USRE5800E - Improvement in exploding nitro-glycerine - Google Patents

Improvement in exploding nitro-glycerine Download PDF

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Publication number
USRE5800E
USRE5800E US RE5800 E USRE5800 E US RE5800E
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
nitro
glycerine
explosion
charge
exploding
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Application number
Inventor
Alfred Nobel
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By Mesne Assign
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  • upoli as a ready.
  • explosive agent for, while gunpowder and other substances used as explosives prior to NOBELS invention always explode or deflagrate throughout the whole-m ass when ilre is set tothem, nitro-glycerine will not explode from the mere contact of flame; and that, while the firing of a cap explodes gunpowder, it does so by means of the flame produced, while in the case ofnitro-glycerine it is the detonation, and not the flame, which produces the explosion; so, also, if a drop of nitro-glycerine be poured on an anvil, the blow of a hammer causes it to explode, but only that part is involved which has received the blow' so, also, in this case the explosion is mere y a local one.
  • NoBEL for promoting the explosion of nitroglycerine: one method, which forms the sub ject of a separate specification, relates to the combination, with nitro glycerine, of other more easily explosive substances; and the other method, which is the-subject of this patthe explosion without each combination.
  • his is ac- ,and pressure, or by an initial explosion, which involves the whole mass in explosive decomposition, or by creating an impulse of explosion by means of concussive agitation, the
  • the nitro-glycerine When used for 'the' purpose of blasting, the nitro-glycerine may be poured directly into the bore-hole, which may be closed above, fee which pnrposeleose sand will do,or the.nppei complished by the application of heat, or heat means employed being in such relation to the Pressure, developed by heat to the' poiniij'of instance, and in the other the detonation of y in a bore-hole for blasting, or otheravise con-,
  • NOBEL calls igniters or burners, being a small tube of glass, paper, orother material, lilled or charged with gunpowder or other easy explosive, and
  • Figure 1 illustrates one of these igniter-s, in which a is the wooden cylind r; e, the cavity filled with gunpowder, and closed by the cork or plug f; and g, the fuse.
  • the nitroglyccrine in the borehole is represented at c. 1
  • a third method is to hcat'aminute portion ofthe charge of nitro-glycerine to its point of QXPIOSlOILby inclosing a minute sportion of nitro-glycerine in a tube filled either with rocket-powder, (which, being easilyignited, is fired in any convenient w'ay,) or with lime and water, or some other chemical ageu ts adapted to combine gradually, and, by their reaction, create the necessary heat.
  • rocket-powder which, being easilyignited, is fired in any convenient w'ay,
  • lime and water or some other chemical ageu ts adapted to combine gradually, and, by their reaction, create the necessary heat.
  • the ex- .plosion in the tube will give the requisite impulse to explode theeharge-of nitro-glycerine.
  • Still another method is'by means of a capsule, (more commonly termed in military art a percussion-cap,) which, being exploded in any convenient manner, gives by its detonation the requisite impulse to explode the charge of nitro-glycerine.
  • A' fifth mode is to produce an initial explosion by means of a spark, or by heat developed by a powerful current of electricity within the charge of nijtro-glycerine, which is s 'inclosed as not to afford an escape to the gas developed thereby.
  • Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the apparatus for thus effecting the explosion. his thecase'for holding the charge of nitro-glyoerine, which is closed at top.
  • n1 1? are two wires, which pas's'through glass tubes k k, or other insulating substance, in the plug or cap of the case, the wires being immersed in the nitro-glycerine, and their lower ends connected by Bennettc platina wire, 2.
  • the wire 2 being heated by the passage of the electric current, the liquid in contact with the wire is decomposed, giving the heat and press ure requisite to explode" "the contents of the case. Sixth.
  • the necessary impulse" of eggplosion may also beeii'ected-bymeans of an ordinary blasting-fuse.” This will-(loin c a closed space and -under'f sufficient resistaneey but, if the gases of the portion of nitro-glyee'rine decomposed by the heat of the fuse, are enabled to escape before they accumulate to such a pressme as to cfl'ect the requisite impulse of explosion, the nitro-glycerinc is slowly decomposed,
  • a capsule -or percussion-cap furnished with a suitable means of firing .or exploding the same, and suitably arranged in relation to the nitro-glycerine, so as by its detonation to explode the charge of nit-ro-glycerine, substan-' tially as lioreinbefore described.

Description

*ent, relates to the means of efiectinlg UNITED STATES .PATENT OF -10E.
MENTS, TO THE ATLANTIC GIANT-POWDER COMPANY, OF SAN FRAN- OISOO, CALIFORNIA.
IMPROVEMENT IN EXPLODING NITRO- GLYCERINE.
dpecification forming part of Letters Patent No. 50,617; dated Ootobcl'2l, 1865; reissue No. 3,378, dated Apr l 13, 1869;:reissne No.4,816,-datedMarch19, 1872; reissue No. 5,620, dated October 2i, 1873; reissue No.
5,800, dated March 17, 1874; application died March 11, 1874. y
To all whom it may concern: Be it known that ALFRED NOBE of the city of Hamburg, in the Empire of Germany, has invented certain new and useful Modes of Efl'ectingthe Explosion of Nitro-Glycerine; and that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof.
Prior to the date of NOBELS invention nitro- "glyceri'ne wasknown as an explosive substance,
but had notbeen applied to technical purposes,
upoli as a ready. explosive agent, for, while gunpowder and other substances used as explosives prior to NOBELS invention always explode or deflagrate throughout the whole-m ass when ilre is set tothem, nitro-glycerine will not explode from the mere contact of flame; and that, while the firing of a cap explodes gunpowder, it does so by means of the flame produced, while in the case ofnitro-glycerine it is the detonation, and not the flame, which produces the explosion; so, also, if a drop of nitro-glycerine be poured on an anvil, the blow of a hammer causes it to explode, but only that part is involved which has received the blow' so, also, in this case the explosion is mere y a local one.
A principal obj set of klonna sinvention con; sists in the removal of this obstacle to the use of nitro-glycerine as an explosive. For this end two different methods were invented by NoBEL for promoting the explosion of nitroglycerine: one method, which forms the sub ject of a separate specification, relates to the combination, with nitro glycerine, of other more easily explosive substances; and the other method, which is the-subject of this patthe explosion without each combination. his is ac- ,and pressure, or by an initial explosion, which involves the whole mass in explosive decomposition, or by creating an impulse of explosion by means of concussive agitation, the
mass of nitro-glycerine to be exploded as that the latter shall be within the influence of such initial explosion, or impulse of' explosion.
explosion of the charge is made use of in one some violently-exploding substance in pres ence of the charge of nitro-glycerine. Nitroglycerine being liquid, if in such condition that it cannot escape from the influence of the initial explosion-as, for instance, when placed fined-'-receives and propagates: the initial impulse of explosionis communicated throughout the whole charge, efi'ectin g its instantaneous decomposition and explosion.
communicated force. There are inanyzways First, by placing nitroglycerine to ploded in a tube or case of any. suitable mate rial which will hold it, and surrounding this tube with gunpowder, gun-cotton, or any read-.
1ly-explodlng substance which, being easily .stantaneously cause theexplosion of the nitroglycerine in thetube; or, by reversing "ans .process, and pouring the nitro-glycerine into the bore-hole for blasting, .and inserting into powder, or gun cotton, or other easily-explodthe tube, the nitroglyee'rine also is' exploded. When used for 'the' purpose of blasting, the nitro-glycerine may be poured directly into the bore-hole, which may be closed above, fee which pnrposeleose sand will do,or the.nppei complished by the application of heat, or heat means employed being in such relation to the Pressure, developed by heat to the' poiniij'of instance, and in the other the detonation of y in a bore-hole for blasting, or otheravise con-,
pressure through its whole mass, and the first By the term impulse of explosion isnieant motion' produced to effect the explosion by suddenlyof obtaining this impulse of explosion, such be exfired by any of the wellnown means, will inthe nitro-glycerine a tube charged with guning substancm: when, by firing the charge in part of atom may. be left entirely open. If not convenient to pour the nitm-glycerine directly into the bore-hole, it may be placedin cases of papcr,for metal, or other suitable inaterial, open or closed at top, as may be preferred. I
Second, by the use of what NOBEL calls igniters or burners, being a small tube of glass, paper, orother material, lilled or charged with gunpowder or other easy explosive, and
furnished with a fuse or other means of ignit-.
fuse until it swims in the nitro-glycerine, and then, if desired, the upper part of the bore is filled with loose sand, and nothing remains but to ignite the fuse. The fuse in its turn fires the explosive contained in the wooden cylinder, aud'thc whole mass immediately explodes.
In the drawing, Figure 1 illustrates one of these igniter-s, in which a is the wooden cylind r; e, the cavity filled with gunpowder, and closed by the cork or plug f; and g, the fuse. The nitroglyccrine in the borehole is represented at c. 1
Third. A third method is to hcat'aminute portion ofthe charge of nitro-glycerine to its point of QXPIOSlOILby inclosing a minute sportion of nitro-glycerine in a tube filled either with rocket-powder, (which, being easilyignited, is fired in any convenient w'ay,) or with lime and water, or some other chemical ageu ts adapted to combine gradually, and, by their reaction, create the necessary heat. The ex- .plosion in the tube will give the requisite impulse to explode theeharge-of nitro-glycerine.
Fourth. Still another method is'by means of a capsule, (more commonly termed in military art a percussion-cap,) which, being exploded in any convenient manner, gives by its detonation the requisite impulse to explode the charge of nitro-glycerine.
Fifth. A' fifth mode is to produce an initial explosion by means of a spark, or by heat developed by a powerful current of electricity within the charge of nijtro-glycerine, which is s 'inclosed as not to afford an escape to the gas developed thereby. Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the apparatus for thus effecting the explosion. his thecase'for holding the charge of nitro-glyoerine, which is closed at top. n1 1? are two wires, which pas's'through glass tubes k k, or other insulating substance, in the plug or cap of the case, the wires being immersed in the nitro-glycerine, and their lower ends connected by afinc platina wire, 2. The wire 2 being heated by the passage of the electric current, the liquid in contact with the wire is decomposed, giving the heat and press ure requisite to explode" "the contents of the case. Sixth. The necessary impulse" of eggplosion may also beeii'ected-bymeans of an ordinary blasting-fuse." This will-(loin c a closed space and -under'f sufficient resistaneey but, if the gases of the portion of nitro-glyee'rine decomposed by the heat of the fuse, are enabled to escape before they accumulate to such a pressme as to cfl'ect the requisite impulse of explosion, the nitro-glycerinc is slowly decomposed,
and the fire generally goes out before the whole is consumed. i
In view of the fact that nitro-glycerine had not, at the date of NOBELS invention, been applied to any technical use as an explosive, and that, by his invention, he'int-roducedthis substance from the domain of science into that of practical use in the arts,
What we claim as the invention of ALFRED NOBEL, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, in the name of THE ATLANTIC GIANT- Pownnn COMPANY, as assignee of said l\'o- BEL, is
1. A charge of gunpowder, gun cotton, or
other easily igniting and exploding substance surrounding a tube or case containing the charge-of nitro glyccrin'e, as a means of exploding the same, substantially as hereinbefore described. r
2. A charge of gunpowder, gun-cotton, or other easily igniting and exploding'substauce surrounded by a nitro-glycerine charge, and combined therewith as a means of exploding the same, substantially as and for the purpose ting fire to the igniting charge, substantially as hereinbefore described.
5. An electric spark or heat generated by electricity within the charge of nitro-glycerine, as a means of promoting an impulse of ex-' plosiontherein, substantially .as hereinbefore described. V v
6. A capsule -or percussion-cap furnished with a suitable means of firing .or exploding the same, and suitably arranged in relation to the nitro-glycerine, so as by its detonation to explode the charge of nit-ro-glycerine, substan-' tially as lioreinbefore described.
7. An igniter-for producing the explosion of nitmgl'ycerine, consistingof a case of wood. said company and the signature of their p r0sior other suitable material for holding the dent.
initial explosion-charge, closed with-Ya cork or THE ATLANTIC Twmmx co" [L M plug, and a fnso orother means of ignition,
snbsoantially as hereinbefore desoribod. BY
In witness-whereofthosaidTBEATLANTIC Witnesses: GIANT-POWDER 0.0mm has caused to'be H. PICHOIS,
.ff'alflxed hereunto the-.eorpomte seal of the Jonnnm W. Roman.

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