USRE5620E - Improvement in exploding nitro-glycerine - Google Patents

Improvement in exploding nitro-glycerine Download PDF


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USRE5620E US RE5620 E USRE5620 E US RE5620E
United States
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Alfred Nobel
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By Mesne Assign
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` explosives, suchas gunpowder llily-PIED STATES PATENT OFFICE.' f
YuvnrnovrsiaIEN-r--i-N ExPLomNe mTRo-Givcrlims.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 50,617, dated-October 24, 1865 reissue No. 3,378, dated April 'l 13, 1869; reis'eue No. 4,816, dated March 19,1812; reissue No; 5,620. dated'October 21, l187'3; application filed October 14,1873.
. To all whom 'it may concern:
' has invented certain new and useful Modes of E'ecting the Explosion of NitroGIycerine;
and that the following is a full, clear, and exv act description thereof.
Prior to the date of NOBELS invention, ni fr0-glycerin@ Was known as an explosive substance, but 'had not beenapplied izo-technical purposes, in consequence of practical diiiculties in procuring its explosion. This substance is a liquid at ordinary temperatures, and by that characteristic isI distinguished from solid It is further characterized'by the' property that' l fire 'may be applied to it without eiiecting explosion. If ignited in an open space," it'is slowly decomposed and 'takes fire; but the iiauie is apt to die out when the match is withdrawn; hence it; cannot, under ordinary circumstances, be looked upon as a ready explosive agent; for( While gimpowder and other substances use as explosivesprior to NonELs inventionalways explode or deflagrate throughout the whole mass when lire is set to them, nitro-glycerine will not explode from the mere contact of lia-lne; and that, While the tiring of a cap explodes gunpowder, it does so by means ot' the flame produced, While, in the case of nitro-glyccrine, it is the detonaticn', and not the llame, which produces the explosion. So, also, if a drop of nitro-glycerinebe poured ou an anvil, the blow of a hammer.
causes it to explode; but only t-liat part is involved which has received the blow. So, also in this case, the exl'ilosion is merely a loca subject of a separate specification, rela-tes tov the combination, With nitro-glyecrine, ot'fother more easily explosive substances; and the other method, which is the subject of this gun-cotton, 85e. "one instance, and in the ot of some violently-exploding substance in pres.- enceof the charge of nitrolglycerine.
glycerine, 'being liquid, if in such condition' -ine patent, relates tothe means of effecting the explosion without such combination. This is accomplished by the application of heat, or heat and pressure, or by'anfinitial explosion .to the mass when under confinement, which involvespithe whole mass in explosive decomposition; or, by creating an impulse of explosion by means of concussive agitation, the means employed being in such relation to the mass of nitro-'glycerine to be exploded as that thelatter shall be within the iniluence of such initial explosion or 'impulse of explosion Pressure, developed by the heat to the point of explosion of the chargel'is made use of in Nitrothat itcannot 'escape from the i'njluence of theinitial explosion, (as, for instance, when. placed in a bore-hole -for blasting, or other- 'Wise conined;) receives and propagates the initial pressure through. its Wholefmass,and
the irst impulse of explosion is communicated .throughout the whole charge, effecting its instantaneous decomposition and explosion. By the term impulse of explosion is meant motion produced to effect the explosion by sudden]y-communicated force. There are many ways of obtaining this impulse of -ex 'plosion, 'such as, first, by placing nitro-glycerto 'be exploded in a4 tube or case of any suitable material which will hold it, and surrounding` this tube with gunpowder, gun-cotton, or any readily-explodin g subst-ance which,
l-known means, will instantaneously cause the'explosion ot' thc nitro-glycerine in the tube; or, by
'being easily tired 'by-.any of the wel reversing this process 'and pouring' the nitroglyceriuo' into the bore-hole, (for blasting,) and inserting into the nitro-glycerine a tube charged with gunpowder or gun-cotton, or
other easily-exploding substance, when, by
firing the charge in the tube, the nitro-glycerine is also exploded. Vv'henusedforthepurpose of blast-ing, the nitro-glycerine maybe poured directly into the bore-hole, which may be closed above to prevent the scattering or blowin g out er the .detonationv of the charge, for which purpose loose sand will do 3 or the upper part of the bore may be left entirely open. If not4 convenient to pour fthe nitroglycerinedirectly into the bore-hole, it may be placed in cases of paper'or metal, or other suitable material, open orclosed at top,
as may be preferred; Second, by lt-he use of what NOBEL 4calls .igniters or "burners,77 being a small tube of glass, paper, or other material, iilledor charged with gunpowder, or
other easyexplosive, and furnished with a `fuse or other means of igniting the same by iire, or by an electric spark. The burner may with a fuse at j the other.A Whenv the nitroglycerine has been poured into4 the bore or blast hole, the cylinder is let down by its fuse until it swims in the n itro-glyceri1'1e,and then, if desired, the upper part of the bore'is lled with loose sand, and nothing remains but to ignite the fuse. The fuse, in its turn, fires the explosive contained in the wooden cylinder, the'hot `gases of which rush into the charge ofnitro-glycerine, and the wholemass inline- 'diately explodes; v '-Inthe drawing, Figure- 1 villustrates one of these igniters, in which a is the wooden cylin-.
der; e, tliecavity, illed with gunpowder, and
. .portion of the charge of nitro-glyceli'ne to its.
'closed .by the'cork or plug f; and g', the fuse.
The nitro-glycerine in the bore-hole-is representedv at e.V
`ThirdfAl third method is to heatea' minute point of explosion, by inelosing a minute por! A tion of 'nitro-glycerineinfa tube filled either with rocket-powder (which,being easilyig'nitedi is ired in'auyconvenient way) or with lime an lplode the mass of nitro-glycerine. Foul-th.;Stillanother method isf'by means water; or some other` chemical agents adapted tojcombine' gradually and, by their reaction, create the-necessary'heat. The explosion in the tube-will give the impulse requiredto exf of a capsule, (more commonly termed in tary art a percussion-cap,) which, being4 ex v -plodedin any convenient manner, gives, by
its detouation, the requisiteimpulse to explode .the charge of nitro-glycerine. -z Fifth'.- Afth A`mede is t produce an initial explosion by means of a spark, or by heat d e' A Y velopedby a powerful current of electricity wenn the charge ofniet-glycerin@ which is so inclosed as not to alord an escape to theA gas developedftli'ereby. Figs. 2 and 3 illusv trate the apparatus for thus effecting-the explosion.- h is the case for holdingthe charge.
onitroiglycerine, which is ,closed at top. i' 'i are two wires which pass 4through glass tubes v k k, or other insulating 'substance 1n the plug 'l or cap of the case, the wires being' immersed in the nitro-glycerine, and their lower ends connected by a fine platina wire, z.' The wire z being heated by the passage of the electric current, the liquid in contact with the Wire is decomposed, giving the initial explosion, and the heat and pressure developed thereby in.- stantaneously decompose and explode the coutents ot' the case. f
Sixth. The necessary impulse of explosion may also be effected -by means of. an ordinary blasting-fuse. This will do in a closed space and 111i .le1suiiicient resistance; but if the gases of the portion of nitro-glycerine decomposed by the heat of the fuse are enabled to escape before they accumulate to` such a pressure as to effect the 'requisite impulse of explosion, the nitro-glycerine is slowly decomposed, and the fire generally goes out before the whole is consumed. fuse under the condition of the -confinement of the nitro-.glycerine, is eifeeted by the initial decomposition ofa minute portion of nitro glycerine. 1
' In view of the act that nitro-glycerine had not, at the date of NoBELs invention, been appliedto any technical'use as an explosive, andthat, by his invention,he introduced this substance from the domain of science linto that lof practical usein the arts,
What we claim as the invention of ALFRED" ploding -the same, substantially as hereinbc-l fore described.
2.A charge of gunpowdengun-cotton, or
other easily igniting and exploding substance,
surrounded by a nitrofglycerine charge, and'.
combined therewith as a means of exploding the same, substantially as and for the purpose.l hereinbefore described.
3. Anitro-glycerine igniter or exploder consisting of a tubeor case linclosing 'a vInmate- 1 yportionof nitro-glycerine, together with lime and water, or other equvalentsubstaucea which, by combining', will evolve the requisite heatto explode the nitro-glycerine therein, ,substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore vdescribed.v l
' 4, A lignitervor exploder, ccnsistiiig'of'a tube crease containing rocket-powder mixed i' with 'a minute portion of nitro-glycerine, and flnrshed with a fuse or other means of setting re to the lgniting charge, substantially as hereinbeforedescribed. y. c
5t An electric spark, or heat generated by electricity, within the charge of nitro-glyce1ine,
as a means of promotingan impulse of explo,4
sion therein, .substantially as hereinbefore;de l
Sebd- .e '6; A capsule with; asuitable 'means of rinit or exploding.t
The explosion, if produced by a v or percussion-cap furnished f thc salme, and snitdbl) arranged in relation to the nitro-glycerine, so as, by its dctonzttiou, to impart the necessary impulse of explosion thereto, substantiallyas hereinbefore described. 7. An igniter for producing thc explosion of nitro-glycerine, consisting of a case, of wood or other suitable material, for holding the initial explosiomcharge, closed with a cork or plug, and a fuse or other means of ignition, substantially as hereinbefore described. In witness whereof the scid THE GIANT- lownni: COMPANY and THE ATLANTIC Gli- ANT-IOWDER COMPANY have caused to be affixed hercnnto the corporate seals of the said companies, respectively, and the signa-ture of their president.
GEO. C. HICKOX, President of theAtIantic Giant-Powder (lo.
H. Picnois, Crus. MoFAnDIN.



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