WO1999026793A1 - Moiré security device - Google Patents

Moiré security device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1999026793A1
WO1999026793A1 PCT/AU1998/000963 AU9800963W WO9926793A1 WO 1999026793 A1 WO1999026793 A1 WO 1999026793A1 AU 9800963 W AU9800963 W AU 9800963W WO 9926793 A1 WO9926793 A1 WO 9926793A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
array
document
device
lines
dots
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/AU1998/000963
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Lee Tasman Mellett
Cameron Rex Hibbert
Original Assignee
Securency Pty. Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to AUPP0441A priority Critical patent/AUPP044197A0/en
Priority to AUPP0441 priority
Application filed by Securency Pty. Ltd. filed Critical Securency Pty. Ltd.
Priority claimed from AU12197/99A external-priority patent/AU1219799A/en
Publication of WO1999026793A1 publication Critical patent/WO1999026793A1/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/342Moiré effects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41MPRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES; COLOUR PRINTING
    • B41M3/00Printing processes to produce particular kinds of printed work, e.g. patterns
    • B41M3/14Security printing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07DHANDLING OF COINS OR VALUABLE PAPERS, e.g. TESTING, SORTING BY DENOMINATIONS, COUNTING, DISPENSING, CHANGING OR DEPOSITING
    • G07D7/00Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency
    • G07D7/003Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency using security elements

Abstract

A security document or device having a first array of dots or lines having a predetermined number of lines per centimetre and a predetermined screen angle, a second array of dots or lines applied to or produced by a separate device and producing a grey scale visible effect, said second array being capable of being superimposed over the first array and having a different number of lines and screen angle calculated from the number lines and screen angle of the first array to produce a visible moiré pattern when the arrays are superimposed to establish the authenticity of the document or device.

Description

Moire Security Device

Field of the Invention

This invention relates to security devices for use with banknotes, security documents and other devices requiring a security check. Background of the nvention

The moire effect is well known in the printing of half tone colour images, and the effect occurs when printing one halftone image over another. The printing industry seeks to minimise moire effects to a level which is not visible to the naked eye.

In US Patent 3,675,948 (Wicker), there is disclosed a half tone printing method in which a verifying image is hidden by half tone screens of different angles and revealed as a blinking image by a superimposed further screen. The process for forming the hidden image is complex, requiring the careful alignment and cutting of the film forming the halftone screen.

GB Patent 2191733 discloses a similar verifying system which requires an image to be hidden in one half tone screen and revealed by a precisely identical half tone screen overlying the first. This arrangement again requires a complex production process involving the replacement of part of the first half tone screen with the required image, and can only be viewed as a reflected image.

US Patent 4,921,278 discloses a computer generated moire identification system in which a hidden image is revealed as a moire pattern by the use of a computerised read-out device. This arrangement does not lend itself to printed applications and requires a computer to generate and read the verifying image.

In WO93/24333 De la Rue, a holographic security device is illustrated in which a holographic moire effect is produced by surface relief patterns on overlapping films. Surface relief patterns are not easily applied as part of a standard printing process and accordingly this device is likely to be difficult to implement in practice.

In EU 279526 a security document has parallel lines in which the thickness varies along their length to produce a moire pattern in the document as produced. This arrangement does not lend itself to a verification process in which the moire pattern is advantageously only visible during verification. Summary of Invention and Object

It is an object to provide an improved security document or device enabling the generation of a moire effect verifying image.

The invention provides a security document or device comprising a first array of dots or lines applied to the surface of the document or device and producing a grey scale visible effect, a second array of dots or lines applied to or produced by a separate device and producing a grey scale visible effect, said second array being capable of being superimposed over the first array, each of said arrays being formed at a predetermined screen angle and screen value such that when the arrays are superimposed, a visible moire pattern is produced to establish the authenticity of the document or device.

The second array may be printed on a transparent sheet or may be computer generated during the verification process. The presence of the moire pattern may be detected visually, optically or electronically. The first array, and preferably the second array, are preferably reproduced by the Gravure printing process. The advantage of producing at least the first array by the Gravure process is that the first array can be conveniently incorporated into a printing process for the security document or device, such as a banknote.

The first array and second array may be printed on different parts of the document or device, which are adapted to be folded to superimpose the second array over the first array to produce the verifying moire effect. Alternatively, for additional security, the second array may be printed on a separate sheet or separately stored in a computer for use during a verification process. In a simple form of the invention, the second array may be printed on a transparent sheet capable of being superimposed over the first array to produce the required moire verification image in transmission.

If desired, the first and/or second arrays can be printed in colour or incorporated into the Gravure printing process producing the document or device. For example, in a banknote, the first array can be incorporated into the printing on the banknote so that it is not readily detectable and will not be reproduced by known copying processes. At least the first array is preferably printed as a thin layer of white or light coloured ink so that the printed features are translucent and therefore difficult to scan or photocopy. If the second array is not separate, it is preferably similarly printed. The invention also provides a method of producing a document or device as defined above, comprising the steps of selecting a first array of dots or lines having a predetermined number of lines per centimetre and a predetermined screen angle, calculating the number of lines per centimetre and screen angle of a second array of dots or lines to produce a predetermined moire pattern, mechanically engraving a Gravure printing cylinder to produce at least said first array, and printing said document or device using said engraved printing cylinder.

Brief Description of the Drawings

In the drawings: Figure 1 illustrates two different mechanically engraved patterns, the first being

70 lines/cm, 60° screen angle, and the second 100 lines/cm, 45° screen angle, the arrows indicating the direction around the printing cylinder;

Figures 2 and 3 illustrate dot arrangements produced by Gravure screens of 59 lines/cm, 38° screen angle and 66.5205 lines/cm, 44.8032° screen angle, and Figure 4 illustrates the superimposition of the screens of Figures 2 and 3 and the resultant moire pattern.

Description of Preferred Embodiment

The Gravure process is a common, well known printing method. Gravure cylinders which transfer ink to the substrate to be printed are specific to the Gravure process and traditionally are made by mechanical engraving or chemical etching. The chemical etching process produces dot arrays similar to many other printing processes

(e.g. Flexographic printing, Offset Lithography).

Mechanical engraving involves revolving a cylinder under a reciprocating stylus, which at its lowest point gouges a deep cell and at its highest point remains clear of the cylinder. In between these extremities of stylus position cells of varying depth and volume can be produced. This is illustrated in Figure 1 of the drawings.

Whilst the cylinder is rotated at a specific constant speed and the engraving head, holding the stylus, is driven axially along the surface of the cylinder at a specific constant speed, and the stylus is reciprocated at a specific, and constant, number of cycles per second, there results an array of dots. This array is constrained by the requirement to produce an exact odd number of dots around twice the cylinder circumference, so that the array remains essentially mirror imaged. It is the useful properties arising from gravure screens produced under this constraint that form the preferred embodiment of this invention.

One useful pattern that can only be produced by the type of gravure arrays 5 described above is that of parallel lines, either horizontal or vertical, at very specific distances apart as illustrated in Figure 1.

The two defining properties of a gravure array are the screen angle and the lines per centimetre. The lines per centimetre is a measure of the fineness of the screen. The screen angle provides information to avoid moire in normal printing. Both properties 0 can most usefully be related to the vertical and horizontal pitch of the dots in the gravure engraved array in the following manner.

Figure imgf000006_0001

Lines/cm ^Tan(screenangle) . Horizontal dot pitch = (1)

Figure imgf000006_0002

. , , . , = Lines/cm 9

Vertical dot pitch z (2)

Other useful relationships are:

Verticalpitch a tan « Horizontalpitch -> J Screen angle = J (3)

Figure imgf000006_0003

Verticalpitch Λ

Lines/cm = (4)

To produce parallel lines we require that the number of cells within the distance between the lines, differ by exactly one in each of the two arrays. We can achieve this and concurrently keep the number of cells in the measurement collinear to the lines 0 exactly equal, producing no pattern perpendicular to the lines.

This can be calculated as follows:

The first array can be designated as required, the second array can then be calculated to produce the desired moire with the first. From the screen angle and lines/cm of the first array, the horizontal and vertical pitches of the dots can be calculated using the formulas (1) and (2) above.

If we wish to produce a vertical moire pattern of parallel lines x centimetres apart, then the vertical pitch is kept the same as for the first array. The new horizontal pitch is calculated thus: x * 1000 x * 1000

New horizontal pitch = oldhorizontalpitch 5

Now the new array screen angle and lines/cm can be calculated by applying formulas (3) and (4).

If a horizontal moire is required then horizontal pitch is kept constant and the vertical pitch is changed as per equation (5) but using old vertical pitch.

Of course many other moire patterns can be produced and maybe useful in security devices. For example, by simply changing the screen angle between the two arrays by a small amount (for example: 4 degrees) a visible criss cross pattern will appear. The following example demonstrates the effect at a magnification of 30 times.

Figure 2 shows the dot arrangement for a gravure screen of 59 lines/cm and a screen angle of 38 degrees.

By utilising formulas 1, 5, 3 and 4 it can be calculated that to produce a vertical moire pattern of 1mm pitch a 66.5205 lines/cm screen at a screen angle of 44.8032 degrees is required. The dot arrangement of this screen is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4 shows the superimposition of these two screens and the resultant moire pattern of vertical lines with a pitch of 1mm.

Part of the security in the invention is in the accuracy required of reproducing the dot arrays. Any small inaccuracy will lead to noticeably large changes in the moire pattern.

The design of moire patterns can result in aesthetically impacting designs with dramatic optical variability. By utilising the above described predictive method and the gravure cylinder making technique also described above, a design can be incorporated onto any position of the gravure cylinder that when printed will appear identical to some other area. However, when superimposed with a complementing array produced from a second gravure cylinder, the verifying image will be revealed in transmission.

Claims

Claims:
1. A security document or device comprising a first array of dots or lines applied to the surface of the document or device and producing a grey scale visible effect, a second array of dots or lines applied to or produced by a separate device and producing a grey scale visible effect, said second array being capable of being superimposed over the first array, each of said arrays being formed at a predetermined screen angle and screen value such that when the arrays are superimposed, a visible moire pattern is produced to establish the authenticity of the document or device.
2. The document or device of claim 1, wherein the second array is printed on a substantially transparent sheet or portion of a sheet.
3. The document or device of claim 1, wherein the second array is computer generated during a verification process.
4. The document or device of claim 1 or 2, wherein the first array and/or the second array are reproduced by a Gravure printing process.
5. The document or device of claim 1 or 2, wherein at least the first array is reproduced by a Gravure printing process.
6. The document or device of claim 4 or 5, wherein the first and/or second array is/are printed during the printing of the document by a Gravure process.
7. The document or device of any preceding claim, wherein the first and second arrays are printed on different parts of the document, which is adapted to be folded to superimpose the second array over the first array, or vice versa, to produce the verifying moire effect.
8. The document or device of any preceding claim, wherein the first and/or second arrays are printed in colour or incorporated into the printing on the document so that the array(s) are not readily detectable and are not reproduced by known copying processes.
9. A method of producing a document or device according to any preceding claim, comprising the steps of selecting a first array of dots or lines having a predetermined number of lines per centimetre and a predetermined screen angle, calculating the number of lines per centimetre and screen angle of a second array of dots or lines to produce a predetermined moire pattern, mechanically engraving a Gravure printing cylinder to produce at least said first array, and printing said document or device using said engraved printing cylinder.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein said printing cylinder, or another Gravure printing cylinder is similarly engraved to produce said second array of dots or lines.
11. The method of claim 9 or 10, wherein said calculation is performed using the formulae (1) to (5) as described herein.
PCT/AU1998/000963 1997-11-19 1998-11-19 Moiré security device WO1999026793A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AUPP0441A AUPP044197A0 (en) 1997-11-19 1997-11-19 Moire security device
AUPP0441 1997-11-19

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU12197/99A AU1219799A (en) 1997-11-19 1998-11-19 Moire security device

Publications (1)

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001039138A1 (en) * 1999-11-29 2001-05-31 Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (Epfl) New methods and apparatus for authentication of documents by using the intensity profile of moire patterns
WO2004089645A1 (en) * 2003-04-14 2004-10-21 Hurtado Pastor, Juan Jose Process for producing an authentication mark, specially a mark for verifying the authenticity of documents and the like
WO2005002880A1 (en) 2003-07-07 2005-01-13 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image
WO2006056342A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-01 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security arrangement for security documents
ES2257975A1 (en) * 2003-04-14 2006-08-01 Juan Jose Hurtado Pastor Procedure for making engraving used for verifying authenticity of documents and like, uses computer program to generate design, surrounding frame, and lines added into the frame
WO2006087138A1 (en) * 2005-02-18 2006-08-24 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security element and method for the production thereof
US7333268B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2008-02-19 Nanoventions Holdings, Llc Micro-optic security and image presentation system
WO2008028215A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-13 Matthew Walker Visual code transaction verification
WO2008104025A1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2008-09-04 Barry David Walters Authentication detector and methods of detecting authentic documents
US7468842B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2008-12-23 Nanoventions Holdings, Llc Image presentation and micro-optic security system
US7738175B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-06-15 Visual Physics, Llc Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image
AU2004253604B2 (en) * 2003-07-07 2011-07-28 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image
US8149511B2 (en) 2005-12-23 2012-04-03 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security element
US8167214B2 (en) 2006-09-07 2012-05-01 Matthew Walker Method and device for visual code transaction verification
US8867134B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2014-10-21 Visual Physics, Llc Optical system demonstrating improved resistance to optically degrading external effects
US9333787B2 (en) 2011-01-28 2016-05-10 Visual Physics, Llc Laser marked device
US9873281B2 (en) 2013-06-13 2018-01-23 Visual Physics, Llc Single layer image projection film
US10173453B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2019-01-08 Visual Physics, Llc Optical security device
US10173405B2 (en) 2012-08-17 2019-01-08 Visual Physics, Llc Process for transferring microstructures to a final substrate
US10189292B2 (en) 2015-02-11 2019-01-29 Crane & Co., Inc. Method for the surface application of a security device to a substrate
US10195890B2 (en) 2014-09-16 2019-02-05 Crane Security Technologies, Inc. Secure lens layer

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3208204A1 (en) * 1982-03-06 1983-09-15 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Printing method for safeguarding banknotes and documents against unauthorised copying
EP0279526A2 (en) * 1987-02-18 1988-08-24 CarnaudMetalbox plc Security document
WO1993024333A1 (en) * 1992-05-26 1993-12-09 De La Rue Holographics Limited Holographic security device

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3208204A1 (en) * 1982-03-06 1983-09-15 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Printing method for safeguarding banknotes and documents against unauthorised copying
EP0279526A2 (en) * 1987-02-18 1988-08-24 CarnaudMetalbox plc Security document
WO1993024333A1 (en) * 1992-05-26 1993-12-09 De La Rue Holographics Limited Holographic security device

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001039138A1 (en) * 1999-11-29 2001-05-31 Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (Epfl) New methods and apparatus for authentication of documents by using the intensity profile of moire patterns
WO2004089645A1 (en) * 2003-04-14 2004-10-21 Hurtado Pastor, Juan Jose Process for producing an authentication mark, specially a mark for verifying the authenticity of documents and the like
ES2257975A1 (en) * 2003-04-14 2006-08-01 Juan Jose Hurtado Pastor Procedure for making engraving used for verifying authenticity of documents and like, uses computer program to generate design, surrounding frame, and lines added into the frame
WO2005002880A1 (en) 2003-07-07 2005-01-13 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image
EP1641628A1 (en) * 2003-07-07 2006-04-05 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image
AU2004253604B2 (en) * 2003-07-07 2011-07-28 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image
EP1641628A4 (en) * 2003-07-07 2010-09-15 Commw Scient Ind Res Org Method of encoding a latent image
US7916343B2 (en) 2003-07-07 2011-03-29 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Method of encoding a latent image and article produced
US8009360B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2011-08-30 Visual Physics, Llc Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to lie above a given plane
US8867134B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2014-10-21 Visual Physics, Llc Optical system demonstrating improved resistance to optically degrading external effects
US7738175B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-06-15 Visual Physics, Llc Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image
US7333268B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2008-02-19 Nanoventions Holdings, Llc Micro-optic security and image presentation system
US7468842B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2008-12-23 Nanoventions Holdings, Llc Image presentation and micro-optic security system
CN101060997B (en) 2004-11-23 2010-05-05 捷德有限公司 Security arrangement, security document with the security arrangement and manufacturing method thereof
AU2005309050B2 (en) * 2004-11-23 2010-08-05 Giesecke+Devrient Currency Technology Gmbh Security arrangement for security documents
AU2005309050C1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2013-03-21 Giesecke+Devrient Currency Technology Gmbh Security arrangement for security documents
WO2006056342A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-01 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security arrangement for security documents
WO2006087138A1 (en) * 2005-02-18 2006-08-24 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security element and method for the production thereof
US8778481B2 (en) 2005-02-18 2014-07-15 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security element and method for the production thereof
US8149511B2 (en) 2005-12-23 2012-04-03 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security element
US7997503B2 (en) 2006-09-07 2011-08-16 Matthew Walker Visual code transaction verification
US8167214B2 (en) 2006-09-07 2012-05-01 Matthew Walker Method and device for visual code transaction verification
WO2008028215A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-13 Matthew Walker Visual code transaction verification
WO2008104025A1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2008-09-04 Barry David Walters Authentication detector and methods of detecting authentic documents
US9333787B2 (en) 2011-01-28 2016-05-10 Visual Physics, Llc Laser marked device
US10173405B2 (en) 2012-08-17 2019-01-08 Visual Physics, Llc Process for transferring microstructures to a final substrate
US10173453B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2019-01-08 Visual Physics, Llc Optical security device
US9873281B2 (en) 2013-06-13 2018-01-23 Visual Physics, Llc Single layer image projection film
US10195890B2 (en) 2014-09-16 2019-02-05 Crane Security Technologies, Inc. Secure lens layer
US10189292B2 (en) 2015-02-11 2019-01-29 Crane & Co., Inc. Method for the surface application of a security device to a substrate

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