to processes for solubilizing a halogenated hydrocarbon in an oil comprising contacting the halogenated hydrocarbon with the oil in the presence of an effective amount of hydrocarbon oil-return agent which forms a solution of the halogenated hydrocarbon and the oil, wherein the halogenated hydrocarbon contains at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, and the oil is selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils. The present invention further relates to processes for returning oil from a non-compressor zone to a compressor zone in a refrigeration system comprising:

(a) contacting the oil in the non-compressor zone with at least one halogenated hydrocarbon in the presence of an effective amount of a hydrocarbon oil-return agent and

(b) transferring the oil from the non-compressor zone to the compressor zone of the refrigeration system, wherein the halogenated hydrocarbon contains at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, and the oil is selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils. The present invention further relates to processes for transferring an oil from a low pressure zone to a compressor zone in a refrigeration system, comprising: (a) contacting the oil in the low pressure zone of the refrigeration system with at least one halogenated hydrocarbon in the presence of an effective amount of a hydrocarbon oil-return agent and

(b) transferring the oil from the low pressure zone to the compressor zone of the refrigeration system, wherein the halogenated hydrocarbon contains at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, and the oil is selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils.

EXAMPLES In the following examples, percentages (%) shown without a label refer to the weight percent of a given material in the total composition being discussed. The error in the oil return measurements reported is ± 0.5 wt%.

EXAMPLE 1 Oil return was tested in an oil-return apparatus as follows. Liquid refrigerant was fed from a pressurized cylinder through copper tubing to a heater where it was vaporized. The refrigerant vapor then passed through a pressure regulator and metering valve to control flow at a constant rate of 1,000-1,100 cc per minute and 1 atm pressure. The refrigerant vapor was fed to another copper tube 180 cm in length and 0.635 cm outer diameter formed into a U-shape placed in a constant temperature bath. The U-shaped tube (U-tube) began with a straight vertical section 37 cm long then bent to a horizontal section 27 cm long at the bottom of the bath. The tube then rose vertically in a zig-zag pattern with four 23 cm lengths, followed by another vertical straight section 23 cm long. The U-tube was filled with 10 grams of oil, optionally containing hydrocarbon oil-return agent, which was added to the U-tube through the 37 cm vertical tube. Vapor refrigerant passed slowly through the oil in the U-tube. Refrigerant and oil exiting the U-tube was collected in a receiver and refrigerant allowed to evaporate. Oil was then weighed to determine how much was carried out of the U-tube by the refrigerant.

Refrigerant R404A (44 wt% HFC-125, 52 wt% HFC-143a, and 4 wt% HFC- 134a) was placed in the refrigerant cylinder. HAB 22 oil (HAB 22 is a branched alkylbenzene oil sold by Nippon Oil) or HAB plus hydrocarbon oil- return-agent Isopar® H was placed in the copper U-tube, wherein total oil and oil- return agent equaled 10 grams. The constant temperature bath was held at a temperature of -20°C. Refrigerant vapor was fed through the U-tube at a flow rate of 1,100 cubic centimeters per minute and weight of oil in the receiver measured at 6, 10, 20 and 30 minute time intervals. POE 22 polyol ester oil was compared as a baseline to HAB 22. Data are shown in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1

Figure imgf000012_0001

Results show oil return is equivalent to POE when Isopar® H is added to hard alkylbenzene oil (HAB 22).

EXAMPLE 2

The apparatus and procedure of Example 1 was used to test refrigerant R401 A (53 wt% HCFC-22, 13 wt% HFC-152a and 34 wt% HFC-124). Suniso® 3 GS mineral oil with and without Isopar® H was compared to a baseline of Zerol® 150 alkyl benzene. Results are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2

Figure imgf000012_0002

Results show addition of Isopar® H to 3GS mineral oil provides equivalent oil return to Zerol® 150 alkyl benzene.

EXAMPLE 3

The apparatus and procedure of Example 1, with exceptions discussed below, was used to test refrigerant R407C (23 wt% HFC-32, 25 wt% HFC-125and 52 wt% HFC- 134a). Suniso® 3GS mineral oil, with and without hydrocarbon oil return agent Isopar® H, was compared to POE. The constant temperature bath was held at -20°C. Results are shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3 Weight % Oil Returned

Figure imgf000013_0001

Results show addition of Isopar® H to 3GS oil improves oil return and oil return performance of 15% Isopar® H in 3GS is equivalent to POE. EXAMPLE 4

The apparatus and procedure of Example 1, with exceptions discussed below, was used to test refrigerant R404A (44 wt% HFC-125, 52 wt% HFC-143a, and 4 wt% HFC-134a). Suniso® 3GS mineral oil, with and without hydrocarbon oil return agent Isopar® H. was compared to POE. The constant temperature bath was held at -20°C. Results are shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4 Weight % Oil Returned

Figure imgf000013_0002

Results show addition of Isopar® H to 3GS oil improves oil return and oil return performance of 12, 15 and 18% Isopar® H in 3GS are improved versus POE lubricant.

EXAMPLE 5 The kinematic viscosity in centistokes of Isopar® H and pentane in

3GS mineral oil were compared to POE 22 oil at -15°C as shown in Table 5 below. The test method used was ASTM method D446. TABLE 5

Kinematic Viscosity, Cst At -15°C POE 589.5

3GS 2936.7

3GS + 6% Isopar® H1277.3 3GS + 12% Isopar® H 611.4

3GS + 3% Pentane 971.6

The data show 12% Isopar® H in 3GS mineral oil approaches the viscosity of POE at -15°C. Addition of 3% pentane to 3GS provides less viscosity reduction. Flammability is also increased when using pentane, while Isopar® H is not flammable.

EXAMPLE 6

Tests were conducted to determine if R404A (44 wt% HFC-125, 52 wt% HFC-143a, and 4 wt% HFC-134a) could be used in a Hussmann supermarket frozen food display case (Model HICA-0146-PLK), using conventional lubricant oil Suniso 3GS. The display case was outfitted with a Copeland semi-hermetic reciprocating compressor (Model KAL-016L) equipped with a sight glass in the oil sump. The frozen food case was installed in the indoor room of an environmental chamber and the condensing unit installed in the outdoor room. The two units were connected by 5/8 inch outer diameter copper tubing in the suction line and by 1/2 inch outer diameter copper tubing in the liquid line. A 300 cc sample cylinder was installed between two valves in the liquid line. To determine oil circulation, the valves were closed to trap a refrigerant/oil sample during system operation. The sample cylinder was removed and weighed, refrigerant slowly evaporated, then cylinder reweighed to determine amount of refrigerant. Weight of oil remaining was used to calculate %oil in refrigerant or %oil circulation. Refrigerant R502 (48.8 wt% HCFC-22, 51.2 wt% CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane)) with 3GS oil was used as a baseline for comparison. Capacity is intended to mean the change in enthalpy of the refrigerant in the evaporator per pound of refrigerant circulated, i.e. the heat removed by the refrigerant in the evaporator per time. Coefficient of performance (COP) is intended to mean the ratio of the capacity to compressor work. It is a measure of refrigerant energy efficiency. Results are shown in Table 6. TABLE 6

Figure imgf000015_0001

* Oil level in sight glass dropped below view ** 0.3% Isopar® H based on refrigerant and oil The data show addition of 6 wt% Isopar® H provides similar COP, capacity, and oil circulation to the baseline R502/3GS system. Without Isopar® H, the oil level drops in the sight glass indicating insufficient oil return.

EXAMPLE 7 The Hussmann supermarket frozen food display case of Example 6 was used to study the concentration profile of Isopar® H during system operation. 3GS mineral oil containing 15% Isopar® H was charged to the oil sump and the system was charged with R407C. After 48 hours of operation, the oil located in the oil sump and the oil in the liquid line after the condenser were analyzed for % Isopar® H concentration and a mass balance was calculated as shown in Table 7 below.

TABLE 7

Location Time (hrsl wt% Isopar® H

Oil sump 0 15.0

Oil sump 48 2.3

Liquid line 48 3.2

Evaporator 48 9.5

The data show Isopar® H is volatile enough to be carried out of the oil sump and deposited in the evaporator. The presence of Isopar® H in the evaporator reduces oil viscosity allowing the oil in the evaporator to return to the compressor. The reduction of Isopar® H concentration in the oil sump from 15% to 2.3% keeps oil viscosity sufficiently high in the sump to minimize impact on compressor lubrication.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A refrigerant composition comprising:
(a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom;
(b) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and
(c) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.
2. A refrigerant composition, comprising:
(a) a halogenated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom; and
(b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.
3. A lubricant composition for use with a halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant in compression refrigeration apparatus, comprising:
(a) an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils; and
(b) a hydrocarbon oil-return agent containing from ten to sixteen carbon atoms.
4. The composition of claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein said hydrocarbon oil- return agent forms a solution of said halogenated hydrocarbon with an oil selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils.
5. The composition of claim 1 wherein said hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprises less than about 10 weight percent of said refrigerant composition.
6. The composition of claim 1 comprising from about 40 to about 99 weight percent halogenated hydrocarbon, from about 1 to about 60 weight percent oil, and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent hydrocarbon oil-return agent.
7. The composition of claims 1 or 2 wherein said halogenated hydrocarbon contains from one to six carbon atoms and at least one atom of fluorine, has a normal boiling point of from about -90°C to about 80°C, and optionally contains chlorine and oxygen atoms.
8. The composition of claim 7, wherein said halogenated hydrocarbon is selected from the group consisting of: CC12F2 (CFC- 12), CHC12F (HCFC-21), CHC1F2 (HCFC-22), CHF3 (HFC-23), CH2C1F (HCFC-31), CH2F2 (HFC-32), CH3F (HFC-41), CF3CF3 (FC-116), CHC12CF3 (HCFC-123),
CHC1FCC1F2 (HCFC-123a), CHCIFCF3 (HCFC-124), CHF2CC1F2 (HCFC-124a), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH2C1CF3 (HCFC-133a), CHF2CHF2 (HFC-134), CH2FCF3 (HFC-134a), CC1F2CH3 (HCFC-142b), CHF2CH2F (HFC-143), CF3CH3 (HFC-143a), CHCIFCH3 (HCFC-151a), CHF2CH3 (HFC-152a), CHF2CC12CF3 (HCFC-225aa), CHCIFCCIFCF3 (HCFC-225ba), CHF2CC1FCC1F2 (HCFC-225bb), CHC12CF2CF3 (HCFC-225ca), CHC1FCF2CC1F2 (HCFC-225cb), CHF2CF2CCI2F (HCFC-225cc), CC1F2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-225da), CC1F2CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-225ea), CF3CHFCC12F (HCFC-225eb), CHF2CC1FCF3 (HCFC-226ba), CHC1FCF2CF3 (HCFC-226ca), CHF2CF2CC1F2 (HCFC-226cb), CF3CHC1CF3 (HCFC-226da), CC1F2CHFCF3 (HCFC-226ea), CHF2CF2CF3 (HFC-227ca), CF3CFHCF3 (HFC-227ea), CHF2CC1FCHF2 (HCFC-235ba), CH2FCCIFCF3 (HCFC-235bb), CHC1FCF2CHF2 (HCFC-235ca), CH2C1CF2CF3 (HCFC-235cb), CH2FCF2CC1F2 (HCFC-235cc), CHF2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-235da), CHCIFCHFCF3 (HCFC-235ea), CHF2CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-235eb), CC1F2CH2CF3 (HCFC-235fa), CHF2CF2CHF2 (HFC-236ca), CH2FCF2CF3 (HFC-236cb),
CHF2CHFCF3 (HFC-236ea), CF3CH2CF3 (HFC-236fa), CH2FCF2CHF2 (HFC- 245ca), CH3CF2CF3 (HFC-245cb), CHF2CHFCHF2 (HFC-245ea), CH2FCHFCF3 (HFC-245eb), CHF2CH2CF3 (HFC-245fa), CHJCFjCHjF (HFC-254ca), CH2CF2CHF2 (HFC-254cb), CH2FCHFCHF2 (HFC-254ea), CH3CHFCF3 (HFC- 254eb), CHF2CH2CHF2 (HFC-254fa), CH2FCH2CF3 (HFC-254fb), CH3CF2CH3 (HFC-272ca), CH3CHFCH2F (HFC-272ea), CH2FCH2CH2F (HFC-272fa), CH3CH2CF2H (HFC-272fb), CH3CHFCH3 (HFC-281ea), CH3CH2CH2F (HFC- 281fa) , CF3CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-329p), CF3CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-329me), CF3CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-338q), CF3CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-338mf), CF3CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-338pe), CF3CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-338pce), CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-
338pcc), CF3CFHCFHCF3 (HFC-338mee), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-42-llp), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF3 (HFC-42-llmce), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-42-llme), CF3CF2CH2CF2CF3 (HFC-43 -lOmcf), CF3CF2CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-43- lOmf), CF3CF2CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-43-10q), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-43-10pe), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpce), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 (HFC-43 -lOmee), CF2HCF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpccc), CF3CFHCF CF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpcce), CF3CFHCF2CFHCF3 (HFC-43 -lOmece), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-52-13p), CΛOCHs, and C F9OC2H5.
9. The composition of claim 7 further comprising less than about 10 weight percent of at least one C3 to C5 hydrocarbon.
10. The composition of claims 1 or 3 wherein said oil is selected from the group consisting of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, alkylaryls, synthetic paraffins, and polyalphaolefins.
11. The composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprises hydrocarbons containing eleven to thirteen carbon atoms.
12. A process for producing refrigeration comprising evaporating a composition of claims 1 or 2 in the vicinity of a body to be cooled.
13. A process for producing heat comprising condensing a composition of claims lor 2 in the vicinity of a body to be heated.
14. A process for returning oil from a non-compressor zone to a compressor zone in a compression refrigeration system comprising:
(a) contacting an oil, selected from the group consisting of mineral oils and synthetic oils, in the non-compressor zone with a halogenated hydrocarbon, containing at least one carbon atom and one fluorine atom, in the presence of a hydrocarbon oil-return agent , containing from six to sixteen carbon atoms, to form a solution comprising oil, halogenated hydrocarbon, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent; and
(b) transferring the solution from the non-compressor zone to the compressor zone of the refrigeration system.
15. The process of claim 14 wherein the hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprises less than about 10 weight percent of the solution comprising halogenated hydrocarbon, oil, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent.
16. The process of claim 14 wherein the solution comprising halogenated hydrocarbon, oil, and hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprises from about 40 to about 99 weight percent halogenated hydrocarbon, from about 1 to about 60 weight percent oil, and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent hydrocarbon oil-return agent.
17. The process of claim 14 wherein said halogenated hydrocarbon contains from one to six carbon atoms and at least one atom of fluorine, has a normal boiling point of from about -90°C to about 80°C, and optionally contains chlorine and oxygen atoms.
18. The process of claim 17, wherein said halogenated hydrocarbon is selected from the group consisting of: CC12F2 (CFC- 12), CHC12F (HCFC-21), CHC1F2 (HCFC-22), CHF3 (HFC-23), CH2C1F (HCFC-31), CH2F2 (HFC-32), CH3F (HFC-41), CF3CF3 (FC-116), CHC12CF3 (HCFC-123), CHC1FCC1F2 (HCFC-123a), CHC1FCF3 (HCFC-124), CHF2CC1F2 (HCFC-124a), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH2C1CF3 (HCFC-133a), CHF2CHF2 (HFC-134), CH2FCF3 (HFC- 134a), CC1F2CH3 (HCFC-142b), CHF2CH2F (HFC-143), CF3CH3 (HFC-143a), CHCIFCH3 (HCFC-151a), CHF2CH3 (HFC-152a), CHF2CC12CF3 (HCFC-225aa), CHCIFCCIFCF3 (HCFC-225ba), CHF2CC1FCC1F2 (HCFC-225bb), CHC12CF2CF3 (HCFC-225ca), CHC1FCF2CQ1F2 (HCFC-225cb), CHF2CF2CC12F (HCFC- 225cc), CC1F2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-225da), CC1F CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-225ea), CF3CHFCC12F (HCFC-225eb), CHF2CC1FCF3 (HCFC-226ba), CHC1FCF2CF3 (HCFC-226ca), CHF2CF2CC1F2 (HCFC-226cb), CF3CHC1CF3 (HCFC-226da), CC1F2CHFCF3 (HCFC-226ea), CHF2CF2CF3 (HFC-227ca), CF3CFHCF3 (HFC- 227ea), CHF2CC1FCHF2 (HCFC-235ba), CH2FCC1FCF3 (HCFC-235bb), CHC1FCF2CHF2 (HCFC-235ca), CH2C1CF2CF3 (HCFC-235cb), CH2FCF2CC1F2 (HCFC-235cc), CHF2CHC1CF3 (HCFC-235da), CHC1FCHFCF3 (HCFC-235ea), CHF2CHFCC1F2 (HCFC-235eb), CC1F2CH2CF3 (HCFC-235fa), CHF2CF2CHF2 (HFC-236ca), CH2FCF2CF3 (HFC-236cb), CHF2CHFCF3 (HFC-236ea),
CF3CH2CF3 (HFC-236fa), CH2FCF2CHF2 (HFC-245ca), CH3CF2CF3 (HFC- 245cb), CHF2CHFCHF2 (HFC-245ea), CH2FCHFCF3 (HFC-245eb), CHF2CH2CF3 (HFC-245fa), CH2FCF2CH2F (HFC-254ca), CH2CF2CHF2 (HFC- 254cb), CH2FCHFCHF2 (HFC-254ea), CH3CHFCF3 (HFC-254eb), CHF2CH2CHF2 (HFC-254fa), CH2FCH2CF3 (HFC-254fb), CH3CF2CH3 (HFC- 272ca), CH3CHFCH2F (HFC-272ea), CH2FCH2CH2F (HFC-272fa), CH3CH2CF2H (HFC-272fb), CH3CHFCH3 (HFC-281ea), CH3CH2CH2F (HFC- 281fa) , CF3CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-329p), CF3CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-329me), CF3CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-338q), CF3CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-338mf), CF3CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-338pe), CF3CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-338pce), CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-
338pcc), CF3CFHCFHCF3 (HFC-338mee), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-42-l lp), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF3 (HFC-42-l lmce), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF3 (HFC-42-l lme), CF3CF2CH2CF2CF3 (HFC-43 -lOmcf), CF3CF2CF2CH2CF3 (HFC-43 -lOmf), CF3CF2CF2CF2CFH2 (HFC-43-10q), CF3CF2CF2CFHCF2H (HFC-43 -1 Ope), CF3CF2CFHCF2CF2H (HFC-43-10pce), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 (HFC-43 -lOmee), CF2HCF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-43 -lOpcce), CF3CFHCF2CF2CF2H (HFC-43- lOpcce), CF3CFHCF2CFHCF3 (HFC-43 -lOmece), CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-52-13p), OFgOCH-}, and C4F9OC2H5.
19. The process of claim 17 wherein said halogenated hydrocarbon further comprises less than about 10 weight percent of at least one C3 to C5 hydrocarbon.
20. The process of claim 14 wherein the oil is selected from the group consisting of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, alkylaryls, synthetic paraffins, and polyalphaolefins.
21. The process of claim 14 wherein said hydrocarbon oil-return agent comprises hydrocarbons containing eleven to thirteen carbon atoms.
PCT/US1999/015935 1998-01-16 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents WO2000042118A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09/231,847 1999-01-15
US09/231,847 US6299792B1 (en) 1998-01-16 1999-01-15 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing polymeric oil-return agents
US35171099A true 1999-07-12 1999-07-12
US09/351,710 1999-07-12

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
KR1020017008938A KR20010101544A (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Compositions Containing Hydrocarbon Oil-Return Agents
EP19990934019 EP1151054A1 (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents
BR9917321A BR9917321A (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Coolant composition, lubricant composition for use with a halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant in compression refrigeration appliances, refrigeration production process, heat production process and oil return process
JP2000593677A JP2002534578A (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant composition containing hydrocarbon oil return agent
AU49942/99A AU772143B2 (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents
CA 2359090 CA2359090A1 (en) 1999-01-15 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000042118A1 true WO2000042118A1 (en) 2000-07-20

Family

ID=26925485

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1999/015935 WO2000042118A1 (en) 1998-01-16 1999-07-14 Halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant compositions containing hydrocarbon oil-return agents

Country Status (7)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1151054A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2002534578A (en)
CN (1) CN1210368C (en)
AU (1) AU772143B2 (en)
BR (1) BR9917321A (en)
CA (1) CA2359090A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2000042118A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2003025105A1 (en) * 2001-09-19 2003-03-27 3M Innovative Properties Company Composition comprising lubricious additive for cutting or abrasive working and a method therefor
JP2010189652A (en) * 2001-03-01 2010-09-02 Lubrizol Corp:The Refrigerator lubricant composition
US8999191B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-04-07 National Refrigerants, Inc. R22 replacement refrigerant

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0369320A1 (en) * 1988-11-15 1990-05-23 Idemitsu Kosan Company Limited Lubricating oil composition
EP0421586A1 (en) * 1989-09-07 1991-04-10 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Compositions and process of using in refrigeration
WO1993015168A1 (en) * 1992-01-23 1993-08-05 Pieter Jan Dirk Muntz Lubricating oil composition
WO1994018282A1 (en) * 1993-02-05 1994-08-18 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Compositions of a hydrofluorocarbon and a hydrocarbon
WO1996036688A1 (en) * 1995-05-16 1996-11-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Azeotrope-like compositions and their use
US5716549A (en) * 1993-03-05 1998-02-10 Ikon Corporation Fluoroiodocarbon blends as CFC and halon replacements

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0369320A1 (en) * 1988-11-15 1990-05-23 Idemitsu Kosan Company Limited Lubricating oil composition
EP0421586A1 (en) * 1989-09-07 1991-04-10 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Compositions and process of using in refrigeration
WO1993015168A1 (en) * 1992-01-23 1993-08-05 Pieter Jan Dirk Muntz Lubricating oil composition
WO1994018282A1 (en) * 1993-02-05 1994-08-18 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Compositions of a hydrofluorocarbon and a hydrocarbon
US5716549A (en) * 1993-03-05 1998-02-10 Ikon Corporation Fluoroiodocarbon blends as CFC and halon replacements
WO1996036688A1 (en) * 1995-05-16 1996-11-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Azeotrope-like compositions and their use

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2010189652A (en) * 2001-03-01 2010-09-02 Lubrizol Corp:The Refrigerator lubricant composition
WO2003025105A1 (en) * 2001-09-19 2003-03-27 3M Innovative Properties Company Composition comprising lubricious additive for cutting or abrasive working and a method therefor
US6759374B2 (en) 2001-09-19 2004-07-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Composition comprising lubricious additive for cutting or abrasive working and a method therefor
KR100881483B1 (en) * 2001-09-19 2009-02-05 쓰리엠 이노베이티브 프로퍼티즈 컴파니 Composition comprising lubricious additive for cutting or abrasive working and a method therefor
US8999191B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-04-07 National Refrigerants, Inc. R22 replacement refrigerant

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
BR9917321A (en) 2002-04-23
AU4994299A (en) 2000-08-01
CA2359090A1 (en) 2000-07-20
EP1151054A1 (en) 2001-11-07
CN1333806A (en) 2002-01-30
CN1210368C (en) 2005-07-13
AU772143B2 (en) 2004-04-08
JP2002534578A (en) 2002-10-15

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP5980272B2 (en) Compositions containing fluoroolefins
US10208236B2 (en) Tetrafluoropropene compositions and uses thereof
AU2015200652B2 (en) Tetrafluoropropene compositions and uses thereof
AU2011200006B2 (en) Compositions and methods for reducing fire hazard of flammable refrigerants
JP5727060B2 (en) Secondary loop cooling system with bypass and method for bypassing a reservoir in the system
US10184074B2 (en) Compositions comprising tetrafluoropropene and methods of use thereof
EP2475737B1 (en) Heat transfer method
US8980118B2 (en) Heat transfer compositions and methods
CN103923610B (en) Compositions containing fluorine substituted olefins
JP2016053162A (en) Ternary compositions for high-capacity refrigeration
JP2015131966A (en) Compositions and methods for refrigeration
CN104788708B (en) Include the composition and application thereof of 2,3,3,3- tetrafluoropropenes and hydrocarbon
EP2295518B1 (en) Compositions comprising fluoroolefins and uses thereof
EP0498152B1 (en) Lubricant composition for fluorinated refrigerants
JP2016196642A (en) Heat-transfer fluids and use thereof in countercurrent heat exchangers
KR101506777B1 (en) Compositions Comprising a Fluoroolefin
JP5535908B2 (en) Halogenated alkene refrigerant compositions with improved oil return and methods using them
EP2516579B1 (en) Non ozone depleting and low global warming potential refrigerants for low temperature refrigeration
TWI598323B (en) Azeotrope-like compositions of tetrafluoropropene and hydrofluorocarbons and uses thereof
US9982180B2 (en) Heat transfer compositions and methods
KR102017493B1 (en) Heat transfer compositions and methods
US5053155A (en) Compositions and process for use in refrigeration
CA2393244C (en) Refrigerant compositions
US4971712A (en) Compositions for compression refrigeration and methods of using them
JP4860332B2 (en) Hydrofluorocarbon and hydrocarbon composition

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 99815670.1

Country of ref document: CN

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): GH GM KE LS MW SD SL SZ UG ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GW ML MR NE SN TD TG

AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AE AL AU BA BB BG BR CA CN CU CZ EE GD GE HR HU ID IL IN IS JP KP KR LC LK LR LT LV MG MK MN MX NO NZ PL RO SG SI SK SL TR TT UA UZ VN YU ZA

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 200104870

Country of ref document: ZA

Ref document number: 2001/04870

Country of ref document: ZA

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 1999934019

Country of ref document: EP

Ref document number: 49942/99

Country of ref document: AU

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2359090

Country of ref document: CA

Ref document number: 2359090

Country of ref document: CA

Kind code of ref document: A

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: PA/a/2001/007102

Country of ref document: MX

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 1020017008938

Country of ref document: KR

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2000 593677

Country of ref document: JP

Kind code of ref document: A

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 1999934019

Country of ref document: EP

WWW Wipo information: withdrawn in national office

Ref document number: 1999934019

Country of ref document: EP