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WO1989009104A1 - Process and device for bending preferably rod-shaped material - Google Patents

Process and device for bending preferably rod-shaped material

Info

Publication number
WO1989009104A1
WO1989009104A1 PCT/EP1989/000322 EP8900322W WO8909104A1 WO 1989009104 A1 WO1989009104 A1 WO 1989009104A1 EP 8900322 W EP8900322 W EP 8900322W WO 8909104 A1 WO8909104 A1 WO 8909104A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
bending
material
angle
device
rod
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP1989/000322
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Helmut Zahlaus
Frank Ebert
Original Assignee
Evg Entwicklungs- Und Verwertungs-Gesellschaft M.B
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D11/00Bending not restricted to forms of material mentioned in only one of groups B21D5/00, B21D7/00, B21D9/00; Bending not provided for in groups B21D5/00 - B21D9/00; Twisting
    • B21D11/10Bending specially adapted to produce specific articles, e.g. leaf springs
    • B21D11/12Bending specially adapted to produce specific articles, e.g. leaf springs the articles being reinforcements for concrete
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D7/00Bending rods, profiles, or tubes
    • B21D7/02Bending rods, profiles, or tubes over a stationary forming member; by use of a swinging forming member or abutment
    • B21D7/022Bending rods, profiles, or tubes over a stationary forming member; by use of a swinging forming member or abutment over a stationary forming member only

Abstract

Process and device for bending preferably rod-shaped materials (13) to obtain any bending radius R and/or bending angle Z. A bending template is not required. Said materials (13) are bent gradually, in stages, around a bending block (12) by a single bending cylinder (19).

Description

description

Method and apparatus for bending rod-shaped material, preferably

The invention relates to a method for bending of a length B of a preferably rod-like material, in particular substantially in an arc of a circle with the radius R by an angle Z. Also, the invention relates to an apparatus for bending a length portion B of a preferably rod-shaped material is substantially on an arc of a circle with the radius R by an angle Z umfas¬ send a holding device for the material, a bending area and arranged between this and the holding means axially aligning the material counter-bearing as well as a bending member.

A method and a device of the type previously described in EP-B is shown in 0,121,896. Two one bending mandrel and a bending crank are uses extensive bending slides be¬ through which the rod-shaped material is selectively held or bent. A displacement of the material inside the device itself does not occur. Rather, the Biegeschlit¬ be th in the axial direction of the material moved to the points where a bend is to be performed. To produce different bending radii, it is necessary to use different bending templates. Result of this, changing bar stock diameters or produced Bie¬ conditions of different geometries automatically running bending process can be achieved neither a high throughput, nor done.

The object of the present invention is to provide a method and an apparatus of the aforementioned type so as to form, in that a substantially fully automatic bending process is made possible regardless of the section to be bent bar stock diameters or ge desired bend geometries, and in particular an exchange of bending template and / or a use of bend-shaping the material is bent on its outer surface, is not required. And a high dimensional accuracy of the bent lengths should be ensured.

The object is inventively achieved by a method which essentially is characterized in that aneinander¬ abutting, the length portion B forming sections A clock pulse as to an actual bending angle U / T wer¬ bent successively to which the sum of the target bend angle Z / T and causing the elasticity of the rod-shaped material and / or a mechanical inertia of the bending force device specific recovery angle corresponds RW. More particularly, the invention is characterized in that in succession the length corresponding sections A to an actual bending angle (pavilion angle) V / T is bent in T flexural bars B / T, thereby ending after Been¬ the bend of the remaining target bend angle Z / T gewähr¬ is guaranteed.

The inventive method infinitely any desired bending radius of each angle (total bending angle) z and R are bent without diameters, an insert of different templates and / or bending shapes depending on the Stabmaterialien¬ and the bending radius is necessary. It can tinter into account the teaching of the invention, which is realized by the following formulas, ge, the clock number and / or the Schublän¬ by means of, for example, a computer program, that is, the distance by which the material of partial or clock bending operation to partial or clock bending operation to is to move, and / or the einzuwirkende on the bar material bending force (torque) will be running excessively controlled. To berücksichti¬ constricting relations are as follows:

For a given angle (Sing tbiegewinkel) Z, bending radius R and number of clock cycles T arises:

a) Part A = 2R x T x Z

360 ° x D

b) target partial bending angle (constant) X = Z / T

c) length section = arc length B = shear

B = 2R x T x Z / 360 0

d) Is part bending angle (in fact to be bent)

U / T = Z / T + RW

= With RW return angle = f (elasticity of the material, mech.

Inertia of the bending device).

The previously reproduced the surface geometry obeying conditions can immediately recognize as a function of a varying bend radius and / or angle and / or clock number, the length of the sections A and 'target portion bending angle X or actual bending angle U to change.

The actual bending angle takes into account the elasticity of the material (restoring forces) as well as the mechanical inertia of the bending device. Under mechanical inertia, the fact is taken into account that, even after triggering of a signal Stopp¬ the bend-inducing flexure lags, so that as a result of the bending operation is not abruptly unterbro¬ chen. This "lag-bend must be taken into account to determine the actual bend angle so that the blei¬ Bende bending angle corresponding to the target bending angle.

When entering the bend angle, the diameter of the material must, of course, be received (determination of the neutral phase). According to the invention the diameter of the material is determined by the displacement of the flexure is towards the outer surface of the material to which the bending element rests, determined by a zero line which coincides with the center axis of the section to be bent Ma¬ terials.

The inventive teaching it is not necessary that ver¬ for different rod materials and bending geometries different mandrels and / or bending elements and / or Biege¬ template must be used. Rather, the effective bending surface and bending element such as bending crank or bending stone can be used unchanged, so that as a result, a material-independent bending results.

The return angle is according to the invention determined in that the difference between the actual and desired part of the bending angle, preferably by the change in position of the flexible element (eg stroke difference) is determined after the first bending operation, so that the resulting difference in the further bending bars to the target part bending angle can be automatically added.

An apparatus for bending preferably rod-shaped material is characterized in that the 'length portion B can be bent by bending the successive sub-sections A, which are exposable by successively shifting the material relative to the bending element, preferably by means of the holding device of the bending force, said to act on the length section with an adjustable bending force, the Biegeele¬ element either is pivotable about a center of the arc with the non-identical point of rotation or is constructed to be displaceable linearly. In use, a bending crank, the required bending force is then initiate particular advantageous if the fulcrum of the bending crank is located on the side opposite the center of the circle side of the rod-shaped material.

Alternatively, the bending element may be formed as bending stone, which preferably performs a purely translatory movement in bending perpendicular to the tangent at the point of contact with the material.

In particular, the device is characterized also by the fact that the holding device has bake the rod-shaped material holding Klemm¬ and the material of the number T of durchzu¬ leading part bends batchwise in the direction of the bending element by a distance A displaced accordingly, the tienten the Quo¬ from the -length portion B and the number T corresponds. Of course, the movement can also be opposed.

It is further contemplated that the effective surface has a bending radius which is smaller than the smallest radius of the length to be bent portion B / T.

In summary, the teaching of the invention can also be characterized as follows. There is a method of bending a portion of a preferably rod-shaped material suggested to a desired target arc, the net is auszeich¬ characterized in that the shaping is carried out in a closed control loop in such a way that to achieve the target sheet in addition to a Istbiegung at least one of the elasticity material specific control value is taken into account.

Further details, advantages and features of the invention erge¬ ben found not only in the claims, the -for it to entneh¬ Menden features and / or in combination-but also from the following microphysical description of an exemplary embodiment schematically illustrated in the drawing.

In the drawings: Figure 1 shows a first embodiment of an apparatus for bending preferably rod-shaped material.

Fig. 2 shows a second embodiment of a device according to the invention and

FIGS. 3 and 4, the device according to Fig. 2 in different working positions.

In the following explanation of the Figures Exemplary embodiments entneh¬ Menden same elements having the same reference numbers and letters are provided.

In Fig. T a schematic illustration of an apparatus and a method to be carried out with this is shown to a rod-shaped material (13) over a length B at a bend radius R -bezogen to the neutral phase and to bend an angle Z. For this purpose, the rod-shaped material (13) as Be¬ is wehrungsstahl from an as pressing unit (9) designated holding device by means of holding jaws (10) detects and axially zwi¬ rule a bending area as bending mandrel (12) and a gegebe¬ suitability for adjusting to different rod materials diameter appropriate, eg hydraulically adjustable thrust bearing (11) out. The bending mandrel (12) is located between the rod-shaped material (13) and the center of the circle of radius R. On the opposite side is a bending member in the form of a bending roller (19) having bending crank arranged. The Biegerol¬ le (19) is determined by a by a hinge pin (20) rotatable axis. The bending roller (19) in turn is pivotable about an axis in order to exert on the rod-shaped material, a bending force. The bending roller (19) with the axis (14) is part of a so-called bending rocker (17) which is connected via an articulation point (16) with a bending drive N to the bending operation itself a force in the direction of arrow E hervor¬ call and during displacement of the rod-shaped material (13) to be retracted in the direction of arrow F. The force or withdrawal takes place in dependence on whether the holding device (9) subjected to a linear actuator M and thus is movable in the direction of arrow G or not. This link is in the drawing by the reference numeral (15) and (18) indicated. * * * "

To the bending link (17) is also to be noted that this on a base plate (8) and at least two an angle descriptive leg members, one of which the connection between the axle (14) and the hinge pin (20) and the other is formed by the connection between the axle (14) and the articulation point (16).

Around the rod-shaped material is now (13) to bend a length B by the bending radius R on the angle Z, the following lapse of a bending operation takes place.

The rod-shaped material (13) between the open jaws (10) of the holding device (9) and between the thrust bearing (11) and the bending mandrel (12) inserted. Then, by a pressing force K An¬ the rod-shaped material (13) in the direction of arrow J between the Anpreßbacken (10) of the holding device (9) festge¬ sets. This fixation takes place throughout the bending process.

By means of the bending link (17) and the bending roller (19) and a by driving N in the direction of arrow E hervorgeru¬ fene and oriented in the drawing by the reference numeral L repräsen¬ bending force, the rod-shaped material around a characteristic as a clock angle to partial bending angle X bent. Hier¬ by conditions the free end of the rod-like material (13) from the position (1) to position (2) bent. The Teilbiege¬ angle x should the remaining, ie corresponding to the target bending angle, the same if the bending itself, the actual bending angle (U / T) is greater to the elastic restoring forces of the bent material as well as the mechanical inertia of the bending link (17) account for carry. After bending, the bending link (17) and thus the bending roller (19) is moved back by the angle Y by means of the bending drive N in the direction of arrow F. The first bending cycle is completed. Then, the holding device (9) in the direction of arrow G by means of the linear actuator M by a length (stroke length) A is shifted. Once this position is reached, the bending link (17) and the bending roller (19) is pivoted in the direction of the arrow, so as to apply a bending force L. A new bend angle X is bent between said beams (2) and (3).

In the manner described above then the further partial bending operations sixth bending cycle repeated until the by the beams (6) and (7) decisive leap ver¬ performed and the length of section B of the rod-like material (13) around the bend radius R and the angle Z is bent. Then, the dissolved Anpreßbacken (10) of the holding device (9) and in that bent material can be removed. the holding device (9) in the starting position C is then moved back in the direction of arrow H. This path corresponds to the stroke length B corresponding to the verbiegen¬ to the longitudinal portion on the arc of the circle with the radius R. According to the described bending cycles (total of six) of the longitudinal portion is divided into six equal sections A, as it is illustrated in the drawing.

relationships according to the above-described mathematical Bezie¬ carried the bar material of different diameters to R to bend desired angle Z or radii without bending templates or bending molds (-according of the illustrated in the figure radius 0-) or a change of the bending link ( 17) (with the bending roller (19) and pivot point 1) is erfor¬ sary.

In an embodiment of the bending swing arm can be replaced with the bending roller by a bending block, which is displaceable along the dotted line, that is, along the arrow (21) to make conditions to the desired extent so by interacting with the rod-shaped material (13) the Teilbie¬.

In order to detect the required for calculating the bending angle Durch¬ diameter of the rod material, the adjustment path between a predetermined by the apparatus and with the central axis (22) of the material (13) coincident zero line to the actual point of contact of the bending stone with which it is not bent material detected. Also, the necessary for the calculation of the actual bending angle return angle is determined by the fact that the bending stone -As in the rest of the Biegerolle- in stän¬ ended contact with the rod-shaped material before and remains after a bending cycle, so that from the different positions immediately by the elasticity of the material and the inertia of the device mechansiche Rückstellwin¬ predetermined angle can be determined.

Should also be mentioned that the effective bending face of the Biege¬ mandrel (12) must have a radius which is smaller than the smallest radius of the curved material to lien to the desired extent turn any Materia¬ without an exchange of the mandrel (12) or the bending stone or the bending roller is required.

Figs. 2 to 4 are also the kennzeichnen¬ the invention refer to the features clear. In this case, the bending of the rod-shaped material (13) by means of a Biegeele¬ ments in the form of a bending block (19) slidably disposed along a straight line is carried out. Preferably takes place a hydrau¬ Lischer drive for the movement of the bending block (19), wherein a clutch with the counter bearing (11) can be given. With ande ren words thrust bearing (11) and bending element in the form of the bending block (19) are moved to the rod-shaped material (3) up to their concerns at this synchronously. This is followed by further displacement of the bending block (19) bending of the material around the angle U: T to the constant bending angle X to ge long, which corresponds to the bending stroke Y. The difference between the actual bending angle U / T and the target bending angle X corresponds to the return angle RW, by the elasticity of the material (13) and optionally the mechanical inertia of the device is intended Bie¬ administered gekraft. The bending block (19) is pivotable ausge¬ about an axis (20) to surfaces to ermögli¬ a flat support on the material (13).

To the holding device (9) is further to be noted that one of the jaws has a profiling in order len sicherzustel¬ that slipping to the holding device is not possible during bending of the material.

As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 further illustrate, the Haltevor¬ direction (9) to said bending element by means of a cylinder M (12) * slidably, said moving cyclically carried out. Alter¬ natively is of course to move aufeinandexzu also the possibility to move the eigent¬ Liche bending device to the holding device (9) and / or the holding device (9) and the bending device.

To determine the radius of the material to be bent (13), the measuring stroke P the bending block (19) is used which is shifted from a zero-line, which is in fixed relation to the zero line of the material (13) up to the abutment point on the material , This bearing surface then faces the bending surface (12) to a distance S that corresponds to the diameter of the material. From the difference between the zero position and the adjusting stroke P then the material diameter results directly.

In FIG. 2 is designated by the reference numeral Q the adjustment of the abutment (tf) which is parallel to the Bewegungsrich¬ tung V of the bending element (19).

The center of the bending radius R is located on the straight line W, which runs in turn perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the material (13) to read as the geometrical relationships of the angle to be bent from the drawing clear.

With the inventive device can be bent not only in the counterclockwise direction, but also in the clockwise direction. __a this case, only bending element (19) and counter bearing (11) and the bending face (12) must be replaced in their functions aus¬.

Further, it should be added to the following. a deflection of the flexible material between the thrust bearing (11) and the Biege¬ element (bending roller) (19) is prevented by gap-free pressing of the bending material (22) by means of the thrust bearing (11) against the fixed mandrel (12). This deflection might otherwise not be detected, so that the actual Rück¬ would be distorted manipulated variable.

Claims

JiPatentansprücheVerfahren and apparatus for bending rod-shaped material, preferably
1. A method for bending a length portion B of a vor¬ preferably rod-shaped material, characterized in that abutting the length portion B forming sections A cyclically sequentially bent by an actual bending angle U / T, of the sum of the target bend angle Z / T and a corresponding to the elasticity of the rod-shaped material and / or a mechanical inertia of a bending force causing device specific recovery angle RW.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the length of section B is substantially on an arc of a circle with the radius R is bent by an angle Z, characterized in that in T bending cycles successively each of the length B / τ respective sections A to the actual bending angle (pavilion angle) V / T is bent.
3. The method according to at least one of the preceding An¬ claims, characterized in that the diameter of the material by the displacement of a acting on the material, the bending or the material bewirken¬ the clamping element from a Null¬ position for abutment against the unbent material determined becomes.
claims 4. The method according to at least one of the preceding An¬, characterized in that the material is bent around a curved surface having a bending radius which is smaller than the smallest radius of the length to be bent portion.
5. The method according to at least claim 3, characterized in that the bending acting member is shifted during the process Biege¬ along a straight line.
claims, characterized in that the deviation between the actual and the desired bending angle U / T or Z / T is determined 6. The method according to at least one of the preceding An¬ for determining the restoring angle RW after the first bending cycle.
7. The method according to at least one of the preceding An¬ claims, characterized in that the return angle RW is determined by the stroke of the bend causing element characterized in that the difference in stroke of the element is measured in abutting to the material position between the desired and actual angle.
8. A method for deforming a portion of a vorzugswei¬ se rod-like material to a desired target arc, characterized in that the shaping is carried out in a closed control loop in such a way that to achieve the target sheet in addition to a Istbiegung at least one determined by the elasticity of the material manipulated variable is taken into account ,
9. Apparatus for bending of a length B of a preferably rod-shaped material (13) substantially on an arc of a circle with the radius R by an angle Z comprising a holding device (9) for the rod-shaped material, a bending surface (12) and between this and the holding device is arranged, the material axially aus¬ directing, agent counter-bearing (11) and a bending member (19, 20, 14), dadurchgekennzeichne that the length of portion B can be bent by bending aufeinanderfol¬ constricting sections a, which (by successively shifting the stick-shaped material 13) are relatively exposable to the bending element of the bending force, wherein the (for acting on the longitudinal section with an adjustable bending force required bending element 19) from either an outside of the extending between the curved length portion and the center of the circle area angeord¬ Neten pivot point or linearly displaceable ¬ is formed.
10. Apparatus according to claim 9, characterized in that the rod--shaped material (13) by means of the processing Haltevorrich¬ (9) is displaceable.
11. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the holding device (9), the rod-shaped material (13) comprises holding jaws (10) and the material of the number T of part bends to be carried out intermittently according to the direction of the bending mandrel (12) moves by a distance A which corresponds to the quotient of the length of section B and the number T. ZT
12. The device according to at least claim 9, characterized in that the bending element (19) for detecting the elastic return of the stick-shaped material (13) and / or the mechanical inertia and / or for the determination of the diameter of the material substantially in constant contact is with the material.
13. Device according to at least claim 9, characterized in that the effective bending surface has a radius which is smaller than the smallest radius of the section to be bent Längenab¬ B / T.
14. The device according to at least claim 9, characterized in that the holding device (9), the counter-holder (11), the bending area and the bending element (19) from a stationary base unit as the base plate (8) go out.
15. The device according to at least claim 9, characterized in that the counter-bearing (11) and the bending element (19) as vorzugs¬ pressure-bonded to come to bear on the material (13).
16. Device according to at least claim 9, characterized in that the bending element (19) and the bending surface in their
Functions are interchangeable.
PCT/EP1989/000322 1988-03-25 1989-03-23 Process and device for bending preferably rod-shaped material WO1989009104A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DEP3810277.3 1988-03-25
DE3810277 1988-03-25
DEP3903301.5 1989-02-04
DE19893903301 DE3903301A1 (en) 1988-03-25 1989-02-04 A method and apparatus for bending rod-shaped material, preferably

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1989009104A1 true true WO1989009104A1 (en) 1989-10-05

Family

ID=25866411

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP1989/000322 WO1989009104A1 (en) 1988-03-25 1989-03-23 Process and device for bending preferably rod-shaped material

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0334353A1 (en)
DE (1) DE3903301A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1989009104A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5161401A (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-11-10 Peter Lisec Apparatus for producing bent sections in hollow profile strips
US5243844A (en) * 1990-05-21 1993-09-14 Peter Lisec Process for producing curved sections in hollow profile strips

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0502341A1 (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-09-09 M.E.P. Macchine Elettroniche Piegatrici S.p.A. Assembly to bend bundles of rods
EP1199115A8 (en) * 2000-10-16 2002-07-31 Schnell S.p.A. Method and apparatus for bending sections and the like according to programmable radii of curvature
DE112005002866A5 (en) * 2004-11-24 2007-10-11 Universität für Angewandte Kunst Wien A method of driving of bending machines,
DE102013103461B4 (en) * 2013-04-08 2017-03-30 Benteler Automobiltechnik Gmbh Apparatus and method for bending pipes

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3075568A (en) * 1958-12-19 1963-01-29 Claude D Draucker Machine for precision bending of electrical conduit
US3396565A (en) * 1965-09-30 1968-08-13 L C Miller Co Apparatus for bending metal tubing
GB1144269A (en) * 1966-09-22 1969-03-05 Hilgers Masch & App Bauanstalt Pipe bending machines
US3465560A (en) * 1968-03-06 1969-09-09 Orville N Gardner Tube bending apparatus
DE1950127A1 (en) * 1969-10-04 1971-04-22 Peddinghaus Paul Ferd Fa Concrete iron bending machine with electrical adjustment of the bending angle of the bending plate or -armes
FR2115157A1 (en) * 1970-11-30 1972-07-07 Peddinghaus Paul Ferd
GB1360935A (en) * 1972-09-08 1974-07-24 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Method and apparatus for bending a metallic member
EP0121896A2 (en) * 1983-04-06 1984-10-17 Ruhl, Heinz Method of and device for bending bar-shaped materials

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3075568A (en) * 1958-12-19 1963-01-29 Claude D Draucker Machine for precision bending of electrical conduit
US3396565A (en) * 1965-09-30 1968-08-13 L C Miller Co Apparatus for bending metal tubing
GB1144269A (en) * 1966-09-22 1969-03-05 Hilgers Masch & App Bauanstalt Pipe bending machines
US3465560A (en) * 1968-03-06 1969-09-09 Orville N Gardner Tube bending apparatus
DE1950127A1 (en) * 1969-10-04 1971-04-22 Peddinghaus Paul Ferd Fa Concrete iron bending machine with electrical adjustment of the bending angle of the bending plate or -armes
FR2115157A1 (en) * 1970-11-30 1972-07-07 Peddinghaus Paul Ferd
GB1360935A (en) * 1972-09-08 1974-07-24 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Method and apparatus for bending a metallic member
EP0121896A2 (en) * 1983-04-06 1984-10-17 Ruhl, Heinz Method of and device for bending bar-shaped materials

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5161401A (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-11-10 Peter Lisec Apparatus for producing bent sections in hollow profile strips
US5243844A (en) * 1990-05-21 1993-09-14 Peter Lisec Process for producing curved sections in hollow profile strips

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP0334353A1 (en) 1989-09-27 application
DE3903301A1 (en) 1989-10-05 application

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