USRE14531E - Jonas w - Google Patents

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USRE14531E US RE14531 E USRE14531 E US RE14531E
United States
Prior art keywords
phenol resin
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Jonas W. Aylsworth
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Plastic Composition
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effect of heat.
Specification of Reissued Letters Patent. Reissue-d Oct, 8, 1918,
No Drawing. Original application filed May 14, 1909, Serial No. 496,060. (Patent No. 1,102,630.) Divided and application filed June 2, 1911, Serial No. 630,894. (Patent 110. 1,111,285.) Divided and application filed May 2, 1912, Serial No. 694,644. (Patent No. 1,087,422; dated February 17, 1914. Divided and thisapplication for reissue filed August 26, 1918.
Serial No. 251,578.
To all whom it may concern:-
Be it known that JONAS W. Arnswonrn, now deceased, formerly a citizen of the United States, and a resident of East Orange, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, invented certain new and useful Improvements in Plastic Com ositions, of which the following is a speci cation.
This application is a division or second section of application Serial No. 71,097 filed January 8, 1916, for the reissue bf Letters Patent No. 1,087,422, granted Feb ruary 17, 1914, for an improvement in plastic composition. Said patent is a division of Patent No. 1,111,285, granted Sep tember 22, 1914, entitled Phenolicf'condensation product and method of forming same, which itself is a division of Patent No. 1,102,630, granted July 7, 1914, entitled Composition and rocess of manufacturing the same. Said atent No. 1,111,285 describes and broadly claims compositions comprising a phenolic condensation product having a solid solvent element? or plasticity ingredient incorporated therewith and processes for making the same. Said application Serial No. 71,097, constituting the first section of the reissue of said Patent No.1,087,422, relates to and claims such compositions containing, generally, a solid solvent consisting of a condensed rin comound having two closed chains wit caron atoms common to both, with s ecific claims in which the ring cbmpoun is a chloro-derivative of naphthalene. The present application, comprising thesecond section of the reissue of said Patent'No. 1,087,422, relates to and claims suchcompositions in which the solvent is of such a nature as, to be included in the generic claim of the said first section of the reissue, said solvent being so proportioned and having such properties as to render the mass fluid or mobile at normal or' somewhat higher temperatures, but transformable by heat into an infusible mass which softens under the Said solvent is also claimed specifically herein as naphthalene and, more broadly, as a fusible cychc hydrocarbon of hi h boiling point and the like.
Products made in accordance with the present application and application Serial No. 71,097 referred to, when infusible, are
sufliciently plastic, on application of heat as cation of heat, will vary in accordance with the plasticity ingredient used, and the proportion ofthe same in the composition.
.The fusible phenol resin, preferably used, and processes for makin the same, are fully described in the parent atent No. 1,102,630, referred to. It is formed by the reaction of a phenol and formaldehyde in such proportions that the phenol is almost entirely combined with the formaldehyde and there is no uncombined or free formaldehyde. It is preferably heated to complete dehydration before-being used as an ingredient in the making of the ultimate infusible product, which dehydration requires about 400 F. of heat at atmospheric pressure. After such dehydration and removal of excess phenol itis a hard resin, very similar in texture to copal and kauri gum. It is soluble in all proportions in acetone, amyl, ethyl, methyl and butyl alcohol, amyl, ethyl and methyl acetate, acetic acid, acetylene tetrachlorid, and mono-nitro-benzene, (oil of mirbane) from which it remains unchanged after evaporation of the solvents. It is fusi- Me and practically unchanged when heated to 420 F. It melts about 220 F. but has no sharp melting point, passing through various, degrees of viscosity, until at 250 F. it may readily be oured and at 350 F. it becomes quite t inly fluid. It acts as a weak acid toward bases with which it combines. It will not form an infusible condensation product when heated alone or with condensing agents, at an temperature. When mixed with formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde or trioxymethylene, and heated it combines therewith and forms a hard infusible mass, which, if not admixed with other bodies, remains transparent and chemically inert. It will not, however, form such hard infusible mass when mixed with aldehydes in general, other than those mentioned, and if the percentage of formaldehyde or its polymers exceed about 7% per cent., when the free phenol is less than 10 per cent., when no counteracting pressure is used, the excessescape's as bubbles in the mass and renders the latter useless for some purposes.
As described in the patents referred to, the ultimate infusible product is preferably,
formed by incorporating with such a phenol resin as described, from 5% to 10 per cent. of the weight of the resin of polymerized, anhydrous formaldehyde, as trioxymethylene, or dioxymethylene, which is caused to dissolve therein. The phenol resin is nonwater soluble, and consequently will not mix with a water solution of formaldehyde,
but is a solvent when in melted or dissolved condition for anhydrous formaldehyde. A suitable amount of the final product solvent element or plasticity agent referred to is also incorporated with the mass. Substances which the said Jonas W. Aylsworth discovered to be efficacious for this purpose are naphthalene and some of its chloro-derivatives, such as tetra-chloro-naphthalene. The final product solvent element contributes greater toughness tothe product by counteracting the brittle nature of the ultimate product and renders the final mass plastic when heated, thus relieving internal stresses during the baking and hardening operations and subsequent cooling. By final product solvents are included only substances which will dissolve the ultimate condensation product or combine therewith at the baking temperature, render it plastic at such temperature, and remain as a part of the product in the condition of solid solution or combination. Also, if desired, a water-combining element. may be incorporated with the mass. This element takes care of traces of water which may be expelled during the baking operation. This results in .a clearer and more transparent product, althou h the inclusion of this element is not regar ed as absolutely essential. .Examples of this class are benzoic anhydrid, phthalic anhydrid, and any such organic anhydrids as are soluble, 1n and miscible'with the mass, and are not decomposed at temperatures used. Having obtained the above mixture the same may be cast in suitable molds for the formation of the desired articles or for the formation of rods, sheets, tubes, or slabs, or
the like, from which the desired articles sure, or} by forming by tools.
water-combining element and the product be taken into combination.
may subsequently be made by heat and pres- The molds and their contents are heated sufliciently to transform the product into a hard, infusible, chemically inert substance, the temperature to which the same is heated in practice vary-- ing "between 260 and 400 Fahrenheit, depending on the treatment of the phenol resin before mixing, the character of the solvent, and the character of the molded article. The heating may be accomplished by casting in suitable steam-jacketed molds, or b placing the molds and contents in suitable ovens for a time suflicient to allow the mixture to interact and harden. This time may vary within wide limits, depending on the thickness of the article and the character of the mass. Thin sheets and small articles maybe hardened in a few minutes, while larger masses and objects of special character may require gradual heating to the lowest temperature necessary for the reaction to take place and continued heating at such temperature, or at an elevated temperature, for several hours. The ultimate product so formed Will not melt at any temperature below that of its decomposition,- but will soften and become sufiiciently plastic at from 240 to 300 F., to be further shaped by pressing in suitable dies or molds. The degree of plasticity may be controlled to a certain extent by the nature of the solvent ingredient and proportions thereof, and by varying the proportions of the polymerized formaldehyde, added to the phenol resin.
In the mixture of ingredients the polymerized formaldehyde is used in an amount which is sullicientjto combine with nearly all the resin, so that there may be no excess of formaldehyde or polymer thereof to cause bubbling of the mass during the hardening operation. Such an amount may vary between 5 and 7% per cent. of the weight of phenol resin used. Formaldehyle not polymerized may be used in place of the polymerized substance, in which case the polymerized formaldehyde is formed by evaporation during the process. It isusually impractical to make the phenol resin entirely free from uncombined phenol, and the small variable percentage of phenolmakes it necessary in the formation of the mixture for the ultimate productto vary the percentage of dioxymethylene, trioxymethylene, or paraformaldehyde in the mixture with the resin, in accordance with the percentage of free phenol, ascertained by test. The phenol combines with a much greater proportion of polymerized formaldehyde than does the phenol resin. By varying the percentage of the polymerized formaldehyde as indicated. the free phenol in the phenol resin may all The product thus obtained after heating the phenol resin and the other elements mentioned in proper proportions to a temperature of from 280 to 400 F. or higher, as stated in the patents referred to, has various advantages over 6 similar products, notably in that it softens sufficiently to allow further shaping, as stated, at a temperature between 240 F. and 300 F., while at the same time it is infusible at any temperature lower than that of its decomposition, and also in that it is tougher and less brittle in texture. ,These results are largely attributable to the presence of the solid solvent or plasticity agent described. The product also has other ad-v vantages, as described in the patents referred to, in that it can be made of exact and definite ultimate composition, under perfect control, by the process particularly described, without the necessity of counteracting pressure, unusually free from gas bubbles.
The mass of the ultimate condensation.
product is normally of amber "color and transparent. It may be made practically colorless if special precautions aretaken to exclude color-giving impurities from the phenol and to excludeoxygen quent heat treatment. It may also, if desired, be given any desired color by the addition of suitable pigments. Chemically inert cheaper substances in powdered or fibrous form may be incorporated with the mass before baking in widely varying per cents. when desired.
Preferred formulae for masses which are to be hardened in molds without subsequent pressing operations are as follows:
For light colored and transparent prod ucts: Phenol resin 100 parts by weight. Naphthalene 5 to 10 Polymerized tormaidehyde 5 to 7 Phenol resin 100 Benzoic anhydrid 2 to 4 Naphthalene 5 to 10 Tr -oxymethy1ene 5 to 8 Formulae for non-melting thermo-plastic compositions. Phenol resin 100 parts by weight. Naphthalene 10 to 40 5o Paratormaldehyde 5 to 10 Phenol resin 100 Naphthalene 10 to 20 Benzoic anhydrid 1 to 5 Parntormeldehyde 5 to 10 Phenol resin 100 Tetra-chloro-na hthalene 10 to 25 Benzoic anhydr d 1 to Paratormaldehyde 5 to 8 The specific gravity of a similar composition, given as example, was found to be as 80 follows:-
Phenol resin 100 parts by weight. Spocific Tetra-chloro-naphgm ty1.324.
thalene O alescent Paralormaldehyde- 8 am rcolor.
the phenol resin be 1.240. This substance The specific gravity of used was found to and the product so formed is during subse- Y in fluid condition,
is transparent and varies in tint from colorless to a darkcoffee shade.
In all of the formula given above for the ultimate condensation product, the ingredients are mixed and freed from air bubbles by standing in molten condition or by vacuum treatment or by centrifugal treatment at temperatures below 250 F. or freed from air bubbles in any other suitable manner. The mass is then-pouredinto molds and is preferably heated to a temperature of from 260 F. to 270 F. at which temperature it is maintained for a sufficient time to render the mass infusible, and subsequently is heated for a short time to a temperature of 300 to 350 F. The ingredients may also be heated to from 320 to 350 F. under counteracting' pressure, as is done in the art of vulcanizing rubber. When no counteracting pressure is used, from one-half to four hours is required before the final temperature may be reached, this time varying with the thickness of the object molded.
Naphthalene, when in solid solution with the ultimate condensation product, does not volatilize perceptibly at ordinary temperatures, when within the proportions given in the examples, although naphthalene does tend to volatilize slowly when alone. The chloro-naphthalenes referred to, when in solid solution with the ultimate condensation product, do not volatilize either at room temperaturesor at 212 F. Naphthalene and the chloro derivatives are also practically insoluble in water at room temperatures. The 100 practical non-water-solubility of the solvent or plasticity ingredients referred to is a valuable feature, because such ingredients cannot be removed from themass to any appreciable extent, by water, mass is in comminuted form, and furthermore masses made including such ingredients are not so susceptible to the influence of moisture in the atmosphere as are compositions containing ingredients such as glyc- 110 erin, which are soluble to a very great extent in waten, Condensation products containing glycerin, for example, constantly attract moisture from the atmosphere, because of the hydroscopic nature of the glycerin. 115 The plasticity ingredients referred to also all have melting points substantiallyilower than their boiling points, which is an important property, since thereby all the in: gradients of the composition can be mixed 120 and the plasticity ingredient used will not volatilize away during the mixing or hardening reaction.
When naphthalene or e uivalent solid solvent is employed in'consi erable propor- 125 tion, for instance, in the ratio of 10 to 40 parts by weight of naphthalene to 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin, the said Aylsworth found that as the percentage of naphthalene approac' hes and reaches the maxi- 130 even when the p mum figure stated, the composition is characte'rized'by being liquid at somewhat above normal temperatures, and therefore Will be of value for such industrial uses as may make an initial liquid or liquefiable condition desirable. At the same time thenaphthalene or H other solvent remains, for the greater part at least, incorporated .in the final mass, which is elastic while hot. It was found that in compositions using con siderable proportions of naphthalene, the chemical reaction under the influence of heat takes place without substantial evaporation, the final product being an infusible, more or less gelatinous mass, softening under the effects of heat. Very long application of heat may harden it further, without however removingentirely the property of softening by heat, which imparts to it elasticity orflexibilit On account of its high boiling point, the solvent remains in the mass, harmless and unexpelled throughout the range, of working temperatures, so that the objectionable reduction of volume or shrinkageby evaporation which occurs unavoidably whenever low boiling point solvents, like alcohol are used, does not interfere; furthermore, it brings about" the increased elasticity, a most desirable factor, which contributes still further to prevent interior stresses. 1
The word phenol as employed in the claims is intended to include the equivalents of phenol for the purposes of this invention, and the word formaldehyde is intended to include the polymers and other recognized equivalents of formaldehyde.
What I claim is e 1. A new composition containing a phenolic condensation product and a solvent therefor, said solvent being immiscible with water, possessing high dielectric properties, and having a boiling point above 120 0., the components of-the compositionpropo'rtioned to render .the mass fluid or mobile at normal or somewhat higher temperatures, but transformable at higher temperatures 1ilnto an infusible mass which is elastic while 2. A new composition containing a phenolic condensation product and a solvent.
chains with carbon atoms therefor, said solvent being immiscible with Water, possessing high dielectric properties, having. a boiling oint above 120 0., said condensation pro uct and solvent proportioned to render the mass initially fluid or mobile at normal or somewhat higher temperatures, but transformable by heat, without substantial evaporation, into an infusihis, more or less gelatinous mass, softening under the 'efl'ects of heat.
3. A molding composition containing a phenolic condensation product in solid solution with naphthalene.
4:. A moldingcomposition containing a phenolic condensation product in solid solution with a hydrocarbon consisting of a 2011 densed ring'conipound having two closed common to both.
5. A molding composition containing a phenolic condensation product in solid solution witha fusible cyclic hydrocarbon of high boiling point.
6. As anew article of manufacture, a com- I pact coherent body containing an infusible phenolic condensation product in conjunction with naphthalene.
As a new article of manufacture, a compact coherent body containing an infusible phenolic condensation product in conjunction with a fusible hydrocarbon having a high boiling point and capable .of exerting a softening action on said condensation product.
8. Asa new article of manufacture, a compact coherent body containing an infus'ible phenolic condensation product in conjunction with a fusible cyclic hydrocarbon having a high boiling oint and capable of exerting a softening act on on saidcondensation product.
This specification signed and witnessed this 20th day of August, 1918.
President. Assignee of the. entire interest in Letters Patent'N 0. 1,087,422. Witnesses:



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